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Approaches to changing organizational structure: The effect of drivers and communication

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Abstract

A changing organizational structure is probably the most apparent indicator and clear evidence of organizational change. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the steps of the process of changing organizational structure, with special focus on drivers, components, communication, and outcomes. To study a change in organizational structure, the analysis employs a multiple case study research design, focusing on four organizations. The results derive approaches to changing organizational structure. Those approaches' characteristics are a) an emphasis on external or internal drivers of the change, and b) the prevalence of formal or non-formal communication on the change. A mutual combination of these characteristics leads to four possible outcomes, pictured in a 2 × 2 matrix as approaches to changing organizational structure. The matrix helps to understand how changing the content or form of communication facilitates changes in different components of organizational change.

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... Good informal communication might reduce employees' sense of uncertainty, fostering involvement and participation. A participatory and more informal communication modality could be effective in reducing uncertainty when workers are called to develop new skills [24][25][26] and when change requires the construction of new roles. ...
... Another important and positive element on communication that has be underlined, is that communication can enhance emotional commitment and participation, which, in turn, can decrease uncertainty and encourage individuals to develop skills [24][25][26]. Communication, in fact, is a powerful source of interconnection ensuring personal growth and organizational performance [103]. Communication is depicted to have a key role for the team success, helping people in sharing meanings, and in collaborating for effective progress [104,105]. ...
... In this sense, this relation could explain the virtuous circle between communication, and self-efficacy as a personal resource, in the reduction of discomfort. To conclude, considering that: first, communication can improve the sense of control, the development of skills [25,26,100,101], and is effective in coping with work stressors [82] in a well-being dynamic; second, self-efficacy is a personal resource with a positive impact on psychological and physical well-being [60,61], hypothesis 4b seems to confirm an intrinsic relationship between these variables and how they act in buffering discomfort outcomes. ...
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During the first months of 2020, the world, and Italy at an early stage, went through the Covid-19 emergency that had a great impact on individual and collective health, but also on working processes. The mandatory remote working and the constant use of technology for employees raised different implications related to technostress and psycho-physical disorders. This study aimed to detect, in such a period of crisis and changes, the role of organizational communication considering the mediating role of both technostress and self-efficacy, with psycho-physical disorders as outcome. The research involved 530 workers working from home. A Structural Equations Model was estimated, revealing that organizational communication is positively associated with self-efficacy and negatively with technostress and psycho-physical disorders. As mediators, tech-nostress is positively associated with psycho-physical disorders, whereas self-efficacy is negatively associated. As regards mediated effects, results showed negative associations between organizational communication and psycho-physical disorders through both technostress and self-efficacy. This study highlighted the potential protective role of organizational communication that could buffer the effect of technostress and enhance a personal resource, self-efficacy, which is functional to the reduction of psycho-physical disorders. This study contributed to literature underlying the role of communication in the current crisis and consequent reorganization of the working processes.
... Hence, we state that: H 1a : Continuous improvement has a significant positive influence on performance Continuous improvement is an organisational wide approach aimed at gaining increased performance through providing improvement in services in line with customer's changing preference. The inherent workplace structure has been linked to predict the way organisations change programmes are achieved (Gupta, 2015;Král & Králová, 2016), and continuous improvement have been described as a change programme that is directed towards consistently revamping the organisation's approach towards identifying customers changing preference, measuring them, satisfying them. Hence, we propose that: H 1b : Workplace structure mediates the relationship between continuous improvement and performance in the telecommunication sector. ...
... Similar scale format was used for the development of customer's involvement instrument with eight items, and questions were adapted from the study of Shah and Ward, (2007) and Van Assen (2018). The study relied on the study of Král and Králová (2016) in designing the scale for workplace structure. The scale had five items that was self-designed but reflective of current literature perspective of workplace structure. ...
... The result also showed that workplace structure is a good mediator of the relationship between lean management and performance. The result confirms the views of Král and Králová (2016) that workplace structure mediates the relationship continuous improvement and performance in the telecommunication sector. Also, the finding is consistent with the views of Cua et al. (2001) that expressed that employee's involvement and performance relationship is positive and significantly mediated by workplace structure. ...
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The need to improve the performance of the telecommunication sector in Nigeria was the major motivation for this study. The study relied on requisite literature to provide a relative understanding of the concepts. Survey design was used and a sample of 299 employees across 6 state offices of selected telecom-munication firms was used. Stratified sampling technique was adopted for selecting participants for the study. Partial least square SEM was used for data analysis with the aid of Smartplsv3.9. The study found that lean management practices have a significant effect on performance of telecommunication firms. The study also found that workplace structure mediates the relationship between lean management practices and performance in the telecommunication sector. The study recommends the need for structuring the workplace to allow for smooth implementation and practising of lean activities, as it is beneficial towards improving the performance of the telecommunication firms. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Afunwa, A. Promise is a PhD student in the
... It might also increase employees' sense of organizational commitment and their trust in supervisors and co-workers, reduce the sense of the existence of a distance between subordinates and supervisors, ensure a higher degree of readiness to accept changes and obtain feedback on the quality of performed business tasks and proposals for changes. Besides, it might also reduce the cultural distance in international cooperation (Men, 2015;Jacobs, Yu & Chavez, 2016;Král & Králová, 2016;Malhotra & Ackfeldt, 2016;Solaja, Idowu & James, 2016). Organizational communication also plays an important role in raising employees' motivation by allowing them to express their feelings (Posey, Roberts & Lowry, 2015;Ramadanty & Martinus, 2016). ...
... Nowadays, this is no longer the case and the informal aspect of communication is considered as significant and unavoidable for achieving employees' satisfaction (Ruben & Gigliotti, 2017). Directive (authoritarian) and controlled communication is still directed from the management towards employees, although certain upstream mechanisms, such as 'boxes for suggestions' or 'complaint systems', are increasingly implemented in the organizational environment (Král & Králová, 2016;Ruben & Gigliotti, 2017). The main goals of communication are expanded, from those suggesting that communication should only provide a transfer of instructions on business tasks to the creation of the communication that ensures that employees feel needed and satisfied within their business environment. ...
... Employees might be afraid of the consequences of such changes; they might be wondering whether they will retain their jobs and their current positions, or not, and what their future will look like. Given the fact that uncertainty in the organizational environment might reduce employees' productivity, it is important to communicate with them regarding the ongoing and future changes (Král & Králová, 2016). ...
... Organisations may need more agility to operate in a disruption environment (Denning, 2018;Donald, 2019) as many of the traditional business systems may slow and inhibit adaption. Change is no longer a one-off event, rather is now an almost continuous process (Burnes, 2004;Král & Králová, 2016), where the ability to adapt may be a survival necessity in the future (Donald, 2019). It may no longer be appropriate to imagine change as a staged process as once was the case in early resistance research (Lewin, 1945). ...
... It may no longer be appropriate to imagine change as a staged process as once was the case in early resistance research (Lewin, 1945). Organisational structure variations may even be a measure of change (Král & Králová, 2016). Whilst communication is considered one important element of change (Král & Králová, 2016), where it is but one of at least seven other change factors (Donald, 2017;Donald, 2019). ...
... Organisational structure variations may even be a measure of change (Král & Králová, 2016). Whilst communication is considered one important element of change (Král & Králová, 2016), where it is but one of at least seven other change factors (Donald, 2017;Donald, 2019). ...
Article
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Organisations have over time adopted conservative, structured and controlled processes to manage and achieve goals set with their stakeholders. Contrary to that, an environment of disruption has emerged, that being a faster, less predictable and less certain environment than the previous fifty or more years. This environmental difference has emerged due to the interconnectivity of trade formed out of globalisation, technology, internet and social media. The historical organisational decision models and structures are perhaps too slow and conservative for a faster less certain new age. Whilst pandemic was considered but one disruption to consider for the new age, more guidance is required for those leading and managing organisations through the current specific Covid-19 pandemic, into the pending recovery and beyond. Whilst wide-scale jobs may be lost in this new future, new opportunities for entrepreneurs, creativity and skills will likely emerge. This article will research how disruption, pandemic in particular, is changing leadership and management practices. Additionally, this article recognises that many of the organisational structures and processes of today were originally designed over thirty to forty years ago, so may no longer be appropriate. The design aspects or organisations, decision models and dealing with stakeholders will likely need to change in a pandemic, so this paper will recommend new and modified ways for organisations to operate. This research will offer a theoretical solution to assist management and leaders adjust their business and decision models in a pandemic. The past operating organisational models may lack the creativity and flexibility necessary for a world that has locked down, works from home or have closed without notice at once. Leading and managing is so different in a pandemic, especially when so much has changed so quickly, so this article will contribute by recommending new organisational principles to work to.
... New tools and equipment that come with technological change have an important place in the realization of the aims of educational institutions. Technological products such as computers, video, and television are effective in providing faster and permanent learning (Král & Králová, 2016). Thanks to computer technology and the Internet, information has become easily shared by more people. ...
... Officializing being one of the significant components of intuitionalism contributes to organizations to be dependent on pre-established procedures and rules rather than individuals. In this scope, employees are instructed by the written documents and this helps organizations to be stable in the long run (Král & Králová, 2016). ...
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This study analyzes how to improve and build high technology export strategies for high tech companies in Turkey. In this framework, oil prices and the real effective exchange rate are selected because Turkey’s export companies hugely depend on imported inputs, and oil prices are essential imported products. Besides, the real effective exchange affects the cost of the imported inputs and shows countries’ comparative advantages in foreign trade. Within this context, comprehensive different theoretical frameworks and literature reviews are presented to lead the companies’ correct way. Subsequently, an investigation is performed with Vector Autoregressive Analysis (VAR) on data covering 2016-Q1 and 2018-Q3. According to results, the real effective exchange rates and oil prices have an essential impact on the high-tech companies’ performance. Regarding the relationship between the real effective exchange rate and the high-tech exports, the J curve condition is valid. Besides, an increase in oil prices leads to expanding the high-tech exports in Turkey from the first month to the third month because the oil-exported countries are imperative partners for the Turkish export companies. Furthermore, the effects become reversed since an increase in oil prices leads to production costs. Regarding the results, the energy diversification policies, less dependent imported inputs, and expanding the market will contribute to developing the high-tech exports in Turkey.
... For there to be a transformational change; the values, beliefs and attitudes of the organization must be redesigned before changing its structure, its processes, and its systems (Chapman, 2002). Companies must readapt their strategy to keep up with a changing environment and affect the structure of the company so that it fits with the model mentioned by Kral and Kralova, (2016). ...
... These authors indicate that successful companies develop products following the needs of customers, therefore, when the external environment changes, the structure of the company must be redesigned (Kral & Kralova, 2016). About this, Lewin's theory of change (1947) establishes that a company would seek to establish itself in the new state of equilibrium with an organizational structure, culture, and innovative internal communication methods that develop a new balance. ...
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Post-Covid Competitiveness: Business Resilience & Adaptive System is of interest to those who expect a critical but positive vision of the pandemic times we live. Experts explain the situation of the organizations, institutions and regions according to resilience, innovation and adaptation for the new ways and best practices according to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). SDGs are the essential guidelines that facilitate the strategic consideration of the Post-covid competitiveness.
... 3. Certificate: The majority of the sample members are holders of bachelor's degree, with 36.1% of the sample being followed by the technical diploma certificate, 34%, and 25.5% (4.2%). 4. Duration of service: It was found that the majority of the sample of those who had served in the job less than (10) years, where they accounted for (70.2%) followed by the category (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20) years in second place and by 27.6% 20 years and over) ranked last by (2.2%). ...
... B. The emotional aspect of the individual: This aspect is reflected in the feelings of the individual towards a particular Situation, and represents the individual's positive or negative situation towards the situation, the individual shows his feelings and feelings based on the emotional side is expressed by the individual preference or lack of preference and focuses most research on the emotional or emotional side (Agarwal&Malhotra,2004: 485).C. Behavioral aspect: It relates to the way in which the individual intends to behave towards the subject of the situation, represents the final outcome of the previous aspects and shows the individual's willingness to change his or her point of view through his behavior (visagie,2010:[18][19]. ...
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The study tackled the impact of the attitudes of individuals in organizations toward organizational change. Organizational change has become one of the most important issues that concern organizations. The change is the only constant in the work of organizations. The organization is an open system imposed on it to ensure its stability and growth. Light of the opportunities and challenges of the environment in which it is active. The importance of research is based on its theoretical and applied content on the subject of organizational change and its impact on the objectives of the organization. In this research, we address the theoretical and philosophical framework of the subjects of individuals' attitudes and organizational change. The fact that the individual working in the organization is a fundamental part of the organization is part of the objectives of the organization. On the influential role of individual attitudes towards organizational change. The research included a group of employees at various administrative levels. The data and data were collected through a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. The data were processed using computerized statistical methods. The research came out with a set of conclusions and recommendations that answer the research questions and hypotheses, which states: What are the dimensions of variation in attitudes taken by individuals in the face of organizational change?
... For there to be a transformational change; the values, beliefs and attitudes of the organization must be redesigned before changing its structure, its processes, and its systems (Chapman, 2002). Companies must readapt their strategy to keep up with a changing environment and affect the structure of the company so that it fits with the model mentioned by Kral and Kralova, (2016). ...
... These authors indicate that successful companies develop products following the needs of customers, therefore, when the external environment changes, the structure of the company must be redesigned (Kral & Kralova, 2016). About this, Lewin's theory of change (1947) establishes that a company would seek to establish itself in the new state of equilibrium with an organizational structure, culture, and innovative internal communication methods that develop a new balance. ...
Chapter
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The complex adaptive system has facilitated advances in artificial intelligence (Moon et al., 2011; Padilla, 2012; Chandrasekaran, 2013; Yagüe & Balmaseda; 2020); but it is also a metaphor to understand the way in which the network of companies responds to changes. In recent decades, the systemic approach has contributed to the advancement of knowledge in administrative, economic and organizational sciences (Mas, 2008; Jackson, 1994).
... 3. Certificate: The majority of the sample members are holders of bachelor's degree, with 36.1% of the sample being followed by the technical diploma certificate, 34%, and 25.5% (4.2%). 4. Duration of service: It was found that the majority of the sample of those who had served in the job less than (10) years, where they accounted for (70.2%) followed by the category (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20) years in second place and by 27.6% 20 years and over) ranked last by (2.2%). ...
... B. The emotional aspect of the individual: This aspect is reflected in the feelings of the individual towards a particular Situation, and represents the individual's positive or negative situation towards the situation, the individual shows his feelings and feelings based on the emotional side is expressed by the individual preference or lack of preference and focuses most research on the emotional or emotional side (Agarwal&Malhotra,2004: 485).C. Behavioral aspect: It relates to the way in which the individual intends to behave towards the subject of the situation, represents the final outcome of the previous aspects and shows the individual's willingness to change his or her point of view through his behavior (visagie,2010:[18][19]. ...
... Although transformation usually involves changing the form or shape of an organisation through changes to its structure and strategic directions, and BPR is more focused on reengineering processes and internal workflows to improve efficiency and reduce costs (Hammer and Champy 1993;Davenport 1993;Harrington 1991), recent improvement or change efforts in government have been often referred to as transformation (Mahmood et al. 2019;Omar et al. 2020). Vital elements of change in both scenarios are drivers, components, process determinants (communication), and outcomes (Král and Králová 2016). However, many characteristic differences and implementation focus between BPR efforts are seen in the private sector and transformation efforts in the public sector, as outlined in Table 2. ...
... Change can result in both planned and unplanned outcomes (Král and Králová 2016). Evidence from the two case studies suggests that both local authorities, being realistic of the challenges of using BPR concepts to drive change, customised it to suit their local transformation needs; these were mostly focused on ensuring the delivery of improved, more citizen-centric services. ...
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The realisation of citizen-centric services in the public sector requires breaking traditional silos and transforming existing institutional structures and processes. Recent transformation efforts undertaken in government institutions have embraced business process re-engineering (BPR) concepts championed by the private sector over decades ago to facilitate such change. While public opinion continues to differ about these transformation efforts' success, there is little evidence to explain the influence of BPR on their success or failure. This paper explores BPR led public sector transformation efforts in two local authorities in Europe to evaluate the outcomes realised for both government and citizens. Empirical evidence reveals that while transformation efforts contributed towards improving efficiency and integrating processes across functions in the public sector, the institutional structures evolved into a collection of reshaped and newly formed siloes, which were distinctly focused on delivering a citizen-centric service.
... The success or failure of any organization depends on the amount of people's efforts in the organization and especially organizational structure in order to achieve the aims of a firm that is possible by efficient use of hardware and software resources (Ghorbannejad Estalaki, 2017). As noted by Král and Králová (2016) Contemporary organizations operating in highly competitive markets must be able to continuously reorganize themselves in order to respond rapidly to any challenging business environment. Due to this challenging and complex environment, it will be very challenging for banks to improve their competitive advantage. ...
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The rapid changes in the business environment have made organisations consider the implementation of various strategies to face the fierce competition in the worldwide market. Such a competitive situation has become increasingly challenging for many organisations and banks in particular. This paper aims to examine the mediating effect of the operational risk management between business attributes and the competitive advantage in the Iraqi banking sector. To meet this objective, thirteen hypotheses tailored by the theoretical lenses of the Resource-Based View (RBV) were proposed to test the theorised relationship of business attributes (Strategy, Technology, Human Resources, Organisational Structure), the operational risk management and the competitive advantage. A quantitative approach is used to obtain data from a survey (questionnaire) consisting of 60 items with a five-point Likert scale. A total of 114 managers (80.2% response rate) in the Iraqi banking sector participated in the study. The data analysis was conducted using Smart PLS 3.2.9. The findings of the path analysis of partial least squares (PLS) support variables in their hypothesised direct relationships with a competitive advantage. The analysis results suggest that operational risk management partially mediates the relationship between business attributes (Strategy, Technology, Human Resources, Organisational Structure) and the competitive advantage. The paper advances several recommendations that can be beneficial for researchers to conduct further research in this area as well as to policymakers and managers in their efforts to enhance the competitive advantage of organisations in the future. Lastly, this research presents the theoretical, empirical and practical implications as well as limitations and recommendations for future investigations. Keywords:Competitive advantage, Human Resources, Operational risk management, Organisational Structure,Strategy, Technology.
... The success or failure of any organization depends on the amount of people's efforts in the organization and especially organizational structure in order to achieve the aims of a firm that is possible by efficient use of hardware and software resources (Ghorbannejad Estalaki, 2017). As noted by Král and Králová (2016) Contemporary organizations operating in highly competitive markets must be able to continuously reorganize themselves in order to respond rapidly to any challenging business environment. Due to this challenging and complex environment, it will be very challenging for banks to improve their competitive advantage. ...
... Changes to working conditions (i.e., reorganization, job redesign, and restructuration) are becoming part of the life of many companies that seek to increase efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, and job commitment of employees and therefore respond to current social and business market demands and keep being competitive (Ito & Iijima, 2017). In terms of definition, organizational changes are unanticipated and inevitable events involving ongoing and open-ended processes that imply designing to implement modifications and improvements in the structure, management, and practices as a response to pressures exerted by circumstances that act beyond boundaries of the company (Ajmal & Lodhi, 2015;Král & Králová, 2016). ...
Article
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Introduction: Modern approaches to Occupational Health and Safety have acknowledged the important contribution that continuous improvements to working conditions can make to the motivation of employees, their subsequent performance, and therefore to the competitiveness of the company. Despite this fact, organizational change initiatives represent a path less traveled by employees. Specialized literature has drawn on the fact that employees' satisfaction presents both the foundation and catalyst for effective implementation of improvements to working conditions. Method: This paper conceptualizes the alignment of employees through measurement of job satisfaction and uses the Bayesian Network to assess the influence of human factors, particularly the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects. Toward this aim, the Bayesian Network is evaluated through a cross-validation process, and a sensitivity analysis is then conducted for each influential dimension: emotional, cognitive, and behavioral. Results: The results reveal that these three dimensions are interrelated and have a direct influence on job satisfaction and employees' alignment during the organization change. Further, they suggest that the best strategy for enhanced alignment and smooth conduct of organizational changes is simultaneous enhancement of the three dimensions. Practical applications: This study shows the influence of emotional, cognitive, and behavioral dimensions on job satisfaction and employees' alignment during the organizational change. Furthermore, it elaborates the way to develop efficient and effective strategies for a successful change implementation and sustained alignment.
... A combination of four factors, the emphasis of internal or external drivers of change and the prevalence of formal and nonformal communication, bring about the changes necessary in the changing content and form of communication in the changing organizational contexts. (Král & Králová, 2016). ...
Article
With the growing business opportunities and expanding boundaries, the organizational structure of the companies is becoming highly dynamic with several levels flattened out and branching out horizontally, instead of being vertical. With agility required in all fast-evolving organizations, it is essential to check out for the suitability of the modern organizational structures prevalent, being classified by Mintzberg as ‘entrepreneurial or simple structure, machine bureaucracy, professional bureaucracy, divisional form, and adhocracy or innovative’ (Mintzberg, 1980; Lunenburg, 2012). In this article, we propose a 360° Agile organizational structure which is a hybrid of the matrix organizational structure superimposed with cross-functional teams (CFTs). This article discusses the possibilities of forming smaller teams without compromising the incidence of the essential ‘skills– talents–competencies’, necessary for every single project, thereby superimposing the matrix organizational structure and the CFTs. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this proposed organizational structure. A possible cross-check with regard to the scalability issues has also been made with the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe®) agile HR practices.
... Organizational changes are sometimes adequately planned for and, at other times, foisted (Pasmore and Woodman, 2017). When adequately planned for, organizations can anticipate and implement measures to control change (Al-Haddad and Kotnour, 2015;Greenwood and Hinings, 1996;Kr al and Kr alov a, 2016). Controlling unforeseen challenges, on the other hand, is a little more precarious in the case of an organization imposing the change (Czekster et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Tax collection is an essential activity to boost the economy of all countries. Larger businesses and governments are increasingly relying on Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, which are designed to enhance the collection of revenues among other things. However, the implementation of an ERP system often affects the organizational climate by changing the manner businesses are conducted from the past both internally and externally. These changes have the tendency to impact the actions of workers throughout the transition process. Nevertheless, organization climate which is an essential variable to measure the success of ERPs is mostly underutilized. Thus in this study, we proposed an information system (IS) success model that integrates organizational climate variables namely, role clarity, teamwork and support, and, training and learning into the DeLone and McLean model to evaluate the success of a tax ERP system. The proposed model was based on a quantitative and a mixed-method case study (MM-CS). Data was gathered from a top company with many branches in Ghana through interviews, observation, focus groups, and questionnaires. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used to examine the 555 data collected from the questionnaire. The result of the study shows that the organizational climate variables (training & learning, teamwork & support, and role clarity) were statistically significant in determining the success of a tax ERP system. Training & learning and teamwork & support also had a positive impact on service quality, user satisfaction, and individual impact.
... Contemporary organisations operating in highly competitive markets must be able to continuously reorganise themselves in order to respond rapidly to a challenging business environment (Choi and Price, 2005;Král and Králová, 2016). To operate within complex markets, organisations require flexibility and innovative strategies to maintain competitiveness (Schreyögg and Sydow, 2010). ...
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Companies operating in dynamic and rapidly changing markets need to design an organisational structure that fosters innovation. However, there are still remaining gaps in literature regarding the impact of organisational structure on the development of an environment that stimulates creativity and innovation. This paper analyses the influence of different dimensions of organisational structure on the development of a work environment for innovation. A case study with a mixed method approach was conducted in the Brazilian subsidiary of a multinational company recognised worldwide for its innovative capacity. The results contribute to the theory by showing that several structural dimensions – mainly the level of communication, level of formalisation and job codification – affect the work environment for innovation. The study also enriches the comprehension on how managers should design specific structural dimensions to stimulate creativity and innovation.
... According to [14], there is a need to look at the importance of employee and employer relations before considering major organizational changes and their implementation process. Communication is essential in finding and eliminating problems in the organization, but also in improving human relationships and developing teamwork [15][16]. Knowing and removing socio-economic barriers of employees is the basis for implementing new management tools and changes. ...
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Implementing controlling into business practice is a difficult, long-term and complex process that is unique for each enterprise. It is affected by various psychological factors that evoked positive and negative emotions in owners, managers and employees. The main objective of this paper is to identify key psychological factors, emotions and barriers affecting employees during implementing controlling into business practice. The empirical research into the given problem was conducted by the questioning method in a form of questionnaire. In order to evaluate the research results, the descriptive, graphical, and mathematic-statistical methods were used. Based of the findings, a concept was proposed to put emphasis on the key psychological aspects of the enterprise employees during implementation of this tool. The proposed concept could become a support tool for company owners and managers to eliminating negative emotions and evoking positive emotions in employees during the process of implementation and enforcement of controlling into the enterprise, ensuring that this tool is fully functional and, accepted by all internal interest groups.
... Change agents are needed to be able to properly manage the change, to move forward and follow new trends in business, to offer the latest new products and services because everything is needed to succeed in today's competitive environment which is intended for the success of the organization in facing changes (Iljins, Skvarciany, & Gaile-Sarkane, 2015). Generally, everyone is resistant to change, therefore, anything that helps overcome resistance can be a catalyst and anything that supports resistance can be a barrier (Král & Králová, 2016). There are many ways to reduce resistance to change, including leaders giving rewards or sanctions that guide employee behavior, explaining why the change is needed, negotiating with employees, giving inspirational words, and asking employees what they think to help design change (Dessler, 2013). ...
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Organizational change involves participation of leaders, employees, structures, and systems as a strategy in anticipating and adapting to environmental changes. Leadership as a reflection of leaders’ behavior in managing organizations not only influences the policy and decision making but also indicates the approach to all members as the most important element in achieving organizational goals. This study explores perceptions of employees toward the implementation of organizational change and leadership in two leading banks in Palu City, namely, PT Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk (BNI) and PT Bank Syariah Mandiri (BSM). The sample is purposively determined by 48 people, with 24 employees in each bank. This study is conducted using a quantitative approach with descriptive statistical data analysis and analyzed descriptively. Then it is tested with the Independent Sample T-Test. The results show that there are no differences in perceptions of employees regarding organizational change despite their experience on different levels of change, but reveal different perceptions in a leadership aspect. Organizational change at BNI is at the moving stage, while BSM has been in the last stage of organizational change, namely refreezing. The difference in leadership behavior between these two banks is very significant. Leadership at BNI is charismatic by giving idealized influence, while BSM prioritizes inspirational motivation.
... Effective communication is usually a positive factor for management processes, because the greater the open communication, the shorter the social distance and cooperation in organizational relationships (He et al., 2016;Patterson et al., 2005). For better organizational performance, it is important that managers plan not only the formal communication mechanisms, but also the non-formal (Král & Králová, 2016). Good communication is related to provision of adequate networking and required data to all key actors in project implementation (Pinto & Mantel, 1990). ...
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Abstract:Paper aims: Although many researchers have identified important factors for project success, there is no consensus with regard to all the factors that influence project success. This work aims to assess organizational factors that influence project success in automotive firms. Originality: Few studies have analyzed the integrated relationship between organizational factors and project success. Research method: The study carries out a quantitative survey on a sample of 72 companies. Data were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis. Main findings: The results show that the variable that most influences project success is ‘organizational culture’, followed by ‘change management’, and ‘top management support’. The results also indicate that a culture of flexibility and a climate that supports innovation tend to positively influence project performance. Implications for theory and practice: The findings suggest that it is relevant to focus attention on human resource development, empowerment, and teamwork within the context of project management.
... Þrátt fyrir mikilvaegið er athyglisvert að stjórnskipulag virðist vera vanrannsakað fyrirbaeri. Helstu heimildir um stjórnskipulag fyrirtaekja og stofnana eru orðnar gamlar og þaer er oft að finna í bókum frekar en tímaritsgreinum (Král og Králova, 2016). Algengt er að fjallað sé um stjórnskipulag sem undirþátt í ritverkum sem eru að taka fyrir mikilvaega þaetti í árangursríkum rekstri fyrirtaekja og stofnana (Worren, 2012;Johnson o.fl., 2014). ...
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Viðfangsefni greinarinnar er þróun á skipulagi fyrirtækja á Íslandi fyrir og eftir fjármálahrunið árið 2008. Byggt er á rannsóknum í verkefninu Innform á Íslandi, annars vegar frá 2004 til 2007 og hins vegar frá 2010 til 2014. Einnig er gerður samanburður á milli fimm rannsókna sem gerðar hafa verið um skipulag fyrirtækja á Íslandi á árunum fyrir og eftir hrun. Markmið greinarinnar er að lýsa megineinkennum á stjórnskipulagi íslenskra fyrirtækja og gera grein fyrir þróun á skipulagi þeirra. Jafnframt er markmiðið að kanna hvort sjá megi breytingar á skipulagi íslenskra fyrirtækja eftir efnahagshrunið 2008 á ýmsum stjórnunarþáttum sem tengjast skipulagi. Helstu niðurstöður gefa vísbendingar um að stjórnskipulag íslenskra fyrirtækja hafi tekið nokkrum breytingum og að áhersla á innri ferla og skilvirkni sé meiri. Umboðsveiting hefur aukist og sú breyting tengist aukningu á fléttu- og verkefnaskipulagi. Rannsóknirnar sýna að flest stór íslensk fyrirtæki notast bæði við afurðaskipulag og starfaskipulag, sem gefur vísbendingu um blandað skipulag. Starfaskipulag er hins vegar ríkjandi skipulagsform þegar litið er til bæði smærri og stærri fyrirtækja. Það virðist hafa verið millibilsástand hjá fyrirtækjum á Íslandi varðandi stjórnskipulag fyrst eftir hrun þar sem áhersla æðstu stjórnenda á formlegt skipulag minnkaði tímabundið.
... School change and innovation require a lasting framework of values (Greany, 2018); therefore, schools require learning cultures that support processes of effective change. In relation to the organic structure, it has been pointed out that, through continuous, frequent, active and reciprocal communication, organisations can achieve positive results of organisational change (Král and Králová, 2016). This type of organic structure is also an element that identifies the learning organisation model proposed by Örtenblad (2004), which suggests that the learning organisation is constituted as a type of organisation that facilitates innovation (Santa, 2015). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of leadership on culture and on the structure of learning, and of these two constructs on the innovation capacity. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative study utilising a survey was carried out. By means of an ad hoc questionnaire, educational administrators were asked about some characteristics of their organisations. The authors have proven the model of research through a model of structural equations, that is, by means of the partial least squares technique. Findings The hypothesis is confirmed that leadership affects culture and learning structure, and both impact on the innovation capacity of schools. Practical implications This work addresses the role of three critical aspects in the management of educational organisations—leadership, culture and structure—in the development of innovation that is essential in improving organisational development. Originality/value The role of leadership in the development of favourable conditions for innovation is verified, as is the impact of these conditions on the innovation capacity of educational organisations.
... The importance of formal communication, referring to communication in which the message has a direct and clear direction [65], since frequent meetings of the Governing Board as well as between the general manager and his management team are essential to monitoring compliance with the objectives set, as well as to provide guidance to staff on topics of interest to the organization. ...
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In a context that approaches the limits of environmental and social problems, and in view of the challenges that the agri-food sector faces today, the need to produce more food, linking environmental sustainability and human health, constitutes a means for sector organizations to turn these new conditions into opportunities to achieve their strategic objectives in project governance. The objective of this study is to analyze the governance of an agri-food cooperative comprised of farmers with more than 40 years of experience. In addition, we propose, based on the findings obtained, a plan for the organization to integrate the culture of the projects and project management in its governance system. This paper is based on a conceptual framework that takes into account the systemic nature and dynamics of social and organizational interactions, with the aim of moving towards sustainability within the agri-food system, through the analysis of an empiric study in the agriculture cooperative sector in the southeast of Spain. The findings show that working by projects offers a novel and effective governance model for the sector, and that integrating expert and experienced knowledge, working with people, is a fundamental condition for moving towards sustainability.
... Organisational structures have been discussed in the context of its characteristic composition (Ahmady & Mehrpour, Maryam Nikooravesh, 2016), its influence on communication (Král & Králová, 2016) and strategy implementation (Hyväri, 2016), amongst others. However, literature to substantiate the influence of matrix organizational structures on procurement is very limited. ...
... In general, to create strategies, authors such as Král and Králová [69] suggest that all starts from the analysis of the environment surrounding the company, pretending with it the proposition of action plans, aimed at improving competitiveness. According to Nikulin and Becker [70], in order to analyze the situation in which a company is found, the most commonly used is the SWOT analysis, which allows to determine strengths and opportunities of the company as well as the weaknesses and threats that the market offers in the scope of its business. ...
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The objective of this work is to review the literature of the main concepts that lead to determining the strategic approach, creation of strategies, organizational structures, strategy formulation, and strategic evaluation as a guide for the organizational management, taking into account the effects produced by the different types of strategies on the performance of organizations. In this article, the systemic literature review method was used to synthesize the result of multiple investigations and scientific literature. The process of reading and analysis of the literature was carried out through digital search engines with keywords in areas related to the strategic management. This research reveals the lack of scientific literature containing important theoretical concepts that serve the strategists as a guide in the creation, formulation, and evaluation of strategies. This review contributes to the existing literature by examining the impact of the strategic management on the organizational performance.
... Contemporary organisations operating in highly competitive markets must be able to continuously reorganise themselves in order to respond rapidly to a challenging business environment (Choi and Price, 2005;Král and Králová, 2016). To operate within complex markets, organisations require flexibility and innovative strategies to maintain competitiveness (Schreyögg and Sydow, 2010). ...
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Companies operating in dynamic and rapidly changing markets need to design an organisational structure that fosters innovation. However, there are still remaining gaps in literature regarding the impact of organisational structure on the development of an environment that stimulates creativity and innovation. This paper analyses the influence of different dimensions of organisational structure on the development of a work environment for innovation. A case study with a mixed method approach was conducted in the Brazilian subsidiary of a multinational company recognised worldwide for its innovative capacity. The results contribute to the theory by showing that several structural dimensions-mainly the level of communication, level of formalisation and job codification-affect the work environment for innovation. The study also enriches the comprehension on how managers should design specific structural dimensions to stimulate creativity and innovation.
... ii) Çok uluslu bir grubun parçası haline gelmenin getirdiği gereklilikler: Yönetişim, standardizasyon, izleme, raporlama, denetim ve mevzuat yükümlülüklerine uyum sağlama gerekliliği ortaya çıkmıştır. Kral ve Kralova (2016), örgütsel değişimin en temel göstergesinin örgüt yapısındaki değişim olduğunu belirtmiştir. Mahadewi (2018), başarılı bir birleşme ve satın alma sonrası bütünleşme sürecinin, büyük bir örgütsel değişimi gerçekleştirmeyi sağlayacak olan ve liderliği teşvik eden uygulanabilir bir değişim süreciyle mümkün olduğunu belirtmiştir. ...
... The KFO methodology, which comprises four main steps (Discover-Measure-Optimize-Mirror), has been applied to track and support the growth of organizations from project start to completion (Gloor, 2005). Optimal communication structures vary depending on the institutional context and changing its form or content can lead to very different behaviors and results (Král & Králová, 2016). ...
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We investigate the impact of a novel method called "virtual mirroring" to promote employee self-reflection and impact customer satisfaction. The method is based on measuring communication patterns, through social network and semantic analysis, and mirroring them back to the individual. Our goal is to demonstrate that self-reflection can trigger a change in communication behaviors, which lead to increased customer satisfaction. We illustrate and test our approach analyzing e-mails of a large global services company by comparing changes in customer satisfaction associated with team leaders exposed to virtual mirroring (the experimental group). We find an increase in customer satisfaction in the experimental group and a decrease in the control group (team leaders not involved in the virtual mirroring process). With regard to the individual communication indicators, we find that customer satisfaction is higher when employees are more responsive, use a simpler language, are embedded in less centralized communication networks, and show more stable leadership patterns.
... Another workplace factor that can potentially influence employees during the pandemic is the way work is managed in the organization. Previous research has shown that workplace characteristics have significant effects on employees' attitudes and behaviors (Kr al and Kr a, 2016;Phungsoonthorn and Charoensukmongkol, 2019;Qian and Jian, 2020;Wang and Pala, 2021;Ratasuk and Charoensukmongkol, 2020;Guang and Charoensukmongkol, in press). This study focuses on one workplace characteristic, organizational formalization. ...
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Purpose This study examines the effects of workplace rumors and organizational formalization on the degree of role ambiguity and emotional exhaustion that university employees in the Philippines are experiencing during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The interaction between the two variables is also analyzed. Design/methodology/approach Online survey data were obtained from 522 faculty members and staff at three public universities in the Philippines. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Findings The results show that both workplace rumors and organizational formalization are associated positively with role ambiguity and emotional exhaustion, and role ambiguity mediates workplace rumors' effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, the moderating effect analysis shows that workplace rumors and organizational formalization interact and intensify the degree of role ambiguity and emotional exhaustion that employees experience. Originality/value This study extends previous research by showing that employees who work in a highly formal structure can be extremely sensitive to workplace rumors during a period of uncertainty.
... Indeed, communication is a crucial element in managing human resources by motivating them and keeping them engaged and committed to the organization [90]. Especially during the dynamic changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, appropriate communication will influence employees' emotional commitment to organizational change, enhance their trust in the organization, and stimulate their commitment to the organization [90][91][92][93][94]. Researchers indicate that informal communication can reduce employees' resistance to developing new skills and building new roles resulting from restructuring during COVID-19 [95,96]. Moreover, keeping employees informed about important aspects of the pandemic or the future of the organization allows them to engage themselves in the continued development of the organization, reduces feelings of discomfort, uncertainty, and other negative emotions that can disrupt feelings of job satisfaction or job performance [97][98][99]. ...
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The COVID-19 crisis forced many changes to occur within organizations, which were necessary to keep the continuance of the organization's operations. Job performance seems to be an important factor determining such continuance, through its influence on the performance of entire organization. Shaping and keeping job performance in times of COVID-19 pandemic was a challenge for organizations, due to its negative impact on employees, causing their stress or lack of sense of security. There is a growing role of HRM specialists in appropriately shaping HRM strategies that can positively shape job-related attitudes, resulting in enhanced job performance during such difficult times. Therefore, this study aims to explain the role of COVID-19 oriented HRM strategies in shaping job performance through job-related attitudes such as work motivation, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment in a time of crisis occurring in the organization due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study was conducted among 378 organizations operating in Poland during 2nd wave of COVID-19 pandemic. To verify the hypotheses, descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM SPSS and path analysis was performed using IBM AMOS. The result shows that combined set of "hard" HRM strategies related to the financial aspects and "soft" HRM strategies related to keeping employees' wellbeing during the crisis gives the best results in shaping job performance through job-related attitudes and consequently strengthening organizational performance. This study contributes to the knowledge concerning the development of COVID-19 oriented HRM strategies, which may also have practical application.
... Therefore, the change of Chinese mass media organizations provides valuable experience for understanding how organizations respond to the uncertain institutional environments. Although some available literature treats organizational change as a continuous process (Burnes, 2004;Zhang et al., 2015), "organizational structure" has been regarded as an apparent indicator and clear evidence of this discrete field (Král and Králová, 2016). There are two research approaches explaining the process of the organizational structure change. ...
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Confronting the uncertain environment, this article adopts a case research approach to resonate with the studies of hybridity. It aims to explain how the perception of uncertainty in the institutional environment affects the adaptation of organizational structure in pursuing legitimacy for hybrid organizations. Based on the empirical data collected from a two-staged fieldwork and in-depth interviews, the case analysis concentrates on the correlation between the evolution of institutional logics and organizational structure change from a diachronic perspective. The findings indicate that in the face of competing and changing institutional logics, Chinese mass media organizations have gradually shifted from a dominated blending strategy in the exploration stage to a deeply compartmentalizing strategy in the stable stage. The hybrids can deal with the uncertainty of the institutional environment by enhancing the uncertainty of the organizational structure. Consequently, the case evolves an organizational integration through internal legitimacy. It manifests a possibility for hybrids of combining the two major response mechanisms in one process.
... ii) Çok uluslu bir grubun parçası haline gelmenin getirdiği gereklilikler: Yönetişim, standardizasyon, izleme, raporlama, denetim ve mevzuat yükümlülüklerine uyum sağlama gerekliliği ortaya çıkmıştır. Kral ve Kralova (2016), örgütsel değişimin en temel göstergesinin örgüt yapısındaki değişim olduğunu belirtmiştir. Mahadewi (2018), başarılı bir birleşme ve satın alma sonrası bütünleşme sürecinin, büyük bir örgütsel değişimi gerçekleştirmeyi sağlayacak olan ve liderliği teşvik eden uygulanabilir bir değişim süreciyle mümkün olduğunu belirtmiştir. ...
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Merger and Acquisitions bring together organizational change. Adapting to this change is essential to be successful. Organizations need to harmonize their structures, processes and human resources in order to successfully adapt to this change. The current study aims to explore the post-integration mechanisms carried out after a multinational acquisition in Turkish context.
... Making changes to organizational design is a common strategy of companies aiming to remain competitive and effective [40,41]. Besides specific capabilities or employee selection, the organizational structure represents a central component of the organizational design [42,43]. As per SIGGELKOW [44], the organizational structure has to fit and at the same time be flexible enough to cope with the conditions under which the company operates. ...
Conference Paper
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Recent studies indicate that companies in manufacturing should adapt their organizational structures in the course of digital servitization in order to successfully innovate and offer smart services. However, although we are amid the transformation, driven by digitization and service orientation, there seems to be a lack of information that explicitly supports the adaption of the organizational structures of manufacturing firms. Thus, this paper deals with the impact of smart service innovation on organizational structures by examining 13 German manufacturing companies. By means of a qualitative template analysis various changes within the organizational structure could be detected. Those findings were summarized to five different settings of adjustments in the organizational structure of the examined corporations. These shall serve as a guide for practitioners but also broaden scientific understanding of organizational change in the context of digital servitization.
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Purpose The aim of the article is to define the way of understanding of agile in enterprises, to verify the factors limiting agility implementation, as well as to understand what the expectations of enterprise management towards agile implementation are. Design/methodology/approach The article uses both literature studies and empirical research. The research was conducted in 2019 in 152 companies located in Luxemburg, Croatia and Poland, which have implemented an agile approach to management. Findings In most of the surveyed organisations, agile is understood as a methodology for creating projects or applications. The most common barriers to implementing agile in the surveyed enterprises are culture too deeply rooted in traditional methodologies and the lack of funds to introduce transformations. Growth in productivity and competitiveness and reducing delivery time stand out among the most common expectations of the management of the surveyed enterprises. Originality/value The article is in line with the idea of analysing the key factors of a successful agile implementation, which can be a guideline for an enterprise to manage the adoption of agility. The article utilises original research tools, provides comparisons between countries and presents implications for practitioners and researchers.
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The article is devoted to solving the urgent issue of identifying factors to stimulate staff that will best provide flexibility and the ability to manage changes in the operating system of the enterprise. The purpose of the study is to identify the correlation between the transformation ability of enterprises and the adaptive capabilities of the main driver of change management – personnel, and to identify internal factors that are the drivers of change. The study was conducted on the example of data from Ukrainian construction companies. The McKinsey “7S” model is used as a conceptual framework to identify such factors. According to the model, all factors are grouped by the following components: strategy, skills, shared values (corporate culture), structure, staff, systems, and style. Since the purpose of the study is to identify the impact that adaptive capabilities of staff have on the flexibility and ability to transform the company, the paper describes a model of the impact of factors of the group “staff” on the flexibility and effectiveness of change. The simulation was performed using tools of fuzzy logic. As a result, it was determined that the effectiveness of transformations is influenced by the following indicators: productivity (output), the administrative burden on wages (the ratio of administrative expenses to wages in operating expenses), the availability of employees with higher education among management staff, the experience of management staff, the ratio of labor costs to wage costs. The proposed evaluation system allowed to identify key factors for the transformational ability of enterprises, which will, if necessary, purposefully influence them, achieving the desired level of flexibility and providing adaptive capabilities of the enterprise system. Prospects for further research should be the creation of models based on fuzzy logic, which take into account the influence of factors in the formation of strategy, skills, corporate culture, structure, systems, and style on the transformation ability of enterprises in construction
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Advancements in robotic technology have accelerated the adoption of collaborative robots in the workplace. The role of humans is not reduced, but robotic technology requires different high-level responsibilities in human–robot interaction (HRI). Based on a human-centered perspective, this literature review is to explore current knowledge on HRI through the lens of HRD and propose the roles of HRD in this realm. The review identifies HRD considerations that help implement effective HRI in three human-centered domains: human capabilities, collaboration configuration, and attributes related to contact. The eight HRD considerations include employees’ attitudes toward robots, their readiness for robot technology, communication with robots, human–robot team building, leading multiple robots, systemwide collaboration, safety interventions, and ethical issues. Theoretical implications, practical implications, and limitations are discussed. This paper contributes to HRD by introducing potential areas of multidisciplinary collaborations to help organizations implement robotic systems.
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Modern academic libraries tend to provide services beyond traditional lending, reference, and enquiry services. Many are converged with other professional or student-focussed services such as IT, student services, academic support, or such learning resources as multimedia or print services – often co-located in space and management structure. At its optimum, this convergence can foster cross-institution working and enable Library services visibility in institution strategy alongside other business continuity services (e.g., student records, Finance, HR). Conversely, the structure could bury Library services, relegating them to the ‘always there, not a problem’ box. The visibility of Library services within the converged structure, of course, is dependent on whether the Library leader has influence at the executive table. Through the prism of the McKinsey 7S framework, this article reflects on the convergence of Library, IT, Multimedia Services including classroom management, and Print Services at SOAS University of London and examines the process of bringing together staff with varying professional identities and grades to work as a cohesive team delivering front-line, customer-focussed services. The article also reflects on how taking a multidisciplinary approach to providing institution support enabled the Customer Services and Operations (CSOps) team to influence institution strategy on space development for learning, teaching, and research support.
Chapter
This chapter looks at some of the ways water suppliers are reacting to the growing scarcity of clean, safe water. The focus is on descriptions of the innovative water management practices and process implemented by municipalities and other public water suppliers. It begins with a review of innovative policy changes in organizations and closes with a look at some of the management and governance changes taking place in the industry.
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The organizational change readiness and its impact on the quality of health services through the development of the organizational structure within the theory of dynamic capabilities (Case Study of University Hospitals in Jordan) Abstract The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the organizational structure as an intermediate variable in the relationship between the readinesses of organizational change. and the quality of health services, in the university hospitals in Jordan. The study examined the effect from the perspective of the staff of university hospitals in Jordan (nurses, doctors, administrators, workers). The study used the method of field research and descriptive analytical approach. A sample consist of 195 units of analysis, the study used a number of statistical methods) through the SPSS V24,AMOS V20. According to the conclusions of study analysis, there is a statistically significant effect of readiness of organizational change on the quality of services and the organizational structure, as well as the existence of a significant statistical effect between the improving of the organizational structure and the quality of services provided. The results showed a statistically significant effect on the readiness of organizational change on the quality of services provided through the development of the organizational structure, as an intermediate variable at the significance level of 0.05 Key word: organizational change readiness-quality of health services-University Hospitals in Jordan
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The purpose of this study is to reveal the relationship between the organizational structure perceptions and the managerial competence perceptions of individuals working as managers in national and multinational companies in Turkey and to investigate whether these perceptions are affected by "the multi-nationality" factor. In this context, the relationship between the estimation variable "Organizational Structure" and the outcome variable "Managerial Competence" is researched; additionally, the effects of both the estimation variable and the organizational and individual demographic variables on the outcome variable are analyzed. The main research question is whether the managers' perception of organizational structure affects the perception of managerial competence. The main research hypothesis is that the perception of organizational structure has a positive effect on the perception of managerial competence. The measurement tools developed by the researcher were applied to entry-, middle-and senior-level managers. The research data were obtained from 330 managers working in national companies and 270 managers working in multinational companies operating in Turkey. The results of this research indicated that there was a statistically significant relationship between the estimation variable and the outcome variable and that the perception of organizational structure affects the perception of managerial competence (R 2 = 0.530, p <0.05). It was observed that the organizational structure factor explained 53% of the managerial competence factor. In addition, when organizational demographic variables such as "the number of personnel working in the department" and "the model of organization" and individual demographic variables such as "management level" and "total work experience" are considered as factors in the analyses, it was observed that the R 2 parameter showing a relationship between the estimation variable and the outcome variable has increased to 62%. Other individual and demographic variables did not contribute to the model, and as a result, their effects are concluded to be either equal or constant. The moderator effect of the "multi-nationality" factor was seen to be not statistically significant, and the moderator effect was not found (R 2 = 0.001, p = 0.253> 0.05).
Article
Purpose Rapid changes in the business environment and the accelerating dynamics and increasing complexity shaping the functioning of organizations have given rise to modern concepts of people management. The Management 3.0 (M3.0) concept was developed based on agile project management concept; however, it can be implemented not only in projects, but also in the entire organization. It consists of six pillars such as: energizing people, empowering teams, aligning constraints, developing competencies, growing structure, and improving everything. The paper aims to present the relationships between the level of implementation of the above-presented pillars and such variables as the scope of use of agile project management methodologies, and project managers' (PMs) as well as HR practitioners' knowledge in this area. Design/methodology/approach Members of PMI and IPMA representing 34 companies located in Poland took part in the research which was based on a CAWI method. Findings Research shows that the level of M3.0 implementation – in terms of its six pillars – is internally consistent but mostly on a “defined” level. No correlation was observed between the implementation of M3.0 and the frequency with which agile project management methodology is applied. On the other hand, there is a strong correlation between the level of PMs' knowledge and the implementation of some of the M3.0 pillars. HR specialists' knowledge in the field of M3.0 is not associated with organizational advances in the implementation of M3.0. Originality/value As the first research project in the area of M3.0, this study proposes practical implications as well as topics which require further empirical exploration.
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Purpose This paper aims to explore what organizational structural designs and strategies that organizations can seek to adopt so as to enable them to respond effectively to the post-COVID-19 environment conditions. It adopts the contingency theory, which asserts that organizational survival is dependent on the fit between organizational structures and contingencies. Furthermore, the paper applies Miles et al . (1978) typology of business strategy to study four strategic orientations that organizations can adopt in achieving better organizational performances. Design/methodology/approach A framework of six strategic orientation archetypes is proposed that can support organizations in re-thinking their organizational structural designs for building up and strengthening resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors explore the influence of transactional leadership and transformational leadership and organizational culture on the adoption of strategic orientation. In addition, the authors developed six propositions. Findings Organizations that have a prospector orientation tend to focus on creativity and innovation. Organizations that have a defender orientation tend to focus on reducing manufacturing and distribution costs and maintaining or improving product quality. Analyzers tend to be second-movers after prospectors making slower and fewer changes to their products. Originality/value To the authors’ best understanding, this study is one of the first to explore the interrelationship between organizational structures, situational factors and strategic orientation.
Chapter
The aim of this study is to determine the main reasons for institutionalism and change process in educational organizations by benefiting from the literature through a case study. In this scope, the language school of a private university that is currently undergoing an institutionalization process has been examined as a case study. In the case study, face-to-face interviews with three-level management and instructors have been conducted to get primary data. As a result of the study, external factors such as the increase in student enrollment within the university and the demand of the language skills increasing in the world have pushed the university to undergo this process. On the other hand, the high standards of the university to operate in international platforms have resulted in structural, academic, and administrative changes in the language school. During the process, it is seen that the only resistance exists in midlevel management; however, not against the system, but against the management style. This study is significant as being the pioneer analysis in educational organizations. It contributes to the literature as it is valuable as benchmark for other educational organizations, which plan to institutionalize. The study can be improved with further researches after the process in the language school is finalized.
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Fairness is not an idea or a concept an individual should be struggling for, it is a basic right in the workplace. Fairness is at the heart of Organisational Justice. Unfortunately, the ideal is rarely achieved and it is an important area for research and analysis. Essentially, this work examines perceptions of organisational justice within the higher educational system of Pakistan. Faculty members are the subject of the study. In order to carry out this examination, the literature on justice has been explored from different philosophical perspectives. After reviewing existing models, theoretical concepts and initial research on educational sector of Pakistan, research hypotheses have been developed regarding the factors influencing perceptions of organizational justice. Organizational Communication, Power Distance, Organizational Structure, Reward Allocation are drawn out key influencing factors contributing to the Organizational Justice. However, Organizational Trust has been explored as a moderator to see how it affects the relationship of existing factors and organizational justice. This study is distinctive in its utilization of two research methods combined into a holistic and integrated research design. The study adopts a convergent/concurrent parallel design which allows the researcher to execute both methods (quantitative and qualitative). The thrust of using these methods is to establish if the relationships exist in the specific cultural context (through quantitative method) and to highlight how they contribute to the ideas of organisational justice in the daily work lives of faculty staff (through qualitative method). The findings of this study highlight some of the grey areas where changes are required as well as some positive sides of institutes have been emerged. Faculty members do have a view that an improvement is required in the formal vertical communications in institutes. Also, the hierarchal structures in most of the institutes are seen as the cause of distances between employers and subordinates (power distance). Most of the institutes fall through to provide the rewards that faculty members expect (monetary). Organizational trust has been found to play an important role in strengthening and weakening perceptions of organizational justice in Pakistani higher educational context. Perceptions of organisational justice are influenced by many factors in the daily lives of faculty staff. Experience of, discriminations, working conditions, ageism, genderism, favouritism, transparency, and the use of power all play a part. This research project suggests that many of these experiences are mediated and can be improved through good communication flows, more friendly organizational structures, reduced power distance among supervisors and subordinates, and more transparent reward allocation. Finally, this study presents an exclusive framework to highlight the factors and also the issues which are triggering these factors to further contribute to organizational justice.
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Implementing controlling into business practice is a difficult, long-term and complex process that is unique for each enterprise. It is affected by various psychological factors that evoke positive and negative emotions by owners, managers and employees. The main objective of this paper is to identify the key psychological factors, emotions and barriers which affect employees during implementing controlling into the business practice. The empirical research of the issue problem was conducted by the questioning method in the form of the questionnaire. In order to evaluate the research results, descriptive, graphical, and mathematic-statistical methods were used. Based on the findings, a concept was proposed which put an emphasis on the key psychological aspects of the employees during the implementation of this tool. The proposed concept could become a support tool for company owners and managers to eliminate negative emotions and evoke positive emotions in employees during the process of implementation and enforcement of controlling into the enterprise, ensuring that controlling is fully functional and accepted by all internal stakeholders.
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This article assessed the impact of change management on employee performance with evidence from Nile University of Nigeria. This study made use of a descriptive survey research design. Burke Litwin model of organizational change was adopted for this study because the model explains the linkages between variables and individual and organizational performance. The population consists of 1,400 staff (Academic and Non-Academic) staff of Nile University of Nigeria Abuja. Stratified random sampling techniques were employed to select the sample size of 311 from the population. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data that was collected using a five-point likert scale structured questionnaire. The results showed that Change in organizational structure has a significance on the quality of employee service delivery in Nile University of Nigeria, there is a relationship between technological change and quality of employee service delivery in Nile University of Nigeria even though the relationship was not very strong. Leadership change significantly influences the quality of employee service delivery at Nile University of Nigeria. Human resource is an important internal strength of every organization and a source of competitive advantage, the study, therefore, recommended amongst others that organizations should communicate details of the change to the employees to minimize resistance.
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Businesses in the construction industry are experiencing pressure to modernize by embracing digital technologies. Like any other change initiative, digital transformation requires that leaders are at the forefront of their organizations’ pursuit for digital innovation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the different leadership approaches exhibited by construction industry leaders in influencing their organizations’ digital paths. Qualitative data collected from 41 construction industry professionals were analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. The main finding was a taxonomy of digital leadership types characterized under six themes: proactive and forward-thinking; supportive; uncoordinated; cautious; resistant and visionless and undriven leaders. These themes provide an insight into how leaders influence the digital transformation paths in organizations. As far as the authors are aware, this study is the first that developed a taxonomy of digital leadership approaches in the construction industry. This is a valuable step in understanding leaders’ influence in driving digital transformation in the construction industry. Thus, the taxonomy of digital leadership can be used to evaluate leadership styles and attitude towards digitalization. The findings are also a platform for further studies on digital leadership in construction.
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Within the public sector, strategies are not designed to influence markets, but instead to guide operations within a complex environment of multilateral power, influence, bargaining, and voting. In this book, authors David McNabb and Chung-Shingh Lee examine five frameworks public sector organization managers have followed when designing public sector strategies. Its purpose is to serve as a guide for managers and administrators of large and small public organizations and agencies. This book is the product of a combined more than sixty years of researching, teaching and leading organizational seminars on the theory and practice of management applications in industrial, commercial, nonprofit and public sector organizations. The book consists of four parts: Strategic Management and Strategy Fundamentals; Frameworks for Designing Strategies; Examples of Public Sector Strategies; and Implementing Strategic Management. Throughout, the focus is on the widespread value of strategic management and adopting the strategy appropriate for the organization. Including chapters on game theory, competitive forces, resources-based view, dynamic capabilities, and network governance, the authors demonstrate ways that real managers of public sector and civil society organizations have put strategic management to work in their organizations. This book will be of interest to both practicing and aspiring public servants.
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In recent decades, supply chains have become a critical source of competitive advantage. Yet, in the Germany automotive industry, supply chains have turned out to be untransparent and prone to sustainability breaches, with the recent Volkswagen manipulation scandal exemplifying the financial and reputational consequences. Many firms today, therefore, focus on what is called sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). While drivers, barriers, and performance implications of SSCM have been widely explored, little is known about its implementation process. Building on the foundations of organisational change, this study inductively analysed 54 sustainability reports from three German automotive triads between 2014 and 2019. Our results led to an SSCM implementation framework that sequentially employed the nine most prominent implementation stages and related change measures. The framework expands our knowledge on the SSCM implementation process; furthermore, it serves as an example for industry experts aiming to turn their supply chains into sponsors for sustainability.
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We develop a contingency theory for how structural closure in a network, defined as terms of the extent to which an actor's network contacts are connected to one another, affects the initiation and adoption of change in organizations. Using longitudinal survey data supplemented with eight in-depth case studies, we analyze 68 organizational change initiatives undertaken in the United Kingdom's National Health Service. We show that low levels of structural closure (i.e., "structural holes") in a change agent's network aid the initiation and adoption of changes that diverge from the institutional status quo but hinder the adoption of less divergent changes.
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Literature has shown that planned change is accompanied by excitement and hope. People affected by change require quality information. Failure to communicate change may lead to resistance. This paper presents a change involving the amalgamation of two university faculties into one. Within the framework of a case study research design and the used of the Constructivist Grounded Theory for data collection and analysis, the theme of communication during the change process is presented through the experiences and life accounts of faculty members involved and affected by it. The paper ends with useful suggestions for change agents in today's complex organization.
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In order to assess whether new theories are necessary to explain new forms of organizing or existing theories suffice, we must first specify exactly what makes a form of organizing “new.” We propose clear criteria for making such an assessment and show how they are useful in assessing if and when new theories of organizing may truly be needed. We illustrate our arguments by contrasting forms of organizing often considered novel, such as Linux, Wikipedia, and Oticon, against their traditional counterparts. We conclude that even when there may be little that existing theory cannot explain about individual elements in these new forms of organizing, opportunities for new theorizing lie in understanding the bundles of co-occurring elements that seem to underlie them and why the same bundles occur in widely disparate organizations.
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An emerging multidimensional approach to organizational design outlines the need for the alignment of relevant structural and process characteristics of organizations. However, neither the interaction of these characteristics nor their role and importance for organizational competitiveness is properly examined in the literature. Therefore, the main goal of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the structural and process characteristics of organizational design to determine how and to what extent these characteristics contribute to achieving a competitive advantage. The field survey was conducted on a cross-sectional sample of 134 Croatian companies. The research findings outlined the need for a new organizational design approach that emphasizes both the vertical and horizontal dimensions of design solutions. This paper contributes to previous research by showing that organizational design represents a source of competitive advantage only if structural and process characteristics are commonly designed. In addition, we confirmed that although structural characteristics are usually more often addressed, it is process characteristics that make a difference.
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This paper critically examines available theoretical models which have been derived from statistically established patterns of association between contextual and organizational variables. These models offer an interpretation of organizational structure as a product of primarily economic constraints which contextual variables are assumed to impose. It is argued that available models in fact attempt to explain organization at one remove by ignoring the essentially political process, whereby power-holders within organizations decide upon courses of strategic action. This `strategic choice' typically includes not only the establishment of structural forms but also the manipulation of environmental features and the choice of relevant performance standards. A theoretical re-orientation of this kind away from functional imperatives and towards a recognition of political action is developed and illustrated in the main body of the paper.
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This research compares formal and informal organizational communication structures, specifically focusing on salience, channel factors, and channel usage. The major hypotheses of this research were partially supported with data collected from a large, technically oriented governmental agency (n = 380).
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This field study examines factors contributing to employees’ openness to participate in a planned change within a national insurance company. Drawing from recent meta‐analyses indicating that both job characteristics (JCM) and social information processing (SIP) models contribute to job attitudes, a model of factors pertaining to the change is hypothesized and tested using path analytic methods. Results indicate employees receiving “quality” information about the change and having a high need for achievement viewed the change favorably. Contrary to expectations, employees’ anxiety about the change did not influence their attitude about change. These findings are discussed in light of JCM and SIP research and their implications for research on organizational change.
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In this article we discuss the characteristics of knowledge that lead to practical utility. We first review previous efforts at identifying the characteristics of useful knowledge. These contributions are grouped into three perspectives according to which representational mode they imply: propositional, narrative, or visual. We develop a framework for pragmatic validity that encompasses knowledge represented in all three modes. However, we also note an over-reliance on the propositional mode in academia, which contrasts with a preference for narrative and visual knowledge among practitioners. Explicit and propositional knowledge are key criteria for achieving scientific validity, but more ambiguous knowledge serves important functions in organizational life and may thus possess pragmatic validity. We highlight the role of conceptual models expressed in a visual format, a representational mode that has received little attention in the literature. We end with suggestions for further research that may extend the notion of pragmatic validity and lead to a more refined framework for the development of useful knowledge.
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Purpose – This study aims to examine the correspondence between the use and evaluation of management communication on the one hand and positive and negative responses to a planned organizational change on the other hand. Design/methodology/approach – The study was conducted among employees of a Dutch branch of a large international organization which had survived a recent planned organizational change. In a survey, respondents were asked to report on their opinions about the organizational change at the time of the study, and retrospectively report on their opinions about the organizational change at the introduction of the organizational change. Findings – It was found that positive responses to the planned organizational change increased and negative responses decreased in the due course of the organizational change. In addition, survivors were ambivalent in their attitude towards the organizational change, as positive responses existed next to negative ones. With respect to the role of management communication it was found that satisfaction with management communication is most strongly related to responses to the organizational change as survivors who are satisfied with management communication score high on positive responses and low on negative responses. Research limitations/implications – The study has methodological limitations as it employs a one point in time measurement. Practical implications – This paper is a source for practitioners in the field of management communication as the results may guide them in focusing on maximizing employee satisfaction with management communication as this communication component is most strongly related to response to the organizational change. Originality/value – This paper provides empirical evidence of the value of management communication for survivors of organizational change processes.
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Scholars hold different views about whether organizations consist of things or processes and about variance or process methods for conducting research. By combining these two dimensions, we develop a typology of four approaches for studying organizational change. Although the four approaches may be viewed as opposing or competing views, we see them as being complementary. Each approach focuses on different questions and provides a different —but partial— understanding of organizational change. We argue that coordinating the pluralistic insights from the four approaches provides a richer understanding of organization change than any one approach provides by itself. Most scholars agree that organizational change is a topic that is central and important to organization studies. However, they disagree on the meaning of organization change and how to study it. This paper traces these disagreements to different ontological views that scholars hold about whether organizations consist of things or processes, and different epistemologies about variance or process methods for conducting research. By combining these two dimensions, we develop a typology of four approaches for studying organizational change. Although the four approaches have been treated as opposing or competing views, we see them as being complementary. Each approach provides a differ- ent — but partial — understanding of organizational change. We argue that coordinating the pluralistic insights from the four approaches provides a richer understanding of organization change than any one approach provides by itself.
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Organizational adaptation is a topic that has received only limited and fragmented theoretical treatment. Any attempt to examine organizational adaptation is difficult, since the process is highly complex and changeable. The proposed theoretical framework deals with alternative ways in which organizations define their product-market domains (strategy) and construct mechanisms (structures and processes) to pursue these strategies. The framework is based on interpretation of existing literature and continuing studies in four industries (college textbook publishing, electronics, food processing, and health care).
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Organizational change in emerging economies, although difficult, is inevitable. The authors study the drivers and consequences of organizational changes in an emerging economy, China. The results of a firm-level survey show that organizational changes in technical vs administrative areas are differentially driven by firms' motivation to change (past performance), opportunity to change (firm location and market orientation), and capability to change (firm ownership, managers' change attitude, and leader charisma). Furthermore, technical and administrative changes affect firm performance through distinct paths. Technical changes have a direct, positive impact on performance, whereas administrative changes enhance firm performance indirectly through technical changes, and the effect of administrative changes on performance is strengthened by the presence of a participative culture. Journal of International Business Studies (2006) 37, 248–263. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400186
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- This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
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Building on the literature on organizational capacity for change, this study addresses two questions. First, why are some organizations more capable of change than others? Second, are organizations that are better at changing also more successful with their change projects? An analysis of data from a questionnaire given to top management in 134 firms in Germany found that an organization’s capacity for change associates positively with the performance of its change projects. Higher levels of technological turbulence do not strengthen this relationship but weaken it. This study also shows that higher levels of technological turbulence as well as perceived positive previous change experiences are positively associated with an organization’s capacity for change, but higher levels of competitive intensity and the amount of previous change experience are not.
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This review selectively examines the theoretical and empirical organizational change literature over the past nine years (1990–early 1998). Four research themes or issues common to all change efforts are discussed: (a) content issues, which largely focus on the substance of contemporary organizational changes; (b) contextual issues, which principally focus on forces or conditions existing in an organization’s external and internal environments; (c) process issues, which address actions undertaken during the enactment of an intended change, and (d) criterion issues, which deal with outcomes commonly assessed in organizational change efforts. Research dealing with monitoring affective and behavioral reactions to change is also reviewed. In closing, general observations and suggestions for future research are offered and it is concluded that the organizational change literature continues to be responsive to the dynamics of contemporary workplace demands.
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The restaurant industry is an integral segment of the hospitality sector that is sensitive to external environmental changes. In order to remain competitive, restaurants must be flexible to quickly react and adapt to external environment challenges. Due to the close interactions and relationships between employees and managers, there can be direct effects on a restaurants performance when internal and external change occurs. This research project was conducted in the city of Melbourne, known for its fine dining and cosmopolitan style cuisine. The study investigated managers' role when initiating and implementing organizational change in order to minimise possible employees' resistance to change. The findings support previous theoretical approaches to effective change management. The key elements to support change were effective communication, employees' attitude and perception of managers' undertaken actions.
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The change management challenge in organizations is overwhelming. The pace, complexity, and scope of change in the environment demands an organization change approach that is pervasive, complex, agile, and integrated. Unfortunately, the change management models, tools, and processes used today were developed during a simpler time and are not generally up to the task. This article proposes a new change theory, one that asks change agents to engage and learn in four areas: awareness, design, tailoring, and monitoring. This new model, demonstrated in a case study of transformation, reflects the demands of today's organization change requirements.
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Although foundational organization theory recognized the role of both formal and informal elements, for the past two decades scholarship appears to have primarily attended to the role of informal social structures (i.e. social networks) in explaining organizational functioning. This trend, however, has left a disconnect between the literatures on formal organization and informal social structure such that crucial questions and problems at the intersection of the two streams of research have been neglected. In this essay, we make the case for rediscovering the inherent interplay between formal organization and informal social structure given their common basis of interactions in organizations. We argue that by bridging the gap between formal organization and informal social structure scholarship we can advance our understanding of both the origins and evolution of social networks and the design and effective functioning of organizations. As a first step towards achieving greater integration of research on formal organization and informal social structure we: consolidate existing scholarly understanding in this area, profile the few studies that have begun to bridge the disconnect between formal and informal elements, identify conceptual logics for linking formal and informal elements, and propose an agenda for future research.
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Drawing on the sense-making perspective, the authors develop and test a cross-level model of individual creativity, integrating resistance to change and three human resource contextual factors to moderate the individual relationship. This cross-level study of working adults from a wide array of Chinese companies addresses one of the major challenges managers face in enhancing individual-level creativity: overcoming employees’ resistance to change. The authors study the efficacy of three contextual factors that are important elements of the creative process—modernity climate, leadership style, and coworker characteristics—for helping managers overcome this challenge. The authors find that the three contextual variables moderate the negative relationship between resistance to change and creativity, and the pattern of results indicates that managing human resources practices may mitigate the detrimental effects of resistance to change on creativity.
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Rather than the future of organization design (academics make justifiably reluctant futurists), I want to discuss a possible future for the science of organization design – one that I hope will come to pass.I understand organization design to refer to a particular form of human problem solving in which the problem is one of getting multiple individuals with diverse knowledge and interests to collectively achieve something that they could not by acting individually. Because bounded rationality affects not only the members but also the designers of organizations, solutions may be imperfect and unsuccessful, and many may have arisen almost unintentionally. But clearly there are better and worse solutions, and given the predominantly organizational nature of our economy, many good solutions exist in the form of the organizations that surround us.
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This article describes an holistic model of intervention geared to achieving transformational change by interweaving culture and structure through the warp and weft of leadership processes. That is, it brings together organization design and organization development by advocating a culturally sensitive approach to organization structuring. Our emphasis is on process throughout and our thesis is based on empirical evidence. We undertook a lengthy action research project (which we prefer to call "action ethnography") at a large hospital trust in England. In the process of elaborating this field study, we move from an organization which was seen to be "gridlocked" and to have "lost its steering capacity", through one which was bringing development and design together by way of pilot projects and transitional structures, to one where collective dialogue and debate finally led to some collective and sensible sensemaking.Exploring this relationship between culture and structure enables us to put people back into design and with them, their meanings, aspirations and assumptions. It also means that we are careful to avoid detailing specific design choices or offering organizational archetypes: this article is primarily about the process issues that surround redesign rather than organization design per se, as indeed any redesign is ultimately highly specific and context-driven. Instead, however, we articulate a four-phase change model, focusing on the delicate processes by which to reframe the culture-structure relationship, enabling an organization to move towards fundamental change.
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This article presents a practice theory for diagnosing organizations -that is, a combination of many ideas in a relatively simple framework that can be applied in various settings. It brings together organization/environ ment, sociotechnical, and formal/informal systems concepts, and pro poses six broad categories for looking at an organization: purposes; struc ture ; relationships; rewards; leadership; and helpful mechanisms. The author illustrates how these six factors influence each other and provides clues about what to diagnose in each category, considering the infinite number of possibilities. He also suggests that what are called "process" issues show up as blocked work that can be freed by understanding and intervening in one or more of the six boxes.
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This article presents several studies that examine organizational change. The authors note that certain issues should be addressed when examining the studies including an examination of the multiple contexts and levels of analysis in studying organizational change, the inclusion of time, history, process and action, the link between change processes and organizational performance, the investigation of international and cross-cultural comparisons, the study of receptivity, customization, sequenicng, pace and episodic versus continusous change and the partnership between scholars and practicioners in studying change. The author discuss how these issues are related to the concepts in the studies and note they research has not addressed these issues at this point in time.
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If the defining goal of modern-day business can be isolated to just one item, it would be the search for competitive advantage. Competition is more intense than ever-technological innovation, consumer expectations, and government deregulation all combine to create more opportunities for new competitors to change the basic rules of the game. At the same time, most of the old reliable sources of competitive advantage are drying up: the strategies employed by GM, IBM, and AT&T to maintain their positions of dominance in the 1960s and 70s are now obsolete. The authors of this book argue that the last remaining source of truly sustainable competitive advantage lies in "organizational capabilities": the unique ways each organization structures its work and motivates its people to achieve clearly articulated strategic objectives. The book argues that managers must understand the concepts and learn the skills involved in designing their organization to exploit their inherent strengths. All the reengineering, restructuring, and downsizing in the world will merely destabilize a company if the change doesn't address the fundamental patterns of performance-and if the change doesn't recognize the unique core competencies of that company. The authors draw upon specific cases to illustrate the design process in practice, and they provide a set of tools for using strategic organization design to gain competitive advantage. They present a design process, explore key decisions managers face, and list the guiding principles for incorporating the design function as a continuing and integral process.
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The purpose of this paper is to explain why task uncertainty is related to organizational form. In so doing the cognitive limits theory of Herbert Simon was the guiding influence. As the consequences of cognitive limits were traced through the framework various organization design strategies were articulated. The framework provides a basis for integrating organizational interventions, such as information systems and group problem solving, which have been treated separately before.
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The restaurant industry is an integral segment of the hospitality sector that is sensitive to external environmental changes. In order to remain competitive, restaurants must be flexible to quickly react and adapt to external environment challenges. Due to the close interactions and relationships between employees and managers, there can be direct effects on a restaurants performance when internal and external change occurs. This research project was conducted in the city of Melbourne, known for its fine dining and cosmopolitan style cuisine. The study investigated managers' role when initiating and implementing organizational change in order to minimise possible employees' resistance to change. The findings support previous theoretical approaches to effective change management. The key elements to support change were effective communication, employees' attitude and perception of managers' undertaken actions.
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To provide a model of organizational performance and change, at least two lines of theorizing need to be explored-organizationalfunctioning and organizational change. The authors go beyond description and suggest causal linkages that hypothesize how performance is affected and how effective change occurs. Change is depicted in terms of both process and content, with particular emphasis on transformational as compared with transactional factors. Transformational change occurs as a response to the external environment and directly affects organizational mission and strategy, the organization 's leadership, and culture. In turn, the transactionalfactors are affected-structure, systems, management practices, and climate. These transformational and transactional factors together affect motivation, which, in turn, affects performance. In support of the model's potential validity, theory and research as well as practice are cited.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study recently published research to identify findings that provide research-based guidance to organizational change agents and managers in addressing individual resistance to organizational change initiatives. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines published research appearing in peer-reviewed journals since 1998 that focus on exploring individual resistance to organizational change. Findings – Recent published research provides considerable practical guidance to organizational change agents and managers in understanding and dealing with resistance to change. Recent research examines the cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions of individual resistance and how it is influenced by: individual predispositions towards openness and resistance to change; individuals' considerations of threats and benefits of change; communication, understanding, participation, trust in management, management styles, and the nature of relationships with the change agents. Research limitations/implications – This paper is limited to research articles involving resistance to organizational change published in peer-reviewed journals from 1998 to 2009. Also, the paper finds that reported research used primarily self-report questionnaires to gather data, which are quantitatively analyzed. Such a lack of diversity of research methodologies provides a limited perspective of resistance to organizational change that might have been broadened by qualitative and practice-based methods (e.g. case studies and action research). Practical implications – A framework is presented linking organizational change research findings to specific change practitioner recommendations. Limitations of recent research are also discussed. Originality/value – Most studies provide an examination of a limited number of variables influencing resistance to change, and are not necessary designed to provide practical guidance to change practitioners. This paper provides a comprehensive framework of constructs and variables specifically aimed at linking research-based findings to guidance for change practitioners.
Article
An abstract is not available.
Article
Bolman and Deal (1984, 1991) have developed four perspectives, or frames, for understanding organizations and leadership: structural, human resource, political, and symbolic. This paper reports two studies that operationalize that model. The first study uses critical incidents written by managers to assess how many and which frames they use. Most incidents show the use of one or two frames; very few contain all four. In every population, the structural frame was used frequently while the symbolic frame was rarely evident. Across different populations, the use of the human resource and political frames varied substantially. The second study used survey instruments to assess managers' frame orientations. Regression analyses show that their orientations, as perceived by colleagues, are differentially related to perceived effectiveness as manager and leader. Managerial effectiveness is related to an emphasis on rationality and organizational structure. Leadership effectiveness is linked to symbols and culture. For men and women in comparable positions, gender is unrelated to leadership orientations or to their effectiveness as managers or leaders.
Article
Organization theory is a positive science; organizational design is a normative science "concerned with how things ought to be, with devising structures to attain goals." The Organizational Consultant is a knowledge base expert system to help design organizations. That is, it takes facts about the environment, size, strategy, technology, ownership, and management preferences and applies the knowledge base to recommend the design structure and properties such as complexity, formalization, centralization, and span of control, among others. Organization theory is comprised of numerous positive contingency theories, which are not integrated. The main issue is to create a comprehensive and consistent knowledge base from what we know, i.e., create a useful synthesis. We utilize four fit criteria as a guide: contingency fit, design parameter fit, situation fit, and total parameter fit. Contingency fit demands that the knowledge base of "if-then" rules follow what we know from the literature. Design parameter fit requires a balance, or weighting, among the supporting and opposing design recommendations. Situation fit assures us that the situation itself is not inconsistent. Finally, total design fit requires that it is useable and helpful to recommend structure and properties to attain goals. The development of the Organizational Consultant is a continuing validation exercise. The size of an organization is an important design contingency. Yet, an operational definition of size for design purposes has been wanting. We discuss how a useful definition of size was developed for the Organizational Consultant. We describe the development of the Organizational Consultant---a knowledge-based expert system that utilizes a synthesis of the elements of organizational contingency, theory through a validation process. The four fit criteria were applied to guide the development process.
Article
This article summarizes the key points of Eisenhardt's (1989), "Building theories from case study research," and its impact on research in management and marketing. The present article uses citation data from the Web of Knowledge database which shows that Eisenhardt (1989) has 2509 citations to the end of 2008, and that the articles first citing Eisenhardt (1989), most frequently citing Eisenhardt (1989), and most recently citing Eisenhardt (1989) appear in high-ranking journals. The citation impact for Eisenhardt (1989) far exceeds that of other articles appearing in the same issue of the Academy of Management Review. Eisenhardt (1989) continues to receive high numbers of citations annually. The use of citations indicates an increasing engagement with Eisenhardt's (1989) framework, and an influence across several business disciplines. In a comparison with Armstrong's (2003) measure of important findings, this present study concludes that Eisenhardt's (1989) article is important in terms of the replication, validity, usefulness, and surprise values of her findings.
Article
The work of Kurt Lewin dominated the theory and practice of change management for over 40 years. However, in the past 20 years, Lewin's approach to change, particularly the 3-Step model, has attracted major criticisms. The key ones are that his work: assumed organizations operate in a stable state; was only suitable for small-scale change projects; ignored organizational power and politics; and was top-down and management-driven. This article seeks to re-appraise Lewin's work and challenge the validity of these views. It begins by describing Lewin's background and beliefs, especially his commitment to resolving social conflict. The article then moves on to examine the main elements of his Planned approach to change: Field Theory; Group Dynamics; Action Research; and the 3-Step model. This is followed by a brief summary of the major developments in the field of organizational change since Lewin's death which, in turn, leads to an examination of the main criticisms levelled at Lewin's work. The article concludes by arguing that rather than being outdated or redundant, Lewin's approach is still relevant to the modern world. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2004.
Article
This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies-from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
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This article has presented a general approach for thinking about organizational functioning and a process for using a model to analyze organizational problems. This particular model is only one way of thinking about organizations; its clearly not the only model, nor can we claim it's definitively the best model. It is one tool, however, that may be useful for structuring the complexity of organizational life and helping managers create, maintain, and develop effective organizations.
Article
This article examines the theoretical and empirical organizational change literature over the period of 1990-early 1998. Research dealing with monitoring affective and behavioral reactions to change is also reviewed. in closing, general observations and suggestions for future research are offered and it is concluded that the organizational change literature continues to be responsive to the dynamics of contemporary workplace demands. To make the present effort manageable, we made two decisions. The first dealt with the literature base to be surveyed. Given the breadth of the 1987 and 1989 yearly reviews as contrasted with the specialized focus of the 1992 review, we primarily consider theory and research on organizational change, in general, through early 1998, focusing on work since 1990. The first research theme, dealing with content issues, largely focuses on the substance of contemporary organizational changes. Research in this category has typically attempted to define factors that comprise the targets of both successful and unsuccessful change efforts and how these factors relate to organizational effectiveness. The second research theme to be discussed, dealing with contextual issues, principally focuses on forces or conditions existing in an organization's external and internal environments.