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A comparative study of VO2 max in young female athletes and non athletes

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IOSR Journal of Sports and Physical Education (IOSR-JSPE)
e-ISSN: 2347-6737, p-ISSN: 2347-6745, Volume 1, Issue 7 (Nov - Dec. 2014), PP 27-29
www.iosrjournals.org
www.iosrjournals.org 27 | Page
A Comparative Study of VO2 Max in Young Female Athletes and
Non-Athletes
Smita S. Bute1, Anjali N. Shete2, S.T.Khan3.
Assistant professor1, Associate professor2, Professor & head3
Govt. Medical College and Hospital Aurangabad.
Abstract:
Aims And Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare maximum oxygen uptake(VO2
max ) between young female athletes and non-athletes and to show the importance of sports for physical
fitness.
Material & Methods: The present study was carried out in 50 females between the age group of 18-22 yrs.
They were divided into to groups, study group (25 athletes) and control group. (25 non-athletes) The maximum
oxygen uptake (VO2 max) was compared between cases and controls by using Queen’ college step test.(
Harward step test) .
Results: The VO2 max was higher in female athletes than non-athletes.
Conclusion: The present study showed VO2 max levels more in female athletes. Now a days, physical inactivity
is seen among students due to sedentary lifestyle which may lead to many health problems. Hence, we suggest
that students should get involved in sports and it should make a compulsory subject in colleges.
Key words:- VO2 Max; athlete & non athlete ;Young females
I. Introduction
In this modern era, most of our youth are having sedentary life-style due to excessive exposure to
television, computer ,internet etc. Our students have physical inactivity due to stressful academics and busy
schedule in schools, colleges, classes leading to poor health .In western countries, the people are more aware of
health as compared to us. Regular exercise and sports is very important in young people in their busy life .
Sports maintain physical as well as mental fitness and introduces values such as dedication, discipline and
responsibility in us.
Aerobic capacity is an important element of success in sport̕ s achievements .It is the maximum rate of
oxygen consumption as measured during incremental exercise.¹ It is also called as Maximum Oxygen
Uptake/Maximum Oxygen Consumption/VO max. VO max reflects physical fitness of an athletic individual.
It is the best indicator of cardio-respiratory endurance and aerobic fitness.² VO max determines performance of
an individual on the field of different sports.²
The present study was initiated to estimate the VO max in female athletes. Most of the VO max
studies are in male athletes. Very few studies have been taken in female athletes. We intended to take VO max
levels in female athletes and compare these levels in females having sedentary life-style.
Aims And Objectives
1) To determine the VO max levels in female athletes.
2) To compare the VO max levels in female athletes with VO max in females with sedentary life-style.
II. Material And Methods
The present observational study was carried out in 50 females in Dept of Physiology, Govt. Medical
College, Aurangabad. 25 female athletes ( age group 18-22 yrs) were included in the study group. 25 females
of same age group having sedentary lifestyle were included in the control group. The subjects in study group
were selected from Police Training Institute ,Cidco, Aurangabad .They were doing minimum 3 hrs exercise
(like running, jogging etc) daily since 2 years. The females in the control group of the same age having
sedentary life-style were not doing any type of exercise. A detailed history was taken including personal history
past history and menstrual history. The study was carried out during proliferative phase of menstrual cycle of
all the females. General and detailed systemic examination was done of all subjects from study and control
group. The subjects having cardio-respiratory diseases or having any major systemic illness were excluded from
the study. Informed written consent was taken from each subject involved in this study. Basic data such as
Height, Weight are recorded and BMI was calculated by using formula .
BMI = Wt in Kg /( Ht in m)²
A Comparative Study Of Vo2 Max In Young Female Athletes And Non-Athletes.
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The study was approved by institutional ethical committee .
Cases- 25 young female athletes(age grp 18-22yrs) doing regular exercises like running, jogging etc. for 3 hours
daily since 2 years.
Controls-25 young females (age grp 18-22 yrs) having sedentary lifestyle not doing any type of exercise.
Procedure
The VO max was determined 3 hrs. after meal. The VO max was determined by using Queen’s
College Step Test.² Prior to test, subjects were asked to warm up for 5-7 min ( like brisk walking, stretching etc.)
A wooden stepping bench of 16½inch was used along with metronome and stopwatch. Metronome was set at
the rate of 24 steps per min. A brief demonstration was given. The subjects were asked to perform up and down
stepping cycle for 3 min .After completion of test, pulse rate was measured for 15 sec. in standing position. This
recovery pulse rate is converted to beats per minute.
Following equation is used to measure VO max in females
VO max(ml/kg/min) = 65.81-(0.1847X step test PR/min) ²
III. Observations & Results
In the present study we observed VO max in female athletes and this was compared to controls.
The mean VO max(ml/kg/min) levels in female athletes was39.35 ±2.78.The mean VO2 max
(ml/kg/min)in females with sedentary life style was 25.08 ± 3.48. There was statistically significant increase in
VO max in female athletes as compared to females having sedentary life style by applying (unpaired ̒ t ̕ test)
by using Microsoft Excel 2007 Software.
Statistical analysis of VO max (ml/kg/min) between female athletes and control Group:-
Groups
Mean VO max
±S.D.(ml/kg/min)
̒ t ̕ value
̒ p ̕ value
Significance
Cases
(n=25)
39.35 ±2.78
16.01
p<0.001
Significant
Controls
(n=25)
25.08 ± 3.48
Comparsion of VO max between female athletes and control group:-
IV. Discussion
In the present study we observed VO max in female athletes and this was compared to controls.
The mean VO max(ml/kg/min) levels in female athletes was39.35 ±2.78.The mean VO2 max
(ml/kg/min)in females with sedentary life style was 25.08 ± 3.48.
The training of athletes include different exercises like running, jogging and stretching exercises
regularly since 2 years .All these flexibility exercises such as stretching improve range of muscle movements
A Comparative Study Of Vo2 Max In Young Female Athletes And Non-Athletes.
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and joints. Aerobic processes are the main source of energy for muscles.³ VO max is the quantitative
statement of individual ̓s capacity for aerob ic transfer .In athletes high VO max may be attributed to specific
character of their training . High VO max yields more energy and better athletic activity. Factors affecting VO
max are age ,gender ,heredity, body composition ,training state and exercise mode
Physiologically VO max is the intensity of an individual to increase metabolic processes with the
requirements of increased physical efforts. This results due to transformation of chemical energy into
mechanical mechanical one . ' 6VO max is the measure of aerobic capacity and determined as international
standard of physical capacity. ,6 It is expressed as liters of O/ min or ml of O per kg of body wt/min.
Training increases VO max by increasing the cardiac output secondary to high stroke volume
.Training also increases Arterio-venous oxygen difference . Physical training increases VO max 50% by
increasing stroke volume and 50% increase is due to increased extraction of oxygen by working muscles which
is reflected in an increased arterio-venous difference .The intense aerobic endurance training can induce
considerable enlargement of all muscles with a change in cardiac configuration. 7
Training increases density of capillaries in skeletal muscles. This increased capacity to irrigate the
muscles with blood lead to increased vascularization .8Training also results in increase in no. of mitochondria
with increased capacity to generate ATP aerobically by oxidative phosphorylation 9 .
VO max increases cardio-respiratory fitness and it is the predictor of success in endurance events.²
Results of our study are found to be consistent with studies of Hermansen and Andersen (1965) 8
Amanda L. et al(2011). 9 They found significant increase in VO max in trained group as compared to untrained
group .Amanda L. et al(2011) 9 reviewed VO max and suggested physical training for improving VO max.
V. Conclusion
Regular physical exercise definitely improve cardio-respiratory fitness by increasing VO max and
decreasing body fat percentage leading to better quality of life. We recommend regular physical exercise in
different forms of sports .German Philosopher Sorenson has rightly said “Build more playgrounds than
hospitals.”
References
[1]. Rancovic G, Mutavdzic V., ToskicD ,Preilevic A,Kocic M, Aerobic capacity as an indicator in diff. kinds of Sports. Bosnian J.
Basic Medical Sciences 2010;10(1):44-48.
[2]. Mc Ardle WD Katch FI, Essentials of exercise physiology, 2nd ed.2000 ,p.126-140,180-205.
[3]. Kemper HCG., Activity and training in young athletes. Sports Wycznowy,1992;5-6:49-53.
[4]. Radosław La skowski, Ewa Ziemann, Tomasz Grzywacz, Comparison of aerobic capacity in various groups of adolescent athletes,
ARCHIVES OF BUDO 2009 ;Vol(5): p-21-25.
[5]. John F.Moxens ,Kjell Hausken ,Comparing VO2 max Improvement in Five Training Methods Adv. Studies
Theor.Phys.,2012;Vol.(60),no.19,:931-957.
[6]. Steven A.Hawkins R.A. Wiswell , Rate and Mechanism of Maximal Oxygen Consumption Decline with Aging. Sports Med 2003
;33(12):877-888.
[7]. Guyton A.C.,John E Hall(2012);Textbook of medical physiology, 12 th edition.Sports Physiology :p-1038-1039.
[8]. Hermansen and Andersen ,Aerobic work capacity in young Norwegian men and women
J.Appl. Physiology ;1965;20(3):425-431.
[9]. Amanda L. Mageean ,R.P.Alexander, C .M.Mier, Repeated Sprint Performance in Male and Female College Athletes Matched for
VO2 max Relative to Fat Free Mass .International Journal of Exercise Science 4(4),2011:229-237.
... In young males and females, regular physical exercise definitely improves CRF by increasing VO 2 max and decreasing body fat percentage, leading to a better quality of life [51][52][53][54]. The VO 2 max level varies significantly among individuals and mainly depends on genetic aspects, sex, age anthropometric properties of health, lifestyle and training status [51,52,[55][56][57][58][59]. ...
... In young males and females, regular physical exercise definitely improves CRF by increasing VO 2 max and decreasing body fat percentage, leading to a better quality of life [51][52][53][54]. The VO 2 max level varies significantly among individuals and mainly depends on genetic aspects, sex, age anthropometric properties of health, lifestyle and training status [51,52,[55][56][57][58][59]. Reference values may change over time and should be regularly updated/validated [60]. ...
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Activity and training in young athletes
  • Hcg Kemper
Kemper HCG., Activity and training in young athletes. Sports Wycznowy,1992;5-6:49-53.
Aerobic capacity as an indicator in diff. kinds of Sports
  • G Rancovic
  • V Mutavdzic
  • Toskicd
  • A Preilevic
  • M Kocic
Rancovic G, Mutavdzic V., ToskicD,Preilevic A,Kocic M, Aerobic capacity as an indicator in diff. kinds of Sports. Bosnian J. Basic Medical Sciences 2010;10(1):44-48.
Textbook of medical physiology, 12 th edition.Sports Physiology :p-1038-1039. [8]. Hermansen and Andersen ,Aerobic work capacity in young Norwegian men and women
  • A C Guyton
  • E John
  • Hall
Guyton A.C.,John E Hall(2012);Textbook of medical physiology, 12 th edition.Sports Physiology :p-1038-1039. [8]. Hermansen and Andersen ,Aerobic work capacity in young Norwegian men and women J.Appl. Physiology ;1965;20(3):425-431. [9].