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A comparative study of VO2 max in young female athletes and non athletes

IOSR Journal of Sports and Physical Education (IOSR-JSPE)
e-ISSN: 2347-6737, p-ISSN: 2347-6745, Volume 1, Issue 7 (Nov - Dec. 2014), PP 27-29 27 | Page
A Comparative Study of VO2 Max in Young Female Athletes and
Smita S. Bute1, Anjali N. Shete2, S.T.Khan3.
Assistant professor1, Associate professor2, Professor & head3
Govt. Medical College and Hospital Aurangabad.
Aims And Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare maximum oxygen uptake(VO2
max ) between young female athletes and non-athletes and to show the importance of sports for physical
Material & Methods: The present study was carried out in 50 females between the age group of 18-22 yrs.
They were divided into to groups, study group (25 athletes) and control group. (25 non-athletes) The maximum
oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was compared between cases and controls by using Queen’ college step test.(
Harward step test) .
Results: The VO2 max was higher in female athletes than non-athletes.
Conclusion: The present study showed VO2 max levels more in female athletes. Now a days, physical inactivity
is seen among students due to sedentary lifestyle which may lead to many health problems. Hence, we suggest
that students should get involved in sports and it should make a compulsory subject in colleges.
Key words:- VO2 Max; athlete & non athlete ;Young females
I. Introduction
In this modern era, most of our youth are having sedentary life-style due to excessive exposure to
television, computer ,internet etc. Our students have physical inactivity due to stressful academics and busy
schedule in schools, colleges, classes leading to poor health .In western countries, the people are more aware of
health as compared to us. Regular exercise and sports is very important in young people in their busy life .
Sports maintain physical as well as mental fitness and introduces values such as dedication, discipline and
responsibility in us.
Aerobic capacity is an important element of success in sport̕ s achievements .It is the maximum rate of
oxygen consumption as measured during incremental exercise.¹ It is also called as Maximum Oxygen
Uptake/Maximum Oxygen Consumption/VO max. VO max reflects physical fitness of an athletic individual.
It is the best indicator of cardio-respiratory endurance and aerobic fitness.² VO max determines performance of
an individual on the field of different sports.²
The present study was initiated to estimate the VO max in female athletes. Most of the VO max
studies are in male athletes. Very few studies have been taken in female athletes. We intended to take VO max
levels in female athletes and compare these levels in females having sedentary life-style.
Aims And Objectives
1) To determine the VO max levels in female athletes.
2) To compare the VO max levels in female athletes with VO max in females with sedentary life-style.
II. Material And Methods
The present observational study was carried out in 50 females in Dept of Physiology, Govt. Medical
College, Aurangabad. 25 female athletes ( age group 18-22 yrs) were included in the study group. 25 females
of same age group having sedentary lifestyle were included in the control group. The subjects in study group
were selected from Police Training Institute ,Cidco, Aurangabad .They were doing minimum 3 hrs exercise
(like running, jogging etc) daily since 2 years. The females in the control group of the same age having
sedentary life-style were not doing any type of exercise. A detailed history was taken including personal history
past history and menstrual history. The study was carried out during proliferative phase of menstrual cycle of
all the females. General and detailed systemic examination was done of all subjects from study and control
group. The subjects having cardio-respiratory diseases or having any major systemic illness were excluded from
the study. Informed written consent was taken from each subject involved in this study. Basic data such as
Height, Weight are recorded and BMI was calculated by using formula .
BMI = Wt in Kg /( Ht in m)²
A Comparative Study Of Vo2 Max In Young Female Athletes And Non-Athletes. 28 | Page
The study was approved by institutional ethical committee .
Cases- 25 young female athletes(age grp 18-22yrs) doing regular exercises like running, jogging etc. for 3 hours
daily since 2 years.
Controls-25 young females (age grp 18-22 yrs) having sedentary lifestyle not doing any type of exercise.
The VO max was determined 3 hrs. after meal. The VO max was determined by using Queen’s
College Step Test.² Prior to test, subjects were asked to warm up for 5-7 min ( like brisk walking, stretching etc.)
A wooden stepping bench of 16½inch was used along with metronome and stopwatch. Metronome was set at
the rate of 24 steps per min. A brief demonstration was given. The subjects were asked to perform up and down
stepping cycle for 3 min .After completion of test, pulse rate was measured for 15 sec. in standing position. This
recovery pulse rate is converted to beats per minute.
Following equation is used to measure VO max in females
VO max(ml/kg/min) = 65.81-(0.1847X step test PR/min) ²
III. Observations & Results
In the present study we observed VO max in female athletes and this was compared to controls.
The mean VO max(ml/kg/min) levels in female athletes was39.35 ±2.78.The mean VO2 max
(ml/kg/min)in females with sedentary life style was 25.08 ± 3.48. There was statistically significant increase in
VO max in female athletes as compared to females having sedentary life style by applying (unpaired ̒ t ̕ test)
by using Microsoft Excel 2007 Software.
Statistical analysis of VO max (ml/kg/min) between female athletes and control Group:-
Mean VO max
̒ t ̕ value
̒ p ̕ value
39.35 ±2.78
25.08 ± 3.48
Comparsion of VO max between female athletes and control group:-
IV. Discussion
In the present study we observed VO max in female athletes and this was compared to controls.
The mean VO max(ml/kg/min) levels in female athletes was39.35 ±2.78.The mean VO2 max
(ml/kg/min)in females with sedentary life style was 25.08 ± 3.48.
The training of athletes include different exercises like running, jogging and stretching exercises
regularly since 2 years .All these flexibility exercises such as stretching improve range of muscle movements
A Comparative Study Of Vo2 Max In Young Female Athletes And Non-Athletes. 29 | Page
and joints. Aerobic processes are the main source of energy for muscles.³ VO max is the quantitative
statement of individual ̓s capacity for aerob ic transfer .In athletes high VO max may be attributed to specific
character of their training . High VO max yields more energy and better athletic activity. Factors affecting VO
max are age ,gender ,heredity, body composition ,training state and exercise mode
Physiologically VO max is the intensity of an individual to increase metabolic processes with the
requirements of increased physical efforts. This results due to transformation of chemical energy into
mechanical mechanical one . ' 6VO max is the measure of aerobic capacity and determined as international
standard of physical capacity. ,6 It is expressed as liters of O/ min or ml of O per kg of body wt/min.
Training increases VO max by increasing the cardiac output secondary to high stroke volume
.Training also increases Arterio-venous oxygen difference . Physical training increases VO max 50% by
increasing stroke volume and 50% increase is due to increased extraction of oxygen by working muscles which
is reflected in an increased arterio-venous difference .The intense aerobic endurance training can induce
considerable enlargement of all muscles with a change in cardiac configuration. 7
Training increases density of capillaries in skeletal muscles. This increased capacity to irrigate the
muscles with blood lead to increased vascularization .8Training also results in increase in no. of mitochondria
with increased capacity to generate ATP aerobically by oxidative phosphorylation 9 .
VO max increases cardio-respiratory fitness and it is the predictor of success in endurance events.²
Results of our study are found to be consistent with studies of Hermansen and Andersen (1965) 8
Amanda L. et al(2011). 9 They found significant increase in VO max in trained group as compared to untrained
group .Amanda L. et al(2011) 9 reviewed VO max and suggested physical training for improving VO max.
V. Conclusion
Regular physical exercise definitely improve cardio-respiratory fitness by increasing VO max and
decreasing body fat percentage leading to better quality of life. We recommend regular physical exercise in
different forms of sports .German Philosopher Sorenson has rightly said “Build more playgrounds than
[1]. Rancovic G, Mutavdzic V., ToskicD ,Preilevic A,Kocic M, Aerobic capacity as an indicator in diff. kinds of Sports. Bosnian J.
Basic Medical Sciences 2010;10(1):44-48.
[2]. Mc Ardle WD Katch FI, Essentials of exercise physiology, 2nd ed.2000 ,p.126-140,180-205.
[3]. Kemper HCG., Activity and training in young athletes. Sports Wycznowy,1992;5-6:49-53.
[4]. Radosław La skowski, Ewa Ziemann, Tomasz Grzywacz, Comparison of aerobic capacity in various groups of adolescent athletes,
ARCHIVES OF BUDO 2009 ;Vol(5): p-21-25.
[5]. John F.Moxens ,Kjell Hausken ,Comparing VO2 max Improvement in Five Training Methods Adv. Studies
[6]. Steven A.Hawkins R.A. Wiswell , Rate and Mechanism of Maximal Oxygen Consumption Decline with Aging. Sports Med 2003
[7]. Guyton A.C.,John E Hall(2012);Textbook of medical physiology, 12 th edition.Sports Physiology :p-1038-1039.
[8]. Hermansen and Andersen ,Aerobic work capacity in young Norwegian men and women
J.Appl. Physiology ;1965;20(3):425-431.
[9]. Amanda L. Mageean ,R.P.Alexander, C .M.Mier, Repeated Sprint Performance in Male and Female College Athletes Matched for
VO2 max Relative to Fat Free Mass .International Journal of Exercise Science 4(4),2011:229-237.
... In young males and females, regular physical exercise definitely improves CRF by increasing VO 2 max and decreasing body fat percentage, leading to a better quality of life [51][52][53][54]. The VO 2 max level varies significantly among individuals and mainly depends on genetic aspects, sex, age anthropometric properties of health, lifestyle and training status [51,52,[55][56][57][58][59]. ...
... In young males and females, regular physical exercise definitely improves CRF by increasing VO 2 max and decreasing body fat percentage, leading to a better quality of life [51][52][53][54]. The VO 2 max level varies significantly among individuals and mainly depends on genetic aspects, sex, age anthropometric properties of health, lifestyle and training status [51,52,[55][56][57][58][59]. Reference values may change over time and should be regularly updated/validated [60]. ...
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This study presents mathematical models for predicting VO2max based on a 20 m shuttle run and anthropometric parameters. The research was conducted with data provided by 308 young healthy people (aged 20.6 ± 1.6). The research group includes 154 females (aged 20.3 ± 1.2) and 154 males (aged 20.8 ± 1.8). Twenty-four variables were used to build the models, including one dependent variable and 23 independent variables. The predictive methods of analysis include: the classical model of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regularized methods such as ridge regression and Lasso regression, artificial neural networks such as the multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) network. All models were calculated in R software (version 3.5.0, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). The study also involved variable selection methods (Lasso and stepwise regressions) to identify optimum predictors for the analysed study group. In order to compare and choose the best model, leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used. The paper presents three types of models: for females, males and the whole group. An analysis has revealed that the models for females ( RMSE C V = 4.07 mL·kg−1·min−1) are characterised by a smaller degree of error as compared to male models ( RMSE C V = 5.30 mL·kg−1·min−1). The model accounting for sex generated an error level of RMSE C V = 4.78 mL·kg−1·min−1.
... Predicted VO2max was significantly higher in athletes compared to nonathletes. The previous study by Smita et al., also reported higher VO2max among young female athletes compared to non-athletes (17). Regular physical training of athletes is generally attributed to the higher cardiorespiratory fitness (18). ...
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Components of health-related physical fitness that includes cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, speed of movement and coordination were found to have a positive association with health outcomes. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the cardiopulmonary function and physical fitness parameters assessed by EUROFIT among adolescent athletes and nonathlete schoolboys aged between 10-19 years. Thirty boys representing their school at state or national or international level aerobic sports and have undergone physical conditioning for at least one year, were recruited as athletes and 30 age-matched non-athlete students were recruited as controls. Their height, weight, blood pressure, maximal expiratory and inspiratory pressures, peak expiratory flow rate, European fitness test battery were recorded and VO2max was predicted using submaximal treadmill exercise testing. Participants in both groups were of normal weight and were within normal range of BMI. Predicted VO2max from submaximal exercise testing was significantly higher in athletes. Participants had normal blood pressure in both groups. Respiratory rate was significantly lower in athletes. PEFR, MIP and MEP were higher in athletes but not statistically significant. All the parameters of European fitness test battery was better in athletes. However, it was not statistically significant in stork balance and sit up. We conclude that athletic level physical training improves overall health of the adolescents in terms of strength, flexibility, endurance, agility, balance and speed.
... Dokumentasi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah daftar hadir dan pengambilan foto pada saat penelitian. vascular pernapasan dengan meningkatkan VO₂ Maks dan menurunkan persentase lemak tubuh yang mengarah ke kualitas hidup yang lebih baik(Bute, Shete, & Khan, 2014). Tinggi rendahnya tingkat VO2 Max dipengaruhi oleh beberapa komponen penunjang seperti: kemampuan jantung, paru-paru, kualitas darah, pembulu darah dan kemampuan otot rangka yang akan mengkonsumsi oksigen tersebut(Benny, 2012). ...
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This study aims to determine the condition of lung cardiac endurance (VO2 Max) of sports extracurricular participants at SMA Negeri 8 Malang. The research method used was descriptive quantitative with the research subjects of sports extracurricular participants of SMA Negeri 8 Malang numbering to 107 students; 32 students of basketball, 26 students of badminton, 21 students of volleyball, and 28 students of Soccer or futsal. The instrument used was a multistage fitness test with a descriptive quantitative percentage data analysis. The results of the study showed that male members of basketball and futsal had an average VO2 Max between 35.0-38.3 ml/kg/ minute, while badminton and volleyball members had an average VO2 Max less than 35.0 ml/kg/ minute. For the female groups of basketball, volleyball and futsal members, they had an average VO2 Max between 31.0-34.9 ml/kg/ minute, while badminton members had an average VO2 Max between 25.0-30.9 ml/kg/ minute. The conclusions were that male members of basketball and futsal were in the category of "bad" lung endurance, while badminton and volleyball members were in the category of "very bad" lung endurance. Whereas for the female groups, the members of basketball, volleyball, and futsal were in the category of "less" lung endurance, while badminton members were in the category of "bad" lung endurance. To get achievement, physical fitness was very important especially for students who joined extracurricular sports.
The goal of this study was to correlate the effect of the treadmill and ergometer on V̇O through Bruce protocol and Mosso’s ergographDepending on the need for oxygen to tissues V̇O increases as a subject does treadmill from moderate to maximal. As exercise intensity increases so does oxygen consumption reaches the point where exercise intensity can continue to increase without the associated rise in oxygen consumption. As endurance training results in central and peripheral adaptations that markedly improve an individual's ability to perform physical work, athletes are thus commonly assumed to be able to tolerate many kinds of physiological stressors better than non-athletes. After getting approval from a medical ethics committee, data collection was done at the Stress test lab. at Nerul, Navi Mumbai by keeping some inclusive and exclusive criteria. After taking permission from the medical ethics committee. 40 athletes were asked to do treadmill as well as hand ergometer with a proper duration of exercise for 2 weeks and their V̇O were assessed by using specific formulae for treadmill and hand ergometer. For the treadmill, a protocol used was Bruce protocol while for the hand ergometer, the ergograph was used as Mosso's ergograph. For comparison and proper results, 40 non-athlete were asked to do treadmill and hand ergometer. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired T-test. In athletes,a good correlation was between the effect of treadmill and ergometer on V̇O(P>0.001) an athlete as compared to non-athletes (P>0.001) after estimating V̇O. V̇Owas found to be much more increased in athletes as well as non-athletes performing treadmill than athletes as well as non-athletes performing hand ergometry (P>0.001). It was concluded V̇O is found to be much more increased during treadmill than ergometer in athletes as compared to non-athletes.
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Background and Study Aim: Aerobic capacity in children and youth should be stimulated by training according to the rhythm and direction of the children's biological development. The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic capacity of young trained boys. Material/Methods: The subjects of this study were both untrained individuals as well as athletes training regularly in the following sports: judokas (n=15, mean age 14.1), soccer players (n=12, mean age 13.8), swimmers (n=12, mean age 14.2), gymnasts (n=9, mean age 13.7) and untrained (n=12, mean age 15.0), on the basis of anaerobic threshold (AT) specified as RER=1 and of (V) over dotO(2)max. The subjects performed the test until exhaustion. Gas analyzer EOS Sprint (Jaeger) and the cycloergometer (Jaeger) were used in the study. The continuous progressive intensity protocol started at 1.5 for 6 min (v=55 rpm) and increased 25 W every 1 minute until exhaustion. Results: The highest values of (V) over dotO(2)max (3.2 L.min(-1); 59.42 were obtained by the swimmers, whereas the lowest (2.5 L.min(-1); 49.4 were obtained by the gymnasts. While the swimmers obtained RER=1 at 69% of (V) over dotO(2)max, the gymnasts' AT level was at 57% of (V) over dotO(2)max. The differences were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusions: The significant differences probably result from the character of conducted training in the considered disciplines.
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This paper presents a theoretical study comparing the improvement of the whole body maximum oxygen uptake (maximum aerobic power or VO2max) when training at different intensities and with different methods matched for total work performance and frequency of training. We compare VO2max improvement in five training methods, testing Helgerud et al.'s (2007) experimental study against Moxnes and Hausken's (2008) theoretical model for athletic performance, fitness, and fatigue. The five methods are long slow distance running (LSD), lactate threshold running (LT), 15/15 sec interval training, 4x4 min interval training, and running at 87.5% of VO2max for 22.17 min. A weight function that scales the importance of aerobic utilization and stroke volume utilization is established.
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Because of the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on functional independence, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, tremendous interest has been directed towards describing the age-related change in maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)). Current evidence supports a 10% per decade decline in VO(2max) in men and women regardless of activity level. High-intensity exercise may reduce this loss by up to 50% in young and middle-aged men, but not older men, if maintained long term. Middle-aged and older women do not appear to be able to reduce loss rates in VO(2max) to less than 10% per decade, which may be related to estrogen status. However, maintaining high-intensity training seems limited to approximately one decade at best and to a select few individuals. While the factors limiting the ability to maintain high-intensity training are not completely known, aging most likely plays a role as studies have demonstrated that training maintenance becomes more difficult with advancing age. Age-related loss of VO(2max) seems to occur in a non-linear fashion in association with declines in physical activity. In sedentary individuals, this non-linear decline generally occurs during the twenties and thirties whereas athletic individuals demonstrate a non-linear decline upon decreasing or ceasing training. Non-linear loss rates are also demonstrated in individuals over the age of 70 years. The decline in VO(2max) seems to be due to both central and peripheral adaptations, primarily reductions in maximal heart rate (HR(max)) and lean body mass (LBM). Exercise training does not influence declines in HR(max), while LBM can be maintained to some degree by exercise. Recommendations for exercise training should include aerobic activities utilising guidelines established by the American College of Sports Medicine for improving CV fitness and health, as well as strength training activities for enhancing LBM.
The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in repeated sprint exercise (RSE) performance among male and female athletes matched for VO2max relative to FFM (VO2max FFM). Thirty nine male and female college athletes performed a graded exercise test for VO2max and hydrostatic weighing to determine FFM. From the results, 11 pairs of males and females matched for VO2max FFM (mean ± SD; 58.3 ± 4.3 and 58.9 ± 4.6 ml·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1); men and women, respectively) were identified. On a separate day, matched participants performed a RSE protocol that consisted of five 6-sec cycle sprints with 30-sec recovery periods, followed by 5-min active recovery and a 30-sec all-out sprint. Repeated 6-sec sprint performance did not differ between men and women; both maintained power output (PO) until sprint 4. POFFM (W·kg(-1) FFM) did not differ between men and women during the five sprints. During the 30-sec sprint, men achieved a lower peak POFFM than women (11.7 ± 1.5 vs 13.2 ± 1.2); however, the decline in POFFM over 30 sec was greater in women. VO2 (ml·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) was lower in men during recovery (24.4 ± 3.8 vs 28.7 ± 5.7) and at the beginning (29.2 ± 4.0 vs 34.7 ± 4.9) and end (49.4 ± 5.0 vs 52.3 ± 4.0). of the 30-sec sprint. These data indicate that men and women with similar aerobic capacities do not respond differently to short repeated sprints but may differ in their ability to recover and perform sprints of longer duration.
This paper deals with the problem of assessing the range of variability in work capacity of young adult Norwegians. Successful male athletes average 4.8 liter/ min or 71 ml/min per kg body weight in maximal oxygen uptake, versus 3.2 liter/min or 44 ml/min per kg body weight for a group of sedentary living men. Female athletes average 3.3 liter/min or 55 ml/min per kg body weight, compared to 2.3 liter/min or 38 ml/min per kg body weight for sedentary women. Oxygen cost of bicycling at submaximal work rates was the same in athletes and nonathletes, but with a clear sex difference, the females possessing a better work efficiency. The linear relationship between heart rate and oxygen uptake becomes curved in the least fit subjects (the sedentary women) when the exercise loads approach the maximal niveau. The maximal heart rate was found lower in athletically trained subjects. The exercise-induced hyperventilation takes place at an oxygen uptake corresponding to 70–80% of the capacity, this being the same in both sexes and uninfluenced by athletics. maximal O 2 uptake Submitted on March 23, 1964
Activity and training in young athletes
  • Hcg Kemper
Kemper HCG., Activity and training in young athletes. Sports Wycznowy,1992;5-6:49-53.
Aerobic capacity as an indicator in diff. kinds of Sports
  • G Rancovic
  • V Mutavdzic
  • Toskicd
  • A Preilevic
  • M Kocic
Rancovic G, Mutavdzic V., ToskicD,Preilevic A,Kocic M, Aerobic capacity as an indicator in diff. kinds of Sports. Bosnian J. Basic Medical Sciences 2010;10(1):44-48.
Textbook of medical physiology, 12 th edition.Sports Physiology :p-1038-1039. [8]. Hermansen and Andersen ,Aerobic work capacity in young Norwegian men and women
  • A C Guyton
  • E John
  • Hall
Guyton A.C.,John E Hall(2012);Textbook of medical physiology, 12 th edition.Sports Physiology :p-1038-1039. [8]. Hermansen and Andersen ,Aerobic work capacity in young Norwegian men and women J.Appl. Physiology ;1965;20(3):425-431. [9].