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Dietary compound gossypetin inhibits bone resorption through down-regulating lysosomal cathepsin K activity and autophagy-related protein induction in actin ring-bearing osteoclasts

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Abstract

Gossypetin, usually isolated from the flowers and the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa, possesses anti-microbial and anti-atherosclerotic effects. However, anti-osteoporotic effects of gossypetin have not been elucidated. Gossypetin attenuated RANKL-induced multinucleated osteoclast formation with enhanced TRAP activity and blunted bone resorption active in osteoclasts. Gossypetin inhibited the actin ring formation and αvβ3 integrin induction for sealing zones. This compound suppressed the induction of CAII, V-ATPase, ClC-7 and Ae2, all required for secretion of proton and chloride ions into resorption lacunae. Furthermore, gossypetin reduced lysosomal cathepsin K transcription and MMP-9 activity, blunting accumulation of lysosomes in osteoclasts displaying an actin ring. The presence of gossypetin deterred the induction of Rab7, and Atg12–Atg5 conjugate and Atg7 involved in LC3 lipidation, all prerequisites to osteoclast ruffled border formation. These observations demonstrate for the first time that gossypetin was effective in retarding ruffled border formation and acidification in a sealed microenvironment of osteoclast resorption lacunae.

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... However, the mechanistic efficacy of these compounds in counteracting bone loss remains elusive. Gossypetin, a bioactive compound of Hibiscus sabdariffa, antagonized bone resorption through inhibiting the ruffled border formation [27]. On the basis of the evidence that bone resorption in osteoclasts relies on a molecular apparatus linking lysosomes to microtubules, the present study examined whether aesculetin ( Figure 1A) and its glucoside aesculin (Figure 2A) inhibited bone resorption through disturbing the lysosomal intracellular trafficking to the ruffled border in RANKL-exposed murine Raw 264.7 macrophages. ...
... This study found that aesculetin inhibited the induction of LC3, Atg5, and Atg7 involved in LC3 lipidation of osteoclasts, indicating that this compound inhibited fusion of LC3II-decorated membrane with secretory lysosomes. Similarly, gossypetin diminished the ATG induction and lysosomal cathepsin K activity in actin ring-bearing osteoclasts [27]. Furthermore, it was shown that LC3 associates with microtubules in proximity of the actin ring and regulates Cdc42 [23]. ...
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... Accelerated bone resorption via osteoclastic cells in osteoporotic rats in the present work was illuminated by the increased serum level of TRAP and CTSK; lysosomal proteases enzymes that are expressed in osteoclast. The ruffled borders of osteoclast start degrading bone matrix through the fusion of lysosomes with TRAP and CTSK [53]. It has been reported that, deletion of in-vivo CTSK in osteoclastic cells resulted in the activation of osteoblastic cells which in turn enhanced bone formation [54]. ...
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... anti-lipidemic, antimicrobial, anti-osteoporotic, and hepatoprotective(Dwi Antika et al., 2016;Salvamani et al., 2014).Allicin (diallyl thiosulfate or S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide) is a natural volatile compound containing sulfur which is predominantly present in garlic, Allium sativum (family Alliaceae). Some other Allium species containing allicin are A. ampeloprasum (elephant garlic), A. ursinum (wild garlic), A. victorialis (alpine leek), and A. vineale (field garlic)(Moss & Ramji, 2016;Salehi et al., 2019). ...
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Background: Bone remodelling maintains skeletal integrity by osteoclasts removing foci of damaged bone and osteoblasts replacing them with new bone. Diseases associated with increased bone resorption have increased remodelling often with inadequate bone formation and increased risk of fracture. New therapies are needed for these diseases to reduce resorption and increase formation. Design: The molecular mechanisms regulating osteoclast and osteoblast functions have become better understood in the past 20 years and have led to questioning of the long-held notion that osteoblastic cells have the dominant regulatory role over osteoclastic cells in bone remodelling. Here, we review current knowledge of how osteoclast formation and functions are regulated and describe how enhanced understanding of these has led to development of new drugs for the management of common bone diseases characterized by increased bone resorption. Results: Osteoclast formation and functions are regulated by cytokines, especially receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The differentiation, activity and lifecycle of osteoclasts are regulated in part by other cells that reside within the bone. These include osteoblasts, osteocytes and immune cells, which express these cytokines in response to most factors that promote bone resorption. RANKL and M-CSF activate numerous signalling pathways, which are potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Importantly, osteoclastic cells also function as positive and negative regulators of osteoblastic bone formation. Conclusions: There are multiple targets within osteoclasts for pharmacologic intervention to prevent bone loss in osteoporosis and other resorptive bone diseases. However, novel therapies could also affect osteoblastic cell functions.
Article
Bone-remodeling imbalance induced by increased osteoclast formation and bone resorption is known to cause skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis. The reduction of estrogen levels at menopause is one of the strongest risk factors developing postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study investigated osteoprotective effects of the dihydrochalcone phloretin found in apple tree leaves on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6 female mice as a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis. OVX demoted bone mineral density (BMD) of mouse femurs, reduced serum 17β-estradiol level and enhanced serum receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio with uterine atrophy. Oral administration of 10mg/kg phloretin to OVX mice for 8 weeks improved such effects, compared to sham-operated mice. Phloretin attenuated TRAP activity and cellular expression of β3 integrin and carbonic anhydrase II augmented in femoral bone tissues of OVX mice. This study further examined that osteogenic activity of phloretin in RANKL-differentiated Raw 264.7 macrophages into mature osteoclasts. Phloretin at 1-20μM stimulated Smac expression and capase-3 activation concurrently with nuclear fragmentation of multi-nucleated osteoclasts, indicating that this compound promoted osteoclast apoptosis. Consistently, phloretin enhanced bcl-2 induction but diminished bax expression. Furthermore, phloretin activated ASK-1-diverged JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in mature osteoclasts, whereas it dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK. Therefore, phloretin manipulated ASK-1-MAPK signal transduction leading to transcription of apoptotic genes. Phloretin was effective in preventing estrogen deficiency-induced osteoclastogenic resorption.
Article
Kaempferol is one of the most common flavonoid that is present in a variety of vegetables and fruits and has effects on bone metabolism. The present study was performed to define the effects of kaempferol on interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Bone marrow cells were harvested from 6-week-old male imprinting control region mice, and the differentiation of osteoclasts from these cells was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and resorption pit formation assay. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), phosphorylated p38, phosphorylated c-Jun amino-terminal kinase, NF-κB (p65), IκBα, c-Fos, and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) expressions were examined by Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR. Kaempferol inhibits IL-1β-stimulated, RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and also inhibits IL-1β-stimulated, RANKL-mediated phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, p38 and JNK MAP kinases, and expressions of c-Fos and NFATc1. These results indicate that kaempferol has an inhibitory role in the bone loss by preventing osteoclast formation and suggest that it might be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis by managing bone destruction.
Article
Chronic inflammatory processes close to bone often lead to loss of bone in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, loosened joint prosthesis and tooth implants. This is mainly due to local formation of bone resorbing osteoclasts which degrade bone without any subsequent coupling to new bone formation. Crucial for osteoclastogenesis is stimulation of mononuclear osteoclast progenitors by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) which induces their differentiation along the osteoclastic lineage and the fusion to mature, multinucleated osteoclasts. M-CSF and RANKL are produced by osteoblasts/osteocytes and by synovial and periodontal fibroblasts and the expression is regulated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines also regulate osteoclastic differentiation by direct effects on the progenitor cells. In the present overview, we introduce the basic concepts of osteoclast progenitor cell differentiation and summarize the current knowledge on cytokines stimulating and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis by direct and indirect mechanisms.
Article
Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid relative substances (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/ liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/ scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPARs signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent.
Article
Context Although postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is widely used in the United States, new evidence about its benefits and harms requires reconsideration of its use for the primary prevention of chronic conditions.Objective To assess the benefits and harms of HRT for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, thromboembolism, osteoporosis, cancer, dementia, and cholecystitis by reviewing the literature, conducting meta-analyses, and calculating outcome rates.Data Sources All relevant English-language studies were identified in MEDLINE (1966-2001), HealthSTAR (1975-2001), Cochrane Library databases, and reference lists of key articles. Recent results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) are included for reported outcomes.Study Selection and Data Extraction We used all published studies of HRT if they contained a comparison group of HRT nonusers and reported data relating to HRT use and clinical outcomes of interest. Studies were excluded if the population was selected according to prior events or presence of conditions associated with higher risks for targeted outcomes.Data Synthesis Meta-analyses of observational studies indicated summary relative risks (RRs) for coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence and mortality that were significantly reduced among current HRT users only, although risk for incidence was not reduced when only studies that controlled for socioeconomic status were included. The WHI reported increased CHD events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.63). Stroke incidence but not mortality was significantly increased among HRT users in the meta-analysis and the WHI. The meta-analysis indicated that risk was significantly elevated for thromboembolic stroke (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.40) but not subarachnoid or intracerebral stroke. Risk of venous thromboembolism among current HRT users was increased overall (RR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.64-2.81) and was highest during the first year of use (RR, 3.49; 95% CI, 2.33-5.59) according to a meta-analysis of 12 studies. Protection against osteoporotic fractures is supported by a meta-analysis of 22 estrogen trials, cohort studies, results of the WHI, and trials with bone density outcomes. Current estrogen users have an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration of use. Endometrial cancer incidence, but not mortality, is increased with unopposed estrogen use but not with estrogen with progestin. A meta-analysis of 18 observational studies showed a 20% reduction in colon cancer incidence among women who had ever used HRT (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74-0.86), a finding supported by the WHI. Women symptomatic from menopause had improvement in certain aspects of cognition. Current studies of estrogen and dementia are not definitive. In a cohort study, current HRT users had an age-adjusted RR for cholecystitis of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.6-2.0), increasing to 2.5 (95% CI, 2.0-2.9) after 5 years of use.Conclusions Benefits of HRT include prevention of osteoporotic fractures and colorectal cancer, while prevention of dementia is uncertain. Harms include CHD, stroke, thromboembolic events, breast cancer with 5 or more years of use, and cholecystitis. Approximately 38% of postmenopausal women in the United States in 1995 used hormone replacement therapy (HRT), estrogen with or without progestin, to treat symptoms of menopause and prevent chronic conditions such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis.1 Although treatment of symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and urogenital atrophy, among others, is a common indication for short-term use, potential preventive effects of HRT on long-term health outcomes have become an increasingly important consideration. In 1996, the second US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) determined that there was insufficient evidence to recommend for or against HRT for all women but thought that individual decisions should be based on patient risk factors, an understanding of the probable benefits and harms, and personal preferences.2 Many studies have been published since these recommendations were released, including the first report from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI),3 a large randomized primary prevention trial, and the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS),4 a secondary prevention trial reporting multiple outcomes.4- 6 This review was initiated to aid the current USPSTF in making new recommendations that will be released this fall. The focus of the USPSTF is to develop recommendations on screening, counseling, and chemoprophylaxis for asymptomatic populations. We conducted systematic searches of the literature on postmenopausal HRT use and its effectiveness for primary prevention of chronic conditions and its effects on harmful outcomes. Treatment of symptoms of menopause and use of HRT for treatment of a preexisting condition are outside the scope of the USPSTF recommendation, and this literature was not reviewed. We focused on primary outcomes such as myocardial infarction (MI) rather than intermediate outcomes such as lipid levels. To provide an overview of benefits and harms, we conducted several meta-analyses and used these results, as well as those from selected published articles, to calculate numbers of events prevented or caused by HRT in a hypothetical population of postmenopausal women.
Article
Chronic inflammation affects bone metabolism leading to disequilibrium in the rates of bone resorption and repair and subsequently to local and generalized bone loss. Osteoporosis represents an important co-morbidity of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients, which exhibit increased fracture risk. Osteoclasts play a pivotal role in the development and progression of bone loss, while resident synovial cells such as T cells, monocytes and synovial fibroblasts have been identified as sources of osteoclast differentiation signals in RA. This process is mainly mediated through the receptor activator of nuclear-κappa B ligand (RANKL) signalling system, which is upregulated by numerous proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Improved knowledge of the association between cells and cytokines of the immune system and their relationship to bone remodelling has revealed several promising targets for the treatment of inflammatory bone loss in RA. In this respect, initiation of biologic therapies targeting inflammatory cytokines and/or lymphocyte activation have modified RA therapy not only by blocking local and systemic inflammatory cascades but also by providing beneficial effects against bone and joint degradation. In this article we briefly present the modern view of the mechanisms that govern inflammatory bone loss, highlighting the role of cytokine-induced molecular pathways, and discuss in detail the effects of different biologic treatment strategies on bone mass in RA patients.
Article
Cathepsin K (CTSK) is secreted by osteoclasts to degrade collagen and other matrix proteins during bone resorption. Global deletion of Ctsk in mice decreases bone resorption, leading to osteopetrosis, but also increases the bone formation rate (BFR). To understand how Ctsk deletion increases the BFR, we generated osteoclast- and osteoblast-targeted Ctsk knockout mice using floxed Ctsk alleles. Targeted ablation of Ctsk in hematopoietic cells, or specifically in osteoclasts and cells of the monocyte-osteoclast lineage, resulted in increased bone volume and BFR as well as osteoclast and osteoblast numbers. In contrast, targeted deletion of Ctsk in osteoblasts had no effect on bone resorption or BFR, demonstrating that the increased BFR is osteoclast dependent. Deletion of Ctsk in osteoclasts increased their sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) expression. Conditioned media from Ctsk-deficient osteoclasts, which contained elevated levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), increased alkaline phosphatase and mineralized nodules in osteoblast cultures. An S1P1,3 receptor antagonist inhibited these responses. Osteoblasts derived from mice with Ctsk-deficient osteoclasts had an increased RANKL/OPG ratio, providing a positive feedback loop that increased the number of osteoclasts. Our data provide genetic evidence that deletion of CTSK in osteoclasts enhances bone formation in vivo by increasing the generation of osteoclast-derived S1P.
Article
Aims: Quercetin, a flavonoid present in vegetables, has anti-inflammatory properties and potential inhibitory effects on bone resorption. Up to date, the effect of quercetin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteoclastogenesis has not yet been reported. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of quercetin on LPS-induced osteoclast apoptosis and bone resorption. Methods: RAW264.7 cells were non-treated, treated with LPS alone, or treated with both LPS and quercetin. After treatment, the number of osteoclasts, cell viability, bone resorption and osteoclast apoptosis were measured. The expressions of osteoclast-related genes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) and cathepsin K (CK) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Protein levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor-ĸB (RANK), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Bax, Bcl-2 and mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAPKs) were measured using Western blotting assays. The MAPK signaling pathway was blocked by pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors. Results: LPS directly promoted osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells and upregulated the protein expression of RANK, TRAF6 and COX-2; while quercetin significantly decreased the number of LPS-induced osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. None of the treatments increased cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells. Quercetin inhibited mRNA expressions of osteoclast-related genes and protein levels of RANK, TRAF6 and COX-2 in LPS-induced mature osteoclasts. Quercetin also induced apoptosis and inhibited bone resorptive activity in LPS-induced mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, quercetin promoted the apoptotic signaling pathway including increasing the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPK), and Bax, while inhibited Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions: Quercetin could supress LPS-induced osteoclast bone resorption through blocking RANK signaling and inhibiting the expression of osteoclast-related genes. Quercetin also promoted LPS-induced osteoclast apoptosis via activation of the MAPK apoptotic signaling pathway. These findings suggest that quercetin could be of potential use as a therapeutic agent to treat bacteria-induced bone resorption.
Article
Bone-remodeling imbalance resulting in more bone resorption than bone formation is known to cause skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis. Phloretin, a natural dihydrochalcone compound largely present in apple peels, possesses antiphotoaging, and antiinflammatory activity. Phloretin inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced formation of multinucleated osteoclasts and diminished bone resorption area produced during the osteoclast differentiation process. It was also found that ≥ 10 μM phloretin reduced RANKL-enhanced tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase activity and matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The phloretin treatment retarded RANKL-induced expression of carbonic anhydrase II, vacuolar-type H(+) -ATPase D2 and β3 integrin, all involved in the bone resorption. Furthermore, submicromolar phloretin diminished the expression and secretion of cathepsin K elevated by RANKL, being concurrent with inhibition of TRAF6 induction and NF-κB activation. RANKL-induced activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor was also suppressed by phloretin. These results demonstrate that the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by phloretin entail a disturbance of TRAF6-NFATc1-NF-κB pathway triggered by RANKL. Therefore, phloretin may be a potential therapeutic agent targeting osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in skeletal diseases such as osteoporosis.
Article
The vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump is a macromolecular complex composed of at least 14 subunits organized into two functional domains, V(1) and V(0). The complex is located on the ruffled border plasma membrane of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, mediating extracellular acidification for bone demineralization during bone resorption. Genetic studies from mice to man implicate a critical role for V-ATPase subunits in osteoclast-related diseases including osteopetrosis and osteoporosis. Thus, the V-ATPase complex is a potential molecular target for the development of novel anti-resorptive agents useful for the treatment of osteolytic diseases. Here, we review the current structure and function of V-ATPase subunits, emphasizing their exquisite roles in osteoclastic function. In addition, we compare several distinct classes of V-ATPase inhibitors with specific inhibitory effects on osteoclasts. Understanding the structure-function relationship of the osteoclast V-ATPase may lead to the development of osteoclast-specific V-ATPase inhibitors that may serve as alternative therapies for the treatment of osteolytic diseases.
Article
Bone remodelling is an active and dynamic process that relies on the correct balance between bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone deposition by osteoblasts. Moreover, these two functions must be tightly coupled not only quantitatively, but also in time and space. When the coupling is lost, the correct bone mass could be compromised, leading to several skeletal pathologies. Indeed, bone loss and osteoporosis are the result of an increased osteoclast function and/or a reduced osteoblast activity. In contrast, other pathologies are related to osteoclast failure to resorbe bone, such as osteopetrosis, a rare genetic disorder characterized by an increased bone mass and also linked to an impairment of bone marrow functions. Starting from these assumptions, it is necessary to more deeply understand the molecular mechanisms regulating bone cell functions. Indeed, recent studies evidenced a complex interplay between the immune and skeletal systems, which share several regulatory molecules including cytokines, receptors and transcription factors. These data allowed to more deeply understand the mechanisms underlying bone mass regulation and could open new avenue to identify target molecules for alterantive therapies more efficacious against bone diseases.
Article
Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain-3 (LC3) plays a critical role in autophagosome formation during autophagy; however, its potential alternative functions remain largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate a discrete role for LC3 in osteoclast, a specialized bone-resorbing cell that requires a dynamic microtubule network for its activity. We found that an increase in the conversion of soluble LC3-I to lipid-bound LC3-II in mature osteoclast was correlated with osteoclast activity, but not with autophagic activity. Knockdown of LC3 using small interfering RNA did not affect TRAP-positive multinucleated cell formation, but suppressed actin ring formation, cathepsin K release, and the subsequent bone-resorbing capacity of osteoclasts. LC3 mediated this function by associating with microtubules and regulating Cdc42 activity. More importantly, LC3-II protein levels were reduced by the Atg5 knockdown, and this knockdown led to decrease in Cdc42 activity, indicating that LC3-II is critical for Cdc42 activity. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of Cdc42 partially rescued the phenotype induced by LC3 knockdown. Our results demonstrate that LC3 contributes to the regulatory link between the microtubule and Cdc42 involved in bone-resorbing activity, providing evidence for a role for LC3 in mediating diverse cellular functions beyond its role as an autophagy protein.
Article
The osteoclast represents one of the most highly specialized cells within the human body, which operates within a microenvironment of diverse cellular populations and matrix proteins. Moreover, the osteoclast directly effects and is affected by these surroundings in a delicate relationship of cellular differentiation, bone resorption, and controlled apoptosis. The result is the maintenance of adequate bone mass throughout life. Unsurprisingly, disturbances within this environment or the molecular regulation of normal osteoclast biology has profound effects on skeletal homeostasis and crippling physical manifestations. This review will summarize current literature describing normal and pathological osteoclast biology and highlight the benefits of osteoclast-targeted therapy to combat skeletal disorders.
Article
Osteoclasts resorb bone via the ruffled border, whose complex folds are generated by secretory lysosome fusion with bone-apposed plasma membrane. Lysosomal fusion with the plasmalemma results in acidification of the resorptive microenvironment and release of CatK to digest the organic matrix of bone. The means by which secretory lysosomes are directed to fuse with the ruffled border are enigmatic. We show that proteins essential for autophagy, including Atg5, Atg7, Atg4B, and LC3, are important for generating the osteoclast ruffled border, the secretory function of osteoclasts, and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Further, Rab7, which is required for osteoclast function, localizes to the ruffled border in an Atg5-dependent manner. Thus, autophagy proteins participate in polarized secretion of lysosomal contents into the extracellular space by directing lysosomes to fuse with the plasma membrane. These findings are in keeping with a putative link between autophagy genes and human skeletal homeostasis.
Article
The unique ability of the osteoclasts to resorb the calcified bone matrix is dependent on secretion of hydrochloric acid. This process is mediated by a vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase) and a chloride-proton antiporter. The structural subunit of the V-ATPase, a3, is highly specific for osteoclasts, and mutations in a3 lead to infantile malignant osteopetrosis, a phenomenon characterized by increased bone mass, an increased number of non-resorbing osteoclasts, and a complete lack of bone resorption. Importantly, these individuals have normal or even increased osteoblast numbers and bone formation suggesting that the osteoclasts, but not their resorptive capability, relay an anabolic signal, and, hence, that bone formation can be uncoupled from bone resorption when the a3 subunit is eliminated by mutations, or possibly by pharmacological intervention. The pharmacological profile of the a3 subunit as a highly specific target with a mode of action profile augmenting uncoupling and sustained bone formation, as derived from osteopetrotic patients and mice, highlights the relevance of the V-ATPase in future osteoporosis drug development. However, as illustrated by numerous attempts at developing specific inhibitors of the osteoclastic V-ATPase it is a very difficult target to work with, and an inhibitor possessing the desired profile remains elusive, although highly promising approaches recently have been launched.
Article
Bone destruction is a frequent and clinically serious event in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Local joint destruction can cause joint instability and often necessitates reconstructive or replacement surgery. Moreover, inflammation-induced systemic bone loss is associated with an increased fracture risk. Bone resorption is a well-controlled process that is dependent on the differentiation of monocytes to bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Infiltrating as well as resident synovial cells, such as T cells, monocytes and synovial fibroblasts, have been identified as sources of osteoclast differentiation signals in RA patients. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are amongst the most important mechanisms driving this process. In particular, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANKL, TNF, IL-1 and IL-17 may play dominant roles in the pathogenesis of arthritis-associated bone loss. These cytokines activate different intracellular pathways to initiate osteoclast differentiation. Thus, over the past years several promising targets for the treatment of arthritic bone destruction have been defined.
Article
Bone resorption is required for skeletal modelling during bone growth and for mineral homeostasis and bone remodelling throughout life. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that are uniquely specialised to carry out this physiological bone resorption. As osteolysis is a feature of most diseases of bone and joint, osteoclasts also play a role in pathological bone resorption, the extent of which is a function of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern their formation and function.
Article
To treat systemic bone loss as in osteoporosis and/or focal osteolysis as in rheumatoid arthritis or periodontal disease, most approaches target the osteoclasts, the cells that resorb bone. Bisphosphonates are currently the most widely used antiresorptive therapies. They act by binding the mineral component of bone and interfere with the action of osteoclasts. The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, such as alendronate, act as inhibitors of farnesyl-pyrophosphate synthase, which leads to inhibition of the prenylation of many intracellular signaling proteins. The discovery of RANKL and the essential role of RANK signaling in osteoclast differentiation, activity and survival have led to the development of denosumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody. Denosumab acts by binding to and inhibiting RANKL, leading to the loss of osteoclasts from bone surfaces. In phase 3 clinical studies, denosumab was shown to significantly reduce vertebral, nonvertebral and hip fractures compared with placebo and increase areal BMD compared with alendronate. In this review, we suggest that the key pharmacological differences between denosumab and the bisphosphonates reside in the distribution of the drugs within bone and their effects on precursors and mature osteoclasts. This may explain differences in the degree and rapidity of reduction of bone resorption, their potential differential effects on trabecular and cortical bone, and the reversibility of their actions.
Article
Integrins are a large family of heteromeric cell surface receptors composed of non-covalently bound alpha and beta subunits which interact with extracellular matrix molecules, serum constituents and the adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin family. The extracellular domains of many integrins recognize the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) tripeptide found in several extracellular macromolecules such as fibronectin, vitronectin, fibrinogen and osteopontin. The vitronectin receptor, alpha v beta 3 integrin, is highly expressed in osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, and binds many of these RGD containing proteins including osteopontin, which is abundant in bone. Antibodies to alpha v beta 3, RGD peptides and RGD containing proteins such as echistatin, and kistrin were shown to inhibit bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. The identity of the alpha v beta 3 natural ligand and its mode of action in bone are so far not known. In addition to the very high levels of alpha v beta 3, mammalian osteoclasts also express alpha 2 beta 1, a collagen/laminin receptor and alpha v beta 1, another vitronectin receptor. Signaling events that follow substrate recognition by osteoclasts are not well understood. RGD containing peptides and proteins modulate [Ca2+] transients in osteoclasts and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and pp60c-src are associated with alpha v beta 3 in these cells. alpha v and beta 3 genes were shown to be regulated by the calciotropic hormone 1,25(OH)2D3 and by a number of cytokines known to be modulators of bone metabolism. In summary, elucidation of the interactions of osteoclast integrins with components of bone matrix, may lead to further understanding of the mechanism of bone resorption.
Article
The skeleton is a metabolically active organ that undergoes continuous remodeling throughout life. This remodeling is necessary both to maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and to subserve its metabolic functions as a storehouse of calcium and phosphorus. These dual functions often come into conflict under conditions of changing mechanical forces or metabolic and nutritional stress. The bone remodeling cycle involves a complex series of sequential steps that are highly regulated. The "activation" phase of remodeling is dependent on the effects of local and systemic factors on mesenchymal cells of the osteoblast lineage. These cells interact with hematopoietic precursors to form osteoclasts in the "resorption" phase. Subsequently, there is a "reversal" phase during which mononuclear cells are present on the bone surface. They may complete the resorption process and produce the signals that initiate formation. Finally, successive waves of mesenchymal cells differentiate into functional osteoblasts, which lay down matrix in the "formation" phase. The effects of calcium-regulating hormones on this remodeling cycle subserve the metabolic functions of the skeleton. Other systemic hormones control overall skeletal growth. The responses to changes in mechanical force and repair of microfractures, as well as the maintenance of the remodeling cycle, are determined locally by cytokines, prostaglandins, and growth factors. Interactions between systemic and local factors are important in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis as well as the skeletal changes in hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Local factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of the skeletal changes associated with immobilization, inflammation, and Paget disease of bone.
Article
Osteoporosis, a disease endemic in Western society, typically reflects an imbalance in skeletal turnover so that bone resorption exceeds bone formation. Bone resorption is the unique function of the osteoclast, and anti-osteoporosis therapy to date has targeted this cell. The osteoclast is a specialized macrophage polykaryon whose differentiation is principally regulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor, RANK ligand, and osteoprotegerin. Reflecting integrin-mediated signals, the osteoclast develops a specialized cytoskeleton that permits it to establish an isolated microenvironment between itself and bone, wherein matrix degradation occurs by a process involving proton transport. Osteopetrotic mutants have provided a wealth of information about the genes that regulate the differentiation of osteoclasts and their capacity to resorb bone.
Article
Osteoclasts resorb bone by attaching to the surface and then secreting protons into an extracellular compartment formed between osteoclast and bone surface. This secretion is necessary for bone mineral solubilization and the digestion of organic bone matrix by acid proteases. This study summarizes the characterization and role of each type of ion transport and defines the main biochemical mechanisms involved in the dissolution of bone mineral during bone resorption. The primary mechanism responsible for acidification of the osteoclast-bone interface is vacuolar H+-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) coupled with Cl- conductance localized to the ruffled membrane. Carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) provides the proton source for extracellular acidification by H+-ATPase and the HCO3- source for the HCO3-/Cl- exchanger. Whereas some transporters are responsible for the bone resorption process, others are essential for pH regulation in the osteoclast. The HCO3-/Cl- exchanger, in association with CAII, is the major transporter for maintenance of normal intracellular pH. An Na+/H+ antiporter may also contribute to the recovery of intracellular pH during early osteoclast activation. Once this mechanism has been rendered inoperative, another conductive pathway translocates the protons and modulates cytoplasmic pH. Inward-rectifying K+ channels may also be involved by compensating for the external acidification due to H+ transport. These different effects of transport processes, either on bone resorption or pH homeostasis, increase the number of possible sites for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of metabolic bone diseases.
Article
Patients with pycnodysostosis, a rare skeletal dysplasia, present with bone abnormalities such as short stature, acroosteolysis of distal phalanges, and skull deformities. The disease is caused by a deficiency of the cysteine protease cathepsin K which is responsible for degradation of collagen type I and other bone proteins. Osteoclasts, bone cells of hematopoietic origin responsible for bone mineral as well as protein matrix degradation, are dysfunctional in patients with pycnodysostosis due to mutations in the cathepsin K gene. Cathepsin K deficient osteoclasts can demineralize bone but cannot degrade the protein matrix. Mutations in the cathepsin K gene disrupting wild type cathepsin K activity have been described in patients with pycnodysostosis. Animal models of cathepsin K deficiency have been created and provide a valuable tool to study osteoclast function and treatment for cathepsin K deficiency. Understanding the regulation and role of cathepsin K in osteoclast function is important for designing future therapies for pycnodysostosis. Cathepsin K inhibitors will be useful in pathological processes involving excess osteoclast activation and bone resorption such as osteoporosis, bone metastasis and multiple myeloma. This review will discuss the bone remodeling cycle, the human disease pycnodysostosis caused by cathepsin K deficiency and cathepsin K activity and regulation.
Article
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