Article

Density Controlled Divide-and-Rule Scheme for Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

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Abstract

Cluster based routing technique is most popular routing technique in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Due to varying need of WSN applications efficient energy utilization in routing protocols is still a potential area of research. In this research work we introduced a new energy efficient cluster based routing technique. In this technique we tried to overcome the problem of coverage hole and energy hole. In our technique we controlled these problems by introducing density controlled uniform distribution of nodes and fixing optimum number of Cluster Heads (CHs) in each round. Finally we verified our technique by experimental results of MATLAB simulations.

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... Based on the analysis of energy management, the main factors of energy consumption are: sensing the data, data processing and radio communications where the radio communication is the major part of energy consumption. In WSNs, the realization of energy efficiency can be improved using different energy efficiency techniques [1], [30], [31],[33], [35] and [23]. However, on the basis of the limitations of the physical layer, our main focus is on the design and implementation of network layer protocol. ...
... Routing protocols for wireless sensor networks can be classified into two classes, proactive and reactive protocols. LEACH protocol is considered as proactive protocol since it sends reports to the BS periodically[33]. In reactive protocols, when an event of interest occurs, it is reported to the BS. ...
... Routing protocols improve the lifetime of a network and specifically the stability period of a network. Protocols [1], [6], [7], [8], [14], [15], [16], [28], [33]. [36] and [38] are proposed to achieve these goals. ...
... Routing is the backbone of the protocol because the consumption of energy depends upon routing [36]. DR-LEACH [4] was proposed by K. Latif et al.. In this technique, the network area is divided into different regions. ...
... Routing protocols improve the lifetime of a network and specifically the stability period of a network. Protocols [2] , [4] , [8], [10], [13], [21], [24], [17], [18], [19] and [20] are proposed to achieve these goals. As shown inFigure 1, LEACH uses dynamic clustering. ...
... So some of the area is left unattended. To efficiently utilize the energy and to improve the coverage area, many researchers have introduced some effective approaches [2] , [3] , [4] and [10]. In these approaches, the total area is divided into small regions and these regions are treated separately for the nodes distribution and it improves the area coverage. ...
Article
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In this paper, we propose Regional Energy Efficient Cluster Heads based on Maximum Energy (REECH-ME) Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The main purpose of this protocol is to improve the network lifetime and particularly the stability period of the network. In REECH-ME, the node with the maximum energy in a region becomes Cluster Head (CH) of that region for that particular round and the number of the cluster heads in each round remains the same. Our technique outperforms LEACH [1] which uses probabilistic approach for the selection of CHs. We also implement the Uniform Random Distribution Model to find the packet drop to make this protocol more practical. We also calculate the confidence interval of all our results which helps us to visualize the possible deviation of our graphs from the mean value.
... Ahmad, A., Latif, K. Javaid N.Khan et. al. (2013) [20] investigated on clustering procedure which is most well recognized directing strategy in WSNs. Because of differing need of WSN application productive vitality use in directing conventions is very still a potential field of research. Authors presented new energy efficient directing technique in this research. This strategy is utili ...
... Ahmad, A., Latif, K. Javaid N.Khan et. al. (2013) [20] investigated on clustering procedure which is most well recognized directing strategy in WSNs. Because of differing need of WSN application productive vitality use in directing conventions is very still a potential field of research. ...
Research
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1. Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network are in great demand from the recent years, as nowadays we have seen a wide growth of wireless devices including cellular phones, laptops, mobiles, PDA's etc. Wireless Sensor Networks consists of thousands of tiny sensor nodes. In a wireless sensor network a node is no longer useful when its battery dies, so to avoid this problem many routing protocols were introduced. Wireless sensor network is a collection of a large number of small nodes which acts as routers also. These nodes carry very limited power source which is non-rechargeable and non-replaceable which makes energy consumption an significant issue. Energy conservation is a very important issue for prolonging the lifetime of the network. As the sensor nodes act like routers as well, the determination of routing technique plays a key role in controlling the consumption of energy. This paper describes the framework of wireless sensor network and the analysis and study of various research work related to Energy Efficient Routing Protocols like LEACH "Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy", PEGASIS "Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems", TEEN "Threshold sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network protocol", and their comparion.
... Ahmad, A., Latif, K. Javaid N.Khan et. al. (2013) [20] investigated on clustering procedure which is most well recognized directing strategy in WSNs. Because of differing need of WSN application productive vitality use in directing conventions is very still a potential field of research. Authors presented new energy efficient directing technique in this research. This strategy is utili ...
... Ahmad, A., Latif, K. Javaid N.Khan et. al. (2013) [20] investigated on clustering procedure which is most well recognized directing strategy in WSNs. Because of differing need of WSN application productive vitality use in directing conventions is very still a potential field of research. ...
Research Proposal
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1. Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network are in great demand from the recent years, as nowadays we have seen a wide growth of wireless devices including cellular phones, laptops, mobiles, PDA's etc. Wireless Sensor Networks consists of thousands of tiny sensor nodes. In a wireless sensor network a node is no longer useful when its battery dies, so to avoid this problem many routing protocols were introduced. Wireless sensor network is a collection of a large number of small nodes which acts as routers also. These nodes carry very limited power source which is non-rechargeable and non-replaceable which makes energy consumption an significant issue. Energy conservation is a very important issue for prolonging the lifetime of the network. As the sensor nodes act like routers as well, the determination of routing technique plays a key role in controlling the consumption of energy. This paper describes the framework of wireless sensor network and the analysis and study of various research work related to Energy Efficient Routing Protocols like LEACH "Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy", PEGASIS "Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems", TEEN "Threshold sensitive Energy Efficient sensor Network protocol", and their comparion.
... Other features of our scheme are dynamic clustering, maximal residual energy Cluster Head (CH) selection and minimum distance multi-hop communication. Our scheme outperforms the existing DDR protocol [1] by a greater amount. ...
... Another approach finds out that node density and distance in a cluster are the major causes of energy hole formation; however, fail to elaborate the fact that when nodes are bound to static clusters, the chances of energy holes are more [5]. A term density control is used by the authors of Density Controlled Divide-and-Rule (DDR) [1], as they apply uniform random distribution of nodes among different regions to control node density over the whole network. Energy hole is avoided in this case; however,static clustering is a major drawback of this research. ...
Conference Paper
Energy Hole is the major problem in the effi-ciency of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A routing protocol MASEHA : Multi-hop communication using Active and Sleep nodes for Energy Hole Avoidance is proposed in this research paper to overcome the energy hole problem. Taking the concept of Active and sleep mode of nodes, we propose that the network is divided into active and sleep nodes. Half of the sleep nodes are turned on when the first node dies and remaining sleep nodes are activated after the death of tenth node. We have achieved balanced stability, increased sensing period of nodes and balanced energy consumption. Further, MASEHA uses dynamic clustering, divides the network into small sub-areas and uses uniform number of CHs throughout the network. Selection of CHs is done on the basis of maximum energy and minimum distance multi-hop communication is utilized in our paper. Simulation results show that these aspects help in out performing our proposed protocol with the existing protocols.
... In this research work, we introduce a new clustering technique at routing layer named as density controlled divideand-rule (DDR). A part of this research work is published in Ahmad et al. (2013). Here, we address energy and coverage hole problems by controlling network density and keeping number of CHs constant throughout network operation. ...
Article
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), Sensor nodes (nodes) are equipped with limited energy source. Therefore, efficient energy utilization of nodes has become a hot research area in WSNs. In this paper, we introduce a new routing technique for WSNs in which, we solve the problem of unbalanced energy utilization, which causes energy and coverage holes in WSNs. Deployment area is divided into subareas; each subarea logically represents a static cluster. Dividing network field into subfields helps to control coverage hole problem whereas, static clustering helps to avoid energy hole problem. Mathematical formulation of the proposed work is provided to analyse and verify our technique. Simulation results show that our technique balances energy utilization of the network.
... Throughout past few years research in areas of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are escalated. Many other latent applications like medical sensing control, wearable computing and location identification are based on Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs).Media access control in sensor networks must be energy efficient and permit fair bandwidth allocation to all the nodes [1]. Each sensor node is prepared with a sensing device, a low computational capacity processor, a short range wireless transmitter-receiver and a restricted battery supplied energy. ...
Article
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Wireless body area networks are widely used for applications such as health care system, where wireless sensors (nodes) monitor the parameter(s) of interest. Sensors play a critical role in many sensor network applications. Mac layer operates on non-beacon and beacon enabled mode. The IEEE 802. 15. 4 standard provide two modes of connections: beacon enabled mode and non-offer transmission determinism. The non-beacon enabled mode does not suggest any assurance on traffic determinism. In this network an unslotted CSMA/CA channel access method is used beacon mode. In beacon-enabled networks, the extraordinary network nodes called ZigBee Routers transmit episodic beacons to verify their existence to other network nodes i. e. it can. Opposing to the non-beacon enabled mode, the beacon analyze delay, packet loss ratio, network life time, throughput of the wireless body area network. There will be three states nodes, sleep, awake, idle, which will be used to do transmission of data packets. AR-MAC protocol is based upon TDMA technique to reduce energy utilization. AR-MAC assigns Guaranteed Times Slot (GTS) to every sensor node for com-munication based upon the necessities of sensor node. Analysis of this parameter is performed on TDMA and CSMA/CA techniques that will be used to do the comparison on MAC layer. The performance will be judged on beacon and non-beacon enabled mode. Enabled mode does not permit us to shape mesh topology in order to interrelate numerous beacon networks.
... In Density Controlled Divide-and-Rule (DDR) 5 , authors further improved DR by adding a factor of density control in their protocol. Energy hole problem is addressed to a greater extent in this scheme. ...
Conference Paper
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) unbalanced energy consumption is a major problem. As a result, energy hole is created and network lifetime is reduced. In this paper, we propose IDDR to avoid the energy hole creation through uniform energy consumption. Proposed scheme reduces coverage and energy hole by dividing the network into small segments with static number of Cluster Heads (CHs) in each round. Selection of CH in each segment is based on maximum residual energy. Simulation results prove that proposed protocol outperforms the compared protocols. c ⃝ 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Elhadi M. Shakshuki.
... Routing protocols improve the lifetime of a network and specifically the stability period of a network. Protocols [14], [15], [16], [18], [19], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [35] and [40] are proposed to achieve these goals. When the sink is static, the probability of coverage holes is greater [33]. ...
... Routing protocols improve the lifetime of a network and specifically the stability period of a network. Protocols [14], [15], [16], [18], [19], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [35] and [40] are proposed to achieve these goals. When the sink is static, the probability of coverage holes is greater [33]. ...
Article
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Mobility constraints and speed cause the radio link to break frequently, the main issue in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) is how to select the path which is more reliable. In this paper, we propose a model to calculate the reliable link between the nodes and reliable path for the purpose of communication. This paper also evaluates and compares the performance of routing protocols with different number of nodes, mobilities and speeds in MANETs and VANETs using Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Normalized Routing Overhead (NRO), End-to-End Delay (E2ED), Average Link Duration (ALD) and Average Path Duration (APD). We select three routing protocols namely Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). We perform these simulations with NS-2 using Two Ray Ground propagation model. The Vanet MobiSim simulator is used to generate a random mobility pattern for VANETs. From the extensive simulations, we observe that AODV is more efficient than both FSR and OLSR at the cost of delay but the ALD and APD of FSR and OLSR are greater as compared to AODV. Moreover these protocols perform better in MANETs as compared to VANETs.
... Furthermore, the market for residential energy management is poised to grow dramatically due to increased users' demands and new governmental and industry initiatives [37]. Different energy efficient routing protocols and energy management systems have been proposed [38][39][40]to provide information about energy usage patterns. They offer users actionable information and control features while ensuring ease of use, availability, security, and privacy [41]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the actual era of smart homes and smart grids, advanced technological systems that allow the automation of domestic tasks are developing rapidly. There are numerous technologies and applications that can be installed in smart homes today. They enable communication between home appliances and users, and enhance home appliances’ automation, monitoring and remote control capabilities. This review article, by introducing the concept of the smart home and the advent of the smart grid, investigates technologies for smart homes. The technical descriptions of the systems are presented and point out advantages and disadvantages of each technology and product today available on the market. Barriers, challenges, benefits and future trends regarding the technologies and the role of users have also been discussed.
... In this section we little elaborate our previous research efforts regarding energy conservation and then we briefly discuss efforts of research community in this regard. In our previous work [1] and [2], we have identified energy holes in traditional famous WSNs scheme. In this work, we found that how energy is consumed in clustered WSNs and formulated a mathematical model for energy consumption of WSNs. ...
Conference Paper
Energy conservation is one of the challenging tasks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) whether deployed on ground or underwater. Applications of Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are gradually increasing due to the remote nature of control and automatic data transmission to onshore base stations. However, this automatic mechanism of WSNs is totally based on their built-in battery, which can not be replaced during network operation. Depth based routing is a popular routing technique which, do not needs full dimensional location information. However, consideration of depth and residual energy information for selection of next hop are not enough for balanced energy consumption of WSNs. In this research work, we identified the areas where energy is consumed most in depth based routing techniques. Due to which energy hole may be created. In addition we introduced Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) based location identification and multilevel power transmission in depth based routing technique. Simulation result shows that the proposed technique gives better results than its counterparts.
... These protocols are classified into three categories. 1. Flat routing protocols 2. Hierarchical routing protocols 3. Location based routing protocols Hierarchical routing protocols are providing maximum energy efficient routing mechanisms, as discussed in1234,78910111213,18192021. Low Energy Adoptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) routing protocol is acknowledged as a basic energy efficient hierarchical routing protocol. ...
Article
An energy efficient routing protocol is the major attentiveness for researcher in field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In this paper, we present some energy efficient hierarchal routing protocols, prosper from conventional Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) routing protocol. Fundamental objective of our consideration is to analyze, how these ex- tended routing protocols work in order to optimize lifetime of network nodes and how quality of routing protocols is improved for WSNs. Furthermore, this paper also emphasizes on some issues experienced by LEACH and also explains how these issues are tackled by other enhanced routing protocols from classi- cal LEACH. We analytically compare the features and performance issues of each hierarchal routing protocol. We also simulate selected clustering routing protocols for our study in order to elaborate the enhancement achieved by ameliorate routing protocols.
... A lot of work is carried which focuses on energy efficiency optimization problem in WSNs (e.g. [7, 11, 16, 9] ). Different types of ECCs are investigated in [3] and based upon BER and power consumption criteria, Reed Solomon code RS(31, 21) is considered to be an appropriate choice. ...
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Due to small size of sensor nodes deployed in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), energy utilization is a key issue. Poor channel conditions lead to retransmissions and hence, result in energy wastage. Error control strategies are usually utilized to accommodate channel impairments like noise and fading in order to optimize energy consumption for network lifetime enhancement. Meanwhile, cooperative communication also emerges to be an appropriate candidate to combat the effects of channel fading. Energy efficiency of cooperative scheme when applied with Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ), Hybrid-ARQ (HARQ) and Forward Error Correction (FEC) is investigated in this work. Moreover, the expressions for energy efficiency of Direct Transmission, Single Relay Cooperation and Multi Relay Cooperation are also derived. In all, our work is focused towards energy optimal communication in WSNs. Our results show that error control strategies with cooperative schemes can significantly enhance system performance in form of energy optimization.
... The main objective of routing is efficient energy communication ( [35], [36], [37]). Authors in [6] discuss and present a combined framework of reactive and proactive routing protocols. ...
Article
To ensure seamless communication in wireless multi-hop networks, certain classes of routing protocols are defined. This vary paper, is based upon proactive routing protocols for Wireless multihop networks. Initially, we discuss Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR), precisely followed by mathematical frame work of control overhead regarding proactive natured routing protocols. Finally, extensive simulations are done using NS 2 respecting above mentioned routing protocols covering mobility and scalability issues. Said protocols are compared under mobile and dense environments to conclude our performance analysis.
... A lot of work is carried which focuses on energy efficiency optimization problem in WSNs (e.g. [7, 11, 16, 9] ). Different types of ECCs are investigated in [3] and based upon BER and power consumption criteria, Reed Solomon code RS(31, 21) is considered to be an appropriate choice. ...
Conference Paper
Due to small size of sensor nodes deployed in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), energy utilization is a key issue. Poor channel conditions lead to retransmissions and hence, result in energy wastage. Error control strategies are usually utilized to accommodate channel impairments like noise and fading in order to optimize energy consumption for network lifetime enhancement. Meanwhile, cooperative communication also emerges to be an appropriate candidate to combat the effects of channel fading. Energy efficiency of cooperative scheme when applied with Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ), Hybrid-ARQ (HARQ) and Forward Error Correction (FEC) is investigated in this work. Moreover, the expressions for energy efficiency of Direct Transmission, Single Relay Cooperation and Multi Relay Cooperation are also derived. In all, our work is focused towards energy optimal communication in WSNs. Our results show that error control strategies along with the cooperative scheme significantly enhances system performance in the form of energy optimization.
... However in smart grid, the set of smart meters, low cost sensors, smart loads, and the integration of ICT has opened a window for residential energy management programs [2]. In this regard a lot of work is in progress for designing efficient routing protocols for WSNs to address the issues of efficient energy utilization, delay, path loss, interference and quality of service etc. In [10][12] different energy efficient routing protocols have been proposed by the authors. In subsections below few of energy management schemes are presented. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present a systematic review of various home energy management (HEM) schemes. Employment of home energy management programs will make the electricity consumption smarter and more efficient. Advantages of HEM include, increased savings for consumers as well as utilities, reduced peak to average ratio (PAR) and peak demand. Where there are numerous applications of smart grid technologies, home energy management is probably the most important one to be addressed. Utilities across the globe have taken various steps for efficient consumption of electricity. New pricing schemes like, Real Time Pricing (RTP), Time of Use (ToU), Inclining Block Rates (IBR), Critical Peak Pricing (CPP) etc, have been proposed for smart grid. Distributed Energy Resources (DER) (local generation) and/or home appliances coordination along with different tariff schemes lead towards efficient consumption of electricity. This work also discusses a HEM systems general architecture and various challenges in implementation of this architecture in smart grid.
... In [10], all sensors are divided into several clusters based on the spatial density and duty-cycles of the sensors such that k-coverage and connectivity can be achieved among all active nodes with various ratio of R c to R s . A cluster method based on density of nodes is proposed in [11] without considering specific sensing and communication range. ...
Article
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In wireless sensor networks, random deployment of nodes may cause serious coverage overlapping among the nodes and the original network may suffer severe coverage problems due to death of the nodes after deployment. In this paper, efficient distributed coverage hole repair algorithms are proposed taking density of the nodes in the post deployment scenario. The proposed algorithms consider limited mobility of the nodes and can select the mobile nodes based on their degree of coverage overlapping. In order to repair coverage holes of the network, nodes with higher degree of density are moved to maintain uniform network density without increasing the coverage degree of the neighbors of a mobile node. Simulation results show that the energy consumption due to mobility of nodes is least as compared to other similar protocols of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Besides, it is observed that substantial amount of coverage overlapping can be minimized and percentage of coverage of the holes can be maximized.
... In [10], all sensors are divided into several clusters based on the spatial density and duty-cycles of the sensors such that k-coverage and connectivity can be achieved among all active nodes with various ratio of R c to R s . A cluster method based on density of nodes is proposed in [11] without con- sidering specific sensing and communication range. ...
Article
Full-text available
In wireless sensor networks, the purpose of surveillance cannot be fulfilled if coverage holes are generated due to accidental death of the nodes caused due to technical failures, explosions and malicious activities or power exhaustion. Since, sensors are normally deployed randomly over the dense forests and harsh terrains, it is not possible to find out the coverage holes manually. Hence, in this work a computational geometry approach based distributed hole detection protocol is designed to find out the coverage holes in a post deployment scenario. An efficient geometric method with proper theoretical basis is used to detect the coverage holes of the wireless sensor network, where communication and sensing range of the nodes are same. Performance evaluation of our protocol shows that the hole detection time and energy consumption due to hole detection outperforms over similar hole detection protocols.
... Source node forwards the message to its cluster head (CH), which then initiates by forwarding the message to all of them. More precisely, the message is sent to all neighbouring CHs which in turn forward it to their neighbouring CHs [9]. ...
Article
In the beginning the development of wireless sensors was driven by military applications but the introduction of civilian wireless sensor systems has greatly diversified application domain which has further boosted research efforts in the field of wireless sensor networks. The protocols implemented in the sensor network i.e. H-HEED protocol which should be energy aware and simple enough to be implemented in the low-end type of hardware and software of many WSN applications. WSNs H-HEED protocol may be deployed outdoors in large sensor fields to detect the spread of wild fires. The other functionality of H-HEED protocol is: One is the periodic collection of data from other members the cluster and aggregates it. Second, is forwarding the aggregated data toward the base station.
... A.Ahamad et al. [8] proposed Density Controlled Divide-and-Rule LEACH. This protocol selects optimal number of CHs on the bases of nodes' density such that uniform distribution of load on CHs is maintained throughout the network operation. ...
... In static clustering, clusters sizes are fixed to ensure that the node forwards its data to cluster head (CH) throughout the operation of the network. Also, static clustering provides a balance load during data transmission to overcome the energy hole creation drawback [5,6]. However, if the energy hole problem takes place in any of the particular region, the WSN energy will be depleted rapidly due to creation of an unbalanced loading in data processing [7,8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, the energy consumption has become one of the major constraints for the sensor nodes having a finite energy source in the design of Wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, a new routing concept using divide-and-rule sectorization (DRS) scheme has been proposed to curtail the energy efficiency issues in WSNs. In this scheme, each forwarder node is dynamically selected for WSNs which balances the energy consumption among the sensor nodes significantly. The network area is divided into subareas to reduce the unbalance loading condition, and each subarea known as the segment, efficiently decrease the energy hole creation problem of the network. Moreover, the analytical analysis of the energy consumption for the proposed scheme has also been presented. The simulation results confirm that the proposed DRS scheme has better enduring stability, prolonging network lifetime, and minimized energy consumption as compared to available state-of-the-arts.
... Therefore, a key subject for WSNs is to curtail energy expenditures of sensor nodes to prolong lifetime of network. Several protocols based on clustering topology [14], [15], [16], [17] [18], [19], [20], [21] are available and used in many applications. In these protocols, cluster heads collects data and then transfer to BS. ...
Thesis
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In current era of technology, applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are rising in various fields. The deployment of WSNs for real life applications is greater than before. Still, the energy constraints remain one of the key issues; it prevents the complete utilization of WSN technology. Sensors typically powered with battery, which have insufficient life span. Even though renewable energy sources like solar energy or piezoelectric means are used as supplementary energy in WSNs, it is still some degree of reserve to consume energy judiciously. Proficient energy routing is thus a key requirement for a trustworthy design of a wireless sensor network. In this article, we advise a new Gateway Based Energy-Efficient Clustering Routing Protocol (M-GEAR) for WSNs. We divide the sensor nodes into four logical regions based on their distance from the gateway node and Base Station (BS). We install BS faraway from sensing area and a gateway node at the centre of the sensing area. If the distance of a sensor node from BS or gateway is less than predefined distance threshold, the node uses direct communication to transmit its sensed data. We divide the rest of nodes into two equal regions whose distance is beyond the threshold distance. We then divide these two regions into clusters and each region elects its own Cluster Heads (CHs) independent of other region. We compare performance of our protocol with LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy). Performance analysis and compared statistic results show that our proposed protocol perform well in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime. We also propose a reliable, power efficient and high throughput routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). We use multi hop topology to minimize energy consumption and maximizing network lifetime. We use a cost function to select parent node or forwarder. Proposed cost function selects a parent node, which has high residual energy and less distance to sink. Residual energy parameter balances the energy consumption among the sensor nodes and distance parameter ensures successful packet delivery to sink. Simulation results shows that proposed protocol enhance the network stability period and nodes stay alive for longer period. Longer stability period contributes high packet delivery to sink which is major interest for continuous patient monitoring.
... In chapter 2, we introduce a new clustering technique at routing layer named as DDR scheme. A part of DDR is published in [14]. Here, we address energy and coverage hole problems by controlling network density and keeping number of CHs constant throughout network operation. ...
Thesis
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Revolutionary development in integrated circuit miniaturisation facilitates the in-volvement of electronic sensors in every aspect of our life. This involvement results in a wide range of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications in terrestrial, underwater and health care. However, small size poses power limitation on these sensors. In order to conserve their energy, energy efficient strategies are needed at all layers of network model. However, this dissertation focuses on energy hole analysis and proposition of energy efficient solutions in WSNs (terrestrial, underwater, and body area) at the network layer only. In terrestrial WSNs, we identify that uneven number of Cluster Heads (CHs) selection is the major cause of uneven cluster size. This uneven cluster size leads to imbalanced energy consumption of sensors (nodes) in the network, which ultimately leads to creation of energy hole. In order to cope with this issue, we propose two energy efficient routing techniques; Density Controlled Divide-and- Rule (DDR) and Divide-and-Rule (DR). These techniques logically divide the network area into static clusters (regions) and nodes are randomly distributed in these regions. The two techniques differ in terms of regions’ formation and nodes’ association with CH(s). In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), limited number of nodes are placed on the human body, and typically, three communication modes are used; direct, intermediate node based, and cluster based. In this regard, our contribution factors in a detailed energy consumption analysis. Analytical and experimental analysis reveals important results regarding energy consumption of these techniques. In UWSNs, we propose two techniques; Delay Intolerant Energy Efficient Routing (DIEER) with sink mobility and Spherical Hole Repair Technique (SHORT). In DIEER, we analyze energy consumption of nodes in Depth Based Routing (DBR) techniques and devise an optimised way of forwarder node selection. On the other hand, SHORT’s energy hole analysis reveals that knowl- edge acquisition phase of DBR, and static transmission power level are the major contributors in nodes’ energy consumption. We devise a solution to repair the coverage holes which are created due to regular death of nodes. The simulation results show that our newly proposed techniques perform better than the selected existing ones in terms of the selected performance metrics.
... The results proved the protocol effectiveness in terms of data reliability , energy consumption and improved network lifetime. A novel protocol called " Density controlled Divide-and-Rule (DDR) " was proposed by Ahmad et al (2013) to be used especially for DWSN. DDR aimed mainly to overcome the energy hole and coverage hole problems. ...
Conference Paper
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As a part from the great revolution that was occurred recently, a continuous improvement was and still achieved in communication and network field. Wireless Sensor Networks was emerged as a result for this development, extensive researches were introduced in order to improve it is performance since it is now employed within several tactical applications, including; detection and monitoring applications. Routing process is considered one of the hottest research areas throughout the last years, several routing protocols were proposed in order to improve the performance of the network. In this paper, a new Energy Efficient Optimized Routing Algorithm (EEORA) is proposed and implemented by hybridization for the features of flat and Hierarchal routing techniques. EEORA routing process is performed into two stages, clustering and data communication phases. MATLAB program was employed in simulating the model of the proposed routing protocol for both Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Dense Wireless Sensor Networks (DWSNs). The results showed that more scalability is obtained by EEORA over other considered routing protocols. The results also showed that improved performance in terms of, energy consumption, end-to-end delay, network life time and throughput is also achieved by EEORA. the nodes energy is limited, the maximum WSN lifetime is a significant goal to the routing protocol destination. Therefore, it is essential to consider the energy balance consumption in addition to the consumption of energy along the path needed to transmit small messages toward the required destination. Moreover, since there is a large number of senor nodes in these networks, especially in " Dense WSNs (DWSNs) " , only partial information regarding to the topology information can be obtained by the nodes, so it is essential for the routing protocol to select the optimal path based on these available partial information (Guo and Tang, 2010).
Conference Paper
Randomly deployed nodes in wireless sensor net-work (WSN) have limited energy so their energy should be efficiently utilized. Early death of nodes is the major problem in WSN as it causes uneven load distribution. Compared with dynamic clustering schemes, multi hop communication in static clustering improves the stability region. It also provides better coverage and reduces energy hole problem. But, as the life of network proceeds, premature death of data forwarding nodes reduces stability region and prolongs unstable region. To address this we proposed THEEM, a hybrid approach which brings threshold sensitivity with static clustering multi hop routing protocol. Additionally data forwarding nodes are provided with extra energy but it is compensated from other nodes. We included random uniform packet drop model to include the effect of the wireless medium. Results show that our strategy improves stable region and network lifetime and minimizes energy hole problem. I. INTRODUCTION Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a category of wireless networks in which nodes are spatially distributed in a geo-graphical area. These nodes sense the environmental attributes and send the sensed data to Base Station (BS). Nodes consist of sensing unit, processor, transceiver and small battery. It is impractical to replace or recharge batteries of all deployed nodes [1]. Nodes may transmit data in coordinating fashion either using intermediate nodes or hierarchical fashion to BS. In hierarchical scheme Cluster Heads (CHs) are elected as intermediate nodes. CHs are the nodes performing extra duties of data collection and forwarding. WSNs are categorized on the bases of different parameters. In terms of energy, WSNs can be divided into homogeneous or heterogeneous networks. In former networks all nodes have same initial energy while in later nodes can have different energy. In terms of sensing and transmitting the data these networks are classified into two following two types:
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2000. Includes bibliographical references (p. 145-154).
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In recent years, advances in energy-efficient design and wireless technologies have enabled exciting new applications for wireless devices. These applications span a wide range, including real-time and streaming video and audio delivery, remote monitoring using networked microsensors, personal medical monitoring, and home networking of everyday appliances. While these applications require high performance from the network, they suffer from resource constraints that do not appear in more traditional wired computing environments. In particular, wireless spectrum is scarce, often limiting the bandwidth available to applications and making the channel error-prone, and the nodes are battery-operated, often limiting available energy. My thesis is that this harsh environment with severe resource constraints requires an applicationspecific protocol architecture, rather than the traditional layered approach, to obtain the best possible performance. This dissertation supports this claim using d...
Scalable and fully distributed localization with mere connectivity
  • M Jin
  • S Xia
  • H Wu
  • X Gu
M. Jin, S. Xia, H. Wu, X. Gu, Scalable and fully distributed localization with mere connectivity, in: INFO-COM, 2011 Proceedings IEEE, IEEE, 2011, pp. 3164 3172.