Conference Paper

Hexagonal microstrip antenna simulation for breast cancer detection

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Abstract

As an emerging technology, UltraWide Band (UWB) wireless communications provides a very different approach to the antenna technology compared to narrow band systems, which has been a very attractive choice for medical antenna development. In this paper presents the design and simulation of a hexagonal microstrip antenna along with a breast phantom simulation. The antenna is simulated by introducing a hexagon slot in the center of the patch an impedance bandwidth nearly 5 GHz is achieved. The presented antenna has been designed and simulated successfully. The simulation analysis of designed antenna is carried out using HFSS software. The obtained results with this antenna make it a suitable antenna for UWB systems and portable applications.

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... Various types of antennas that can be used to detect breast abnormalities for imaging systems have been described in the literature. [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31] In ref [16], a new design of circular patch antenna is suggested which is compared to the microstrip patch antenna. The radiation pattern and the gain values obtained was however not adequate to provide MI with good quality of signal range. ...
... In [22], the SAR technique is used to detect tumor existence. In [23], the antenna demonstrated persuasive tissue penetration across a phantom breast model, but the antenna size and bandwidth were not sufficient. A new folded frequency selective surface (FSS) based UWB antenna is also proposed in ref [32] for MRI applications. ...
Article
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This article presents a novel CPW fed ultrawideband (UWB) antenna for detection of unwanted tumor cells in the human breast. Here, a compact and miniaturized UWB antenna employed with dodecagonal edges is proposed for broadening the bandwidth from 2.26 to 13.71 GHz (measured fractional bandwidth of about 143.39%). The antenna is designed on a durable RT 5880 substrate having 0.254 mm thickness, efficiency of 85% and gain of 3.84 dBi. For its flexibility characterization, the prototype of the fabricated antenna is analyzed in both the flat and bending configurations. The simulated testing is carried out by permitting the antenna to emit radiation in conjunction to the human breast phantom to obtain desired antenna characteristics for the microwave imaging (MI) applications. The changes in reflection coefficient with the variation of dielectric content of the breast phantom structure are analyzed. The suggested antenna for MI technique is apt for human exposure because the antenna bids the highest SAR value of 0.932 W/Kg at 10.6 GHz. Moreover, the proposed antenna is flexible, compact and low‐profile with low SAR values that can be useful for breast cancer detection.
... Earlier, various approaches such as X-ray Mammography, Computed Tomography (CT scan), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ultrasound, Radiography, and many other techniques could be used for detecting brain tumors or brain cancer cells [4]. But all these approaches have some drawbacks, such as their high ionizing radiations, and sometimes, they are unable to make the difference between the tumors that are benign and malignant [5]. ...
... Following that, the Width of the Ground Plane's corresponding values, Wg=2*W, and the Ground Plane's Length, Lg=2*L, have been calculated [5]. An inset feed transmission feedline which is 50-ohm were also connected to the proposed antenna model. ...
Conference Paper
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Brain Cancer and Tumors are common death factors over the world. Determining the location of a brain tumor at an early stage is difficult due to its minimal size and some disadvantages of the mechanisms used for the diagnosis of the brain tumor. In this paper, a Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna has been designed for Microwave Imaging (MI) with a frequency range of 1.5 GHz to 3 GHz at a resonant frequency of 2.3 GHz (5G-Band) in the CST Studio Suite Software to identify brain tumors. FR-4 Substrate material has been used to design the Antenna. The Antenna dimension that has been designed in this paper is 60.46*78.73*1.7 mm3 and the radiating patch of the Antenna was fed by a feedline, which is rectangular in size. The human brain phantom has been created in the CST software with six different homogenous layers of skin, fat, skull, dura, CSF (Cerebrospinal Fluid), and the Brain. Besides, a 5mm tumor was also placed inside that human brain. The Antenna was applied in the brain phantom both with and without the tumor to analyze the Antenna's performance. A Reflection Factor (S1,1) of -30.76 dB and -30.88 dB were also achieved respectively after applying the Antenna in the brain phantom with and without the tumor. Other obtained performance parameter values were also provided in this paper, such as Directivity (2D & 3D), Radiation Efficiency, Polar Radiation, Specific Absorption Radiation (SAR), etc. the Antenna will be a safer choice for the detection of brain tumor. 5G frequency band has been used here because the free space antenna can be used in communication (5G mobile communication, WLAN, Wi-Fi), and as well as for body applications.
... According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) cancer patients around the world are expected to increase by 18.1 million new cases, and 9.6 million die from cancer in 2018 [2]. Therefore, to reduce the risk of death from breast cancer, diagnose the appearance of malignant tumors in the breast is necessary and treat this serious disease in the early phase [3]. ...
... Earlier identify the presence of tumors in the breast using microwave breast imaging (MBI) technology is a good solution, this technique has strong growth on many topics especially biomedical diagnostics, because it does not have ionizing (Non-Ionizing) [4]. MBI is a simple approach that has a higher wavelength (compared to X-ray mammography) to get information on the location of the tumor in the object detected, as well as a better level of accuracy [3,7]. UWB technology was initiated by The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 2002. ...
... A hexagonal microstrip patch antenna has been designed and simulated using breast cancer detection. Here, the antenna is mimicked by embedding a hexagon slot in the patch's centre, resulting in an impedance bandwidth of approximately 5 GHz [10]. A hexagonal and octagonal microstrip patch antenna has been implemented for UWB applications. ...
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Microstrip patch antennas is one of the most used antennas for wireless communication. Its key features include a limited bandwidth, low cost, and ease of manufacture. This paper describes about the design of microstrip patch antenna over the frequency range of 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz for UWB applications. The substrate material chosen is FR4, having a loss tangent of 0.02, dielectric constant of 4.4, and substrate thickness of 1.59 mm. This work presents design of microstrip antenna with hexagonal shaped radiating patch. An antenna is modelled and analysed using HFSS 2021 R2 software. The antenna structure provides return loss which is less than -10 dB and a VSWR less than 2 over the specified frequency range. The simulated results of proposed hexagonal shaped microstrip patch antenna provides a peak gain of 5.32 dB with radiation efficiency of 90.88%. The planned antennas can be used for UWB applications.
... Thus, its usage is creating a significant impact among the developing and underdeveloped nations [4]. Moreover, the previous imaging techniques have higher ionizing radiation, damaging the human body, whereas the MI has a very low ionizing radiation power [5]. Considering the recent research works, it has been observed that numerous experiments have been carried out by the researchers where they have focused on the usage of Microstrip Patch Antenna, especially for Biomedical Applications due to its low cost, lightweight, and higher accuracy rates. ...
Conference Paper
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Considering numerous benefits of Microwave Imaging (MI) regarding the Biomedical sector, in this paper, the simulation of a Microstrip Patch Antenna has been done in the CST Studio Suite 2019 Software, which is capable of Microwave Imaging (MI) for detecting Cancer/Tumor of Skeletal Muscle. The Antenna operates at 2.45 GHz (ISM-Band), consisting of a maximum frequency of 1.6 GHz and a minimum frequency of 3.2 GHz, respectively. In this paper, a three-layer Human Body Phantom has been created consisting of Skin, Fat, and Muscle, and then a small size (5 mm) tumor has been placed on the muscle portion of the Phantom. The Antenna was applied at three distances of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm from the Phantom to deduce the Antenna's performance. The SAR values of 0.000287 W/kg, 0.000229 W/kg, and 0.0000346 W/kg were obtained after applying the Antenna to the Cancer-affected body phantom at the Antenna to the Body Phantom distances of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm, respectively with a resonant frequency of 2.45 GHz which fulfills the minimum SAR requirement of 1.6 W/kg governed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The other obtained output parameters are Return Loss (S1,1), VSWR, Polar Radiation, Directivity (3D), etc. This demonstrates that the simulated Antenna is a better option for diagnosing the Early-Stage Cancers/Tumors in Skeletal muscles.
... But these methods are not efficient for the early diagnosis of lung cancer [3]. There are some other limitations of these approaches, such as their high ionizing radiation level, and they are often unable to differentiate between the tumors that are benign and malignant [4]. Microwave Imaging (MI) using a Microstrip patch antenna is one of the most recently popular invented methods for detecting lung tumors and cancers due to its low cost, non-ionizing radiation, and quicker operational process compared to previous methods, along with its ability to detect lung tumors at an early stage. ...
Chapter
Lung cancer and tumors have been a common cause of death in recent times. Early identification of that kind of cancer is challenging due to its small size. Among current techniques, microwave imaging (MI) has been one of the efficient methods for diagnosing lung cancer. In this research work, a microstrip patch antenna has been designed and simulated in the CST Studio Suite Software for MI to diagnose lung cancer using the FR-4 (Lossy) substrate material and a resonant frequency of 2.3 GHz (5G-Band) that ranges from 1.5 to 3 GHz with a 60.46 * 78.73 * 1.7 mm3 in dimensions. A lung phantom has also been created involving lung tissues, pleura, muscles, fats, and skin. After that, a tumor of 5 mm size was placed on that lung phantom both with and without the tumor for measuring the antenna's output performance. After implanting the antenna in the lung phantom with and without tumor, a return loss (S1,1) of −47.30 dB and −48.93 dB were, respectively, obtained. This research also introduces other obtained performance parameters such as radiation efficiency, polar radiation, directivity (3D), gain, SAR, and others, illustrating that the antenna model is a safer choice for detecting lung cancer on time
... Some other disadvantages of these methods include lengthy working processes, harmful to human health due to ionizing radiation and its high cost. These concerns lead researchers to establish a different approach for the diagnosis of breast cancer [3]. ...
Chapter
A common cause of death of women is Breast Cancer and Tumors, and it is difficult to detect both of these at the early stage due to their minimal structure. Microwave Imaging is one of the effective techniques among the current and past methods. In this paper, a compact size microstrip patch antenna has been designed in CST Studio Suite Software for microwave imaging to diagnose breast cancer using the FR-4 (Lossy) substrate material with a resonant frequency of 2.3 GHz (S-band), varying from 1.5 GHz to 3 GHz. A feedline fed the antenna’s radiating patch, which is rectangular in size. The breast model with tumors was designed in the CST consisting of skin, fat, glandular, and cancer affected tissues. A Return Loss (S1,1) value of −37.28 dB and −45.72 dB were obtained in free space and after applying the antenna in the cancer affected breast phantom, respectively. Other obtained output parameter values such as Directivity (2D and 3D), Radiation Efficiency, Polar Radiation, etc., are also presented in this paper, showing that the antenna model would be a better option for breast cancer diagnosis.
... The antenna showed good signal penetration for breast tumor detection, however, the proposed dimension of antenna was large. A hexagonal monopole antenna with impedance bandwidth of 5 GHz was proposed in [21]. Although, the antenna showed convincing tissue penetration over a phantom model of breast, the bandwidth and size of antenna was not optimum. ...
Article
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In the last decade, a new dawn for research on microwave imaging (MI) has been observed in the medical domain specially in the breast cancer diagnosis, since it offers many advantages over current imaging systems like computed tomography (CT), X-ray radiography etc. Microwave imaging system (MIS) provides a suitable platform for in-depth inspection of breast tissues. It helps in identification and localisation of morphological changes in these tissues. The emerging Ultrawideband (UWB) MI gives better results due to its non-ionizing signals which operate over the frequency ranging from hundreds of Megahertz (MHz) to tens of Gigahertz (GHz). In these systems, antennas play a significant role in establishing a sensor network. Hence, its optimization is very crucial because the device is placed at close proximity to the human body. In this paper, a miniaturised monopole patch antenna which operates at UWB frequency range with a microstrip feed line is proposed. The design is composed of a small rectangular patch with dimensions 0.17λ×0.25λ×0.02λ (where λ is wavelength calculated at lower operating frequency 4.8 GHz). It has four corner cuts and a centrally located square slot with a truncated ground-plane for achieving UWB properties. The proposed antenna has the measured fractional bandwidth of 141%(3.22-11.92GHz) with linearly increasing gain ranging from (1.4 to 6.43 dBi). The detailed time domain analysis is done to prove the efficacy of antenna for signal propagation. The advantage of proposed antenna is that it has low profile, compact size, easy to design which can be employed in MI breast cancer detection.
... Microwave imaging uses microstrip antennas so that it has the advantage of convenience, potentially low cost, and is a non-ionized and safe alternative (Alsharif, & Kurnaz, 2018). The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States has permitted the commercial distribution of UWB devices and governs UWB devices working on 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz bandwidth for medical purposes (Rahayu & Pohan, 2018;Dewiani et al., 2015;Rasjidi, 2009;Mudrik, 2011;Rahayu, Ngah, & Rahman, 2010;Kahwaji et al., 2016;Mansoor, Tan, & Latif, 2017). These researchers have discussed various UWB antenna structures. ...
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Full-text available
Breast cancer is the transformation of normal cells in the breast area into a malignant tumor, which is the second largest disease as a cause of death for women. Early detection is one way to avoid significant risks in breast cancer. X-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques are used to detect breast cancer. However, those techniques have several limitations. Ultra-wideband (UWB) microwave imaging, approved by The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States, has promising capabilities in detecting breast cancer. Microwave imaging uses a microstrip antenna that has the advantage of convenience, potentially low cost, and is a non-ionized and safe alternative. In this paper, the ultra-wideband microstrip antenna for breast cancer detection is proposed. The antenna was designed by adding some rectangular slots on a rectangular patch to meet the UWB specifications. The antenna works well at 8.41 GHz to 10.29 GHz with directivity of 6.451 dBi and SAR value of 1.6 W / kg. The antenna was simulated with breast phantom. The tumor sizes of 6 mm and 10 mm are added to evaluate the E/H fields and current density with and without tumor. The highest E-Field value of 928.8 V / m was obtained at 10 GHz with a 10 mm tumor size. The highest H-Field value of 4.06 V / m was achieved at 10 GHz with a 6 mm tumor size. From the simulation, the E/H-field and current density are higher if there is a tumor in the breast compared to the breast without the tumor.
... Some studies on antennas using hexagonal patch have shown improved performance than its equivalent square patch antennas [11]. Extensive research is being done on compact, single layered hexagonal patch antennas, which includes [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Resonators, slots and fractal grounds are a few of the methods used to introduce multiple narrow frequency bands in hexagonal patch antennas [20][21]. ...
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Microstrip antennas are finding growing application in medical fields mostly for imaging, diagnosis, and treatment purposes. Antenna is a key component for detection of abnormality in biological signals and can be designed to be utilized on skin as well as implanted inside body. To form a bio communication system between medical devices and exterior instruments, low power compact antennas can be designed. A specific application of microstrip antenna in microwave breast imaging is considered in this paper. Conventional methods for breast cancer detection like X Ray mammography, ultrasound and MRI has some limitation. Microwave Breast Imaging (MBI) is a promising solution to obtain precise information about breast tissues and promises accurate and safer modality for regular breast scanning. Methods to reduce effects of backscattering by placing antenna in contact with breast skin is utilized where skin can be considered as a layer of antenna substrate. This technique helps to reduces signal scattering which helps to increase tumor detection sensitivity.
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The book provides a comprehensive coverage of the fundamental topics in microwave engineering, antennas and wave propagation, and electromagnetic compatibility, including electromagnetic boundary value problems, waveguide theory, microwave resonators, antennas and wave propagation, microwave circuits, principles of electromagnetic compatibility designs, information theory and systems. Deals systematically with fundamental problems in radio frequency engineering, this important volume provides an updated treatment of radio frequency theory and techniques. The book can be used as a one-semester course for senior and first-year graduate students or as a reference for radio frequency engineers and applied physicists. © 2015 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Novel Multistatic Adaptive Microwave Imaging Methods for Early Breast Cancer Detection
  • Yao Xie
Ultra-wideband antenna design for microwave imaging applications. Design, optimisation and development of ultrawideband antennas for microwave near-field sensing tools, and study the matching and radiation purity of these antennas within near field environment
  • Adnan Shahid
  • Abd-Alhameed
  • Raeda
  • Neil J Mcewan
Adnan.Shahid, Abd-Alhameed.RaedA. and McEwan, Neil J., "Ultra-wideband antenna design for microwave imaging applications. Design, optimisation and development of ultrawideband antennas for microwave near-field sensing tools, and study the matching and radiation purity of these antennas within near field environment.", University of Bradford, 2013.