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Influence of extroversion and introversion on decision making ability

Authors:
  • Unaizah College of Medicine & Medical Sciences (UCM) Qassim University

Abstract

Background: Decision is defined as a choice that you make about something after thinking about several possibilities. Human decision making and judgment is readily observable in reality. The Personality trait that Influence Decision Making is usually missing from research of decision making. The current study is focused on the characteristics which stimulate the decision making behavior but is not concerned about what makes a decision good or bad.This study aimed to compare the differences in decision making abilities among introverts and extroverts and to analyze which characteristics are favorable for decision making. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted among a sample of 370 participants by non-probability convenience sampling from Karachi, Pakistan. Questionnaire with close ended and open ended questions had two sections: 1) Personality Analysis; 2) Decision Making characteristics. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which is the most widely used psychological instrument for measuring the extroversion-introversion with 5-point Likert scale was utilized. The second section regarding decision making included twenty-four open ended and close ended (with a 5-point Likert scale) statements describing how individuals make decisions. The data from the questionnaire was cleaned, coded and entered in Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA), exported to SPSS version 21 for windows (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA), for analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: Exact half (50%) of the extroverts go for snap decisions and quick decisions. Nine out of ten extroverts double-check their information sources before making decisions but more than half (64%) of them hold off important decisions as thinking makes them uneasy. Almost three fourth (68%) of extroverts need someone to steer them in the right direction for decisions. More than three forth (79%) of introverts rely on their intuition, inner feelings and reactions. More than one third (40%) of introverts do not go for impulsive decisions. One third (33%) introverts do not need the assistance of other people while making important decisions. Conclusions: The introverts are better at decision making than extroverts. The introverts rely on their intuition and inner feelings. Majority of them primarily counting on themselves, do not stretch for impulsive decisions while on the other hand extroverts usually go for snap decisions, quick decisions and decide what feels natural at the moment. They prefer to postpone whenever possible as thinking makes extroverts uneasy. Even though extroverts have a good quality of double-checking their information before making decisions but they need someone to steer them in the right direction when they face important decisions. The findings of the present study can-not be generalized due to the limited sample and volunteer bias. Future research is needed for the confirmation of this dimension of personality type and also to find out whether the decisions made by the introverts are good or bad which was beyond the scope of this study. Keywords: Decision making, Extroversion, Introversion
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | May 2016 | Vol 4 | Issue 5 Page 1534
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences
Khalil R et al. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016 May;4(5):1534-1538
www.msjonline.org
pISSN 2320-6071 | eISSN 2320-6012
Research Article
Influence of extroversion and introversion on decision making ability
Rehana Khalil*
ABSTRACT
Background:
Decision is defined as a choice that you make about something after thinking about several
possibilities. Human decision making and judgment is readily observable in reality. The Personality trait that
Influence Decision Making is usually missing from research of decision making. The current study is focused on the
characteristics which stimulate the decision making behavior but is not concerned about what makes a decision good
or bad.This study aimed to compare the differences in decision making abilities among introverts and extroverts and
to analyze which characteristics are favorable for decision making.
Methods:
A cross sectional study conducted among a sample of 370 participants by nonprobability convenience
sampling from Karachi, Pakistan. Questionnaire with close ended and open ended questions had two sections: 1)
Personality Analysis; 2) Decision Making characteristics. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which is the most
widely used psychological instrument for measuring the extraversion-introversion with 5-point Likert scale was
utilized. The second section regarding decision making included twenty-four open ended and close ended (with a 5-
point Likert scale) statements describing how individuals make decisions. The data from the questionnaire was
cleaned, coded and entered in Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA), exported to SPSS version 21 for windows
(SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA), for analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.
Results:
Exact half (50%) of the extroverts go for snap decisions and quick decisions. Nine out of ten extroverts
double-check their information sources before making decisions but more than half (64%) of them hold off important
decisions as thinking makes them uneasy. Almost three fourth (68%) of extroverts need someone to steer them in the
right direction for decisions. More than three forth (79%) of introverts rely on their intuition, inner feelings and
reactions. More than one third (40%) of introverts do not go for impulsive decisions. One third (33%) introverts do
not need the assistance of other people while making important decisions.
Conclusions:
The introverts are better at decision making than extroverts. The introverts rely on their intuition and
inner feelings. Majority of them primarily counting on themselves, do not stretch for impulsive decisions while on the
other hand extroverts usually go for snap decisions, quick decisions and decide what feels natural at the moment.
They prefer to postpone whenever possible as thinking makes extroverts uneasy. Even though extroverts have a good
quality of double-checking their information before making decisions but they need someone to steer them in the right
direction when they face important decisions. The findings of the present study can-not be generalized due to the
limited sample and volunteer bias. Future research is needed for the confirmation of this dimension of personality
type and also to find out whether the decisions made by the introverts are good or bad which was beyond the scope of
this study.
Keywords: Decision making, Extroversion, Introversion
Department of Family & Community Medicine, Unaizah College of Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia
Received: 27 February 2016
Accepted: 31 March 2016
*Correspondence:
Dr. Rehana Khalil,
E-mail: rehana.noman@ucm.edu.sa
Copyright: © the author(s), publisher and licensee Medip Academy. This is an open-access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20161224
Khalil R et al. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016 May;4(5):1534-1538
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | May 2016 | Vol 4 | Issue 5 Page 1535
INTRODUCTION
Decision is defined as a choice that you make about
something after thinking about several possibilities.1
Human decisions making and judgment is readily
observable in reality. Among many other factors like
thinking abilities, leadership qualities etc., introversion
and extroversion also influences the decisions of a
person. Both types of persons think in different ways and
have different approach towards various aspects of life.
According to Castro, introverts and extroverts not only
have differences in opinions, but their brains also operate
in different ways.2 This is the reason that their approach
towards dealing the same matter differs drastically.
The research of castro has highlighted scientific and
general differences between introverts and extroverts.
According to the study, extroversion is a phenomenon, in
which the human brain needs constant stimulation and
radiates energy in the form of intense emotions and
feelings. Extroverts need a driving force to motivate them
and like constant changes.
On the other hand, Castro defined introvert people as
those who have inward energy towards thoughts and
ideas. Their brain does not work in hyperactive state and
they dot seek inspiration in people. Instead they find
refuge in loneliness and learn from ideas and concepts.
Moreover, introversion also makes a person inexpressive,
so it is relatively difficult to understand an introvert
person than an extrovert. However, Castro highlighted
the fact that contrary to the normal perception that
extroverts achieve more in life, most introverts decide by
analyzing every aspect in detail and therefore most of
their decisions are reliable.
Cooper highlighted the fact that brains of introverts
process thoughts faster than brains of extroverts.3 This is
because introversion trains the human brain to think
constantly. Unlike an introvert, an extrovert thinks in
multiple directions at the same time. This is because in
extroversion, the brain immediately expresses the
processed result in the form of opinion or emotion. While
an introvert, analyzes all the aspects of everything before
concluding anything.
According to Mitchellette, introverts and extroverts differ
drastically in a number of aspects.4 Mitchellette
conducted an in-depth analysis of introversion and
extraversion and concluded that extroverts have better
communication and interaction skills than introverts.
Extroverts prove to be better public speakers than
introverts. However, this does not mean that introverts
lack confidence or they cannot face people. They don’t
communicate much with people, but their advice has
substance. The extroverts have good convincing abilities,
but its introverts whose decisions have insight and are
reliable.
According to Brown, the recent research on the brain of
introverts and extroverts revealed the fact that introverts
are better at decision making than extroverts.5 Although
extroverts are always considered good leaders due to their
interaction and communication skills, when it comes to
making the right decision, introverts have better abilities
than extroverts. This is because Introverts analyze every
aspect of a situation in detail and view a situation from
different angles. The processing unit of introverts brains
operates faster than extroverts brain, thus allowing them
to take timely decisions. Introverts don’t rely on people
for making decisions, which means that they have more
self-confidence than extroverts. The Personality trait that
Influence Decision Making is usually missing from
research of decision making. This study aimed to
compare the differences in decision making abilities
among introverts and extroverts and to analyze which
characteristics are favorable for decision making. This
study is not concerned about how good or bad decisions
are made but only focusing on the characteristics which
stimulate the decision making behavior.
METHODS
Study participants: Participants were chosen by
nonprobability convenience sampling. Participation into
the study was solely on a voluntary basis and whoever
volunteered was reassured that all information obtained
will be kept confidential and secure.
Sample size is 370 randomly selected from Karachi,
Pakistan. The ages of the sample range from 18 to 45
years.
Research instrument: was a questionnaire included close
ended and open ended questions in it.
Broadly, the questionnaire had two sections:
Personality Analysis
Decision Making characteristics
Data collection for section one was accomplished by
using Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) which is
the most widely used psychological instrument for
measuring the extraversion-introversion. Hans Eysenck
described extraversion-introversion as the degree to
which a person is outgoing and interactive with other
people. These behavioral differences are presumed to be
the result of underlying differences in brain physiology.16
It consisted of 10 items that measure over the previous
month with a 5-point Likert scale ranging from inaccurate
(=1), moderately inaccurate (=2), Neither Inaccurate nor
accurate (=3), moderately accurate (= 4), and very
accurate (= 5). The EPQ has a possible range of scores
from 10 to 50.
Khalil R et al. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016 May;4(5):1534-1538
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | May 2016 | Vol 4 | Issue 5 Page 1536
The second section of the Research instrument
(questionnaire) included twenty-four open ended and
close ended statements describing how individuals make
decisions. For close ended questions a 5-point Likert
scale ranging from strongly disagree (=1), disagree (=2),
neutral (neither agree nor disagree) (=3), agree (=4) and
strongly agree (= 5) was utilized.
Participants answered the questionnaire in direct
supervision of the author. Test-retest technique was
adopted to check the reliability and validity of the
questionnaire.
Data analysis
The data from the questionnaire was cleaned, coded and
entered in Excel (Microsoft, Redmond, WA, USA),
exported to SPSS version 21 for windows (SPSS Inc,
Chicago, Illinois, USA), for analysis. Descriptive and
inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.
Ethical considerations
After briefing the study purpose, an informed consent
was obtained from all of the participants without
coercion. Confidentiality and anonymity of the
participants, and protection of data gathered was ensured.
RESULTS
In total, 370 participants provided data that contributed to
this study. The characteristics of the respondents are
summarized in Table 1. A minor modification of the
study questionnaire that did not deviate much from the
original eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) was
found expedient for the main study and 140 out of 370
were extreme introverts, 200 were extreme extroverts
while 10 were found to be moderate introverts and 20
were moderate extroverts. Total number of introverts was
150 while 220 were extroverts.
The majority was between 21 and 45 years old. Fifty-four
percent were male, just over one fourth were single, and
73% were married. Half of the participants were educated
beyond a master’s level.
The characteristics of decision making process were
identified through closed ended and open ended questions
from the respondents. The responses were organized
under themes included the personal attributes, different
aspects and facets of decisions. The detailed are as
follows:
Personal attributes of a significant number of participants
included relying on their intuitions, instincts, inner
feelings and reactions. The process of decision making
requires careful thought in a logical and systematic way
for them. Consideration of various options for specified
goal and double-check information sources to be sure for
the right facts before making decisions. Generally they
make decisions that feel right to them. Some of them
prefer to postpone whenever possible and even put off
making important decisions. The reason they mentioned
was thinking makes them uneasy. Therefore they avoid
making important decisions until the pressure is on and
decide on the spur of the moment.
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the
participants (n=370).
Variable
Category
%
Gender
Male
Female
54
46
Age (years)
15-20
21-45
> 45
15
70
15
Marital
Status
Married
Unmarried
73
27
Education
level
Intermediate
Graduate
Post-Graduate
15
35
50
Religion
Muslims
Christian
Others
100
0
0
Figure 1: Difference of personality characteristics for
decision making.
Other aspects and facets of decisions making among a
considerable number included impulsive decisions and
decide what feels natural at the moment. A very
interesting phenomenon noticed from the current study
was ‘snap decisions’, which is different from last minute
or quick decisions because it is taken unexpectedly on the
spur of the moment. For important decisions,
consultation, assistance and advice of other people was
preferred by some of them. A good number of
participants needed someone to steer them in the right
direction when they faced important decisions. They were
Khalil R et al. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016 May;4(5):1534-1538
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | May 2016 | Vol 4 | Issue 5 Page 1537
of the opinion that support of others makes decision
easier for them.
The difference in a number of identified traits remained
insignificant among extroverts and introverts. However,
Chart 1 reveals characteristics, a very big proportion of
extroverts of the sample outnumbered the introverts
including snap decisions 110 (50%), quick decisions 110
(50%) and 140 (64%) decide what feels natural at the
moment. Almost all of them 200 (91%) double-check
information sources before making decisions and prefer
to postpone whenever possible and even 140 (64%) put
off making important decisions as thinking makes 130
(59%) extroverts uneasy. Consultation by 130 (59%) and
support of other people was preferred by 190 (86%) of
them. A good number 150 (68%) of extroverts needed
someone to steer them in the right direction when they
faced important decisions.
More than three forth 110 (79%) of introverts rely on
their intuition, inner feelings and reactions. More than
one third 60 (40%) of introverts do not go for impulsive
decisions. One third 50 (33%) introverts do not need the
assistance of other people while making important
decisions.
DISCUSSION
We use our decision making skills to solve problems by
selecting one course of action from several possible
alternatives. This study aimed to compare the differences
in decision making abilities among introverts and
extroverts and to analyze which characteristics are
favorable for decision making. We are not concerned here
about how good or bad a decision is but only looking for
the characteristics which stimulate the decision making
behavior.
A central distinction among different decision making
strategies (theories/models) is the extent to which they
make trades-offs among attributes.7 The study findings
shows that introverts have some personality attributes
which favor decision making as compared to extroverts
which are in agreement with Brown,5 according to him
the recent research on the brain of introverts and
extroverts revealed the fact that introverts are better at
decision making than extroverts. Although extroverts are
always considered good leaders due to their interaction
and communication skills, when it comes to making the
right decision, introverts have better abilities than
extroverts. This is because Introverts analyze every
aspect of a situation in detail and view a situation from
different angles. The processing unit of introverts’ brains
operates faster than extroverts’ brain, thus allowing them
to take timely decisions. Introverts don’t rely on people
for making decisions, which means that they have more
self-confidence than extroverts.5
The current study also supports the aspect discussed by
Mitchellette4 in his book that Introverts go for quality,
while extroverts prefer quantity. According to the
findings of this study introverts rely on their intuition,
instincts, inner feelings and reactions. Intuition can
greatly enhance the effectiveness of your decision
making, especially when it complements rational
analysis. Get a better idea of where intuition fits best and
how to use it properly. They take time and do not go for
quick impulsive decisions. Castro defined introvert
people as those who have inward energy towards
thoughts and ideas. Most introverts decide by analyzing
every aspect in detail and therefore most of their
decisions are reliable.2,6,12
Avoiding decisions often seems easier. Yet, making your
own decisions and accepting the consequence is the only
way to stay in control of your time, your success, and
your life. According to findings of current study
extroverts prefer to postpone whenever possible and even
put off making important decisions in order to avoid the
botheration of thinking. In the '60s, psychologist Hans
Eysenck9 proposed that the difference between introverts
and extroverts was that they simply had different levels
of arousal meaning the extent to which our minds and
bodies are alert and responsive to stimulation. Hans’s
theory was that extroverts have a lower basic rate of
arousal. This means that extroverts need to work harder
to arouse their minds and bodies to the same ‘normal’
state that introverts might reach quite easily.9-11,13-18
CONCLUSION
The introverts are better at decision making as compared
to extroverts. The introverts rely on their intuition, inner
feelings and reactions. Majority of them basically
counting on themselves, do not go for impulsive
decisions while on the other hand extroverts usually go
for snap decisions, quick decisions and decide what feels
natural at the moment. They prefer to postpone as
thinking makes extroverts uneasy. Even though
extroverts have a good quality of double-checking their
information before making decisions but they need
someone to steer them in the right direction when they
face important decisions. The findings of the present
study cannot be generalized due to the limited sample and
volunteer bias. Future research is needed for the
confirmation of this dimension of personality type and
also to find out whether the decisions made by the
introverts are good or bad which was beyond the scope of
this study. Limitation of study is, participation in the
study was voluntary so the data gathered for this study
may not be generalized.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Author acknowledges the immense help received from
the scholars whose articles are cited and included in
references of this manuscript. The author is also grateful
to authors / editors / publishers of all those articles,
journals and books from where the literature for this
article has been reviewed and discussed.
Khalil R et al. Int J Res Med Sci. 2016 May;4(5):1534-1538
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences | May 2016 | Vol 4 | Issue 5 Page 1538
Funding: No funding sources
Conflict of interest: None declared
Ethical approval: The study was approved by the
Institutional Ethics Committee
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Cite this article as: Khalil R. Influence of
extroversion and introversion on decision making
ability. Int J Res Med Sci 2016;4:1534-8.
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... However, when it comes to the role of personality types in the role of decision-making styles, research is very limited (Nygren & White, 2002;Hough & Ogilvie, 2005;Pečjak & Košir, 2007). When comparing research in decision making, the personality trait that influence decision making is usually missing (Khalil, 2016). Decision-making is an important aspect when it comes to sport performance. ...
... Introverts and Extraverts are also known to make different decisions and different times. A study found that decisions made by introverts were generally reliable as they go for quality by analyzing every aspect in detail (Khalil, 2016). Extraverts are known to be good leaders due to their interaction and communication skills, however, introverts were proven to be better at decision making (Khalil, 2016). ...
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... It's easy enough for me to say yes or no when making a choice 10 I really like competition / competition 11 I like to maintain arguments / opinions until the last drop of blood 12 I often harbor whatever I feel 13 I prefer to maintain my style rather than following the trend that is popular 14 I feel comfortable even with a new friend 15 ...
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p> This research is motivated by differences in personality types that caused by differences in thinking abilities which also have an impact on student learning outcomes. The purposes of this study was to identify and analyze the personality types of students and their implications for learning history at SMAS Pusaka 1 Jakarta. The personality types that used in this study are extrovert and introvert personality types according to Carl Gustaf Jung (Arip et al., 2017) . The subjects in this study were students of class XI IPS at SMAS Pusaka 1 Jakarta for the 2020/2021 school year. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative using a questionnaire to collect data on student personality types and then analyzed descriptively. The results showed that extrovert students were more able to build work communication in groups so that they could find more information related to the problems given. However, the information managed by extrovert students is still superficial and less logical. Meanwhile, introverted students are able to use information in answering the problems given by in-depth analysis. The implication of this research is teachers must be able to better understand the personality types of students, both extrovert and introvert to generate more effective learning. </p
Conference Paper
Personality is one of the factors that influence the ability to solve. There are differences in problem solving abilities between students with extroverted personality and students with introverted personality. This research aims to describe mathematical problem-solving abilities using modification IDEAL model based on personality type. This research used descriptive qualitative method. The subjects of the study consisted of eight students of junior high school in Klaten. The subjects selected by purposive sampling. The instrument used to explore the ability of mathematical problem solving is a description test, followed by an interview. Based on the results of this research, it can be concluded that student’s mathematical problem solving with extroverts personality is is 53% greater than students with introvert personality only 47%. Another interesting finding from this research, extrovertes students are better at planning and choosing the right solution strategy, implementing the chosen solution strategy, and intepreting the results of solutions in the form of conclusions from students with introverted personality. Meanwhile, the advantages of introverted students are in identification of problems and writing down the objectives of the problem given.
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