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Infants and children suffer from a lot of mouth problems with a wide range of severity, and usually physicians have difficulties dealing with these problems due to their similarities. In this paper an expert system was designed to help users to correctly diagnose mouth problems in infants and children(teething, gingivitis, impetigo, inflamed papillae, mucocele, oral thrush, allergic reaction, chickenpox, hand-foot-mouth disease, strep throat, cold sores, canker sores, gingivostomatitis) with some information about the disease and how to treat it. SL5 Object expert system language was used to design and implement this expert system.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies (JMESS)
ISSN: 2458-925X
Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2016
www.jmess.org
JMESSP13420103 468
An Expert System for Mouth Problems in
Infants and Children
Samy S. Abu Naser
Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology,
Al-Azhar University, Gaza, Palestine,
abunaser@alazhar.edu.ps
Mohammed A. Hamed
Faculty of Engineering & Information Technology,
Al-Azhar University, Gaza, Palestine,
Abstract Infants and children suffer from a lot of
mouth problems with a wide range of severity, and
usually physicians have difficulties dealing with
these problems due to their similarities. In this
paper an expert system was designed to help
users to correctly diagnose mouth problems in
infants and children(teething, gingivitis, impetigo,
inflamed papillae, mucocele, oral thrush, allergic
reaction, chickenpox, hand-foot-mouth disease,
strep throat, cold sores, canker sores,
gingivostomatitis) with some information about
the disease and how to treat it. SL5 Object expert
system language was used to design and
implement this expert system.
Keywords Artificial Intelligence; Expert
Systems; SL5 Object; Mouth problems; infants
and children
I. INTRODUCTION
Mouth is known as the oral cavity, which is the
hollow cavity that permits food and air to enter the
body. The mouth has lots of additional organs - for
example the teeth, tongue, and the ducts of the
salivary glands - that work together to assist in the
ingestion and digestion of food. Furthermore, the
mouth plays a major role in making of speech through
the activities of the tongue, lips and cheeks[3] .
There are several functions of the mouth: Eating,
breathing, drinking, Speaking and in infants sucking
reflex as seen in Figure 1.
Fig. 1Mouth.
II. EXPERT SYSTEM LANGUAGE
Expert Systems language is a set of programs
which allow the building of an expert system through
the creation of knowledge and rules. See figure 2 for
details. Expert systems have three essential
components:
1. User interface : presents questions to the user
and accepts inputs from them
2. Knowledge base: contains data and facts,
rules and objects in a specific knowledge
domain. The knowledge base obtained from
the human expert is prepared by a knowledge
engineer as most human experts are not
skilled at computer programming
3. Inference engine: this is software that matches
the users input with data contained in the
knowledge base to reach appropriate
answers. This is done using inference rules
e.g. If conditions Then rules.
Fig. 2: Components of an expert system
The propped Expert System for mouth problems in
infants and children diagnosis was designed and
implemented using, SL5 Object expert system
language[2] which is influenced by OPS5 and L5
Object implemented in Delphi Embarcadero RAD
Studio XE6[11] for efficiency and portability. SL5
Object Language was developed by Prof. Dr. Samy S.
Abu Naser for educational purposes and runs on PC.
SL5 Object provides mechanisms for expert systems
production rule interpreter object oriented
programming language.
Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies (JMESS)
ISSN: 2458-925X
Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2016
www.jmess.org
JMESSP13420103 469
SL5 Object stands for Simpler Level 5 Object
expert system language which is forward-chaining
starting from the facts, a solution is developed.
III. MATERIALS AND METHODS.
The proposed expert system will ask the user to
answer the questions about the symptoms of the
patient and end up with the diagnosis. Then this expert
system shows the user some information about the
disease and some advices telling him/her how to deal
with the baby. Figure 3 shows the decision tree of the
expert system for diagnosing the mouth problems in
infants and children.
Fig. 3: Decision tree of the expert system.
IV. BACKGROUND
Many expert systems have been designed [1,7-
9,12-21] to help facilitating diagnosing and managing a
lot of diseases and medical problems which
considered as a part of applying Artificial Intelligence
and computer science in order to help doctors,
hospitals and health care facilities decision making to
enable them to offer their health services in the right
way. Some of them are listed below.
An expert system for diagnosing skin diseases in
farmworkers designed by [6] . An expert system for
skin diseases diagnosis were designed by [1] to be
used in diagnosing nine skin diseases. A Proposed
Diagnostic Expert System for High Blood Pressure
during Pregnancy have been designed by[14]. Fuzzy
expert system ( FES ) have been designed for back
pain diagnosis designed by[15].
Our expert system here is offering an easy way,
helping people to know how to diagnose and deal with
their infants and children mouth problems by giving
them some advices about what to do and when to ask
for medical help. We give a description and
management for 13 mouth problems affecting infants
and children worldwide (teething, gingivitis, impetigo,
inflamed papillae, mucocele, oral thrush, allergic
reaction, chickenpox, hand-foot-mouth disease, strep
throat, cold sores, canker sores, gingivostomatitis).
V. KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION
The main source of the knowledge for this expert
system are physicians. The captured knowledge have
been converted into SL5 Object Knowledge base
syntax (facts and rules and Objects). Currently the
expert system has about14 rules which cover 13mouth
problems. Here is a brief identification of each of the13
mouth problems that the expert system can help the
user with[3-5,10]:
A. Teething
Teething typically starts approximately 6 months of
age. However it is common for teething to begin at any
time between 3 months and 12 months of age. A
number of babies are finickier than normal when they
are teething. This might be because of tenderness and
inflammation in the gums before a tooth comes up.
These symptoms frequently begin about 3 to 5 days
prior to the tooth shows, and they vanish as soon as
the tooth crack the gum. Many babies dribble
throughout teething, which can cause a rash on the
chin, face, or chest. A baby's mouth who's teething is
shown in figure 4.
Fig. 4: Teething
B. Gingivitis
Gingivitis is an ordinary and mild form of gum
disease that causes irritation, redness and swelling
(inflammation) of your gums. The main widespread
cause of gingivitis is weak oral hygiene. An infected
mouth with gingivitis is shown in figure 5.
Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies (JMESS)
ISSN: 2458-925X
Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2016
www.jmess.org
JMESSP13420103 470
Fig. 5: Gingivitis
C. Impetigo
Is a bacterial skin infection. It causes red sores that
can break open, ooze fluid, and build up a yellow-
brown layer. These sores may happen anywhere on
the body particularly around the mouth. Impetigo is
infectious and may be spread to others through close
contact or by sharing towels, sheets, clothing, toys, or
other stuff. Scratching may also spread the sores to
other parts of the body. An infected baby with impetigo
is shown in figure 6.
Fig. 6: Impetigo
D. Inflamed papillae
General painful inflammatory situation affecting one
or some fungi form papillae on the tongue. The main
cause is confined irritation by food or trauma. It lasts
one to two days then fades away. A baby's tongue with
inflamed papillae is shown in figure 7.
Fig. 7: Inflamed papillae
E. Mucocele
A cyst-like bump. moveable and painless , flexible,
round, dome-shaped, pearly or semi-clear surface
bluish in color, two to ten millimeters in diameter
happen when the salivary duct has become blocked
and mucus leaks out, pools, turns into walled off. This
mainly happens if you repeatedly bite off or suck on
your lower lip or cheek. A mucocele of the mouth is
shown in figure 8.
Fig. 8:Mucocele
F. Oral thrush
Thrush is an infection of the mouth caused by the
candida fungus. It is caused by a type of illnesses,
stress, or medications can bother the delicate stability,
causing the fungus candida to develop out of control
and causing thrush. An ordinary sign of thrush is the
existence of soft white, slightly raised lesion in the
mouth, tongue, and inside the cheeks. A baby mouth
with oral thrush is shown in Figure 9.
Fig. 9: Oral thrush
G. Allergic reaction
Allergies are an overreaction of the body's normal
resistance system. The immune system begins fighting
substances that are typically harmless (food,
medicine). This overreaction may cause a rash,
scratchy eyes, swollen lips, a runny nose, problems
inbreathing, nausea, and diarrhea. A baby with signs
of allergic reaction is shown in Figure 10.
Fig. 10: Allergic reaction
Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies (JMESS)
ISSN: 2458-925X
Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2016
www.jmess.org
JMESSP13420103 471
H. Chickenpox.
It is also known as varicella, is an
extremely infectious disease caused by the
preliminary infection with varicella zoster virus.
The disease consequences is in a characteristic
skin rash that shapes tiny, itchy blisters. Additional
symptoms may include fever, feeling worn-out,
and headaches. A baby with chicken box around his
mouth is shown in Figure 11.
Fig. 11: Chickenpox.
I. Hand-foot-mouth disease.
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is one that may
cause sores in or on the mouth and on the hands, feet,
and occasionally the legs and buttocks. The sores may
be painful. The disease frequently doesn't last over a
week. It is caused by a virus named anentero virus. A
baby with hand-foot-mouth disease is shown in Figure
12.
Fig. 12: Hand-foot-mouth disease
J. Strep throat.
Strep throat is a bacterial contagion that may make
throat feel sore and rough. The cause of strep throat is
bacteria recognized as Streptococcus pyogenes.
Patient strep throat is shown in Figure 13.
Fig. 13:Strep throat.
K. Cold sore.
Are sets of tiny blisters on the lip and around
the mouth. The skin around the blisters is frequently
sore, swollen, and red. The blisters may perhaps break
open, leak an apparent fluid, and then scab over after
few days. They typically heal in more than a few days
to two weeks. Cold sores are caused by the herpes
simplex virus. A baby's mouth with cold sore is shown
in Figure 14.
Fig. 14: Cold sore.
L. Canker sores.
Tiny, thin lesions that grow on the soft tissues in
one’s mouth or at the base of one gums. It different
cold sores, canker sores don't happen on the surface
of ones lips and they aren't infectious. They may be
painful, nevertheless, can make eating and talking not
easy. The majority of canker sores get away on their
own in a week or two. A child's mouth with canker sore
is shown in Figure 15.
Fig. 15: Canker sores.
M. Gingivostomatitis.
Gingivostomatitis is a wide spread contagious of
the mouth and gums. The primary signs are mouth or
gum swelling, and lesions in the mouth that resemble
canker sores. This contagion may be the result of a
viral or bacterial contagion, and is often related to
improper care of one’s teeth and mouth.
Gingivostomatitis is particularly widespread between
children. Children with gingivostomatitis can drool and
refuse to eat or drink due to the discomfort (often
severe) caused by the sores. They might also develop
fever and swollen lymph nodes. An infected mouth
with gingivostomatitis is shown in Figure 16.
Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies (JMESS)
ISSN: 2458-925X
Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2016
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JMESSP13420103 472
Fig. 16: Gingivostomatitis.
VI. EXPERT SYSTEM INTERFACE
Figure 17, shows a few screen shots about the
execution of the Mouth problems in infants and
children diagnosing expert system. The first one
contains some information about the purpose of the
expert system. The second one contains how could a
user interact with expert system by choosing an
answer for the questions asked. The last one contains
the conclusion showing windows for the title of the
expert system, window for the diagnosed problem, and
a window for the advice to the user telling him/her how
to treat a problem.
Ikkml’
Fig. 17 Some screen shots between the expert system
and the end user
VII. CONCLUSION
In this paper, a proposed expert system was
designed and developed using SL5 Object expert
systems language in order to help physicians and
parents in diagnosing their kid's mouth problems in an
easier and more precise way than before. This expert
system is simple, fast and easy to use.
VIII. EXPERT SYSTEM SOURCE CODE:
ATTRIBUTE start SIMPLE
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have a fever
COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have sores or blisters on
the face and on the body such as the stomach chest or
back COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Is your child an infant and is the infant
drooling or wanting to chew on things COMPOUND
Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have red and swollen
gums that may bleed when he or she brushes or
flosses COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have honey colored
crusting on the mouth that began as an itchy red sore
or cluster of blisters COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have a red or purple sore
or cluster of sores on a lip or the outer edge of the lips
COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have small open and
painful sores that are white yellowish with a red border
on the inner lips COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have small painful bumps
on the tongue COMPOUND Yes,No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have a small painless
fluid filled sac that may be bluish in color on the inner
lips gums palate COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have creamy white
patches on the tongue inner cheek or gums and are
they painful when scraped COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have a sore or swollen
tongue or lips COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have a sore throat and
painful blisters on the tongue or mouth or a rash on the
palms of hands COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have a red and sore
throat with white patches on the throat or tonsils
COMPOUND Yes, No
ATTRIBUTE Does your child have painful sores
swelling or redness on the inside of the cheeks and on
the gums COMPOUND Yes, No
INSTANCE the domain ISA domain
WITH start := TRUE
INSTANCE the application ISA application
WITH title display := introduction
WITH conclusion display := Conc
WITH numeric precision := 8
WITH simple query text := "
*?
is
* "
Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies (JMESS)
ISSN: 2458-925X
Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2016
www.jmess.org
JMESSP13420103 473
INSTANCE introduction ISA display
WITH wait := TRUE
WITH delay changes := FALSE
WITH items [1 ] := textbox 1
INSTANCE textbox 1 ISA textbox
WITH location := 10,10,800,350
WITH pen color := 0,0,0
WITH fill color := 100,200,100
WITH justify IS left
WITH font := "Arial"
WITH font style IS bold
WITH font size := 14
WITH text :="
Diagnosis Expert System
Written By Mohammed A. Hammed ^_^
This Expert system is written in Simpler Level 5
Object (SL5 Object) .
This Expert System diagnoses Mouth Problems in
Infants and Children through a dialogue between the
Expert System and the End User.
The Conclusion of the finding is displayed and an
Advise is given for the End User to solve the problem."
INSTANCE Conc ISA display
WITH wait := TRUE
WITH delay changes := FALSE
WITH items [1] := title textbox
WITH items [2 ] := diagnosis textbox
WITH items [3 ] := selfcare textbox
INSTANCE title textbox ISA textbox
WITH location := 20,10,800,70
WITH pen color := 0,0,0
WITH fill color := 200,200,100
WITH justify IS center
WITH font := "Arial"
WITH font style IS bold
WITH font size := 14
WITH text := " The Conclusion of the Mouth Problems
in Infants and Children Diagnosis "
INSTANCE diagnosis textbox ISA textbox
WITH location := 20,110,800,130
WITH pen color := 0,0,0
WITH fill color := 170,170,170
WITH justify IS left
WITH font := "Arial"
WITH font size := 14
WITH text :=" --===--"
INSTANCE selfcare textbox ISA textbox
WITH location := 20,280,800,130
WITH pen color := 0,0,0
WITH fill color := 170,170,170
WITH justify IS left
WITH font := "Arial"
WITH font size := 14
WITH text :=" --===--"
RULE R0
IF start
THEN ASK Does your child have a fever
RULE R1
IF Does your child have a fever IS Yes
THEN ASK Does your child have sores or blisters on
the face and on the body such as the stomach chest or
back
RULE R2
IF Does your child have a fever IS No
THEN ASK Is your child an infant and is the infant
drooling or wanting to chew on things
RULE R3
IF Is your child an infant and is the infant drooling or
wanting to chew on things IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "Your child may be
TEETHING."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "Use teething rings or
let your baby chew on a wet washcloth. Rub your
baby's gums with a clean finger.Wipe off drool to
prevent rashes on the baby's face.Use children's
acetaminophen to relieve discomfort, but call your
doctor if the baby develops a fever."
RULE R4
IF Is your child an infant and is the infant drooling or
wanting to chew on things IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have red and swollen
gums that may bleed when he or she brushes or
flosses
RULE R5
IF Does your child have red and swollen gums that
may bleed when he or she brushes or flosses IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "Your child may
have GUM DISEASE,such as GINGIVITIS or
PERIODONTITIS, usually caused by poor DENTAL
HYGIENE."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "Take your child to the
dentist. Good dental hygiene such as regular brushing,
flossing, dental checkups and eating a healthy diet can
prevent gum diseases."
RULE R6
IF Does your child have red and swollen gums that
may bleed when he or she brushes or flosses IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have honey colored
crusting on the mouth that began as an itchy red sore
or cluster of blisters
RULE R7
IF Does your child have honey colored crusting on the
mouth that began as an itchy red sore or cluster of
blisters IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "Your child may
have IMPETIGO, a contagious skin infection."
Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies (JMESS)
ISSN: 2458-925X
Vol. 2 Issue 4, April - 2016
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JMESSP13420103 474
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "Wash the area 3 or 4
times a day and apply an over-the-counter antibiotic
ointment. If the sores spread or don't get better, call
your child's doctor."
RULE R8
IF Does your child have honey colored crusting on the
mouth that began as an itchy red sore or cluster of
blisters IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have a red or purple sore
or cluster of sores on a lip or the outer edge of the lips
RULE R9
IF Does your child have a red or purple sore or cluster
of sores on a lip or the outer edge of the lips IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "Your child
probably has a COLD SORE caused by a virus called
HERPES."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "Cold sores will
usually go away on their own. Apply an over-the-
counter cold sore ointment for comfort. If the sores are
painful, give your child an analgesic such as
acetaminophen. Avoid pinching, picking or squeezing
the blisters."
RULE R10
IF Does your child have a red or purple sore or cluster
of sores on a lip or the outer edge of the lips IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have small open and
painful sores that are white yellowish with a red border
on the inner lips
RULE R11
IF Does your child have small open and painful sores
that are white yellowish with a red border on the inner
lips IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "These may be
CANKER SORES. They may be caused by viral
infections."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "Canker sores usually
heal on their own. To relieve discomfort, have your
child rinse his or her mouth with salt water or diluted
hydrogen peroxide, or apply an over-the-counter oral
gel. You may also want to give your child an analgesic
such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve pain.
See your child's doctor if there is no improvement."
RULE R12
IF Does your child have small open and painful sores
that are white yellowish with a red border on the inner
lips IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have small painful bumps
on the tongue
RULE R13
IF Does your child have small painful bumps on the
tongue IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "These bumps are
probably PAPILLAE (where the taste buds are) that
have become INFLAMED due to an injury from a burn
caused by hot food or drink or a self-inflicted bite."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "The inflammation and
bump will usually go away on its own. Avoid feeding
the child hot, spicy and acidic foods. Give your child an
analgesic such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to
relieve pain."
RULE R14
IF Does your child have small painful bumps on the
tongue IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have a small painless fluid
filled sac that may be bluish in color on the inner lips
gums palate
RULE R15
IF Does your child have a small painless fluid filled sac
that may be bluish in color on the inner lips gums
palate IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "These may be
MUCOCELES, harmless cysts that may be caused by
sucking mouth tissue between the teeth."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "These cysts will
usually go away on their own. To avoid infection, do
not try to open the cyst. See your child's doctor if the
cysts don't go away."
RULE R16
IF Does your child have a small painless fluid filled sac
that may be bluish in color on the inner lips gums
palate IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have creamy white
patches on the tongue inner cheek or gums and are
they painful when scraped
RULE R17
IF Does your child have creamy white patches on the
tongue inner cheek or gums and are they painful when
scraped IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "This may be
ORAL THRUSH caused by a fungus growing out of
control."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "This condition usually
goes away on its own. Feed your child unsweetened
yogurt with live cultures to restore the natural balance
of bacteria in the body. Have your child gargle with salt
water or use an analgesic such as acetaminophen to
relieve pain. If the symptoms get worse or don't get
better, see your child's doctor. He or she may
prescribe an antifungal medicine."
RULE R18
IF Does your child have creamy white patches on the
tongue inner cheek or gums and are they painful when
scraped IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have a sore or swollen
tongue or lips
RULE R19
IF Does your child have a sore or swollen tongue or
lips IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "Your child may
have CHICKENPOX, a contagious infection caused by
the varicella-zoster virus."
Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies (JMESS)
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JMESSP13420103 475
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "URGENT Call your
child's doctor right away."
RULE R20
IF Does your child have a sore or swollen tongue or
lips IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have sores or blisters on
the face and on the body such as the stomach chest or
back
RULE R21
IF Does your child have sores or blisters on the face
and on the body such as the stomach chest or back IS
Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "Your child may
have CHICKENPOX, a contagious infection caused by
the varicella-zoster virus."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "Give your child
acetaminophen to relieve pain and reduce fever. Call
your child's doctor if fever gets worse or doesn't go
away, if blisters look infected, or if new symptoms such
as headache or nausea appear."
RULE R22
IF Does your child have sores or blisters on the face
and on the body such as the stomach chest or back IS
No
THEN ASK Does your child have a sore throat and
painful blisters on the tongue or mouth or a rash on the
palms of hands
RULE R23
IF Does your child have a sore throat and painful
blisters on the tongue or mouth or a rash on the palms
of hands IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "Your child may
have HAND-FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE or
HERPANGINA, viral infections caused by the
COXSACKIE VIRUS."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "These illnesses must
run their course Avoid giving the child food and drinks
that irritate blisters such as spicy, salty or acidic foods.
Have your child drink plenty of cold fluids such as milk
and ice water. Feed your child non-irritating foods such
as ice cream. Have your child gargle with salt water to
relieve discomfort and give your child an analgesic
such as acetaminophen to relieve pain and reduce
fever. Call your child's doctor if symptoms get worse or
don't get any better."
RULE R24
IF Does your child have a sore throat and painful
blisters on the tongue or mouth or a rash on the palms
of hands IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have a red and sore throat
with white patches on the throat or tonsils
RULE R25
IF Does your child have a red and sore throat with
white patches on the throat or tonsils IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "Your child may
have STREP THROAT, a bacterial infection."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "See your child's
doctor. He or she may want to do some tests and
prescribe antibiotics. Allow your child to get plenty of
rest and drink plenty of fluids. Give your child an
analgesic such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to
relieve pain and reduce fever. Gargling with salt water
may relieve some discomfort."
RULE R26
IF Does your child have a red and sore throat with
white patches on the throat or tonsils IS No
THEN ASK Does your child have painful sores
swelling or redness on the inside of the cheeks and on
the gums
RULE R27
IF Does your child have painful sores swelling or
redness on the inside of the cheeks and on the gums
IS Yes
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "Your child may
have GINGIVOSTOMATITIS, a condition caused by a
viral infection of the HERPES or COXSACKIE
VIRUSES."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "This condition usually
gets better on its own. Allow your child to drink plenty
of fluids and offer cold, soothing foods such as ice
cream or frozen yogurt. Give your child acetaminophen
to relieve pain and reduce fever. Gargling with salt
water may also relieve discomfort."
RULE R28
IF Does your child have painful sores swelling or
redness on the inside of the cheeks and on the gums
IS No
THEN text OF diagnosis textbox := "For more
information, please talk to your doctor. If you hink the
problem is serious, call your doctor right away."
AND text OF selfcare textbox := "For more information,
please talk to your doctor. If you think the problem is
serious, call your doctor right away."
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... Naser, et al. presented a SL5 object based expert system for diagnosing mouth problems in infants and children. The system claimed as a simple, fast, and easy to use [19]. Kristian, et al. conducted a detection of teeth and mouth disease using Dempster-Shafer method. ...
... The expert system can be defined as a type of computer software that uses a process similar to the way humans think in order to provide people with solutions to problems relating to a particular subject [3]. For a computer system to be classified as an expert system, it must contain 3 major components: a user interface, a knowledge base, and an inference engine [11]. The user interface is a component which allows the user and the expert system to interact. ...
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... In this paper an expert system was designed to help users to correctly diagnose mouth problems in infants and children (teething, gingivitis, impetigo, inflamed papillae, mucocele, oral thrush, allergic reaction, chickenpox, hand-foot-mouth disease, strep throat, cold sores, canker sores, gingivostomatitis) with some information about the disease and how to treat it. SL5 Object expert system language was used to design and implement this expert system [35]. ...
... In this paper an expert system was designed to help users to correctly diagnose mouth problems in infants and children (teething, gingivitis, impetigo, inflamed papillae, mucocele, oral thrush, allergic reaction, chickenpox, hand-foot-mouth disease, strep throat, cold sores, canker sores, gingivostomatitis) with some information about the disease and how to treat it. SL5 Object expert system language was used to design and implement this expert system [35]. ...
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