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Micro-break activities at work to recover from daily work demands

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Abstract

Recovery literature has focused predominantly on recovery processes outside the workplace during nonwork times. Considering a lack of research on momentary recovery at work, we examined four categories of micro-break activities—relaxation, nutrition-intake, social, and cognitive activities—as possible recovery mechanisms in the workplace. Using effort recovery and conservation of resources theories, we hypothesized that micro-break activities attenuate the common stressor–strain relationship between work demands and negative affect. For 10 consecutive workdays, 86 South Korean office workers (842 data points) reported their specific daily work demands right after their lunch hour (Time 1) and then reported their engagement in micro-break activities during the afternoon and negative affective state at the end of the workday (Time 2). As expected, relaxation and social activities reduced the effects of work demands on end-of-workday negative affect. Nutrition intake of beverages and snacks did not have a significant moderating effect. Post hoc analyses, however, revealed that only caffeinated beverages reduced work demands effects on negative affect. Unexpectedly, cognitive activities aggravated the effects of work demands on negative affect. The findings indicate not only the importance of taking micro-breaks but also which types of break activities are beneficial for recovery. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... We apply the effort-recovery model in conjunction with COR theory to describe two broad categories of breaks that might be used for resource replenishment -nonwork goals and self-care. Research on breaks touts the importance of autonomy in deciding when and how to detach from work to maximize resource replenishment, and these two categories represent the full spectrum of ways that a remote worker can choose what to do during nonwork time (Bosch & Sonnentag, 2019;Gilbert et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2017Kim et al., , 2018. ...
... First, achieving nonwork goals during one's breaks can include pursuing any goal not related to work, such as household chores, making plans with friends, or caring for children (Kim et al., 2018(Kim et al., , 2019. Research suggests that pausing one's work activities to accomplish a goal in another domain can build a positive effect on subsequent resource replenishment, even if it means continuing to expend resources in that domain (Fredrickson, 2001;Gilbert et al., 2017;Hunter & Wu, 2016;Hunter et al., 2019;Kim et al., 2017;Trougakos & Hideg, 2009). For example, some employees may perceive remote work more favorably when it allows them to accomplish both work and nonwork goals as required throughout the day, saving time and money that would otherwise be devoted to commuting and outsourcing household responsibilities (Hilbrecht et al., 2008;Troup & Rose, 2012). ...
... Together, pursuing nonwork goals and self-care represents the broadest spectrum of potential activities that could be undertaken during breaktime throughout the workday, with most (if not all) other possibilities of break activities falling under one of these two categories (Gilbert et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2017Kim et al., , 2018. Thus, we are most interested in the joint effects of both types of breaks (three-way interaction with interruptions), rather than analyzing their independent effects or analyzing the specific frequency of each type. ...
Article
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We use the conservation of resources (COR) theory to propose a work-family model of stress in remote work. We propose that interruptions from family are a unique hindrance stressor, detrimental for the employee’s challenge and hindrance stress responses in remote work, which, in turn, have distinct effects on resource-oriented attitudes and states of both the employee and spouse. Namely, we expect that both partners’ satisfaction with the work arrangement, employee engagement, and spouse family overload will be associated with the way the employee experiences stress in remote work (stress response). We also integrate the effort-recovery model to examine whether two types of breaks taken by employees while working remotely replenish resources lost through interruptions. Using a sample of 391 couples, we find support for all hypotheses that pertain to the employee. Findings involving the spouse support the primacy of the resource loss tenet in COR theory, in that these detrimental effects are significant in crossing over to the spouse via hindrance but are not significant via challenge stress. We discuss the implications of these findings, emphasizing that interruptions are harmful for both types of stress experienced by remote employees (i.e., lower “good” and higher “bad” stress responses), and interruptions appear to have far-reaching effects on both partners. However, choosing to use breaks for both nonwork goals and self-care can buffer these otherwise detrimental effects.
... Office workers span many professions, but examples include software developers, secretaries, and accountants. Taking regular brief breaks from mentally demanding tasks is important not only in restoring psychological resources (e.g., energy and attention), but also in improving mood at the end of the workday (Bennett, Gabriel, & Calderwood, 2020;Kim, Park, & Niu, 2017). Repeatedly neglecting to take breaks to recover from work-induced short-term fatigue can lead to detrimental long-term effects such as psychological overload, chronic fatigue, burnout, and sleeping problems (Sluiter, Frings-Dresen, Meijman, & van der Beek, 2000). ...
... Microbreaks-defined as breaks of less than 10 min (Sluiter et al., 2000)-and their effectiveness on the recovery from mental workloads have been studied extensively within the occupational workplace setting, where time constraints often dictate break duration. The degree to which psychological resources recover from work demands during such a break depends not only on the duration of the break, but also on the type of break activity, such as relaxation, nutrition intake, social, cognitive, and work-related break activities (Bennett et al., 2020;Kim et al., 2017;Sluiter et al., 2000). ...
... Whereas spending time during a break on nonwork activities (i.e., activities that require less behavioral regulation, such as socializing) was found to be associated with the experiences of positive emotions (Trougakos, Beal, Green, & Weiss, 2008), spending this time on relaxing activities (i.e., activities that can relax body and mind, such as stretching, walking around the office, daydreaming, or following a guided mindfulness meditation video) not only restored fatigue and vigor (Bennett et al., 2020), but also reduced negative affect at the end of the workday (Kim et al., 2017). However, spending time on workrelated activities during a break was positively related to negative emotional experiences (Trougakos et al., 2008). ...
... In the reviewed articles, operationalizations of work breaks ranged from a dichotomous measure (e.g., Min et al., 2020) to the length of work breaks (e.g., Arakawa et al., 2011), the number of breaks (e.g., Geiger- Brown et al., 2004;Lipscomb et al., 2002), the frequency of work breaks (Berman & West, 2007), the recovery experiences during or immediately after work breaks (Bosch et al., 2018;Coffeng et al., 2015;Demerouti et al., 2012), and break activities (Kühnel et al., 2020;Trougakos et al., 2014;von Dreden & Binnewies, 2017), including microbreak strategies (e.g., Kim et al., 2017;Schulz et al., 2017;Zacher et al., 2014). Drawing on work break-related theories (Demerouti et al., 2001;Hobfoll, 1989;Kaplan, 1995;Meijman & Mulder, 1998;Muraven & Baumeister, 2000;Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996), we propose that employees take breaks while at work with a certain frequency, each break has a duration, and each break may involve experiences and/or activities that help replenish employees' resources. ...
... Yet, not all micro-break strategies are equally beneficial, and the type of micro-break strategy may serve as a third boundary condition for their effectiveness. For instance, relaxation, social, cognitive, and exercise micro-breaks positively relate to well-being (e.g., de Bloom et al., 2015;Kim et al., 2017;Kim et al., 2018;Schulz et al., 2017) as well as task and contextual performance (de Bloom et al., 2015). However, nutrition-intake breaks are not associated with well-being (e.g., Kim et al., 2018). ...
... However, nutrition-intake breaks are not associated with well-being (e.g., Kim et al., 2018). Further, while intake of caffeinated beverages weakens the relationship between work demands and negative affect, cognitive micro-break strategies have the opposite effect (Kim et al., 2017). In addition, the effectiveness of micro-breaks on well-being might differ depending on knowledge workers' level of compulsiveness such that employees with high (vs. ...
Article
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Recovery from work is a critical component for employees’ proper functioning. While research has documented the beneficial effects of after-work recovery, it has focused far less on the recovery that happens while at work in the form of work breaks. In this review, we systematically review available empirical evidence on the relationship between work breaks and well-being and performance among knowledge workers. Doing so enables us to (1) integrate studies from multiple disciplines, (2) propose a conceptual framework for categorizing work breaks, and (3) provide a future research agenda for studying the role of work breaks in employee well-being and performance. Using Cochrane’s guidelines, we review observational and intervention studies (N = 83). Based on the extant research, we propose that work breaks can be described and classified in terms of five features: initiator, duration, frequency, activities, and experiences. The result of our review is an integrative model that comprehensively captures the relationship between work breaks and well-being and performance outcomes, as well as the mechanisms and boundary conditions of these relationships. We conclude by proposing avenues for the future study and practice of work breaks.
... To mitigate resource costs and sustain resources throughout the day, employees need to take micro-breaks between series of task episodes; such breaks can include relaxing one's muscles, drinking a cup of coffee, or having a chat with colleagues. In this context, scholars have shown increasing interest in research on micro-break activities (Kim et al., 2017;Zhu et al., 2018;Chong et al., 2020;Bennett, 2020), which refer to "short respite activities that are undertaken voluntarily on a need basis between series of task episodes" (Kim et al., 2017;p.30). ...
... To mitigate resource costs and sustain resources throughout the day, employees need to take micro-breaks between series of task episodes; such breaks can include relaxing one's muscles, drinking a cup of coffee, or having a chat with colleagues. In this context, scholars have shown increasing interest in research on micro-break activities (Kim et al., 2017;Zhu et al., 2018;Chong et al., 2020;Bennett, 2020), which refer to "short respite activities that are undertaken voluntarily on a need basis between series of task episodes" (Kim et al., 2017;p.30). ...
... Prior research demonstrating the benefits of microbreak activities for employees' well-being is mainly based on the assumption that employees recover their physical and psychological resource mechanisms by engaging in micro-break activities (also known as the recovery nature of micro-break activities) (Chong et al., 2020;Hunter & Wu, 2015;Kim et al., 2017Kim et al., , 2018. However, prior researchers did not explicitly and directly measure employee recovery using the recovery scale; instead, they measured vigor, attention, and reduced fatigue, which were framed as indicators of recovery function. ...
Article
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Micro-break activities, as a series of energy management strategies for sustaining personal resources, have been widely considered facilitators of health and well-being due to their role in resource recovery. Surprisingly, the role of recovery level in the well-being implications of micro-break activities remains largely untested. Based on the effort-recovery model, we explicitly tested the idea that recovery level mediates between micro-break activities and workplace well-being, moderated by supervisor support for recovery. To examine our predictions, we conducted a multilevel diary field study and accordingly collected daily surveys from 115 full-time employees for five consecutive workdays (total N = 562). The multilevel path analysis results revealed that micro-break activities were associated with increased recovery levels, which were, in turn, related to higher levels of workplace well-being. Supervisor support for recovery strengthened the effect of micro-break activities on recovery level as well as the indirect effect of micro-break activities on workplace well-being via recovery level. Our findings advance prior research by explicitly testing the mediating role of recovery level between micro-breaks and workplace well-being and identifying supervisor support for recovery as a critical condition of this relationship.
... Compared to off-the-job recovery activities (e.g., vacation), relatively few studies have paid attention to micro-breaks at work (Kim et al., 2017). Micro-breaks refer to short recovery activities on the job instead of recovery activities off the job (Kim et al., 2017;Trougakos and Hideg, 2009). ...
... Compared to off-the-job recovery activities (e.g., vacation), relatively few studies have paid attention to micro-breaks at work (Kim et al., 2017). Micro-breaks refer to short recovery activities on the job instead of recovery activities off the job (Kim et al., 2017;Trougakos and Hideg, 2009). Micro-break activities take various forms, including relaxing activities such as walking around and daydreaming, nutritionintake activities such as snacking, social activities such as chatting with coworkers, and cognitive activities such as watching videos and reading books (Kim et al., 2018). ...
... On the other hand, Scholz et al. (2018) examined the effects of three kinds of micro-break (i.e., boxing, deep relaxation, and usual breaks) in a stressful working environment and found no significant difference in mood change and cognitive performance between these micro-breaks and no break. Some researchers have found that micro-breaks for nutrition intake have no significant effects, unlike some socialization and relaxation activities (Kim et al., 2017;S. Kim et al., 2018). ...
Chapter
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As short-form video applications have become popular recently, watching short-form videos as micro-breaks is common during leisure time at work. Short-form comedies are the most popular category of short-form video. This study conducted a laboratory study to examine the effects of watching funny short-form videos during micro-breaks at work on participants’ subjective experience (i.e., self-reported mood and task engagement willingness), physiological stress (indexed by heart rate and heart rate variability), and task performance. For comparison, another two kinds of micro-break activity (i.e., listening to music and watching a documentary clip) were introduced. The results revealed that watching short-form videos significantly improved participants’ mood and task engagement willingness, relieved physiological stress, and maintained task performance. Among the three kinds of micro-break activity, watching short-form videos was found to be the most effective in relieving physiological stress. We also discussed the implications of the role of watching short-form videos in work-related wellbeing.
... As work breaks influence affective, cognitive, and physiological processes, work break research should consider multiple outcomes and ideally combine self-report data with performance or physiological measures (Scholz et al., 2019). Correspondingly, we assessed self-reported psychological and physiological data and combined it with objectively measured attention to address the need to include objective data (Kim et al., 2017;Sonnentag et al., 2017). ...
... Indeed, one study supported the assumption that breaks may function as a demand buffer. Taking a within-subject perspective, Kim et al. (2017) showed that relaxation and socialization microbreaks during the afternoon buffered the positive relationship between elevated quantitative job demands and negative affect at the end of the work day, while relaxation also included light forms of physical activity such as stretching or walking. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to investigate whether short, live-streaming activity and relaxation lunch breaks have positive associations with office workers’ mood (calmness, valence, and energetic arousal), back pain, and attention after break and whether these associations are mediated by better break recovery. Additionally, we considered the two respite interventions as resources possibly buffering the effects of elevated situational job demands. Ten-minute break exercises were conducted during lunch breaks via Zoom live-stream, and data on those days were compared with data on days on which participants spent their breaks as usual. Our sample of 34 office workers provided data for 277 work days (209 in the home office and 68 on site at the company). Multilevel path models revealed positive total associations of both respite interventions with the mood dimension of calmness. Activity breaks additionally showed a positive association with the energetic arousal dimension of mood, while relaxation breaks were positively related to objectively measured cognitive performance. Interestingly, activity breaks moderated the relationships of job demands with calmness and valence, indicating their function as a stress-buffering resource. There were no significant associations between the two respite interventions and back pain. Supplemented by participants’ feedback, the findings of this study suggest that offering short virtually guided break exercises may represent a feasible and office-compatible approach to promote break recovery, mood and functionality at work, especially regarding home-office work. Possible advantages and disadvantages of the live-streaming format are discussed.
... Thus, these factors may act as additional mediators between workload and the desire to detach from work. For one, there is strong evidence that handling large workloads is associated with negative affect (Bowling et al., 2015;Ilies et al., 2010;Kim et al., 2017). Likewise, high workloads have been linked with decreases in self-reported performance (Fritz & Sonnentag, 2006), meaning concerns that one is not performing up to standards may be another deleterious effect of workload. ...
... The findings vis-à-vis micro-break climate also highlight the importance of considering the combined effects of daily experiences and the work context on break-taking. For the most part, previous studies within the break literature have adopted a within-person approach whereby individuals' daily experiences and behaviors are assessed over multiple days (e.g., Bosch & Sonnentag, 2019;Hunter & Wu, 2016;Kim et al., 2017;Kühnel et al., 2017;Trougakos et al., 2014). However, these studies have paid relatively less attention to the effect that the work context may have on these within-person relationships. ...
Article
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Unlabelled: Although breaks can help employees stay energized and maintain high levels of performance throughout the day, employees sometimes refrain from taking a break despite wanting to do so. Unfortunately, few studies have investigated individuals' reasons for taking and for not taking a break at work. To address this gap, we developed a model for predicting employees' break-taking behaviors. We developed hypotheses by integrating theories of work stress, self-regulation, and the results of a qualitative survey conducted as part of the current research (Study 1). Specifically, we predicted that high workloads would be positively related to the desire to detach from work, but that at the same time, high workloads would also deter employees from actually taking breaks. Furthermore, we predicted that employees would be less likely to act upon their desire to take a break within an environment where breaks are frowned upon by supervisors and coworkers, relative to an environment where breaks are allowed and encouraged. The results of a daily diary study of full-time employees (Study 2) provided general support for these predictions. Altogether, this research provides insights into the manner in which employees' psychological experiences and characteristics of the work environment combine to predict break-taking. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10869-022-09866-4.
... Recent research has begun to explore the benefits of microbreaks at work -brief, autonomous (i.e., non-sanctioned) breaks taken by employees between tasks (Fritz et al., 2011;Kim et al., 2017). Microbreaks can facilitate psychological detachment and relaxation (Bennett et al., 2020), mitigate end-of-day negative affect (Kim et al., 2017), and promote daily performance via increased positive affect (Kim et al., 2018). ...
... Recent research has begun to explore the benefits of microbreaks at work -brief, autonomous (i.e., non-sanctioned) breaks taken by employees between tasks (Fritz et al., 2011;Kim et al., 2017). Microbreaks can facilitate psychological detachment and relaxation (Bennett et al., 2020), mitigate end-of-day negative affect (Kim et al., 2017), and promote daily performance via increased positive affect (Kim et al., 2018). Moreover, microbreaks may also mitigate the negative effects of "second shift" demands by giving employees an opportunity to recover during the workday so that they leave work more refreshed and ready to tackle their post-work obligations. ...
... Small talk and "instrumental discourse" (Schneider 1988: 1) -namely talk that is oriented to the task at hand -have been analyzed as two different types of discourse (Kuiper & Flindall 2000;Schneider 1988). These two types of discourse are both functional to the employees' well-being and to their job performance, but the passage from one to the other is a crucial moment where co-workers manage and negotiate their time at work, which is made of work, and nonwork-related activities (for example relaxation, eating, social interaction -see Kim et al. 2017Kim et al. , 2018. ...
... By looking again at Table 3, it is possible to see that most of those discourse markers indirectly and implicitly frame transitions between interactions and this is due to at least two reasons. First, alternating small talk and work talk is typical of most workplaces and it is a shared social norm among workers that a portion of the time they spend at work will consist of microbreaks (Fritz et al. 2011(Fritz et al. , 2013Kim et al. 2017Kim et al. , 2018) that include non-transactional talk with co-workers. When Tess, in Example 6, decides to switch to work talk, she does not need to explicitly and directly say so because both her co-worker and she share the same workplace culture and norms. ...
Article
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The focus of this article revolves around discourse markers (DMs) that are used when switching between work talk and small talk in workplace interactions. Research in this field has showed how discourse markers are used to manage several interpersonal dynamics in interaction. This study is aimed at identifying which DMs are used in the workplace to operate a shift of topic, how often DMs are used at the juncture of interaction, and what are their specific pragmatic and discursive function when they are used in these situations. This study is based on a workplace small-talk corpus of spoken American English. Results show that DMs are often used to mark the shift to a different topic or mode of discourse; in particular, shifts to work talk are marked more often than shifts to more small talk on different topics. Also, speakers may select different DMs based on the type of shift. The role and function of the highest-ranking discourse markers were observed, as well as pragmatic implications and impact in the daily interactions among co-workers.
... Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). An alternative explanation is natural scenes act as a short and spontaneous micro-break from their demanding work (Jett & George, 2003;Kim et al., 2016). The daily intervention was conducted at 8:00 p.m. when many of the participants were off-work except for those with extended hours or on night duty. ...
... Finally, while the restorative benefits of nature have been widely acknowledged, its active ingredients still need to be clarified. Mechanisms such as natural variations (White et al., 2010), experiential diversity (Tost et al., 2019), colors (i.e., green and blue; Mytton et al., 2012) or a micro-break (Jett & George, 2003;Kim et al., 2016) may account for the improvement on subjective well-being. Disentangling the restoration of different natural components would realize the maximized benefits of nature-based interventions. ...
Article
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Essential workers such as medical workers and police officers are first-line fighters during public-health crises, such as COVID-19 pandemic. Every time, they are under heavy stress both physically and mentally. The goal of the present study was to develop a novel nature-based intervention to promote their well-being. A representative sample of essential workers in China was recruited for a five-day intervention program, and were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group watched 2-min video clips of natural scenes every day, while the control group watched urban scenes. Results indicated that after five days, the natural stimuli intervention yielded overall improvements in various indices of subjective well-being. Furthermore, analyses of nested longitudinal data confirmed that everyday nature stimuli exposure provided both immediate and repeated restorative benefits. The proposed natural-based intervention is brief and easy-to-use, offering a cost-efficient psychological booster to promote subjective well-being of essential workers during this crisis time.
... In the last couple of years, within-day recovery in the form of work breaks has gained some research attention [e.g. [11][12][13]. Work breaks includes scheduled time away from work tasks such as lunch and coffee breaks, as well as more informal shorter breaks between task episodes, i.e., micro-breaks. One study showed that low levels of autonomy during lunch breaks had negative consequences for well-being [13]. ...
... Concerning micro-breaks during the workday, the existing literature presents numerous health benefits. Zacher, Brailsford and Parker [18] suggested that microbreaks are positively related to feeling energetic, while another study reported that engaging in microbreaks in the afternoon reduced negative effects of work demands at the end of the workday [12]. Also, employees' daily work engagement was shown to be improved by taking self-initiated short breaks in the afternoon [19]. ...
Article
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Background: There is a lack of research regarding factors promoting recovery during the workday and effective interventions. Objective: To evaluate how different intervention activities may impact employees' experiences of recovery at the workplace. Methods: Customized intervention activities based on qualitative results and a participatory approach were integrated among the employees at six primary health care centres (PHCCs; n = 166) during one year. Recovery and workplace factors were measured with a questionnaire at the start and end of intervention, and also in a control group (15 PHCCs; n = 328). Group differences were tested (Chi-2) and explanatory factors compared by logistic regression models. Results: The proportion of employees reporting workday recovery increased in the intervention group (19.9%to 29.1%; p = 0.01), whereas the control group showed no significant change. Recovery was explained by self-reflection and reflection with co-workers. After intervention, having influence on work situation, energy-building experience, and opportunity for laughter also contributed significantly to recovery. Conclusions: The results contribute to work recovery research by confirming that a customized intervention may have an impact on employees' recovery experiences. The study showed that considering the factors of reflection, influence, and companionship can positively impact workplace recovery.
... Reiterating recommendations from prior scholars (Sliter et al., 2010), we suggest that supervisors should monitor the well-being of their employees as they engage with customers throughout the day. Allowing for microbreaks (i.e., short, voluntary, informal respite activities engaged in between tasks, Kim et al., 2017) may help buffer the impact of customer incivility on negative affect (as such emotions can linger for days or longer, Leger et al., 2018), and reduce the likelihood of focal employees instigating incivility. On the other hand, service organizations may be best served by investing in tactics that help curtail customer incivility in the first place. ...
Article
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Incivility from customers is a common occurrence for employees working in service‐oriented organizations. Typically, such incivility engenders instigated mistreatment, both towards customers and colleagues. Not much is understood, however, about the mechanisms underlying the relations between customer incivility and instigated incivility. Answering recent calls from incivility scholars, the present research, drawing from Self‐Regulatory Resource Theory and Stressor‐Emotion models of workplace behavior, explored cognitive (i.e., self‐regulatory resource depletion) and affective (i.e., negative affect) pathways that would explain relations between customer incivility and instigated incivility towards others. Through two multi‐wave studies with different time lags ( N 1 = 180, weekly lags; N 2 = 192, within‐week lags) and different operationalizations of the instigated incivility construct (i.e., broad [unidimensional] and narrow [multidimensional]), we find consistent support for the mediating effects of the affective pathway. While our first study finds that customer incivility is linked to broad instigated incivility through negative affect, our second study finds that customer incivility is linked to, more specifically, gossip, exclusionary behavior, and hostility through negative affect. In both studies, however, no support was found for the mediating effects of the cognitive pathway. Implications for both research and practice are discussed, and future research directions are offered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... High work intensity entails a constant workflow with few gaps or breaks between tasks, implying a limited ability to rest, recharge, and recover (Green 2001). Employees may also not be able to disconnect from the day's stress and, thus, end up feeling drained at the end of the day (Kim, Park, & Niu 2017;Singh, Burke, & Boekhorst 2016). A persistent inability to recover may accumulate over time, so that employees can lack energy even at the beginning of the workday (Avgoustaki & Frankort 2019;Eurofound 2019). ...
Article
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Prior research has shown that the well-being of employees engaged in intensive work can vary with the discretion their jobs afford regarding how and when to carry out the work. This paper explores a different avenue. It argues that well-being also varies with employees’ individual motives for working intensively. The paper introduces self-determination theory to the domain of work intensity and focuses on two hypotheses. The first is whether intensive work driven by explicit or implicit incentives is more positively associated with an employee’s job satisfaction than intensive work driven by job demands. The second is whether intensive work driven by intrinsic motives is more positively associated with job satisfaction than that driven by explicit or implicit incentives. In both these cases, the paper also examines whether equivalent effects exist on (reduced) quit intentions. Original data from a major Greek grocery chain provide corroborative evidence that is robust to a rich set of covariates, including increasingly demanding adjustments for job discretion. The findings contribute to a more complete understanding of why differences in well-being exist among employees performing intensive work, with implications for workers and employers.
... Though individuals who experience relaxation remorse may not abandon relaxation efforts entirely, recovery time may be low in quality because of the underlying belief that productive activities are more important. These beliefs are problematic, given the health and well-being benefits of recovery experiences outside of work (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007) and even during the workday (Kim et al., 2015). Relaxation remorse would be expected to be negatively related to recovery experiences because relaxation remorse may result in fewer breaks or simply breaks that are less replenishing. ...
Article
Our study examined construct validity evidence for a measure of perceptions of Stress as a Badge of Honour, consisting of four dimensions: stress as achievement, relaxation remorse, stress-related social comparison, and stress-related impression management. A pilot study among college students (Study 1; N = 120) informed the initial development of the measure, which was further tested in two worker samples recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk). The results of Study 2 (N = 248) supported a four-factor structure of the measure. Study 3 utilised data collected at two time points (Matched N = 752), assessing stress badge perceptions, convergent and discriminant validity measures (Time 1), and measures of health, well-being, and performance (Time 2). The four subscales were related to, but unique from, convergent validity measures (e.g. workaholism, perfectionism) and were not highly related to discriminant validity measures (i.e. social desirability, positive and negative affect). The stress badge perceptions demonstrated some positive relationships with job performance, but predominantly negative relationships with psychological and physical health, and work-family conflict. Our findings expand our understanding of the dark side of viewing high stress in a laudatory manner by introducing a novel measure and can inform interventions to promote optimal views of stress.
... While break-taking may centre around consuming beverages and having a moment of rest away from one's workstation, it facilitates recovery (Hunter & Wu, 2016;Kim et al., 2017) and aids in establishing and maintaining social relationships in the workplace (see Siitonen & Siromaa, 2021), which can be beneficial for work as well (Barmeyer et al., 2019;Liberati et al., 2019). Indeed, in a Danish workplace setting, for instance, coffee break encounters were connected to the formation of 'coping communities' at work (Stroebaek, 2013; see also Korczynski, 2003). ...
Chapter
The chapter examines social breaks from work taken on a virtual platform. Virtual platforms offer a different framework for social interaction than in-person meetings: where they provide a possibility to interact over distances, they also require the use of varying resources to create and maintain a sense of co-presence and social intimacy. By drawing on recordings of video-mediated breaks among members of relatively long-standing work communities in Finland, the study explores ways in which participants zoom in and bring depth to the two-dimensional rendering of the virtual platform. The study highlights the complex multimodal and spatial dimensions of virtual breaks and the characteristics related to sensorial experiences and intermediality as these appear in interaction. The study contributes to a deeper understanding of informal interaction in work communities, with a special focus on the role of social curiosity in being mindful of others, displaying closeness and strengthening existing ties.
... Here we define microactivities as short duration low-intensity movements (e.g. similar to moving from class to class in an in-person environment) which encourage physical activity among students, similar to micro-break activities suggested by Kim et al. to recover from daily work demands [15]. The user study involved three tasks where the participants watched short lecture videos and performed micro-activities in between two videos. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents an exploratory study of designing augmented reality (AR) based interventions to encourage physical activity among students attending virtual classes. We conducted a focus group study with four HCI students to understand the current behaviour of students during breaks between classes. Based on these insights we designed two AR interventions: AR Exergame, an interactive game that requires the user to move their hands to grab virtual apples; AR micro-movements, a method that requires the user to switch to a different physical space when starting a new virtual class. These AR interventions were aimed at encouraging students to perform micro-activities in between virtual classes, i.e. small non-strenuous activities. The effectiveness of these methods to reduce video conferencing fatigue, a.k.a Zoom fatigue, and also to compare it with the students current methods was tested through a user study with six participants.
... Here we define micro-activities as short duration low-intensity movements (e.g. similar to moving from class to class in an in-person environment) which encourage physical activity among students, similar to micro-break activities suggested by Kim et al. to recover from daily work demands [16]. Our results showcase the possibility of using AR to reduce sedentary behavior among college students during virtual classes and we further discuss the design implications and considerations in future prototypes of the system. ...
Conference Paper
This paper presents an exploratory study of designing augmented reality (AR) based interventions to encourage physical activity among students attending virtual classes. As interventions, we designed two AR based interventions: AR Exergame, an interactive game that requires the user to move their hands to grab virtual apples; AR micro-movements, a method that requires the user to switch to a different physical space when starting a new virtual class. The effectiveness of these methods to reduce video conferencing fatigue, a.k.a Zoom fatigue, and also to compare it with the students current methods was tested through a user study with six participants.
... As a consequence, equally sounding theoretical concepts (e.g., ego depletion vs. burnout depletion) often differ in their exact meaning and likely address a rather different underlying mechanism, as compared to those addressed in experimental studies. Finally, field studies typically base their conclusions on self-report measures of mood or mental fatigue, obtained via questionnaire, or asking about the frequency of taking short breaks during the work day (Krajewski et al., 2010;Fritz et al., 2011;Zacher et al., 2014;Kim et al., 2017Kim et al., , 2018. In contrast, experimental studies are typically aimed at assessing performance differences (e.g., measuring the speed and accuracy of mental work) as evoked by the manipulation of critical experimental conditions. ...
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In this work, we evaluate the status of both theory and empirical evidence in the field of experimental rest-break research based on a framework that combines mental-chronometry and psychometric-measurement theory. To this end, we (1) provide a taxonomy of rest breaks according to which empirical studies can be classified (e.g., by differentiating between long, short, and micro-rest breaks based on context and temporal properties). Then, we (2) evaluate the theorising in both the basic and applied fields of research and explain how popular concepts (e.g., ego depletion model, opportunity cost theory, attention restoration theory, action readiness, etc.) relate to each other in contemporary theoretical debates. Here, we highlight differences between all these models in the light of two symbolic categories, termed the resource-based and satiation-based model, including aspects related to the dynamics and the control (strategic or non-strategic) mechanisms at work. Based on a critical assessment of existing methodological and theoretical approaches, we finally (3) provide a set of guidelines for both theory building and future empirical approaches to the experimental study of rest breaks. We conclude that a psychometrically advanced and theoretically focused research of rest and recovery has the potential to finally provide a sound scientific basis to eventually mitigate the adverse effects of ever increasing task demands on performance and well-being in a multitasking world at work and leisure.
... The role of other activities-relaxing, cell phone use, food intake-in relation to officers' recovery is another important topic for future research. This is especially important given that previous research reported mixed findings; relaxing activities during microbreaks typically boosted employees' energy levels, whereas intake of food and drink had no significant impact (Kim et al., 2017;Zacher et al., 2014). Second, many officers described how a strong work ethic sustained them despite demands and challenges they experienced on-the-job. ...
Article
This qualitative study examined on-the-job breaks taken by shift-duty police officers. We explored the nature of on-the-job breaks among officers, their perception of these breaks as helping them to recover and replenish resources, and what factors shaped their on-the-job breaks. Data were collected from 21 shift-duty police officers via semi-structured interviews. Findings show that on-the-job breaks were categorized into official and unofficial breaks, each of which had fairly distinctive characteristics. The timing, activities engaged in during breaks, and subjective experiences during breaks were thought to determine the effectiveness of on-the-job breaks. Officers reported that the adverse impacts of skipping a break tended to exceed the benefits of taking a break. On-the-job breaks were shaped by various work and non-work factors. As the first study delving into on-the-job breaks among shift-duty police officers, this study expands our understanding of specific strategies employed by police officers to deal with ongoing work demands.
... Finally, future research could identify ways to neutralize the communication difficulty costs of email or to re-energize individuals after using email. For example, research on recovery following work strain suggests that micro-breaks (e.g., informal social interactions, stretching, coffee breaks) could potentially help tCMC communicators working on convergence processing recoup drops in motivational resources (e.g., Kim, Park, & Niu 2017). Similarly, restorative environments such as a walk in natural settings or even just providing views of natural settings such as parks and gardens could contribute to motivation maintenance (Kaplan, 1995). ...
Article
The popularity of remote work and a norm of constant connectivity have made text-based computer-mediated communication (tCMC) such as email inevitable for many organizational tasks. This could be worsening communicators’ performance on their later work. Specifically, drawing on media synchronicity theory (Dennis & Valacich, 1999), we propose that using tCMC for convergence processes—resolving ambiguity and conflicting interpretations to form shared understandings—is more difficult than using face-to-face communication. We use conservation of resources (COR) theory to argue this greater communication difficulty could dampen motivation maintenance for subsequent tasks, which, in turn, is likely to hamper knowledge work tasks that require complex reasoning. Supporting this line of reasoning, four experimental studies show causal effects of using tCMC (relative to in-person interaction) for tasks dependent on convergence processes on motivation maintenance and later complex reasoning tasks. A fifth study using an experience sampling design shows day-to-day changes in tCMC use influence depletion and downstream motivation maintenance for individuals whose jobs require complex problem solving. Together, these five studies indicate using text-based communication media has lasting effects on communicators beyond the communication task itself. These studies raise new questions about the pervasive use of email and other forms of text-based communication in organizations for individuals’ motivation and effectiveness.
... Work breaks can offer a respite and a feeling of unwinding from work demands, leading to recovery and reloaded individual resources [121]. The replenishing activities can be work-related, such as altering between tasks, making a to-do list, or thinking positive thoughts about work [122][123][124], or they can be work-disengaging, such as going out for a walk [125], browsing the internet [126], or performing a relaxation activity such as stretching, listening to music, or looking out of the window [127]. ...
... Regarding ergonomics and organization-based diary studies, work breaks have been associated with recovery outcomes and various beneficial effects (Bennett et al., 2018;Blasche et al., 2018;Bosch et al., 2018;Coffeng et al., 2015;de Bloom et al., 2015;Kim et al., 2017;Mijovi c et al., 2015;Norouzi, 2019;Trougakos et al., 2008;Trougakos & Hideg, 2009;Wendsche et al., 2016;Wood et al., 2013;Zacher et al., 2014). For example, work breaks have been shown to reduce the risk of accidents in industry (Mijovi c et al., 2015;Tucker et al., 2003), to improve productivity, job satisfaction (Dababneh et al., 2001), vigor (Hunter & Wu, 2016;Zacher et al., 2014), as well as employees' engagement (Kühnel et al., 2017). ...
Article
Maintaining productivity is of primary importance in organizational settings. Nowadays, the pressure for work efficacy is required until advanced age given the increased longevity in western societies. Worryingly, performing a work for a long‐lasting duration may induce cognitive fatigue, which can alter job performance or cause work accidents. Regarding laboratory studies, cognitive fatigue, as induced in Time‐on‐Task designs, has been shown to increase reaction times (RTs). According to the Effort‐Recovery Model (ERM), work breaks are able to relieve cognitive fatigue and to maintain performance. However, few studies have investigated age‐related effects in such a context. In this study, young, middle‐aged, and older people performed a 160‐minute Stroop task in a “NoBreak” or a “Breaks” condition. To assess changes in RTs with Time‐on‐Task, the task duration was divided into four 40‐minute blocks in which the ex‐Gaussian τ parameter (i.e., an index of longer RTs) was extracted from individual RT data. Our main results showed that young and middle‐aged people increased their τ with Time‐on‐Task while older people did not. Importantly, participants in the NoBreak condition increased their τ with Time‐on‐Task while those in the Breaks condition kept this parameter constant, suggesting a beneficial effect of breaks independently of age.
... Short recovery opportunities during the workday (i.e., micro breaks, lunch breaks) can help employees recoup their energy, as indicated by their positive effects on employee well-being, work engagement, and job performance (e.g., Bennett et al., 2020;Bosch et al., 2017;Hunter & Wu, 2016;Kim et al., 2018;Trougakos et al., 2008;Wendsche & Lohmann-Haislah, 2017). focuses on poorly defined break activities such as low effort/relaxation, nutrition-intake, social, cognitive (Kim et al., 2017), and energy management strategies (e.g., Fritz et al., 2011). These are usually measured by collapsing multiple, loosely related break activities into broad categories (e.g., Parker et al., 2017;Ragsdale & Beehr, 2016;Zacher et al., 2014). ...
Article
Actual resource replenishment, a defining part of the stress‐recovery process, has hardly been studied. We address this gap in the literature within the context of work breaks to determine which resources are replenished relative to a pre‐stressor baseline. Guided by conservation of resources theory and the effort‐recovery model, we explored how two different break activities promoted recovery by looking at their effects on recovery experiences (relaxation, psychological detachment), psychological resources (self‐regulatory capacity, energy), and an indicator of insufficient recovery (fatigue). In a sample of 160 college students, we experimentally induced a state of resource depletion via mentally demanding tasks and randomly assigned people to a physical (stationary bike) or relaxation (progressive muscle relaxation) recovery break activity. The relaxation activity resulted in higher psychological detachment and relaxation experiences, the physical activity resulted in higher energy levels, and there were no differences between the break activities for self‐regulatory capacity or fatigue. Overall, post‐break resource levels improved following recovery break activities. Energy levels returned to baseline (replenishment); self‐regulatory capacity and fatigue improved beyond baseline (accumulation). These resource replenishment and accumulation findings further the development of recovery theory and help employees select a work break activity that better meets their resource‐related needs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... This group might benefit more from other avenues of attaining recovery from job demands. For example, they could take microbreaks at work or a longer lunch break [69,70]. ...
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Background Research on how employees recover from work has focused primarily on recovery during non-work hours (external recovery) rather than recovery during work hours (internal recovery). Using the conservation of resources theory as a conceptual framework, we tested whether job crafting promotes an internal recovery state, and examined the processes that explain this association. Methods Using the daily diary method, 120 full-time employees provided information before and after work for 5 days by rating job crafting, ego depletion, self-control demands at work, fatigue and vigor. Results The results of multilevel modeling showed that after controlling for employees’ fatigue and vigor before work, daily job crafting predicted significantly better internal recovery (greater vigor and lower fatigue at the end of workday), and this association was mediated by lower ego depletion. The links between job crafting and internal recovery were stronger for employees with high self-control demands at work. Conclusions This study extends recovery research by examining internal recovery as well as job crafting as its antecedent. Further, the present study suggests that managers may consider encouraging and offering job crafting interventions for employees to achieve internal recovery state.
... Driving examiners taking breaks between driving exams showed lower levels of distress and higher levels of vigor at the end of their eight-hour workday then when not taking any breaks [4]. In another study, the frequency of relaxing microbreaks taken by office workers in the afternoon was associated with reduced negative affect at the end of the workday, especially for workers reporting high work demands [5]. Similarly, taking a short break in the afternoon, but not in the morning, was associated with greater work engagement during the day [6]. ...
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Aims: Work breaks improve well-being, productivity, and health. The aim of this study was to investigate the individual determinants of rest-break behavior during work using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Methods: The association between attitude, control, and subjective norm and rest-break intention (i.e., taking rest breaks regularly), and rest-break behavior (average number of rest breaks/workhour) was analyzed with stepwise linear regression in a cross-sectional design. The study participants included 109 clerical employees, and 215 nurses. Results: Attitude and control were positively associated with rest-break intention. Intention and control were positively associated with rest-break behavior. The effect of intention was moderated by occupation, with intention being more weakly associated with rest-break behavior in nurses who had less behavioral control. Conclusions: Job control is the major predictor of rest-break behavior, with attitudes playing a minor role, and social norm playing no role. To increase rest-break behavior, a greater extent of job control is necessary.
... Moreover, given that depletion of resources for self-control serves as a potential inhibitor to knowledge sharing, this study demonstrates that knowledge sharing behaviors could likewise be rehabilitated through the replenishment employees' resource of self-control. Organizations may, for example, facilitate employees' recovery of self-control resources by granting them a chance for a short break during work (Hunter & Wu, 2016;Kim, Park & Niu, 2017). Likewise, this study suggests that self-enhancing humor may make it easier for employees to replenish exhausted self-control resources. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to use the ego depletion theory to examine the impact of hindrance stressors on knowledge sharing behaviors by investigating the mediating role of ego depletion and the moderating role of self-enhancing humor. Design/methodology/approach Data were obtained from a two-wave sample of 226 dyads, including employees in the manufacturing industry and their direct supervisors. The hypotheses were tested by hierarchical regression analyzes and Hayes’ PROCESS macro. Findings The results demonstrated that employees’ self-enhancing humor style could alleviate the impact of hindrance stressors on employees’ ego depletion state and buffer the negative indirect effect of hindrance stressors on employees’ knowledge-sharing behaviors. Research limitations/implications Although the authors collected mediator and dependent variables from different sources, this study used a cross-sectional research design, making it difficult to draw causal conclusions. Besides, hindrance stressors, ego depletion and self-enhancing humor style were all reported by employees. Originality/value Through the study, the authors highlight the important role of the self-control view in explaining proactive behavior in the workplace and a great awareness of the unforeseeable consequences of ego depletion for employees.
... As a result, employees are likely to withdraw (e.g., arriving late to work) and withhold production (e.g., purposefully working slowly) to preserve cognitive and affective resources. Notably, withdrawal and production deviance represent a more harmful coping strategy (Marcus et al., 2016), whereas microbreaks (i.e., short, nonwork respite activities; Kim et al., 2017) may be a neutral or beneficial coping strategy. Workers experiencing resource loss from routine SEE-E may take microbreaks to replenish lost resources (Halbesleben et al., 2014;Westman & Eden, 1997). ...
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Receiving social support is widely considered a positive workplace phenomenon, but what about the employees from whom the support is being sought? Following recent calls from social support scholars, we focus on the “potential support provider” perspective of the social support dynamic and propose that the measure of social burden (Yang et al., Stress and Health, 32(1): 70–83, 2016) currently used to capture this dynamic is significantly limited. In study 1, we refine and expand the measure of social burden by constructing and validating a measure of support elicitation experiences (SEE) that distinguishes between emotionally laden SEE (SEE-E; explicit or implicit requests for support with an emotional valence) and instrumental SEE (SEE-I; explicit requests for work-related support). In study 2, based on conservation of resources theory, we examine how SEE-E and SEE-I differentially relate to work outcomes and explore the potential costs of providing support in response to these behaviors. Results demonstrate that our measure of SEE is an improvement over the social burden measure and support the empirical distinctiveness of emotionally laden (associated with negative outcomes) and instrumental (associated with positive outcomes) support elicitations. In addition, we find some evidence that routinely providing support for both SEE-E and SEE-I carries implications for undesirable workplace behavior. Findings from this research support the notion that there are often differential effects for the kinds of support we elicit from our colleagues and provides researchers with an improved instrument to assess the social support dynamic from the perspective of potential support providers.
... Indeed, in laboratory studies, fatigued participants were more likely to disengage from their main task in order to engage with their smartphone [7]. On the other hand, smartphone interactions may serve a more positive function, in that they may act as microbreaks, during which people can recover from work demands [8,9]. Consistent with this idea, laboratory studies suggest that smartphone interactions have recovery potential, especially for people who enjoy interacting with their smartphone [7]. ...
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Nowadays, many people take short breaks with their smartphone at work. The decision whether to continue working or to take a smartphone break is a so-called labour versus leisure decision. Motivational models predict that people are more likely to switch from labour (work) to leisure (smartphone) the more fatigue or boredom they experience. In turn, fatigue and boredom are expected to decrease after the smartphone was used. However, it is not yet clear how smartphone use at work relates to fatigue and boredom. In this study, we tested these relationships in both directions. Participants ( n = 83, all PhD candidates) reported their current level of fatigue and boredom every hour at work while an application continuously logged their smartphone use. Results indicate that participants were more likely to interact with their smartphone the more fatigued or bored they were, but that they did not use it for longer when more fatigued or bored. Surprisingly, participants reported increased fatigue and boredom after having used the smartphone (more). While future research is necessary, our results (i) provide real-life evidence for the notion that fatigue and boredom are temporally associated with task disengagement, and (ii) suggest that taking a short break with the smartphone may have phenomenological costs.
... Rest breaks are defined as short periods of work cessation (Trougakos & Hideg, 2009) used to restore the energy spent on work activities. Rest breaks, which target within-work shift recovery, reduce subjective reports of acute fatigue and accident risk and maintain performance ability in other categories of workers, such as truck or bus drivers, industry workers and office employees (Kim et al., 2017;Sianoja et al., 2016;Tucker, 2003). Among nursing staff, most rest break studies have focused on patient safety and the risk of making errors (Min et al., 2020;Rogers et al., 2004), feeling demoralized after a shift (Senek et al., 2020), turnover behaviours (Wendsche et al., 2017) and sleep quality (Wilson et al., 2018), with almost none examining acute fatigue (Blasche et al., 2017). ...
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Aim This study aimed to explore whether 30-min rest breaks were as effective at lowering acute fatigue among 12-h shift hospital nursing staff who cared for patients with COVID-19 as among those who did not. Design The study was cross-sectional in design. Methods Data from the SAFE-CARE study collected online between May and June 2020 were used. A subsample (N = 338) comprised of nursing staff who reported working 12-h shifts, and providing direct patient care in hospitals was used in this study. Data on socio-demographics, work and rest breaks, and subjective measures of fatigue, psychological distress, sleep and health were used. Hierarchical multiple linear regression followed by stratified analyses was conducted to explore the relationships between rest breaks and acute fatigue among nursing staff groups with and without COVID-19 patient care. Results The sample, on average, had high acute fatigue. Around 72% reported providing care to patients with COVID-19, and 71% reported taking rest breaks ‘sometimes’, ‘often’ or ‘always’. In the group that cared for patients with COVID-19, there was no significant relationship between rest breaks and acute fatigue (p = .507). In the group that cared for patients hospitalized for other reasons, rest breaks were associated with lower acute fatigue (p = .010). Conclusion Our findings showed both the importance and inadequacy of rest breaks in reducing acute fatigue. The process of within-work recovery is complex, and routine rest breaks should be facilitated by nursing management on hospital units during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. Impact Rest breaks may present an effective strategy in lowering fatigue. Although rest breaks were not associated with less fatigue among staff caring for patients with COVID-19, other co-workers experienced some fatigue recovery. For frontline nursing staff, routine rest breaks are encouraged, and a systematic evaluation pertaining the sufficiency of rest breaks during high work demands in future research is needed.
... A break is a specific period within a working day during which there are no work-related tasks to be completed or during which an employee turns his attention away from work tasks (Hunter & Wu, 2016;Trougakos et al., 2008). The positive effects of taking breaks during work on recovery have been shown for decades (Kim et al., 2016). Besides the positive effects on recovery, breaks offer other benefits such as time for social contact with colleagues for communication and information exchange and foster performance and engagement (Kim et al., 2018;Kühnel et al., 2017). ...
Article
Employees exposed to high workload often compensate for this by extending their working hours. This diary study examines the relationship between workload, exhaustion, and two strategies for extending working hours: skipping breaks, and working longer than initially planned. The study analyses a sample of N= 87 employees and N= 639 measurement points with a multilevel structural equation model to investigate both within and between-person associations. The results showed that on days when the workload is higher than usual, participants were also more exhausted at the end of the working day. Also, the strategies skipping breaks and working longer were used more frequently on these days. However, there is no correlation between daily use of strategies and exhaustion. The study suggests analyzing the two strategies to extend ones working hours as separate constructs. On the between-person level, skipping breaks fully explains the association between workload and exhaustion. In the long run, this might have adverse effects on employees’ well-being. Journal Psychology of Everyday Activity (1998-9970), see also http://www.allgemeine-psychologie.info/wp/journal/
Article
Objective Mindful breathing meditation (MBM) and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) are common components of effective mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). This study examined the differential effects of MBM and LKM on purported therapeutic process variables and mental health outcomes via component analysis. Method The research design was a randomized controlled trial with four conditions: MBM, LKM, combined (MBM + LKM), and a relaxation control. All conditions consisted of 10-min. audio-recorded guided meditations that were self-implemented over the course of two weeks. Participants were college undergraduates (N = 52). Results Findings indicated statistically significant and very large main effects of time, regardless of condition. Statistically significant time by condition interactions were only observed for one process variable (i.e., defusion) and one mental health outcome (i.e., depression). Follow-up descriptive evaluation of between-group effect sizes indicated patterns of favorable effects for MBM and LKM over the combined and relaxation control conditions. Treatment integrity and treatment acceptability data indicated very favorable social validity across conditions. Discussion We conclude that our findings make a modest yet value-added contribution to the MBI component analysis literature, suggesting differentiated performance among isolated MBM and LKM exercises compared to combined and control conditions. Yet further research is warranted to improve upon the limitations of this study.
Conference Paper
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Nowadays, many organisations steadily have to face new challenges due to an increasing competition, new technologies and manpower shortage. While dealing with this growth of challenges and confronting employees with higher demands, organizations have to pay attention to employees’ personal resources that are connected to their well-being and health. Human energy is a psychological construct connected to different states of experiencing e.g. vigor and vitality, or otherwise fatigue. The subjective experience of human energy varies during the working day. In order to promote employees’ health and well-being, an objective measure to determine human energy levels is needed. In this paper, we report on first insights from a pilot study with 12 healthy participants investigating if human’s glucose concentration can serve as an objective measure of human energy. We analyse the possible interplay between subjective human energy perception during work and sensor-based blood sugar levels, assessed by a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system in healthy adults.
Chapter
Erholung von der Arbeit ist wichtig für die Aufrechterhaltung von Wohlbefinden, Gesundheit und Leistungsfähigkeit von Beschäftigten. Erholung wird als Prozess verstanden, der dem Stressprozess entgegenwirkt, indem Stressfolgen neutralisiert und verbrauchte Ressourcen wiederaufgebaut werden. Erholung kann sowohl während des Arbeitstages in Arbeitspausen wie auch außerhalb der Arbeit am Feierabend, am Wochenende oder im Urlaub stattfinden. In diesem Kapitel unterscheiden wir zwischen direkten und indirekten Interventionsansätzen zur Förderung von Erholungsprozessen. Direkte Interventionen verfolgen das primäre Ziel Erholungsprozesse zu fördern, indem sie beispielsweise an den sogenannten Erholungserfahrungen ansetzen. Indirekte Interventionen fördern Erholungsprozesse ebenfalls, auch wenn sie primär ein anderes Ziel (z. B. Steigerung von Achtsamkeit, Förderung einer stärkeren Grenzziehung zwischen Arbeit und Privatleben) verfolgen. Bei den indirekten Interventionsansätzen werden wir insbesondere auf Achtsamkeitsinterventionen eingehen, die die absichtsvolle und nicht-wertende Lenkung der Aufmerksamkeit auf den aktuellen Moment fördern. Innerhalb der direkten wie auch indirekten Interventionsansätze werden Interventionen zur Förderung von Erholung während sowie außerhalb der Arbeit bezüglich ihrer Effektivität dargestellt.
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Recovery activities during short breaks taken between work tasks are solutions for preventing the impairing effects of accumulated strain. No wonder then that a growing body of scientific literature from various perspectives emerged on this topic. The present meta-analysis is aimed at estimating the efficacy of micro-breaks in enhancing well-being (vigor and fatigue) and performance, as well as in which conditions and for whom are the micro-breaks most effective. We searched the existent literature on this topic and aggregated the existing data from experimental and quasi-experimental studies. The systematic search revealed 19 records , which resulted in 22 independent study samples (N = 2335). Random-effects meta-analyses shown statistically significant but small effects of micro-breaks in boosting vigor (d = .36, p < .001; k = 9, n = 913), reducing fatigue (d = .35, p < .001; k = 9, n = 803), and a non-significant effect on increasing overall performance (d = .16, p = .116; k = 15, n = 1132). Subgroups analyses on performance types revealed significant effects only for tasks with less cognitive demands. A meta-regression showed that the longer the break, the greater the boost was on performance. Overall, the data support the role of micro-breaks for well-being, while for performance, recovering from highly depleting tasks may need more than 10-minute breaks. Therefore, future studies should focus on this issue.
Article
Cyberloafing means that employees spend work hours and use the company's internet resources to check personal e-mail or visit websites which are not related to their work. Although most scholars and practitioners viewed cyberloafing as a form of workplace deviance or counterproductive work behavior, some scholars indicated that cyberloafing might be beneficial for employees' productivity. Thus, it is important to clarify whether cyberloafing is beneficial or harmful for both employees and organizations. Drawing on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, we examined the daily relationships between cyberloafing on creativity and proactive behavior, and whether work environment plays any positive moderating role is examined. The experience sampling method was adopted and a twice-daily questionnaire survey conducted with 94 full-time employees from China for 10 consecutive working days. A total of 928 daily data points were successfully paired, and the multilevel path analysis were performed to test the proposed hypotheses. Consistent with our expectation, the results indicated that employee cyberloafing positively predicts creativity and proactive behavior. In addition, the facilitation of informal interaction and environment workplace quality strengthens the positive relationships between employee cyberloafing and creativity and proactive behavior. The theoretical and practical implications were further proposed.
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Over the last 20 years, the importance of work recovery has been well-documented in the organizational behavior field, with accumulated findings demonstrating the significant implications of recovery for employee work attitudes, behaviors, and wellbeing. However, this line of research has primarily focused on investigating the implications of recovery outside of work hours, overlooking the need for recovery at-work to maintain energy for daily work demands. To advance the overall work recovery research, it is timely to conduct a systematic review of at-work recovery research. The goal of the systematic review is to address several emerging issues that have hampered the development, both practical and theoretical, of at-work recovery by (1) clarifying how at-work recovery fits within the broader recovery field, (2) organizing and aligning the inconsistent terminology and constructs used within at-work recovery, (3) detailing the nomological network of constructs surrounding at-work recovery, and (4) presenting a novel framework to guide future research. In doing so, we bring together the organizational behavior and ergonomics disciplines in this comprehensive review of recovery at work.
Article
Introduction: In India, there are many labour laws implemented for the legal provision of working hours, services, and employment conditions of workers. Special protection and rest provision plays a pivotal role in occupational injuries and illness. Aim: To determine the special protection and various provision of rest at the workplace. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among steel and power industry workers in Odisha, India. The study was conducted with 425 male respondents by adopting the population proportion sampling technique. The primary data was taken from a Steel and Power limited industry situated in Angul district of Odisha from February 2019 to October 2019. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS version 25.0) was used in the analysis process by using the univariate and bivariate models to assess the objectives. Results: The study showed 92.5% of respondents were provided rest, and 59.1% of respondents were in the employment contract. More than 43.3% of respondents reported they received compensation during occupational injury and diseases, whereas 45.6% didn’t get any compensation in the event of occupational diseases. Out of the 393 workers got rest, a vast majority (95.4%) of respondents reported that they were allowed night rest, and 84.5% were allowed for meal breaks during work. More than 59% of respondents receive short breaks during work, and 52.9% were entitled to weekly breaks/rest. Religion, caste, education, technical education, occupation, type of work, and the number of working hours were strongly associated with the respondent’s characteristics. Conclusion: Special protection provisions are critical factors for the treatment of occupational health hazards. It has been confirmed that night rest and meal break rest were provided to the workers. Except for the shift work rest and extended workload rest, the provision of rest was sufficiently provided at the workplace. Special protections are expected to strengthen the occupational health of workers and stay away from medical expenses.
This study explored the relationships among emotional labor (EL), job stress (JS), job characteristics (JC), social media use intensity (SM), and job performance (JP). A quantitative study was conducted with a total of 380 questionnaires collected from tour leaders. The results of the study are as follows: (1) EL has a positive impact on JS, (2) JS has a negative impact on JP, (3) JS mediates the relationship between EL and JP, and (4) JC moderates the relationship between EL and JS, and (5) SM moderates the relationship between JS and JP. Theoretical and practical implications include validating a framework and suggestions for travel agencies to improve the JP of tour leaders by working on human resource practices.
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Talking about politics with others or voicing your political views in public is a commonplace aspect of everyday life. In particular, after the U.S. presidential election in 2020, media sources highlighted the detrimental effects of political conversation at work on employee well-being and morale. Nevertheless, little academic research has sought to examine political interactions at work and their effects on employees' well-being and work outcomes. Integrating the concept of self-regulation with the coping model of stress, in this study we examine the costs of political conversations initiated by either supervisors or coworkers for employees' helping and withdrawal behaviors. We used an experience sampling method to collect two weekly surveys from 166 full-time workers from South Korea for 6 weeks (n = 823). Our multilevel path analysis found that during weeks when employees had more political conversations at work, they had higher levels of resource depletion, which in turn was linked to fewer helping behaviors and more withdrawal behaviors. Importantly, individuals' geographic region and political identity management (i.e., their preferences for openly talking about their political identity) moderated the indirect effects of political conversations on behavioral outcomes via increased resource depletion.
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Human energy is often viewed as a limited resource, that is depleted through effort expenditure at work, and subsequently needs to be replenished either during or after working. Self-determination theory, however, argues that individuals vary in the degree to which work is experienced as draining: autonomous motivation makes work seem effortless; while controlled motivation makes it effortful. As employees can endorse multiple motivations for work, we examined how motivation profiles are associated with energy levels directly and indirectly through approaches to sustaining energy (i.e., energy management strategies and recovery experiences). Latent profile analysis with two-wave data revealed four profiles (i.e., amotivated, amotivated/external, highly motivated, and autonomous). Time 1 employee motivation profiles were used to predict outcomes at Time 1 (N = 551) and Time 2 (N = 391). Overall, amotivated employees had the lowest energy levels and autonomous employees the highest (i.e., more vigor, less exhaustion, less need for recovery). Autonomous and highly motivated employees used more work-related energy management strategies and less detachment, compared to the other profiles. The differential use of work-related strategies partially explained differences in vigor by Time 2. Profiles that used relatively less detachment experienced less favorable energy levels over time. Interestingly, by Time 2, autonomous employees detached more than highly motivated employees, which explained their increased vigor over time. Taken together, our research shows that employee motivation can explain individual differences in energy levels as well as approaches to sustaining energy. Advice on how to manage energy and recovery would benefit from considering the configuration of employee motivation.
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Unwinding and recovering from everyday work is important for sustaining employees’ well-being, motivation, and job performance. Accordingly, research on work recovery has grown tremendously in the past few decades. This article summarizes research on recovery during work breaks, leisure-time evenings, weekends, and vacations. Focusing on day-level and longitudinal field studies, the article describes predictors as well as outcomes of recovery in different recovery settings and addresses potential between-group and cross-cultural differences. It presents findings from intervention research demonstrating that recovery processes can be improved by deliberate training programs. The article then discusses how future recovery research can address emerging themes relevant to the future of work—changing boundaries between work and nonwork life, increased reliance on teams and technology, and changes in employment arrangements. We conclude with an overall summary, open research questions, directions for methodological improvements, and practical implications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 9 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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Aim To examine a mediated moderation of the effects of micro-break activity and psychological detachment on the relationship between job stress and work engagement among hospital nurses. Background Nursing burnout, compassion fatigue, and job stress have been relatively constant issues in nursing for at least the past decade – and the pervasiveness of the COVID-19 pandemic is intensifying them, which may lead to new challenges to work engagement. Methods We tested our model using a time-lagged design to collect data from supervisor-subordinate dyads in seven public hospitals located in southern China, and 263 nurses and 58 head nurses in this survey. Confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson’s correlation and hierarchical multiple regression were carried out. Results The results showed that the adverse impact of job stress on work engagement disappeared when nurses engaged in high levels of micro-break activity. Moreover, the moderating role of micro-break activity was mediated by psychological detachment. Conclusions Micro-break activity and psychological detachment play joint roles in helping nurses to cope with job stress. Implications for Nursing Management Nurse managers should change their negative attitude toward micro-break activity (if it exists) and help nurses find opportunities for detachment under high-pressure environment.
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Nurses experience stress in the workplace. We evaluated the feasibility and effect of Reiki to relieve stress of staff nurses during a work shift. All Reiki treatments were completed without interruption and lasted 30 minutes. Stress scores, respiratory rate, and heart rate were significantly decreased immediately following the Reiki treatment.
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Since social media has become a fundamental part of the daily activities of people, the purpose of this study was to explore social media use by focusing on job demands that may explain why employees perceive social media are vital for them at work. Further, this study seeks to understand how employees use social media at work to experience recovery. Questionnaires were collected from current frontline hospitality non-managerial and managerial employees in the United States. Structural equation modeling was employed to analyze data. Results of the study confirm that at-work break activities including social and non-media break activities can be a channel for employees to experience recovery and deal with job demands. Moreover, the results suggest that at-work break activities are an important mediator between job demands and recovery experiences. Social media break activities also moderated the mediation effect of non-social media break activities between job demands and recovery experiences.
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This study extends previous research on respite from work and addresses the question of how individuals use their leisure time to recover from work. It is hypothesized that time spent on work-related and household activities has a negative effect on well-being, whereas low-effort, social, and physical activities are assumed to have a positive effect. One hundred Dutch teachers completed a diary on leisure time activities and situational well-being for 5 days, and work situation variables were assessed with a questionnaire. Multilevel analyses in which preleisure well-being and work situation variables were entered as control variables supported 4 of the 5 hypotheses. Moreover, a lagged effect of high time pressure on poor situational well-being was found. The study showed that leisure time activities and a low-stress work situation contribute independently to an individual's well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort–recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks.
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Work recovery research has focused mainly on how after-work break activities help employees replenish their resources and reduce fatigue. Given that employees spend a considerable amount of time at work, understanding how they can replenish their resources during the workday is critical. Drawing on ego depletion (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), we employed multi-source experience sampling methods to test the effects of a critical boundary condition, employee lunch break autonomy, on the relation between lunch break activities and end-of-workday fatigue. Although specific energy-relevant activities had a main effect on end-of-workday fatigue, each of these was moderated by the degree of autonomous choice associated with the break. Specifically, for activities that supported the psychological needs of relatedness and competence (i.e., social and work activities, respectively), as lunch break autonomy increased, effects switched from increasing fatigue to reducing fatigue. To the extent that lunch break activities involved relaxation, however, lunch break autonomy was only important when levels of relaxation were low. We conclude that lunch break autonomy plays a complex and pivotal role in conferring the potential energetic benefits of lunch break activities. Contributions to theory and practice are discussed.
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Recently, Pfeffer (2010) called for a better understanding of the human dimension of sustainability. Responding to this call, we explore how individuals sustain an important human resource-their own energy-at work. Specifically, we focus on strategies that employees use at work to sustain their energy. Our findings show that the most commonly used strategies (e.g., switching to another task or browsing the Internet) are not associated with higher levels of human energy at work. Rather, strategies related to learning, to the meaning of one's work, and to positive workplace relationships were most strongly related to employees' energy.
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Lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time contributes to the increase in employee exhaustion over time. This study examines the reverse causal path from exhaustion to lack of psychological detachment, suggesting that this reverse process may operate within a relatively short time frame. Specifically, we examine if exhaustion predicts a decrease in psychological detachment from work during off-job time within several weeks. We propose that time pressure at work intensifies and that pleasurable leisure experiences reduce this association between exhaustion and the decrease in psychological detachment. We tested our hypotheses in a short-term prospective study (time lag: 4 weeks) with a sample of 109 employees. Ordinary least square regression analysis indicates that exhaustion predicted a decrease in psychological detachment from work over the course of 4 weeks. This decrease was particularly strong for employees working under time pressure and for employees who did not engage in pleasurable leisure experiences. Our findings suggest that exhausted employees find detachment from work increasingly difficult and therefore might suffer from insufficient recovery-although they need it most. The situation is particularly severe when exhausted employees face high time pressure and a lack of pleasurable leisure experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Employees are getting less sleep, which has been shown to deplete self-regulatory resources and increase unethical behavior (Barnes, Schaubroeck, Huth, & Ghumman, 2011; Christian & Ellis, 2011). In this study, we extend the original mediated model by examining the role of 2 moderators in the relationship between sleep deprivation, depletion, and deceptive behavior. First, we derive psychological arguments from the psychopharmacology literature to hypothesize that caffeine moderates the relationship between sleep deprivation and depletion by replenishing self-regulatory resources. Second, we draw from recent research in social psychology to hypothesize that social influence moderates the relationship between depletion and deceptive behavior, such that depleted individuals are less able to resist the negative influence of others. Results of a laboratory study provide support for our expanded model combining mediation and moderation, adding to our understanding of the role of sleep deprivation in the incidence of workplace deception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Work-family conflict, a prevalent stressor in today's workforce, has been linked to several detrimental consequences for the individual, including physical health. The present study extends this area of research by examining episodic work-family conflict in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) using an experience sampling methodology. The results suggested that the occurrence of an episode of work interference with family conflict is linked to a subsequent increase in heart rate but not blood pressure; however, the relationship between episodes of family interference with work conflict and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure is moderated by perceptions of family-supportive supervision. No evidence was found for the moderating role of work-supportive family. Further theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Drawing from research on personal resources (e.g., Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998; Fredrickson, 1998) and the episodic nature of work (Beal, Weiss, Barros, & MacDermid, 2005), we examine research and theory relevant to the study of momentary recovery in the workplace. Specifically, we propose that the nature of within workday breaks influences the levels of psychological resources, which in turn influence various workplace outcomes. First, we discuss the momentary approach to studying workplace breaks and consequent resource levels. In doing so, we distinguish between two types of breaks, respites and chores; and we detail two types of psychological resources, regulatory and affective resources. Consequences of psychological resource levels on emotional exhaustion and performance are considered. We also explore possible moderators of the proposed relationships; we discuss job and individual characteristics, and motivation to perform. Finally, we conclude the chapter with a brief discussion on future research and possible applications of the momentary approach to work recovery in organizations.
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The aim of this chapter is to provide a literature review on daily recovery during non-work time. Specifically, next to discussing theories that help us understand the process of recovery, we will clarify how recovery and its potential outcomes have been conceptualized so far. Consequently, we present empirical findings of diary studies addressing the activities that may facilitate or hinder daily recovery. We will pay special attention to potential mechanisms that may underlie the facilitating or hindering processes. Owing to the limited research on daily recovery, we will review empirical findings on predictors and outcomes of a related construct, namely need for recovery. We conclude with an overall framework from which daily recovery during non-work time can be understood. In this framework, we claim that daily recovery is an important moderator in the process through which job characteristics and their related strain may lead to unfavorable states on a daily basis.
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Knowledge of the cycle of work and recovery is crucial for protecting employee health and well-being and preserving working capabilities. However, the daily process of effort and recovery is not well understood. This study investigated how the time spent on activities in the work and off-job domains, and the pleasure and effort experienced while engaging in these activities, affect the daily recovery process. We expected higher levels of effort at work and during off-job time to be negatively related to recovery, and higher levels of pleasure at work and during off-job time to be positively related to recovery. We also hypothesized that pleasure would act as a buffer against the negative effects of effort. Data were collected by means of a five-day diary study (three measurements daily, before and immediately after work, and at bedtime) among 120 university academic staff. Fatigue and (low) vigour were used as indicators of (lack of) recovery. Multilevel analyses showed that pleasure in the work and off-job domains had beneficial effects on recovery. An adverse association between effort expenditure and recovery was lacking. However, in the work domain, a combination of unpleasant and effortful work activities was negatively related to recovery. These findings stress the importance of engaging in pleasant activities during work and off-job time.
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Although studies on employee recovery accumulate at a stunning pace, the commonly used theory (Effort-Recovery model) that explains how recovery occurs has not been explicitly tested. We aimed to unravel the recovery process by examining whether off-job activities enhance next morning vigor to the extent that they enable employees to relax and detach from work. In addition, we investigated whether adequate recovery also helps employees to work with more enthusiasm and vigor on the next workday. On five consecutive days, a total of 74 employees (356 data points) reported the hours they spent on various off-job activities, their feelings of psychological detachment, and feelings of relaxation before going to sleep. Feelings of vigor were reported on the next morning, and day-levels of work engagement were reported after work. As predicted, leisure activities (social, low-effort, and physical activities) increased next morning vigor through enhanced psychological detachment and relaxation. High-duty off-job activities (work and household tasks) reduced vigor because these activities diminished psychological detachment and relaxation. Moreover, off-job activities significantly affected next day work engagement. Our results support the assumption that recovery occurs when employees engage in off-job activities that allow for relaxation and psychological detachment. The findings also underscore the significance of recovery after work: Adequate recovery not only enhances vigor in the morning, but also helps employees to stay engaged during the next workday. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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We focus on everyday role transitions involving home, work, and other places. Transitions are boundary-crossing activities, where one exits and enters roles by surmounting role boundaries. Roles can be arrayed on a continuum, spanning high segmentation to high integration. Segmentation decreases role blurring but increases the magnitude of change, rendering boundary crossing more difficult; crossing often is facilitated by rites of passage. Integration decreases the magnitude of change but increases blurring, rendering boundary creation and maintenance more difficult; this challenge often is surmounted by boundary work.
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Drawing on the emotional labor and work recovery literatures, we examined the relationship between workday break activities and emotional experiences and the role these variables play in the performance of positive affective displays in service interactions. In results based on data collected from 64 cheerleading instructors via experience sampling, break activities are related to emotional experiences and positive affective displays. Moreover, supporting regulatory resource theory, break activities' impact on positive affective displays goes beyond the effects of emotional experiences. Our findings suggest employees' use of workday breaks can have practical implications for how they feel and perform at work.
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In this article, we review recent methodological developments that have enabled conceptual advances addressing intraindividual processes leading to psychological well-being. We contend that the introduction of dynamic assessment methodologies for sampling experiences, feelings, and behaviours on and off the job, together with the implementation of multilevel modelling strategies in organizational research on well-being, should lead to the development of richer models of employee well-being (compared to existing theoretical models). Accordingly, we develop a model of employee well-being that considers both personal and situational predictors, and both work and nonwork well-being indicators, as well as the real-time relationships between well-being antecedents and indicators across these two life spheres.
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We report a field study examining within-individual effects of workload on distress at work and daily well-being. The study was conducted using experience-sampling methodology to measure daily workload, affective distress, and blood pressure throughout and at the end of each of 10 workdays, and emotional burnout and daily strain (two indicators of low well-being) during the evening in a sample of 64 full-time employees who provided a total of 354 person-day data points. We also measured employees’ job control and perceived organizational support with a separate survey. Results showed that workload was positively associated with affective distress and blood pressure, and with the indicators of low daily well-being. Furthermore, affective distress mediated the relationship between workload and daily well-being. More importantly, job control and organizational support had cross-level moderating influences on the relationships of workload with affective distress and blood pressure such that these relationships were weaker for participants who reported having more control on their job, as well as for participants who reported receiving more organizational support.
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Twenty-five years of research on Karasek's job strain model has produced evidence that jobs involving high demands, low control and low social support may produce psychological strain. The present study takes this research in a new direction by using a time-sampling methodology with a group of portfolio workers (self-employed individuals who work for multiple clients) to examine whether working weeks that involve more of these characteristics are associated with greater psychological strain. The study also examines whether workers' optimism moderates the intra-individual relationship between job characteristics and strain. Every week for 26 weeks, 65 portfolio workers completed a diary containing measures of work demands, job control, social support and strain. Multi-level analyses supported the additive but not the interactive form of the job strain model. However, differences in portfolio workers' optimism moderated an interactive effect of weekly demands and control on anxiety and depression, such that the highest levels of strain were experienced by pessimists under conditions of low control and high demands. The results suggest that psychological strain can vary with temporal variations in job characteristics and that a person-situation approach is appropriate for understanding these dynamics.
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This study among 477 employees working in the call centre of a Dutch telecom company (response 88%) examined the predictive validity of the job demands – resources (JD – R) model for self-reported absenteeism and turnover intentions. The central hypothesis was that job demands would be the most important predictors of absenteeism, through their relationship with health problems (i.e., exhaustion and Repetitive Strain Injury—RSI), whereas job resources would be the most important predictors of turnover intentions, through their relationship with involvement (i.e., organizational commitment and dedication). Results of a series of SEM analyses largely supported these dual processes. In the first energy-driven process, job demands (i.e., work pressure, computer problems, emotional demands, and changes in tasks) were the most important predictors of health problems, which, in turn, were related to sickness absence (duration and long-term absence). In the second motivation-driven process, job resources (i.e., social support, supervisory coaching, performance feedback and time control) were the only predictors of involvement, which, in turn, was related to turnover intentions. Additionally, job resources had a weak negative relationship with health problems, and health problems positively influenced turnover intentions. The application of the JD – R model as a human resource management tool in call centres as well as in other organizations is discussed.
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The authors of this study examined the relation between job demands and psychological detachment from work during off-job time (i.e., mentally switching off) with psychological well-being and work engagement. They hypothesized that high job demands and low levels of psychological detachment predict poor well-being and low work engagement. They proposed that psychological detachment buffers the negative impact of high job demands on well-being and work engagement. A longitudinal study (12-month time lag) with 309 human service employees showed that high job demands predicted emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic complaints, and low work engagement over time. Psychological detachment from work during off-job time predicted emotional exhaustion and buffered the relation between job demands and an increase in psychosomatic complaints and between job demands and a decrease in work engagement. The findings of this study suggest that psychological detachment from work during off-job time is an important factor that helps to protect employee well-being and work engagement.
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The aim of the worksite study is to elucidate the strain reducing impact of different forms of spending lunch breaks. With the help of the so-called silent room cabin concept, it was possible to induce a lunch-break relaxation opportunity that provided visual and territorial privacy. To evaluate the proposed effects, 14 call center agents were assigned to either 20 min progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) or small-talk (ST) break groups. We analyzed the data in a controlled trial for a period of 6 months (every 2 months four measurements a day at 12:00, 13:00, 16:00, 20:00) using independent observer and self-report ratings of emotional, mental, motivational, and physical strain. Results indicated that only the PMR break reduced postlunchtime and afternoon strain. Although further intervention research is required, our results suggest that PMR lunch break may sustainable reduce strain states in real worksite settings.
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B. L. Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions asserts that people's daily experiences of positive emotions compound over time to build a variety of consequential personal resources. The authors tested this build hypothesis in a field experiment with working adults (n = 139), half of whom were randomly-assigned to begin a practice of loving-kindness meditation. Results showed that this meditation practice produced increases over time in daily experiences of positive emotions, which, in turn, produced increases in a wide range of personal resources (e.g., increased mindfulness, purpose in life, social support, decreased illness symptoms). In turn, these increments in personal resources predicted increased life satisfaction and reduced depressive symptoms. Discussion centers on how positive emotions are the mechanism of change for the type of mind-training practice studied here and how loving-kindness meditation is an intervention strategy that produces positive emotions in a way that outpaces the hedonic treadmill effect.
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Major perspectives concerning stress are presented with the goal of clarifying the nature of what has proved to be a heuristic but vague construct. Current conceptualizations of stress are challenged as being too phenomenological and ambiguous, and consequently, not given to direct empirical testing. Indeed, it is argued that researchers have tended to avoid the problem of defining stress, choosing to study stress without reference to a clear framework. A new stress model called the model of conservation of resources is presented as an alternative. This resource-oriented model is based on the supposition that people strive to retain, project, and build resources and that what is threatening to them is the potential or actual loss of these valued resources. Implications of the model of conservation of resources for new research directions are discussed.
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Choice, active response, self-regulation, and other volition may all draw on a common inner resource. In Experiment 1, people who forced themselves to eat radishes instead of tempting chocolates subsequently quit faster on unsolvable puzzles than people who had not had to exert self-control over eating. In Experiment 2, making a meaningful personal choice to perform attitude-relevant behavior caused a similar decrement in persistence. In Experiment 3, suppressing emotion led to a subsequent drop in performance of solvable anagrams. In Experiment 4, an initial task requiring high self-regulation made people more passive (i.e., more prone to favor the passive-response option). These results suggest that the self's capacity for active volition is limited and that a range of seemingly different, unrelated acts share a common resource.
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This study tested the idea of habits as a form of goal-directed automatic behavior. Expanding on the idea that habits are mentally represented as associations between goals and actions, it was proposed that goals are capable of activating the habitual action. More specific, when habits are established (e.g., frequent cycling to the university), the very activation of the goal to act (e.g., having to attend lectures at the university) automatically evokes the habitual response (e.g., bicycle). Indeed, it was tested and confirmed that, when behavior is habitual, behavioral responses are activated automatically. In addition, the results of 3 experiments indicated that (a) the automaticity in habits is conditional on the presence of an active goal (cf. goal-dependent automaticity; J. A. Bargh, 1989), supporting the idea that habits are mentally represented as goal-action links, and (b) the formation of implementation intentions (i.e., the creation of a strong mental link between a goal and action) may simulate goal-directed automaticity in habits.
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This study extends previous research on respite from work and addresses the question of how individuals use their leisure time to recover from work. It is hypothesized that time spent on work-related and household activities has a negative effect on well-being, whereas low-effort, social, and physical activities are assumed to have a positive effect. One hundred Dutch teachers completed a diary on leisure time activities and situational well-being for 5 days, and work situation variables were assessed with a questionnaire. Multilevel analyses in which preleisure well-being and work situation variables were entered as control variables supported 4 of the 5 hypotheses. Moreover, a lagged effect of high time pressure on poor situational well-being was found. The study showed that leisure time activities and a low-stress work situation contribute independently to an individual's well-being.
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This study rested the idea of habits as a form of goal-directed automatic behavior. Expanding on the idea that habits are mentally represented as associations between goals and actions, it was proposed that goals are capable of activating the habitual action. More specific, when habits are established (e.g., frequent cycling to the university), the very activation of the goal to act (e.g., having to attend lectures at the university) automatically evokes the habitual response (e.g., bicycle). Indeed, it was tested and confirmed that, when behavior is habitual, behavioral responses are activated automatically. in addition, the results of 3 experiments indicated that (a) the automaticity in habits is conditional on the presence of an active goal (cf. goal-dependent automaticity; J. A. Bargh, 1989), supporting the idea that habits are mentally represented as goal-action links, and (b) the formation of implementation intentions (i.e., the creation of a strong mental link between a goal and action) may simulate goal-directed automaticity in habits.
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This paper reviews empirical evidence on psychological detachment from work during nonwork time. Psychological detachment as a core recovery experience refers to refraining from job-related activities and thoughts during nonwork time; it implies to mentally disengage from one's job while being away from work. Using the stressor-detachment model as an organizing framework, we describe findings from between-person and within-person studies, relying on cross-sectional, longitudinal, and daily-diary designs. Overall, research shows that job stressors, particularly workload, predict low levels of psychological detachment. A lack of detachment in turn predicts high strain levels and poor individual well-being (e.g., burnout and lower life satisfaction). Psychological detachment seems to be both a mediator and a moderator in the relationship between job stressors on the one hand and strain and poor well-being on the other hand. We propose possible extensions of the stressor-detachment model by suggesting moderator variables grounded in the transactional stress model. We further discuss avenues for future research and offer practical implications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Abstract Interruptions are typically considered disruptive for organizational members, hindering their performance,and effectiveness. Although interruptions can have negative effects on work performance, they also can serve in multiple ways as facilitators of performance. In this paper, we discuss four key types of interruptions that have different causes and consequences: intrusions, breaks, distractions, and discrepancies. Each type of interruption can occur during the workday, and each type has different implications for individual effectiveness. We delineate the principle features of each of the four types of interruptions and specify when each kind of interruption is likely to have positive or negative consequences,for the person being interrupted. By discussing in detail the multiple kinds of interruptions and their potential for positive or negative consequences, we provide a means for organizational scholars to treat interruptions and their consequences,in more discriminating ways. 2 Interruptions are generally defined as incidents or occurrences that obstruct or delay organizational members as they attempt to make progress on work tasks and, thus, are typically
Chapter
What constitutes a good life? Few questions are of more fundamental importance to a positive psychology. Flow research has yielded one answer, providing an understanding of experiences during which individuals are fully involved in the present moment. Viewed through the experiential lens of flow, a good life is one that is characterized by complete absorption in what one does. In this chapter, we describe the flow model of optimal experience and optimal development, explain how flow and related constructs have been measured, discuss recent work in this area, and identify some promising directions for future research. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate how people cope with boredom at work, and whether differences in “boredom coping” effectiveness are associated with differences in employee well‐being, and safety behaviour. Design/methodology/approach The authors used two methods to gather information for this paper. Employees in a chemical processing organisation ( n =212) completed a survey of individual boredom coping levels, self‐reported safety compliance, and a range of well‐being variables. Also, critical incident interviews with a sub‐sample of survey respondents ( n =16) elicited strategies that employees use to cope with boredom at work. Findings High boredom‐copers reported better well‐being and greater compliance with organisational safety rules compared with low boredom‐copers. Relative to low boredom‐copers, high boredom‐copers tended to cope with boredom in ways that were more functional for themselves and the organisation. Research limitations/implications Because the research was exploratory and cross‐sectional conclusions are necessarily tentative. However, the findings add to the scant body of knowledge about workplace boredom and serve as a useful guide to future research. Practical implications This approach offers new insights into how the negative effects of boredom might be managed in future, both individually and organisationally. Training in boredom coping skills, in conjunction with job redesign initiatives, may help to reduce the frequency and impact of boredom at work. Originality/value Boredom at work is an important yet neglected area of human resource management research. The present study is the first to examine the construct of “boredom coping” at work and to demonstrate a potential link between differences in boredom coping tendency and employee health and safety outcomes.
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Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the conditional relations is often a tedious and error-prone task. This article provides an overview of methods used to probe interaction effects and describes a unified collection of freely available online resources that researchers can use to obtain significance tests for simple slopes, compute regions of significance, and obtain confidence bands for simple slopes across the range of the moderator in the MLR, HLM, and LCA contexts. Plotting capabilities are also provided.
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Two aspects of translation were investigated: (1) factors that affect translation quality, and (2) how equivalence between source and target versions can be evaluated. The variables of language, content, and difficulty were studied through an analysis of variance design. Ninety-four bilinguals from the University of Guam, representing ten languages, translated or back-translated six essays incorporating three content areas and two levels of difficulty. The five criteria for equivalence were based on comparisons of meaning or predictions of similar responses to original or translated versions. The factors of content, difficulty, language and content-language interaction were significant, and the five equivalence criteria proved workable. Conclusions are that translation quality can be predicted, and that a functionally equivalent translation can be demonstrated when responses to the original and target versions are studied.
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Prejudice and stereotyping cause social problems and intergroup tension. The current work examined whether bolstering self-control by giving participants glucose would reduce stereotype use for an impression formation task. Previous work has demonstrated that self-control depends on biologically expensive brain processes that consume energy derived from glucose in the bloodstream. In the current study, glucose was manipulated via lemonade sweetened with either sugar or Splenda. Compared to the control group, the participants in the glucose condition used fewer stereotypes when writing an essay about a day in the life of a gay man. In addition, high-prejudice participants in the glucose condition used fewer derogatory statements in their essays than high-prejudice participants in the control condition. The findings are discussed in terms of the importance of self-control resources in the effective regulation of prejudice and stereotyping.