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Abstract

This article summarizes the current state of research on the prediction of infidelity and provides a foundation for advancing knowledge on this topic by offering specific recommendations for future research. The prevalence, terminological diversity, and impact of infidelity on numerous indicators of wellness is first discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the individual, relationship, and contextual factors that have received systematic attention in attempting to predict infidelity. Highlights include various demographics, the closing gender gap, cohabitation, religion, and the role of the internet in facilitating infidelity. The article concludes with 8 recommendations for more informative research to advance understanding of sexual infidelity.

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... In clinical settings, infidelity is one of the most frequent presenting problems in couple therapy (Glass & Wright, 1992;Softas-Nall et al., 2008) and a leading cause of relationship dissolution and diminished mental health among couples (Fincham & May, 2017). According to meta-analyses, lifetime rates of infidelity range from about 20-34% for men and 11-24% for women (General Social Survey [GSS], 2017; Spitzberg & Tafoya, 2007), with roughly 20-40% of all couples having engaged in an affair at some point (Peluso & Spina, 2008). ...
... A recent study examining relationship assessments from more than 40,000 couples revealed that roughly 80% of couples presenting for couple therapy significantly struggle in the domains of conflict and intimacy . These factors are attributable to the deleterious consequences of relationship dissatisfaction, which ultimately paves the way for infidelity to occur (Allen et al., 2008;Fincham & May, 2017). ...
... For this study, sexual infidelity is defined as intercourse or other sexual acts with another individual outside of the primary relationship. To date, much of the infidelity literature has focused on extramarital sexual affairs among heterosexual married couples, with lifetime prevalence rates for this group ranging from 20% to 25% (Blow & Hartnett, 2005;Fincham & May, 2017;Moller & Vossler, 2015). Moller and Vossler (2015) note that this form of infidelity is often understood to have "one universally understood meaning" (p. ...
Thesis
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The present study applies a Gottman Method Couples Therapy (GMCT) intervention, the Trust Revival Method (TRM), to couples' relationships following an affair, using a randomized control waitlist design. Couples (n= 84) were recruited nationally and internationally and subsequently randomized to either an immediate treatment group or a 3-week waitlist group. A 6-month post-trial follow-up was conducted for couples that completed treatment. The revised Specific Affect Coding System (Coan & Gottman, 2007) was used to code couples' interactions during a 10–15-minute conflict discussion. Significant effects were found when comparing couples' codes against treatment retention and later relationship functioning. Couples also completed various assessments three times during the study, including the 480-question Gottman Connect (GC) assessment tool. Couples on the 3-week waitlist completed one additional pre-treatment assessment before their 3-week wait commenced. Multivariate statistics with appropriate univariate follow-up procedures were employed to determine group differences between the control and experimental groups. Follow-up procedures were also conducted to investigate any differential rates of symptom reduction or treatment success. The researcher used path analysis procedures following Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM- Kenny et al., 2020) assumptions to examine the effects of the intervention on overall relationship satisfaction and subsequent affair recovery, revealing significant effects between assessment scores and coded behaviors. Clinical significance testing also showed significant effects in specific relationship domains. The results add to the current research literature, validating GMCT as an effective broad-based couple therapy approach to repair relationships following infidelity. Implications for clinical practice, graduate training, and research are discussed. ISBN: 9798841795896
... Unlike MFD, however, scholars have studied EMI in great depth. Researchers have found that predictors of EMI can be found within individuals, within marital relationships, and outside marital relationships (see Atkins et al., 2001;Allen et al., 2005;Fincham and May, 2017 for reviews). For example, having been sexually unfaithful in the past, being dissatisfied with the relationship, and having lower commitment to the marriage are all associated with greater likelihoods of infidelity (Fincham and May, 2017). ...
... Researchers have found that predictors of EMI can be found within individuals, within marital relationships, and outside marital relationships (see Atkins et al., 2001;Allen et al., 2005;Fincham and May, 2017 for reviews). For example, having been sexually unfaithful in the past, being dissatisfied with the relationship, and having lower commitment to the marriage are all associated with greater likelihoods of infidelity (Fincham and May, 2017). Contrastingly, many aspects of religiosity, such as prayer and religious worship service attendance are associated with lower probabilities of sexual infidelity (Fincham and May, 2017). ...
... For example, having been sexually unfaithful in the past, being dissatisfied with the relationship, and having lower commitment to the marriage are all associated with greater likelihoods of infidelity (Fincham and May, 2017). Contrastingly, many aspects of religiosity, such as prayer and religious worship service attendance are associated with lower probabilities of sexual infidelity (Fincham and May, 2017). ...
Article
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Introduction Although spouses frequently financially deceive each other (MFD; i.e., marital financial deception), few studies have examined this relationship behavior. The purpose of our study is to examine predictors of separate and joint occurrences of MFD and extramarital affairs (EMI). We chose the predictors we tested using social exchange theory (SET). Methods We used a national sample of married individuals and multinomial logistic regression analyses to examine how different predictors were associated with membership in three different groups (MFD with no EMI, EMI with no MFD, and both MFD and EMI) relative to the group of participants who reported neither behaviors. Results Relationship satisfaction was associated with a lower likelihood of being in the MFD-only group, moral commitment was negatively associated with membership in both EMI groups, and personal dedication commitment was negatively associated with membership in both MFD groups. Flirting with someone other than one’s spouse was positively associated with being in all three groups relative to the reference group. The personal importance of religion was not associated with group membership. Discussion Moral commitment, personal dedication commitment, and flirting with someone other than one’s spouse predicted these two types of marital deception. It is likely that other issues that affect marital outcomes, comparisons, and monitoring alternatives to the relationship may predict MFD and/or EMI.
... Regarding the relevance of culture, authors such as Rada (2012), Fincham and May (2016) and Rosenberg (2018) point out the influence that different messages can have, not only on topics such as sexuality, love, and adultery, but also high divers terminology referring to the term of infidelity and the cultural conceptions of it. Thus, there are differences in the moral perception of unfaithful behavior in 39 countries surveyed in six regions (Wike, 2014) and there are societies, in which unfaithful behavior is censored depending on whether it was committed by the man or the woman (Buss, 2016). ...
... Likewise, Whisman et al. (2007) mentioned low self-esteem and suspicion of an affair as predictive variables of infidelity, mentioning as well that a variable that predicted infidelity above the effects of marital dissatisfaction and demographic variables was religiosity, which was negatively associated with infidelity and it seems to act as a protective factor that weakens the association between marital dissatisfaction and infidelity. In addition, higher levels of education, being of the same religion, greater commitment, and marital cohabitation compared to non-marital cohabitation are variables that decrease the possibility of committing infidelity at the couple level (Fincham & May, 2016). ...
... At the same time, regarding individual characteristics, different authors mention the influence of personality traits such as narcissism, lack of empathy, grandiosity, impulsiveness, high search for novelties or strong emotions, and having an avoidant attachment style (Buss & Shackelford, 1997;González et al., 2009;Mark et al., 2011;Rosenberg, 2018;Whisman et al., 2007). Similarly, family history of infidelity, having been unfaithful in previous relationships, greater number of sexual partners, alcohol problems, drug use, insecure attachment, high psychological anguish, and a permissive attitude towards sexuality are variables identified as risk factors that facilitate infidelity (Fincham & May, 2016). ...
Article
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Infidelity is a problem that entails psychological and physical consequences in humankind (Buss, 2016; González et al., 2009; Shackelford et al., 2003); thus, indicating the importance of measuring infidelity construct. The objective of the study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Multidimensional Infidelity Inventory (IMIN) for Colombian samples. For this, the instrument was applied to 674 Colombian participants, 224 men (33.28%) and 449 women (66.71%), with ages between 18 and 81 years (M = 25.11; SD = 10.56), carrying out exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory, and internal consistency for each subscale. In general, in the Motives to infidelity scale, three factors were found that explained 66.74% of the total accumulated variance; three factors were found in the Trend to Infidelity scale, explaining 65.02% of the total variance; in the sub-scale of Beliefs to infidelity, five factors were obtained, explaining 58.33% of the accumulated variance; and in the sub-scale of Consequences of infidelity, two clearly constituted factors were found, which explain 57.58% of the accumulated variance. All of them had confirmatory models with adequate levels of goodness of fit, adequate Cronbach alpha indicators, item-item, and item-test correlations, in addition to concordance with the original proposal of the instrument.
... Faktor yang mendorong terjadinya perselingkuhan online antara lain adanya akses ke berbagai situs chat room untuk mencari pasangan dan seks bebas, adanya kemiripan dunia internet dengan dunia fisik seperti interaksi emosional, adanya penerimaan perilaku di dunia maya yang tidak di terima masyarakat sehingga menimbulkan rasa nyaman, adanya ambiguitas yang mengacu pada batas-batas yang kabur antara perilaku yang diterima dan tidak diterima di dunia maya, adanya ruang untuk mengubah diri sehingga dapat menunjukkan perbedaan antara diri yang nyata dan ditampilkan di dunia maya (Abbasi & Alghamdi, 2017;Fincham & May, 2017) ...
... Penulis mencoba menguraikan proses terjadinya perselingkuhan online selama masa pandemi berdasarkan sejumlah penelitian terdahulu. Diawali dari ketidakpuasan perkawinan yang menjadi penyebab maupun dampak dari perselingkuhan (Fincham & May, 2017), selain itu ketidakpuasan relasi merupakan prediktor kuat terjadinya perselingkuhan (Previti & Amato, 2004, McAlister, Pachana & Jackson, 2005Shaw et al., 2013;Fincham & May, 2017;Isanejad & Bagheri, 2018). Pada masa pandemi, berbagai permasalahan dan stres berpeluang terjadinya perselingkuhan online (Gordon & Mitchell, 2020). ...
... Penulis mencoba menguraikan proses terjadinya perselingkuhan online selama masa pandemi berdasarkan sejumlah penelitian terdahulu. Diawali dari ketidakpuasan perkawinan yang menjadi penyebab maupun dampak dari perselingkuhan (Fincham & May, 2017), selain itu ketidakpuasan relasi merupakan prediktor kuat terjadinya perselingkuhan (Previti & Amato, 2004, McAlister, Pachana & Jackson, 2005Shaw et al., 2013;Fincham & May, 2017;Isanejad & Bagheri, 2018). Pada masa pandemi, berbagai permasalahan dan stres berpeluang terjadinya perselingkuhan online (Gordon & Mitchell, 2020). ...
Chapter
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Pasca penyebaran virus Covid-19 yang melanda berbagai negara di dunia, memunculkan berbagai penelitian yang berkaitan erat dengan dampak Covid-19, termasuk penelitian yang dilakukan oleh OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) melalui program regionalnya di beberapa negara yaitu Indonesia, Thailand, dan Viet Nam. OECD melakukan penelitian mengenai dampak dari Covid-19 pada bidang ekonomi dan sosial. Dalam penelitian tersebut, diungkapkan beberapa statement bersinggungan dengan perempuan menjadi ‘core’ dalam menghadapi dampak Covid-19 di level keluarga. Berdasarkan data tersebut, tulisan ini akan mengupas mengenai bagaimana dampak Covid-19 terhadap peran perempuan di Asia Tenggara. Hal ini dikarenakan isu pandemi Covid-19 adalah isu kesehatan internasional dan wilayah Asia Tenggara adalah region/kawasan yang paling dekat dengan China.
... Moreover, most of the participants (84%) reported having an exclusivity agreement, either explicit, as a mutual understanding, or merely implied (Gibson et al., 2016). Infidelity is often perceived as a violation of such exclusivity ground rules, and many view infidelities as immoral (Fincham & May, 2017;Sevi et al., 2020;Thompson, 1984). Hence, one can imagine the importance of understanding why up to a fifth of research samples report cheating in their current relationships, regardless of its cultural unacceptability (e.g., Mark et al., 2011). ...
... Research has examined hundreds of factors that predict infidelity, including individual differences and relationship/circumstantial factors. While demographic (e.g., sex, age) and individual difference factors (e.g., personality) are empirically associated with infidelity, the most consistent and robust predictors are found within the relationship (Fincham & May, 2017;Gibson et al., 2016;Haseli et al., 2019;Silva et al., 2017;Tsapelas et al., 2010;Vowels et al., 2020). This is especially true when one considers that any relationship encompasses the intricate behaviors that a couple engages in, including the macrosystems (e.g., religion) microsystems (e.g., infidelity experience), exosystems (e.g., home instability), and mesosystems (e.g., satisfaction) that are interacting to influence the relationship and the individuals within that relationship (Haseli et al., 2019). ...
... Interdependence theory (Rusbult & Buunk, 1993) and, more specifically, the investment model of commitment (Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult et al., 1998) posits that relationship commitment is based on the combination of three factors: high satisfaction, high investment, and low quality of potential alternatives. Moreover, the investment model is central to explaining relationship functioning, and comprises both attachment and motivation to continue the relationship via those three factors (Drigotas et al., 1999;Fincham & May, 2017;Le & Agnew, 2003). ...
Article
Infidelity is often defined as perceived as a violation of relationship exclusivity rules, and many view infidelities as immoral. Thus, one can imagine the importance of understanding why up to a fifth of research samples report cheating in their current relationships. There is considerable literature regarding what factors predict infidelity. Although individual characteristics associated with infidelity do exist, relationship-based variables tend to be the most consistent and robust factors. This chapter will discuss various theories and research findings that suggested different relationship-based factors and frameworks with which to consider and predict why some people engage in infidelity. This chapter reviews some major ideas and research through the lens of the investment model of commitment (i.e., satisfaction, investment, quality of alternatives, commitment), as well as other relationship-based variables (e.g., opportunities and boredom, relationship type and length) that have received empirical support. Finally, the chapter ends with a nod to future directions in this area, and a notion of what researchers should expect from the literature in the future.
... Moreover, most of the participants (84%) reported having an exclusivity agreement, either explicit, as a mutual understanding, or merely implied (Gibson et al., 2016). Infidelity is often perceived as a violation of such exclusivity ground rules, and many view infidelities as immoral (Fincham & May, 2017;Sevi et al., 2020;Thompson, 1984). Hence, one can imagine the importance of understanding why up to a fifth of research samples report cheating in their current relationships, regardless of its cultural unacceptability (e.g., Mark et al., 2011). ...
... Research has examined hundreds of factors that predict infidelity, including individual differences and relationship/circumstantial factors. While demographic (e.g., sex, age) and individual difference factors (e.g., personality) are empirically associated with infidelity, the most consistent and robust predictors are found within the relationship (Fincham & May, 2017;Gibson et al., 2016;Haseli et al., 2019;Silva et al., 2017;Tsapelas et al., 2010;Vowels et al., 2020). This is especially true when one considers that any relationship encompasses the intricate behaviors that a couple engages in, including the macrosystems (e.g., religion) microsystems (e.g., infidelity experience), exosystems (e.g., home instability), and mesosystems (e.g., satisfaction) that are interacting to influence the relationship and the individuals within that relationship (Haseli et al., 2019). ...
... Interdependence theory (Rusbult & Buunk, 1993) and, more specifically, the investment model of commitment (Rusbult, 1980;Rusbult et al., 1998) posits that relationship commitment is based on the combination of three factors: high satisfaction, high investment, and low quality of potential alternatives. Moreover, the investment model is central to explaining relationship functioning, and comprises both attachment and motivation to continue the relationship via those three factors (Drigotas et al., 1999;Fincham & May, 2017;Le & Agnew, 2003). ...
Book
Psychological research has produced a rich body of empirical data documenting humanity’s propensity to commit infidelity in the context of long-term relationships, but comparatively little work has been dedicated to synthesizing these data into an integrated framework that encompasses the full range of its processes, from why it occurs in the first place to how it affects the long-term relationship thereafter. This edited handbook integrates a broad range of topics such as characteristics related to the propensity to commit infidelity, sex differences in reactions to infidelity, our inclination to dissolve relationships after infidelity, and other responses to infidelity. It showcases contributions from experts in social psychology, evolutionary psychology, and others who specialize in research on romantic relationships. The handbook discusses the processes of infidelity alongside sources of variation, such as sexual orientation, developmental life history, individual differences, and culture. This volume captures the interdisciplinary quality of research on the predictors, nature, and consequences of infidelity for the broader social scientific community interested in trust in romantic relationships.
... Indeed, many studies have found that men are more likely to engage in sex outside of a relationship (Labrecque & Whisman, 2017;Petersen & Hyde, 2010) whereas women may be more likely to engage in emotional infidelity (Selterman et al., 2019). However, a greater number of studies have found more similarity than difference between the genders' engagement in infidelity, especially when both sexual and emotional forms of infidelity are considered (Allen et al., 2006;Fincham & May, 2017;Mark et al., 2011;Treas & Giesen, 2000). Other demographic variables that have been previously associated with infidelity include relationship status, education, and religion. ...
... Other demographic variables that have been previously associated with infidelity include relationship status, education, and religion. Some studies have found that more committed individuals are less likely to engage in infidelity (Amato & Previti, 2004;Fincham & May, 2017) and highly educated individuals are more likely to engage in infidelity (Atkins et al., 2001;Martins et al., 2016;Treas & Giesen, 2000) whereas other studies have found the opposite pattern or no difference for education (Allen et al., 2006;Fincham & May, 2017). Finally, individuals with no religious affiliation have been reported to be more likely to engage in infidelity in some studies (Burdette et al., 2007;Fincham & May, 2017;Mattingly et al., 2010) but not in others (Haseli et al., 2019;Mark et al., 2011), especially when other factors are also considered (Mark et al., 2011). ...
... Other demographic variables that have been previously associated with infidelity include relationship status, education, and religion. Some studies have found that more committed individuals are less likely to engage in infidelity (Amato & Previti, 2004;Fincham & May, 2017) and highly educated individuals are more likely to engage in infidelity (Atkins et al., 2001;Martins et al., 2016;Treas & Giesen, 2000) whereas other studies have found the opposite pattern or no difference for education (Allen et al., 2006;Fincham & May, 2017). Finally, individuals with no religious affiliation have been reported to be more likely to engage in infidelity in some studies (Burdette et al., 2007;Fincham & May, 2017;Mattingly et al., 2010) but not in others (Haseli et al., 2019;Mark et al., 2011), especially when other factors are also considered (Mark et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Infidelity can be a disruptive event in a romantic relationship with a devastating impact on both partners’ well-being. Thus, there are benefits to identifying factors that can explain or predict infidelity, but prior research has not utilized methods that would provide the relative importance of each predictor. We used a machine learning algorithm, random forest (a type of interpretable highly non-linear decision tree), to predict in-person and online infidelity across two studies (one individual and one dyadic, N = 1,295). We also used a game theoretic explanation technique, Shapley values, which allowed us to estimate the effect size of each predictor variable on infidelity. The present study showed that infidelity was somewhat predictable overall and interpersonal factors such as relationship satisfaction, love, desire, and relationship length were the most predictive of online and in person infidelity. The results suggest that addressing relationship difficulties early in the relationship may help prevent infidelity.
... Whisman et al. (2007) reported that low self-esteem and suspicions of in delity between spouses affect marital satisfaction. Higher the level of education and religiosity, greater is the commitment and harmony between spouses, and in return, lower is the possibility of in delity between them (Fincham & May, 2016). ...
... At the same time, individuals with narcissistic personality, lack of empathy, and compulsiveness highly seek novelty, distinction, strong emotions, have an avoidant attachment style, and are more likely to betray their partners (González et al., 2009;Rosenberg, 2018;Shackelford, 1997). In contrast, family history of in delity, past sexual relations, alcohol and drug addiction problems, and insecure attachment are risk factors and facilitate in delity behavior (Fincham & May, 2016). ...
Preprint
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The concept of infidelity is one of the basics of marital life, and on it depends the satisfaction, compatibility and happiness of the spouses. Therefore, there is an urgent need in Arab countries to develop tools that contribute to dealing with this problem and its painful consequences. Infidelity is a problem that affects a person psychologically and physically, and it is important to develop a measure to identify this problem. This study aimed to verify the validity and reliability of the Multidimensional Infidelity Inventory (IMIN) on a Jordanian sample. For this purpose, the Spanish version of the Romero-Palencia et al. (2007) questionnaire was translated and applied to a Jordanian sample of 732 persons (291 men, 441 women). The results showed that three factors explained 70.28% of the total variance of the infidelity trend subscale, and seven factors explained 68.43% of the total variance of the reasons for infidelity subscale. Five factors explained 61.21% of the total variance of the infidelity beliefs subscale, and two factors explained 57.45% of the total variance for the infidelity consequences subscale. All of them had confirmatory models with adequate levels of goodness of fit, adequate Cronbach alpha indicators, item-item and item-test correlations, in addition to concordance with the original proposal of the instrument. This instrument can assess, diagnose, and overcome infidelity.
... Hangi davranışların aldatma olarak değerlendirildiği hem toplum içinde hem de araştırmacılar arasında büyük değişkenlik gösterse de, aldatma genel olarak ilişki içindeki tek eşlilik kuralının ihlali olarak tanımlanmaktadır (örn., Weeks, Gambescia ve Jenkins, 2003). Aldatmanın nasıl tanımlandığı, araştırılan zaman aralığı ve örneklemleme yöntemine bağlı olarak, rapor edilen aldatma davranışlarının sıklığı %2'den %25'e kadar geniş bir değişiklik göstermektedir (derlemeler için bkz., Blow ve Hartnett, 2005;Fincham ve May, 2017;Haseli, Shariati, Nazari, Keramat ve Emamian, 2019;Munsch, 2012). Bireylerin sosyal istenirlik nedeniyle olumsuz davranışlarda bulunduklarını rapor etme olasılığının azlığı (bkz., Krumpal, 2013) düşünüldüğünde, aldatmanın yaygınlığının daha da yüksek olduğu tahmin edilebilir. ...
... Aldatma davranışının, psikolojik (örn., kaygı, depresyon) ve fiziksel (örn., cinsel yolla bulaşan hastalıklar) rahatsızlıklar, öz saygıda ve partnere duyulan güvende azalma, aile içi şiddet, ayrılma ve boşanma gibi hem birey hem de ilişki için yıkıcı olabilecek sonuçlara yol açtığı bilinmektedir (bkz., Blow ve Hartnett, 2005;Fincham ve May, 2017). Romantik ilişkilerin insan hayatındaki yeri düşünüldüğünde, aldatma davranışının sebeplerinin anlaşılması ve bu davranışların olumsuz sonuçlarını hafifletecek müdahalelerin yapılmasının önemi anlaşılabilir. ...
... Infidelity is a behavioral disorder that leads to abnormal and undesirable consequences and creates many problems for both the betraying and betrayed spouses. It may also lead to shock, disbelief, denial, beatings, murder, suicide (Fincham & May, 2017), marital crisis, dysfunctions in parenting roles, job problems (Gordon, Baucom, & Snyder, 2005), family breakdown, and the separation of couples (Jahan et al., 2017). ...
... Marital infidelity also leads to mental disorders (posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, obsession, and nightmares) and physical disorders (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and respiratory problems) (Fincham & May, 2017). In addition, couples who undergo treatment for marital infidelity are more likely to separate and get a divorce than couples who refer for therapy for other problems (Hawkins, Willoughby, & Doherty, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: An increase in post-marital relationships has had adverse consequences. One of the consequences is family dissolution and the breakdown of social units (families). The present study aimed to study the processes and contextual factors of marital infidelity. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using the grounded theory method. The research population included couples who experienced marital infidelity. A total of 32 participants were selected using the purposive sampling method in 2019. We conducted semi-structured interviews with the participants to collect the study data, and the interviews continued until the data saturation. The collected data were systematically analyzed in three stages of open, axial, and selective coding. Results: Analysis of the data collected revealed 51 codes extracted through open coding. Then, the extracted codes were merged into 10 categories via axial coding. These categories included four themes: the formation of the context of marital infidelity, predictions of marital infidelity, engaging in marital infidelity, and the consequences of marital infidelity. Conclusion: Given that marital infidelity is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon, the insights from this study can be used to develop models to identify and prevent predictors of marital infidelity.
... It is therefore not surprising that infidelity has received considerable scholarly attention over the past decades (for reviews, see Blow & Hartnett, 2005a, 2005bFincham & May, 2017). Research has explored both the determinants and consequences of infidelity (e.g., Negash et al., 2017;Previti & Amato, 2004;Shrout & Weigel, 2020), as well as the prevalence of and trends in infidelity, asking whether extradyadic behaviors become more or less common over time or are observed more often within specific groups or genders (e.g., Brand et al., 2007;Labrecque & Whisman, 2017;Zhang et al., 2012). ...
... As the focus of the present study was on attitudes toward infidelity rather than on jealousy as a reaction to imagined or real infidelity, social norms can indeed be assumed to be influential. Research has shown that gender differences regarding the prevalence of infidelity have been shrinking over the past decades (Fincham & May, 2017;Helms & Bierhoff, 2001;Maddox Shaw et al., 2013). Therefore, it seems plausible that men and women would exhibit increasingly similar attitudes toward infidelity as well. ...
Article
Full-text available
Infidelity is more than extradyadic intercourse, but it is unclear where infidelity begins and how behaviors are related to each other. We investigated data from a factorial survey experiment implemented in the German Family Panel (pairfam). 9,104 respondents evaluated 26,633 vignettes on unfaithful behaviors including four dimensions: explicit behavior, emotional involvement, infidelity duration, and erotic online contact. Results suggest that item lists may not reveal the full picture of unfaithfulness. While intercourse is judged as unfaithful irrespective of the context, less explicit behaviors such as kisses or hugs were also regarded as infidelity. Nonphysical dimensions contributed to infidelity judgments more strongly when less explicit behaviors were evaluated. Even cases of no physical contact combined with erotic text messages and emotional involvement were evaluated as unfaithful. Women's judgments were stricter than men's, and younger respondents' evaluations were stricter than those from older respondents. No differences were found regarding the gender of the vignette character.
... Hangi davranışların aldatma olarak değerlendirildiği hem toplum içinde hem de araştırmacılar arasında büyük değişkenlik gösterse de, aldatma genel olarak ilişki içindeki tek eşlilik kuralının ihlali olarak tanımlanmaktadır (örn., Weeks, Gambescia ve Jenkins, 2003). Aldatmanın nasıl tanımlandığı, araştırılan zaman aralığı ve örneklemleme yöntemine bağlı olarak, rapor edilen aldatma davranışlarının sıklığı %2'den %25'e kadar geniş bir değişiklik göstermektedir (derlemeler için bkz., Blow ve Hartnett, 2005;Fincham ve May, 2017;Haseli, Shariati, Nazari, Keramat ve Emamian, 2019;Munsch, 2012). Bireylerin sosyal istenirlik nedeniyle olumsuz davranışlarda bulunduklarını rapor etme olasılığının azlığı (bkz., Krumpal, 2013) düşünüldüğünde, aldatmanın yaygınlığının daha da yüksek olduğu tahmin edilebilir. ...
... Aldatma davranışının, psikolojik (örn., kaygı, depresyon) ve fiziksel (örn., cinsel yolla bulaşan hastalıklar) rahatsızlıklar, öz saygıda ve partnere duyulan güvende azalma, aile içi şiddet, ayrılma ve boşanma gibi hem birey hem de ilişki için yıkıcı olabilecek sonuçlara yol açtığı bilinmektedir (bkz., Blow ve Hartnett, 2005;Fincham ve May, 2017). Romantik ilişkilerin insan hayatındaki yeri düşünüldüğünde, aldatma davranışının sebeplerinin anlaşılması ve bu davranışların olumsuz sonuçlarını hafifletecek müdahalelerin yapılmasının önemi anlaşılabilir. ...
Conference Paper
İnsanların inançları, yaşamlarını sürdürdükleri coğrafya, kurmuş oldukları toplumsal düzen, diğer topluluklarla kurmuş oldukları ilişkiler, teknolojik gelişmeler toplumların hayatlarını doğrudan veya dolaylı olarak etkilemiştir. Doğal olarak da toplumların çocuklara bakış açıları da değişime uğramıştır. Tarihe bakıldığında çocukluk kavramının yetişkinlik kavramından farkının olmadığı, sonraki süreçlerde ise bu kavramın toplumların yaşamış oldukları değişim süreciyle başkalaşıma uğradığı göze çarpmaktadır. İlk toplumlarda fiziksel, duygusal ve davranışsal açıdan yetişkinlerden farklılıkları olmasına rağmen çocuklar çocuk olarak kabul edilmemiş, her bakımdan minyatür birer yetişkin olarak görülmüşlerdir. Çocuklar ne kadar seviliyor olsalar da bütün toplumlarda çocukluk bilincinin geçmişte de günümüzde de eksik olduğu göze çarpmaktadır. Dünyadaki toplumlar çocuk hakkında tarihsel süreç içinde yeterli bilgiye sahip olamamış ve bu bilgi eksikliği ne yazık ki günümüzde de devam etmektedir. Dünya genelinde yapılan ve yapılmakta olan başarılı uygulamaların çok az sayıdaki çocuklara ulaştığı ve çocuk eğitim programlarının da bunun etkisiyle istenen seviyelere gelmediği söylenebilir. Bu nedenle çocukların eğitimi söz konusu olduğunda birçok problemin tarih boyunca çocukların karşısına çıktığı görülmektedir. Bir toplumun çocuğa olan bakış açısı o toplumda var olan çocuk eğitim programına yansımaktadır. Çocukluk kavramı birçok araştırmaya konu olmasına rağmen çocuk eğitim programlarının bu araştırmalardan nasibini alamadığı önemli bir problem olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışmada da bu problem göz önünde bulundurularak Dünyada ve Türkiye’de çocukluk kavramının tarihsel gelişimi ve bunun eğitim programlarına nasıl yansıdığı tartışılacaktır.
... Table 5 were all low (see Table 6). For the prediction equation, therefore, we employed the Poisson model used in most Voodoo Doll studies (Chester & DeWall, & Enjaian, 2019;DeWall et al., 2013;Fincham & May, 2017). Note that a negative binomial model showed similar but slightly weaker results. ...
... The task has been validated for measuring aggression in a variety of situations, including conflict between married spouses, self-image, and by parents towards their children(Bushman et al., 2014;Fincham & May, 2017;McCarthy et al., 2016). It has been favorably compared to other aggression measures. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the personality foundations of aggression typically implicates either (a) aspects of the so‐called “Dark Tetrad” or (b) severe mental disturbance (psychosis). The appearance of psychotic symptoms in general populations is termed schizotypy. We conducted two studies to compare the effects of dark personalities and schizotypy on aggression. Study 1 used standard inventories to investigate the overlap of Dark Tetrad traits with schizotypy in a sample of 977 undergraduates. All tetrad traits except narcissism were positively associated with schizotypy, but only at moderate levels. Study 2 administered the same personality battery to 303 members of an online community sample: Aggression outcomes were measured with both self‐reports and a behavioral measure—the Voodoo Doll Task. Regression analyses determined the unique contributions of the five personality variables. Two dark traits—psychopathy and sadism—were strong predictors of self‐report aggression. Schizotypy added incrementally to the Dark Tetrad in predicting both self‐report and behaviorally measured aggression.
... Hangi davranışların aldatma olarak değerlendirildiği hem toplum içinde hem de araştırmacılar arasında büyük değişkenlik gösterse de, aldatma genel olarak ilişki içindeki tek eşlilik kuralının ihlali olarak tanımlanmaktadır (örn., Weeks, Gambescia ve Jenkins, 2003). Aldatmanın nasıl tanımlandığı, araştırılan zaman aralığı ve örneklemleme yöntemine bağlı olarak, rapor edilen aldatma davranışlarının sıklığı %2'den %25'e kadar geniş bir değişiklik göstermektedir (derlemeler için bkz., Blow ve Hartnett, 2005;Fincham ve May, 2017;Haseli, Shariati, Nazari, Keramat ve Emamian, 2019;Munsch, 2012). Bireylerin sosyal istenirlik nedeniyle olumsuz davranışlarda bulunduklarını rapor etme olasılığının azlığı (bkz., Krumpal, 2013) düşünüldüğünde, aldatmanın yaygınlığının daha da yüksek olduğu tahmin edilebilir. ...
... Aldatma davranışının, psikolojik (örn., kaygı, depresyon) ve fiziksel (örn., cinsel yolla bulaşan hastalıklar) rahatsızlıklar, öz saygıda ve partnere duyulan güvende azalma, aile içi şiddet, ayrılma ve boşanma gibi hem birey hem de ilişki için yıkıcı olabilecek sonuçlara yol açtığı bilinmektedir (bkz., Blow ve Hartnett, 2005;Fincham ve May, 2017). Romantik ilişkilerin insan hayatındaki yeri düşünüldüğünde, aldatma davranışının sebeplerinin anlaşılması ve bu davranışların olumsuz sonuçlarını hafifletecek müdahalelerin yapılmasının önemi anlaşılabilir. ...
... The growing demand for applications that facilitate extradyadic affairs (Finkel et al., 2012Vossler, 2016 indeed demonstrates that sex is often sought outside of what is considered a committed relationship (e.g., Allen et al., 2005Blow & Hartnett, 2005. Whereas most prior studies have focused on partner and relationship factors that make both online and offline infidelity more likely (see Fincham & May, 2017;Vossler, 2016, for reviews), the present research turns the spotlight on the characteristics of the alternatives that lessen people's ability to resist their allure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Committed individuals cope with the threat of alternative partners by using strategies that undermine their allure. However, in an era, in which alternative mates lurk around every corner, these strategies may lose their effectiveness. Two studies investigated this possibility , examining how being the target of online mate poaching influenced perceptions of current and alternative partners. In both studies, partnered undergraduate students chatted online with a confederate of the other sex who behaved either flirtatiously or neutrally. Then, participants completed a measure of implicit perception of their partner (Study 1) or described a sexual fantasy (Study 2). The fantasies were coded for expressions of desire for current and alternative partners. Results showed that receiving mate poaching attempts decreased the appeal of current partners while increasing the desirability of alternatives. These findings Statement of Relevance: Committed individuals cope with alternative partners by using strategies that undermine their allure. However, in an era, in which alternative mates lurk around every corner, these strategies may lose their effectiveness. Two studies investigated this possibility, showing that receiving mate poaching attempts decreased the appeal of current partners while increasing the desirability of alternatives. These findings demonstrate the circumstances that weaken resistance to temptations, pointing to a route by which online interactions impair relationship functioning.
... Further, between 65% and 75% of college students have reported engaging in some sort of cheating behavior while in a serious dating relationship (Shackelford et al., 2000). A variety of factors contribute to engaging in infidelity including demographics, individual variables (e.g., personality, attitudes, experiences), relationship variables (e.g., relationship quality, shared values, cohabi-tation), and situational variables (e.g., work environment, religious activity, internet use; Fincham & May, 2017). Beyond these factors, research suggests that television may provide important information about relational norms (e.g., Trekels et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
A content analysis was conducted of infidelity depictions in popular television programs released in 2017–2018. Findings revealed that approximately one-third of the television programs sampled depicted infidelity behaviors or talk about infidelity; however, the amount of infidelity depicted did not differ by genre. Attraction to another was the main reason characters engaged in infidelity. Although the consequences of engaging in infidelity were primarily negative, these consequences differed by type of infidelity: Sexual infidelity incurred more positive consequences, and romantic infidelity incurred more negative consequences.
... If the marriage contract is mentioned for a period of time, the contract becomes void and invalid. A married relationship becomes an adulterous relationship (Fincham & May, 2017). ...
Article
In the aspect of Islamic law, mut'ah marriage was allowed by Rasulullah SAW only during the war. But the permission has been abolished or the law of mut'ah marriage is forbidden and sinful for those who do it. In the aspect of national law, contract marriage is considered a legal defect because it is contrary to Article 2 paragraph (1) of Law Number 1 of 1974 on Marriage, Article 1337 and Article 1332 of the Civil Law, the principle of marriage and the purpose of marriage. Based on these provisions, a legal marriage is conducted in accordance with the teachings of religion and beliefs and is not contrary to the values ??of morality. Marriages that are registered or registered in accordance with applicable laws and regulations will receive protection from the State. The practice of contract marriage actually positions the position of women is very weak in the eyes of the law because the marriage is considered never happened, so the wife is not considered a legitimate wife, the wife is not entitled to alimony and inheritance from the husband if he dies and the wife is not entitled to gono gini property if it occurs. separation, because legally the marriage, the contractual marriage is considered to have never occurred.
... It describes five broad categories of such reasons, each highlighted by other studies as significantly and frequently associated to unfaithful behavior. These categories are: sexuality, referring to the need for sexual variety or sexual incompatibility with the partner (Omarzu et al. 2012;Buunk 1980;Glass and Wright 1992;Barta and Kiene 2005), emotional satisfaction-the need for intimacy and emotional connection, and unsatisfactory, routine marital climate, where attention, love, shared affection, and intellectual stimulation are missing (Haseli et al. 2019;Fincham and May 2017;Shackelford et al. 2008), social context-contexts favorable to infidelity, through close interactions with people of the opposite sex in the professional environment, the physical distance between the partners, or spending lots of time at work or separately with friends (Kuroki 2013; Gwinn et al. 2013), attitudes-norms-permissive attitudes towards infidelity or permissiveness of sexual relations in one's social context (Jackman 2015;Rodrigues et al. 2017), and revenge-hostility reasons, such as the desire for revenge on a partner who has already committed infidelity or other harms (Barta and Kiene 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Most of the previously developed scales addressing infidelity were developed on young samples in dating relationships and with limited couple experience. The present study proposes an instrument to measure the proneness for infidelity among married people with substantial experience as a couple. Specific contexts described by the items, in which unfaithful behavior might occur, were selected from those revealed by previous research on people’s motives of past infidelity. Across two studies (N = 618) we examined the factorial structure and the psychometric characteristics of the Propensity towards Infidelity Scale (PTIS). Results revealed a one-dimensional structure of the PTIS and supported its reliability, its construct, criterion and incremental validity. PTIS emerged as negatively associated with two measures of adherence to moral standards, and positively related to past unfaithful behavior. Furthermore, the new instrument was found to bring a significant contribution in explaining these behaviors beyond two other scales of infidelity intentions.
... The final set of disengagement practices, attribution of blame and dehumanization, redefines the victims of harmful acts as deserving the harm that they suffer. For example, blaming one's partner for the poor quality of the relationship, for his/her prolonged physical distanc-ing, hostility, or other harm are the reasons most often invoked by infidels when motivating their affairs with another partner outside the relationship (Fincham & May, 2017;Barta & Kiene, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Marital infidelity is both socially perceived as immoral and very frequent. This contradiction might be explained through the process of moral disengagement, specifically by the use of certain socially shared moral justifications of infidelity, which consequently foster unfaithful behavior. This research developed and examined the Infidelity Moral Disengagement Scale (IMDS), aiming to capture the strategies of morally legitimizing infidelity used among people engaged in marital relationships. Across two studies (total N= 609 married participants) we investigated the dimensions and psychometric properties of the IMDS. Results showed that the dominant strategies of legitimizing marital infidelity are the diffusion of responsibility, the attribution of blame on the cheated partner, advantageous comparisons with other immoral acts, justifying infidelity through certain benefits, and minimizing its negative consequences. The IMDS emerged as negatively related to moral identity and strongly associated to people’s past infidelity and to their tendency to engage in unfaithful behaviors.
... Infidelity can be defined with many words like cheating, adultery, unfaithful, extramarital or stepping out [3]. The definition of marital infidelity consists of sexual infidelity (sexual exchange with no romantic involvement), romantic infidelity (romantic exchanges with no sexual involvement) and sexual and romantic involvement [4]. ...
... Forming long-term intimate relationships is a human universal (Brown, 1991;Coontz, 2005;Epstein & Guttman, 1984), and so is infidelity (Betzig, 1989;Fisher, 2017). Extra-pair mating can have severe negative consequences for the legitimate partner, which in turn, translate into strong selection pressures for mechanisms to evolve that would protect people from their partner's infidelity (Platek & Shackelford, 2006; for a review on infidelity research see Fincham & May 2017;Haseli et al., 2019). It has been proposed that romantic jealousy is such a mechanism for an extensive review of the jealousy literature see Martínez-León et al., 2017), and the current research attempts to examine if it is indeed effective in detecting infidelity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Extra-pair mating has potentially severe costs, which favor the evolution of mechanisms that would enable people to reduce them by detecting their partners’ infidelity. Such a mechanism is romantic jealousy, and the current research attempted to examine the interplay between romantic jealousy, personality and the probability of detecting infidelity. Method We employed quantitative research methods on a sample of 916 Greek-speaking participants. Results we found that higher scorers in romantic jealousy were more likely to detect infidelity than lower scorers. The effect was independent of one’s own infidelity, sex and age. We also found that neuroticism and openness predicted the probability to detect infidelity indirectly through jealousy. More specifically, high scorers in neuroticism experienced stronger jealousy, which in turn, was associated with increased probability to detect infidelity. On the other hand, high scorers in openness experienced lower jealousy that was associated with a decreased probability of detecting infidelity. Conclusions Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that the jealousy mechanism has evolved to enable individuals to detect infidelity.
... Starting from the former, several individual characteristics, including personality traits, including neuroticism, number of sex partners before marriage, insecure attachment orientation, and substances abuse, have been associated with infidelity (Fincham & May, 2017;Graham et al., 2016;Whisman & Snyder, 2007). With respect to relationship factors, decrease in relationship satisfaction is associated with increased incidence of infidelity, with evidence indicating that the effect may be bidirectional (Weiser et al., 2017; see also Arantes et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Infidelity is relatively common, with culprits not always been able to keep it secret from their partners. Accordingly, the current research aimed to study people's reactions to their partners' infidelity. More specifically, using qualitative research methods on a sample of 226 Greek‐speaking participants, Study 1 identified 94 possible reactions to infidelity. Study 2 employed quantitative research methods on a sample of 757 Greek‐speaking participants, and classified these reactions into 17 broad factors. Among the most probable reactions, were experiencing negative emotions, terminating the relationship, keeping physical distance from the unfaithful partner, and getting more information about the incident. Significant gender and age effects were found for several of the extracted factors. Using second‐order principal components analysis, the extracted factors were classified into four broader domains. The current research contributes to understanding an important aspect of human mating behavior, and its findings could be used to develop better ways to deal with infidelity.
... Otros potenciales estresores en las relaciones de pareja se encuentran las condiciones socioeconómicas -clase social, origen étnico y otras limitaciones y desafíos que se crean por tensiones económicas (Nina-Estrella, 2016;Story & Bradbury, 2004); transiciones de la pareja tales como el nacimiento de un hijo (Lavner et al., 2014;Zerach & Magal, 2016), así como los desacuerdos en cuanto al estilo de vida, incompatibilidad de intereses, conflictos en la toma de decisiones y los problemas de ajustes a la relación marital, enfermedades crónicas, cuidado de un enfermo, mudanzas, emigración, trabajo, tiempo libre y problemas con familiares (Bodenmann, 2005), o por eventos más puntuales como la muerte del cónyuge, encarcelamiento, enfermedades, inicio o terminación de estudios, jubilación (Bruner et al., 1994;Holmes & Rahe, 1967), infidelidades (Fincham & May, 2017) e incluso la infertilidad (Casu et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Los integrantes de la pareja poseen antecedentes únicos que favorecen sus creencias, normas y valores que en la interacción cotidiana pueden contraponerse con las del otro miembro, lo cual puede producir estrés. El objetivo de esta investigación fue diseñar y validar una escala de estrés motivado por estas incompatibilidades y evaluar la invarianza de medición por etapa de la relación. Para el Análisis Factorial Exploratorio (AFE) participaron 350 individuos y para el Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio (AFE) y multigrupos se recolectó una muestra con 284 personas. Los participantes fueron hombres y mujeres entre las edades de 18 y 65 años, que cohabitan con su pareja de la Ciudad de México. Se aplicó la Escala de Estrés en la Pareja por medio de una plataforma electrónica. Los resultados revelan dos factores (desacuerdo y ajuste) con índices de confiabilidad de .928 y una varianza explicada del 55.11%, así como un ajuste al modelo satisfactorio, mientras que el análisis de invarianza mostró equivalencia de la medida en ambos grupos, por lo que el estrés que vive la pareja no es atribuible a la etapa de la relación.
... Previous research has demonstrated that people's perceptions of romantic or sexual partners in their environment are associated with their sexual decision-making (e.g., Hume & Montgomerie, 2001;Kang & Pongou, 2019). Because infidelity behaviors seem to be catalyzed by the availability of and contact with potential romantic and sexual opportunities (Fincham & May, 2017), the goal of this study was to extend existing research examining the effects of exposure to a biased sex ratio in media content by considering intention to engage in infidelity. As expected, participants exposed to media narratives featuring an abundance of opposite-sex characters exhibited greater intention to commit infidelity, albeit to a small effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Narratives depicting an imbalanced sex ratio in a romantically-themed context (e.g., the “love triangle”) are featured in various types of entertainment media. Exposure to media messages depicting skewed sex ratios have been shown to influence romantic and sexual preferences and selectivity among audiences. The current study examined the extent to which individuals' intention to commit infidelity is influenced by these types of narratives. In an experiment, participants were exposed to descriptions of film narratives depicting a skewed (male-biased vs. female-biased) sex ratio. Participants’ intention to engage in infidelity was significantly and directly influenced by exposure to an abundance of partners; however, perceptions of actual sex ratio did not mediate these effects. Findings are discussed in light of biological market theory and priming.
... The final set of disengagement practices, attribution of blame and dehumanization, redefines the victims of harmful acts as deserving the harm that they suffer. For example, blaming one's partner for the poor quality of the relationship, for his/her prolonged physical distanc-ing, hostility, or other harm are the reasons most often invoked by infidels when motivating their affairs with another partner outside the relationship (Fincham & May, 2017;Barta & Kiene, 2005). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Marital infidelity is both socially perceived as immoral and very frequent. This contradiction might be explained through the process of moral disengagement, specifically by the use of certain socially shared moral justifications of infidelity, which consequently foster unfaithful behavior. This research developed and examined the Infidelity Moral Disengagement Scale (IMDS), aiming to capture the strategies of morally legitimizing infidelity used among people engaged in marital relationships. Across two studies (total N = 609 married participants) we investigated the dimensions and psychometric properties of the IMDS. Results showed that the dominant strategies of legitimizing marital infidelity are the diffusion of responsibility, the attribution of blame on the cheated partner, advantageous comparisons with other immoral acts, justifying infidelity through certain benefits, and minimizing its negative consequences. The IMDS emerged as negatively related to moral identity and strongly associated to people’s past infidelity and to their tendency to engage in unfaithful behaviors.
... Betrayals in committed romantic relationships, such as infidelity, an act of deception, or sudden abandonment, are common occurrences that can have profound consequences for individual mental health and couple well-being (Gordon et al., 2015;Johnson et al., 2001). Taking just one example of romantic betrayal, conservative estimates indicate that infidelity affects up to a quarter of marriages, and even higher rates have been reported in non-marital dating relationships (Fincham and May, 2017). Betrayal by a loved one shatters the assumptions of safety and trust that underlie secure romantic bonds, and as such, can lead to prolonged emotional turmoil for the betrayed partner and relationship breakdown (Hall and Fincham, 2006;Johnson et al., 2001;Lonergan et al., 2021). ...
Article
Objectives In a sustained relationship, romantic betrayal is a catastrophic event that can precipitate an adjustment disorder (AD). Surprisingly, there exists no empirically validated treatment for AD, despite its high prevalence in clinical practice. Considering the promise of memory reactivation under propranolol (i.e., reconsolidation interference) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder, we sought to extend this finding to AD, given that in both disorders, symptoms stem from an identified stressor. Method A single-blind interrupted time series design was used to examine the efficacy of memory reactivation under propranolol to alleviate symptoms of AD. After being placed on a 4-week waitlist, sixty-one participants received 5 weekly 25-min treatments during which they recalled the betrayal event, 1 h after having orally ingested the beta-blocker propranolol. Results Segmented regression analyses on the intent-to-treat sample revealed that AD symptoms significantly decreased during the treatment phase (pre/post Cohen's d = 1.44), compared to the waitlist phase (d = 0.01). Significant pre/post reductions in anxio-depressive symptomatology were also found. Improvement was maintained at the 4-month follow-up on all outcomes. Conclusion Memory reactivation under propranolol shows promise in reducing symptoms of AD. This study provides the theoretical framework and necessary effect sizes to inform larger, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.
... opportunities (Drigotas et al., 1999;Fincham and May, 2017), which might not be a consideration among asexual individuals. Therefore, it is possible that quality of alternatives might be a strong influence on commitment (by having more alternatives to a relationship) or a weak influence (because alternative sexual relationships may not be a factor). ...
Article
Full-text available
Many asexual individuals are in long-term satisfying romantic relationships. However, the contributors to relational commitment among asexual individuals have received little attention. How do investment model characteristics and attachment orientations predict relationship commitment among asexual individuals? Our study looked at a sample of 485 self-identified asexual individuals currently in a romantic relationship (Mage = 25.61, SD = 6.24; MRelationshipLength = 4.42 years, SD = 4.74). Individuals reported on Investment Model characteristics (i.e., their relationship satisfaction, investment, alternatives, and commitment) and their attachment orientations. Satisfaction, investment, and fewer alternatives were associated with greater commitment. Attachment orientations only occasionally moderated the results: for people low in anxiety, satisfaction and investment were more strongly related to commitment compared to people high in anxiety. The current study provided an extension of the Investment Model to describe romantic relationships among asexual individuals.
Article
1397 ‫از‬ ‫که‬ ‫د‬ ‫ب‬ ‫میان‬ ‫آن‬ ‫ها‬ (‫اد‬ ‫تع‬ 58 ‫مرد‬ ‫و‬ 50 (‫اد‬ ‫تع‬ ‫و‬ ‫یر‬ ‫فرازناشو‬ ‫روابط‬ ‫دارای‬ ‫زن‬ 59 ‫مرد‬ 49 ‫نه‬ ‫نم‬ ‫روش‬ ‫به‬ ‫یر‬ ‫وو‬ ‫ناشو‬ ‫فراز‬ ‫طه‬ ‫راب‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ب‬ ‫زن‬ ‫زیری‬ ‫ووترس‬ ‫دسو‬ ‫در‬ ‫به‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ن‬ ‫نه‬ ‫نم‬ ‫های‬ ‫پژوهش‬ ‫،مع‬ ‫برای‬. ‫ن‬ ‫ش‬ ‫انتخاب‬ ‫داده‬ ‫آوری‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ه‬ ‫پرسشنامه‬ ‫از‬ ‫ها‬ ‫کیلن‬ ‫و‬ ‫(لنیک‬ ‫اخالقر‬ 2005 ‫سوبک‬ ‫پرسوشونامه‬ ‫و‬ ‫دل‬ ‫بسوتگر‬ ‫بزرگ‬ ‫سواا‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ن‬ ‫وری‬ ‫لینز‬ ‫(ک‬ 1990 ‫برای‬. ‫ش‬ ‫استراده‬ ‫تجزیه‬ ‫وتحلیل‬ ‫داده‬ ‫آزم‬ ‫تحلیل‬ ‫از‬ ‫ها‬ ‫ن‬ t ‫زروه‬ ‫زروه‬ ‫دو‬ ‫که‬ ‫داد‬ ‫شان‬ ‫ن‬ ‫تحلیل‬ ‫نتایج‬. ‫ش‬ ‫ستراده‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ستقل‬ ‫م‬ ‫های‬ ‫م‬ ‫تأهلیز‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ه‬ ‫یرهای‬ ‫مت‬ ‫در‬ ‫یر‬ ‫وو‬ ‫فرازناشو‬ ‫روابط‬ ‫ون‬ ‫ب‬ ‫و‬ ‫یر‬ ‫وو‬ ‫فرازناشو‬ ‫روابط‬ ‫دارای‬ ‫وبک‬ ‫سو‬ ‫و‬ ‫اخالقر‬ ‫های‬ ‫دل‬ ‫وتگر‬ ‫بسو‬ ‫معنر‬ ‫تراو.‬ ‫هم‬ ‫با‬ ‫داری‬ (‫دارن‬ 05 / 0 > P. ‫یز‬ ‫ب‬ ‫توو‬ ‫ر.‬ ‫که‬ ‫پاییز‬ ‫اخالقر‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ه‬ ‫دارای‬ ‫یر‬ ‫فرازناشوو‬ ‫رابطه‬ ‫دارای‬ ‫زروه‬ ‫همچنیز‬. ‫ستن‬ ‫ه‬ ‫تری‬ ‫متأهلیز‬ ‫یر‬ ‫ش‬ ‫فرازنا‬ ‫رابطه‬ ‫دارای‬ ‫با‬ ‫سنجش‬ ‫در‬ ‫م‬ ‫تأهلیز‬ ‫دارای‬ ‫یرن‬ ‫و‬ ‫فرازناشو‬ ‫رابطه‬ ‫فاق‬ ‫دل‬ ‫وتگر‬ ‫بسو‬ ‫و‬ ‫پائیز‬ ‫ا،تنابر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ایمز‬ ‫د‬ ‫ل‬ ‫وتگر‬ ‫بسو‬ ‫اضووطرابر‬-‫دن‬ ‫ب‬ ‫بااتری‬ ‫زرا‬ ‫دوسوو‬ ‫به‬ ‫،ه‬ ‫ت‬ ‫با‬. ‫های‬ ‫برآین‬ ‫ح‬ ‫پژوهش‬ ‫اضوورن‬ ‫امل‬ ‫است‬ ‫ازم‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ایجادکنن‬ ‫در‬ ‫یر‬ ‫فرازناش‬ ‫روابط‬ ‫متأهلیز‬ ‫و‬ ‫شناسایر‬ ‫سپس‬ ‫با‬ ‫به‬ ‫کارزیری‬ ‫زوج‬ ‫و‬ ‫یر‬ ‫وو‬ ‫زناشو‬ ‫وواززاری‬ ‫سو‬ ‫د‬ ‫بصب‬ ‫با‬ ‫تا‬ ‫د‬ ‫وو‬ ‫شو‬ ‫تالش‬ ‫درمانرن‬ ‫دل‬ ‫بستگر‬ ‫القه‬ ‫و‬ ‫شق‬ ‫زو،یزن‬ ‫ایز‬ ‫در‬ ‫میان‬ ‫آن‬ ‫ها‬. ‫یاب‬ ‫افزایش‬ ‫نیز‬ ‫کلیدواژه‬ ‫ها‬ : ‫سبک‬ ‫اخالقی،‬ ‫هوش‬ ‫های‬ ‫دل‬ ‫بستگی‬ ، ‫فرازناشویی‬ ‫روابط‬ abstract Emergence of betrayal and making extramarital relationships in couples seriously endanger marital life and the couple's adjustment. Therefore, the present study was conducted aiming to compare Moral intelligence and attachment styles in married couples with or without extramarital relationships. The research design was causal-comparative. The statistical population of the present study included all married men and women referring to Isfahan consultation centers in the spring of 2018 from whom 58 men and 50 women with extramarital relationships and 49 men and 59 women without extramarital relationship were selected as the research samples through convenient method. In order to collect data, Moral Intelligence Questionnaire (Lennick & Kiel, 2005) and Revised Adult Attachment Scale (Collins & Read, 1990) were used. Independent sample t-test was used in order to analyze the data. The results of the analysis showed that two married groups with extramarital relationships and without extramarital relationships are significantly different from each other in the variables of Moral intelligence and attachment styles (P<0.05) That is, the group with a Extramarital Relationships has lower Moral intelligence. Married couples also had Extramarital Relationships than those with no Extramarital Relationships, had lower secure and avoidant attachment, and higher anxiety-ambivalent attachment. According to the results of the present study it is necessary first to identify the factors creating extramarital relationships through appropriate qualitative study and to attempt to increase love between them through applying couple therapy via improvement of marital adjustment and Attachment in these couples.
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Attachment-focused narrative interventions used with religious couples of the Abrahamic faiths (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) dealing with the effects of infidelity is discussed in this article. With religious couples, the couple attachment bond is commonly harmed after infidelity. The attachment bond with God can also be affected with one or both partners. Partners who once felt close and connected with God can feel angry and distant because of infidelity. Since the Abrahamic faiths are narrative-based religions, and an attachment bond with God is essential, attachment-focused narrative interventions can help couples re-story their relationship with each other and with God. Attachment-based narrative interventions are also illustrated using case-examples to help practitioners collaborate with religious couples to co-author new narratives and journey toward empowered futures.
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Background: The spread of the Internet and the improvement of audio and video media have led to the emergence of an industry called pornography. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the use of pornography and marital sexual satisfaction and attitudes toward marital infidelity in married women in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical population consisted of all working married women and housewives in Zahedan during 2017. Among them, a sample of 190 people (95 housewives and 95 employed women) was selected through a convenience sampling method. To collect data, the problematic pornography use scale, the Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire (women's form), and Whatley's attitudes toward marital infidelity scale were used. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. Results: According to the results, there was a significant reverse relationship between the use of pornography and its components and marital sexual satisfaction, and the use of pornography to escape or avoid negative emotions was a negative predictor of marital sexual satisfaction. There was a significant direct relationship between the use of pornography and its components and the attitude towards marital infidelity, and the psychological and social problems of using pornography were a positive predictor of attitude towards marital infidelity. Conclusions: It is necessary to consider appropriate strategies to reduce the use of pornography to promote marital sexual satisfaction and reduce the attitude towards marital infidelity in married women.
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Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of self regulation-attachment couple therapy on improving marital commitment and sexual function in women with extra-marital affair. Methods: Semi-experimental research method with pre/post-test and control group including follow-up was used. The statistical population included women with extramarital affair referred to the counseling center for women in the city of Sanandaj, Iran. Using available sampling method, 30 subjects were selected and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (15 participants each). Marital Commitment Questionnaire (Adams, Jones, 1997) and Women's Sexual Function Questionnaire (Rosen, Grandon, Myers, Hutty, 2004) were used. The intervention group received self regulation-attachment couple therapy through 8 ninety-minute sessions on a weekly basis. Data was analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Findings: Results showed that self regulation-attachment couple therapy programs significantly improved the marital commitment and sexual function. Follow-up analyses showed that these results remained stable after three months (P<0/001). Conclusion: self regulation-attachment couple therapy approach by helping women achieve greater adjustment in relationship, dialogue and negotiation, increasing the ability to interact and improve the marital commitment and sexual function in women with extramarital affair. Discussions: The findings of the present study show that studying counseling and internship in this field has influenced students’ views of marriage and marital relationships in various ways.
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Given that the overwhelming majority of people believe in the importance of faithfulness in romantic relationships, the purpose of this study was to examine the adverse emotional consequences when a partner's suspected infidelity clashes with those beliefs. Applying normative and expectancy violations perspectives, this study examined the connections among subjective norms, infidelity beliefs, and emotional well-being among a sample of 246 university students who suspected their romantic partner of cheating. SEM analyses demonstrated that injunctive and descriptive norms contributed to an individual's beliefs in the importance of fidelity, and when those fidelity beliefs were contradicted by a partner's suspected infidelity, participants experienced greater negative emotion, distress, and depression. The findings deepen the theoretical understanding of suspected infidelity by revealing the direct and indirect connections among subjective norms, fidelity beliefs, and subsequent emotional well-being.
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The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between attitudes toward marital infidelity (ATMI) and family cohesion (FC) through the mediating role of the meaning in life (MIL) in Iranian married women. This was a correlational study of path analysis type. The statistical population included all married women living in Kermanshah, Iran in 2021, among whom 310 were selected using convenience sampling method. Participants were asked to fill out Watley's ATMI, Steger et al.'s MIL and Fischer et al.'s Family Organized Cohesion scales. Data were analyzed using path analysis in AMOS-26 and SPSS-26 software. The results indicated that there is a significant negative relationship between FC and ATMI. Moreover, the result of the path analysis revealed that hypothesized model of the study had a good fit in the participants of the current study. That is, there was a significant relationship between FC and ATMI through the mediating role of MIL.
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People in romantic relationships tend to have positive feelings toward their partner and want their relationship to last. However, maintaining a romantic relationship over time is challenging, and people can often experience mixed and conflicting feelings (i.e., ambivalence) toward their significant other. While research has identified the serious consequences that ambivalence can have for personal and relational well-being, very little is known about the factors that can lead people to experience ambivalence in relationships. The present work examines how extradyadic desire (i.e., desire for someone other than the partner), a common difficulty people face in the context of monogamy, is a situation in which people feel more ambivalent toward their partner. In three studies (N = 1,178) using experimental, daily diary, and longitudinal approaches, we find that feelings of desire for an attractive alternative increase ambivalence toward the current partner, above and beyond how much people actually value their partner, and that this has short- and long-term negative consequences for personal and relational well-being. Furthermore, while most people could identify an attractive alternative in their life, desire for the alternative-rather than just their presence-seems to play a stronger role in increasing ambivalence. This work highlights the emotional processes through which attractive alternatives pose a threat to romantic relationships and the role that ambivalence plays in daily life and over time. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study examined the construct of anticipated jealousy, conceptually clarifying the components of this construct and creating an optimized scale. Total of 18 items from three widely used self-report measures of jealousy (Multidimensional Jealousy Scale–Emotional Subscale, Anticipated Sexual Jealousy Scale, and Chronic Jealousy Scale) and additional 11 potential anticipated jealousy items were given to 1852 individuals in relationships. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory (IRT) analyses were used to develop and evaluate the Anticipated Jealousy Scale (AJS). By augmenting the item pool, the results highlighted that anticipated jealousy could take two distinct forms: (1) sexual—getting upset over thoughts of a partner engaging in sexual activity with someone else and (2) possessive—getting upset over a partner forming friendships and emotional bonds with others. IRT analyses helped identify the five most effective items for assessing each of those domains to create the AJS. Results suggested that the subscales of the AJS offered greater precision and power in detecting meaningful differences among respondents than the existing measures, representing short yet psychometrically optimized scales. The AJS subscales demonstrated strong convergent validity with other measures of anticipated sexual and possessive jealousy, and excellent construct and discriminant validity with anchor scales from the nomological net surrounding the construct. Finally, regression analyses demonstrated distinct predictors and correlates for anticipated sexual jealousy, anticipated possessive jealousy, and chronic jealousy. Given the potential utility in distinguishing between the many forms of jealousy, AJS offers an optimized scale measuring anticipated sexual and possessive jealousy.
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The quality of romantic relationships influences physical and mental health. However, maintaining happy and healthy relationships is challenging; relationship satisfaction declines over time, and relationship dissolution is frequent. This raises the question of which factors contribute to the maintenance versus decline of relationship satisfaction. In this Review, we examine the key factors that have been linked to relationship satisfaction in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Specifically, we describe how self-reported perceptions (subjective perceptions of the self, the partner or the relationship), implicit evaluations (automatic evaluations of one’s partner assessed indirectly) and objective indexes (demographics, life events, communication patterns and biological indexes) relate to relationship satisfaction. This synthesis suggests that self-reported perceptions are not always the most reliable predictors of longitudinal changes in relationship satisfaction. Thus, to uncover why some relationships flourish and others struggle over time, future research should not solely focus on self-reported perceptions, but also on implicit evaluations, demographics, life events, communication patterns and biological factors, and their combination. The quality of romantic relationships influences physical and mental health. However, maintaining happy and healthy relationships is challenging. In this Review, Righetti et al. examine the key factors that have been linked to relationship satisfaction in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.
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Three experiments evaluated a novel motivated response to alternative threat for committed people, known as perceptions of the partner's devaluation of alternatives (PPD). By being led to perceive lower partner commitment (Study 1a and 1b) or that the partner was favorably evaluating a highly attractive alternative (Study 2), we found a consistent threat effect across the studies with perceivers reporting lower levels of PPD. However, perceivers reporting greater relational trust or greater perceived partner commitment reported greater PPD, with some evidence of buffering (Study 2). These studies provide preliminary insight into how committed people use perceptions of the partner's commitment to navigate situations involving their partners and threatening alternatives, beyond their own commitment and projective effects.
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Previous studies suggest marital sexual infidelity (MSI) is growing among men and women. Also, social sciences literature has indicated that religious involvement and values reduce MSI occurrence. Religious persuasions and values remain critical in social life in Ghana and Nigeria, but little is known about religious influence on MSI and protection in both countries. In this study, the 2014 standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for Ghana (GDHS2014: 3,808 women and 1,967 men) and that of 2013 in Nigeria (NDHS2013: 22,220 women 8,292 men) were analysed within the framework of Durkheim’s theory of religion. Results suggest that MSI occurred more among women than men in Ghana (women = 12.9%, men = 9.9%) and Nigeria (women = 6.0%, men = 5.0%). Adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that religion significantly predicted MSI in Ghana (p < 0.05) and Nigeria (p < 0.001). In Ghana, Other Christian women (OR = 0.5(CI0.4-0.7), p < 0.001; men (OR = 0.6(CI0.4-0.9), p < 0.05) and in Nigeria, Other Christian women (OR = 0.7(CI0.6-0.9), p < 0.001, and Muslims (women, OR = 0.3(CI0.3-0.4), p < 0.001; men (OR = 0.6(CI0.4-0.8), p < 0.01) had lower odds of reporting MSI experience relative to Catholic Christians. Women are likely more vulnerable to STIs in both countries due to higher MSI prevalence and relatively poor protective behaviour. Therefore, marriage counsellors should focus more on women and men across all religious persuasions. However, women and Catholic Christians require more attention to address the MSI and condom use challenges in Ghana and Nigeria. Social campaigns aiming to prevent MSI and STIs should be intensive in both countries across all religious persuasions.
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Few studies have examined gender-specific concerns within intimate relationships that may be associated with conflict escalation and intimate partner violence (IPV). While prior theorizing has emphasized issues such as men’s feelings of jealousy, the role of concerns and conflict related to men’s actions has not been as thoroughly investigated. We draw on the life course perspective as background for assessing conflict areas related to men’s and women’s actions during the young adult period, and subsequently the association between such concerns and the odds of reporting IPV in a current/most recent relationship. Building on a longitudinal data set focused on a large, diverse sample (Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, n = 904), we administered surveys that assessed whether disagreements about potential conflict areas—including but not limited to infidelity—related to male or female partner’s actions. Concerns about women’s and men’s actions were both related to the odds of reporting IPV experience, but disagreements about male partners’ actions during young adulthood were actually more common, and relative to concerns about women’s actions, more strongly associated with IPV. Research and programmatic efforts should give additional attention to specific areas around which couples’ disagreements develop and conflicts sometimes escalate. A dyadic approach adds to the frequent emphasis on emotion management and control that center primarily on one partner’s problematic relationship style—thus addressing the ‘form’ but not the ‘content’ of intimate partner conflicts. This approach would highlight a broader range of relationship dynamics than are currently included in theorizing and applied efforts.
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People commit to monogamous relationships with the intent of maintaining sexual exclusivity but often fail to do so. Existing research has focused on individual and relationship characteristics that render relationships more vulnerable to infidelity, paying less attention to strategies that decrease the likelihood of straying. Three experiments investigated the impact of one strategy that might encourage people to enact relationship-protective responses toward alternative partners, perspective-taking. In all studies, participants either adopted the perspective of their partner or not and then evaluated, encountered, or thought about attractive strangers, in Studies 1–3, respectively. Participants’ pro-relationship orientation and reactions during these experiences (interest in alternative and current partners, commitment to current relationships, and fantasmatic themes) were recorded. Results showed that perspective-taking decreased sexual and romantic interest in alternatives, while increasing commitment and desire for current partners. These findings suggest that partner perspective-taking discourages engagement in behaviors that may hurt partners and damage the relationship with them.
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The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between weight misperception, age at first intercourse, and lifetime number of sex partners. We used Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health ( N = 11,522; 53.7% female), collected in 2001–2002. Results show that men who underestimate their weight have more lifetime sexual partners compared to men who accurately assess their weight. Women who underestimate their weight had fewer sexual partners and a higher age at first intercourse compared to women who accurately assess their weight. White participants who overestimated their weight had an earlier age of first intercourse, African Americans who underestimated their weight had more sexual partners, and weight misperception was not related to sexual behaviors among Hispanic and Asian participants. These findings suggest that weight underestimation’s relationship to sexual behaviors may differ by gender and race.
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Infidelity has been operationalized inconsistently across studies, and measurement approaches have been employed that are not ideally suited for addressing the stigmatized and subjective nature of infidelity, thereby limiting the conclusions that can be drawn from this body of literature. In 2016, Thompson and O'Sullivan took a step toward addressing these shortcomings by implementing an indirect measurement approach. We extend their findings using a sample of 465 married and divorced individuals via MTurk. Substantially more participants reported having engaged in infidelity via the indirect approach than the direct approach, and results suggest that-in contrast to findings from direct questioning-similar percentages of men and women engage in self-defined infidelity. Implications for research and clinical practice are provided.
Chapter
In species with internal female fertilization, males face the problem of paternity uncertainty, which refers to the risk of investing in unrelated offspring. As a result, a partner’s sexual infidelity may be particularly damaging for males given that it may result in allocating resources to genetically unrelated offspring, reducing a male’s inclusive fitness. As such, males invest considerable time and effort to retain their mates. Mate retention tactics involve cost-inflicting strategies that operate by reducing the partner’s self-perceived value to prevent the partner from leaving the partnership, and benefit-provisioning strategies that operate by boosting a partner’s self-esteem and improving relationship satisfaction. In this chapter, first, we discuss the benefits that men gain from long-term relationships, which include increased probability of paternity, prolonged proximity and sexual access to a partner, and increased probability of attracting a high-quality partner. Second, we discuss the main costs of infidelity for males, including the risk of investing in an unrelated child as well as costs to his reputation and future mating opportunities. Third, we define and discuss a taxonomy of mate retention tactics and explain that a male’s mate retention tactics are expected to respond to his female’s partner preferences, at least partly. Indeed, males have been found to engage in tactics such as resource display given that females value mates that are able and willing to provision them and their offspring with resources. Empirical evidence has also, surprisingly, found that men, more than women, engage in strategies such as submission and debasement. Empirical evidence also suggests that men also use threats and violence directed to rivals more than women do. Our review also demonstrates that males engage in both benefit-provisioning and cost-inflicting mate-retention strategies, and that the type of strategy chosen as well as its intensity is partly dependent on a man’s mate value and his ability to acquire resources. Finally, we discuss some of the main environmental factors that may influence the mate retention tactics displayed by males, including partner mate value and perceived infidelity threat.
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Research exploring the determinants of infidelity has mainly focused on individual and relationship characteristics that render relationships vulnerable, paying less attention to the external circumstances that increase the likelihood of straying. The present research examined whether online exposure to norms of adultery would affect expressions of desire for alternative mates. In three studies, romantically involved participants were exposed to others’ cheating behavior and then thought of or encountered attractive strangers. Their relationship perceptions and reactions during these experiences (fantasmatic themes, expressed interest in alternative partners, and overt flirtation with them in Studies 1–3, respectively) were recorded. Results showed that following exposure to others’ cheating behavior, participants were less likely to devalue the attractiveness of alternative partners and to be committed to their relationship. These findings suggest that exposure to adultery norms decreases the awareness of long-term priorities of relationship maintenance, lessening the resistance to the temptation of attractive alternatives.
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Although relationship theories often describe infidelity as a damaging event in a couple’s life, it remains unclear whether relationship problems actually follow infidelity, precede it, or both. The analyses of dyadic panel data of adults in Germany including about 1,000 infidelity events showed that infidelity was preceded (but not followed) by a gradual decrease in relationship functioning in perpetrators and victims. There was little evidence of rebound effects in the aftermath of infidelity, with the exception of unfaithful women and individuals with lower initial relationship commitment who returned to the pre-event level of well-being or even exceeded it, providing support to the expectancy violation theory (vs. the investment model of infidelity). By showing that well-being starts to decline before infidelity happens, this study provides a differentiated view on the temporal dynamics of infidelity and well-being and contributes to the literature on romantic relationship dynamics and major life events.
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Aim: The present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effectiveness of integrative couple therapy and integrative behavioral couple therapy on increasing the emotional and sexual intimacy of couples affected by infidelity in Shahriar (Andishe city in Iran). Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The statistical population included couples whose male partner had cheated, and were referred to counseling centers of Andishe city in 2018. Twenty four couples were selected through convenient sampling and randomly assigned into two experimental groups and one control group (8 couples in each group). The subjects in the two experimental groups attended 10 couple therapy sessions, whereas no intervention was carried out for the control group. The subjects responed to the Marital Intimacy Needs Questionnaire (Bagarozzi, 2001). Results: The results of analysis of covariance and block analysis of variance showed that integrative behavioral couple therapy and integrative couple therapy had a significant effect on the component of satisfaction with confrontation in the dimension of sexual intimacy )p<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the two approaches. Integrative behavioral couple therapy was also effective in increasing emotional intimacy in all components, but this effectiveness was not achieved in integrative couple therapy. Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness of integrative couple therapy and integrative behavioral couple therapy on the component of satisfaction with confrontation in sexual intimacy, the use of these approaches in promoting sexual intimacy of couples affected by infidelity may be effective. Also, considering the effectiveness of integrative behavioral couple therapy in increasing emotional and sexual intimacy, this approach can be used by couple therapists.
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Comparison of the effectiveness of group counselling based on rational, emotional and behavioral therapy (REBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on forgiveness of women affected by marital infidelity
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Previous research indicates that Euro-American women are more upset by imagining their male partners committing homosexual infidelities than heterosexual ones. The present studies sought to replicate these findings and extend them to two non-Western cultures wherein masculine men frequently engage in sexual interactions with feminine third-gender males. Across six studies in three cultural locales (Canada, Samoa, and the Istmo Zapotec), women were asked to rate their degree of upset when imagining that their partner committed infidelity that was heterosexual in nature, as well as infidelity that was homosexual. In two Canadian undergraduate samples, women reported greater upset at imagining partner infidelity with a female, whereas a community sample of middle-aged women reported equal upset across infidelity types. Samoan women reported substantially less upset at the thought of partner infidelity with a third-gender male (fa'afafine) than with a female. Istmo Zapotec women reported equal upset toward infidelity with a female or a third-gender male (muxe), whereas a second Zapotec sample reported slightly greater upset at the thought of infidelity with a muxe. Results illustrate how cultural contexts moderate the degree to which same-sex infidelity scenarios are upsetting to women.
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A motivational/individual differences model of infidelity is proposed in the course of empirically evaluating the traditional dichotomy between emotional and sexual motives. A scale assessing motivations for infidelity was developed and administered to 432 college students, 120 of whom reported past dating infidelity. Four motivations were identified and were associated as predicted with Big Five and other trait constructs; Sex was predicted by male gender, lower age, and unrestricted sociosexual orientation (SO); Dissatisfaction was predicted by female gender and Extraversion; Neglect was predicted by Neuroticism; and Anger by Neuroticism and low Agreeableness. As predicted, a two-factor model provides a poorer fit with the data than a multi-factor model. Unrestricted SO partially mediates the gender difference in endorsement of a sex motive for infidelity.
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Few studies provide specific rates of marital divorce or separation in association with a history of infidelity. Research based primarily from clinical or help-seeking populations suggests that most couples who have experienced infidelity do not divorce within the time frames assessed. Using self-reported history of extramarital sex (EMS), divorce, and separation data from 16,090 individuals assessed between 1991 and 2008 as part of the General Social Survey (GSS), the authors found that, relative to married (and never divorced) individuals, a history of EMS raised the likelihood of being currently divorced but remarried (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6), divorced and not remarried (OR = 4.1), and separated (OR = 5.8). While there are interpretive limitations, the data from the GSS suggest that more than half of men and women who engage in EMS also separate or divorce from their spouse. Results are discussed in terms of methodological differences among studies as well as clinical implications.
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In the current study, data from a nationally representative sample of 884 men and 1,288 women (1994 General Social Survey, Davis & Smith, 1994) who have ever been married were analyzed with regard to incidence, prevalence, and correlates of extramarital sex (EMS). Men were more likely than women to report ever engaging in EMS (22.7% vs. 11.6%, p < .00001), yet, after correcting the probability value for multiple tests, the apparent gender difference regarding the proportion of respondents who had EMS during the past year was not statistically significant (4.1% vs. 1.7%, p < .008). Interestingly, there was no gender difference in lifetime incidence among respondents younger than 40 years of age. Except for the oldest cohort, lifetime incidence of EMS increased with age for men, whereas for women there was an apparently curvilinear relationship such that lifetime incidence of EMS was greatest among those 30–50 years of age. Those who have ever been divorced, and those with greater attitudinal acceptance of EMS, had higher incidence of EMS compared to those who have not been divorced and those reporting greater disapproval of EMS. With regard to possible gender differences, men and women who denied ever engaging in EMS did not differ in their attitudes about EMS, just as men and women who reported having experienced EMS did not differ in their attitudes. The results are discussed in relation to previous research and unanswered questions left for further investigation.
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Although previous scholarship has examined the relationship between religious involvement and a wide range of family outcomes, the relationship between religion and extramarital sexual behavior remains understudied. The authors investigate how religious affiliation, participation, and biblical beliefs explain differences in self-reported marital infidelity. This study examines data from the 1991-2004 General Social Surveys and finds that religious factors are associated with the likelihood of marital infidelity. Both church attendance and biblical beliefs are associated with lower odds of self-reported infidelity. Additionally, the authors find substantial denominational variations in the odds of marital infidelity, particularly among those who strongly affiliate with their religious group.
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Predictors of 12-month prevalence of sexual infidelity were examined in a population-based sample of married individuals (N = 2,291). Predictor variables were organized in terms of involved-partner (e.g., personality, religiosity), marital (e.g., marital dissatisfaction, partner affair), and extradyadic (e.g., parenting) variables. Annual prevalence of infidelity was 2.3%. Controlling for marital dissatisfaction and demographic variables, infidelity was predicted by greater neuroticism and lower religiosity; wives' pregnancy also increased the risk of infidelity for husbands. In comparison, self-esteem and partners' suspected affair were predictive of infidelity when controlling for demographic variables but were not uniquely predictive of infidelity when also controlling for marital dissatisfaction. Religiosity and wives' pregnancy moderated the association between marital dissatisfaction and infidelity.
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Assessing sexual behavior with self-report is essential to research on a variety of health topics, including pregnancy and infertility, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual health and functioning. Recent methodological research has provided new insights regarding the accuracy of self-reports of sexual behavior. We review these studies, paying particular attention to a promising new development: the use of computer-assisted assessments. The collection of sexual risk behavior data with computers has increased dramatically in recent years, but little is known about the accuracy of such assessments. We summarize the evidence, discuss methodological issues that arise in studies evaluating the accuracy of self-reports, and offer recommendations for future research.
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Extramarital involvement (EMI) occurs with high prevalence among couples in clinical and community settings, frequently resulting in considerable distress both to participants and their spouses. The field lacks a synthesized review of this literature. Without such a synthesis, it has been difficult for researchers and clinicians to have an understanding of what is and is not known about EMI. This article reviews the large and scattered EMI literature using a framework that encompasses multiple source domains across the temporal process of engaging in and responding to EMI. In addition, this review delineates conceptual and methodological limitations to previous work in this area and articulates directions for further research.
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In this paper I provide comments on the Allen et al. paper (this issue). I note that it provides the first critical, comprehensive, and integrative review of extramarital involvement (EMI) to appear in the literature, and I summarize some of its major contributions to the field. I then focus on how the review stimulated my thinking about current and future best practices in marriage education for the prevention of EMI. I conclude by suggesting several directions for future research and practice.
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The current study explored how a variety of family-of-origin experiences are related to individuals’ infidelity history. A survey was completed by 294 participants and we found that parental infidelity, parental marital status, parental conflict, and parental marital satisfaction were associated with the likelihood of offspring having ever engaged in infidelity. When considered together, parent infidelity and parent satisfaction were uniquely related to offspring infidelity. Additionally, parental marital status moderated the relationship between parent infidelity and offspring infidelity, as individuals who experienced neither event were particularly unlikely to have ever engaged in infidelity. Little evidence was found that individuals’ infidelity beliefs were linked with their family-of-origin experiences or their own infidelity behavior. Results indicate that family-of-origin experiences are related to individuals’ infidelity behavior, a finding that has implications for future research as well as clinical intervention.
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With a sample of 251 Dutch adults, many of whom had been involved in extradyadic sex, we examined three responses to unprotected extradyadic sex by the partner: angry retreat (anger, upset, and inclination to leave the partner), accommodation (open communication aimed at preserving the relationship), and assertiveness (demanding precautionary measures from the partner). Hypotheses were based upon interdependence theory and equity theory. A factor analysis confirmed the conceptual independence of the three responses. Women expressed more angry retreat and assertiveness but not more accommodation than men. Regression analyses showed that, controlling for various demographic variables, angry retreat was particularly found among individuals with a low intention to engage in extradyadic sex; accommodation was characteristic of those high in commitment, whereas assertiveness was especially common among those with a high intention to use condoms with new sexual partners. These results were obtained among men as well as among women. The participants' past extradyadic sexual behavior and condom use, satisfaction, and investment size did not explain additional variance in any response. The results are interpreted as support for equity theory and interdependence theory.
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Past studies have indicated that individuals with an unrestricted sociosexual orientation (SO; ‘unrestricted’ reflects comfort with sex outside the confines of a committed relationship) emphasize attractiveness and desirability when pursuing romantic partners. Additionally, SO is related to decreased commitment, and ultimately increased infidelity, in a current romantic relationship. Thus, the current study investigates potential mediators between sociosexual orientation (SO) and romantic commitment. Perceptions of a romantic partner’s characteristics such as physical attractiveness, various personality traits, and perceived similarities were examined as mediators. The findings indicate perceived social skills, intellect, and perceived similarities with the partner were all significant mediators between SO and commitment. Additionally, physical attractiveness was a marginally significant mediator. The final mediation model suggests that individuals with unrestricted SOs may have lower commit in their current relationships because participants with an unrestricted SO, compared to participants with a restricted SO, rated their partners as having fewer social skills, less intellect, and also fewer similarities between themselves and their partners.
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This study examined the role of extradyadic involvement (EDI) in heterosexual dating relationships among young adult females (N = 539). A considerable percentage of participants (36 %) reported that they had engaged in an extradyadic emotional or sexual relationship within the last 2 months. Results from logistic regression analyses supported the general hypothesis that emotional and sexual EDI were both significantly associated with relationship dissolution. These associations remained strong even after controlling for participants' age, relationship duration, and relationship quality. The findings also showed that the strength of the association between acts of emotional or sexual extradyadic behaviors and relationship dissolution was linked to relationship quality, gender of the actor, and type of EDI (emotional vs. sexual). Specifically, compared to participants who reported poor relationship quality, those who reported high relationship quality were more likely to end the partnership if they reported emotional or sexual EDI. Findings suggest that individuals in higher quality relationships appear to have considerably more to lose in their relationship when emotional or sexual EDI occurs. This, in part, may be because the more satisfactory the relationship the more disillusionment one may feel when betrayed by their romantic partner. Overall, the present findings underscore the multifaceted nature of the relationships between EDI and relationship dissolution. We call for more research that rigorously examines what contextual factors influence young adults in dating relationships to dissolve relationships following EDI.
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We establish new empirical facts, in line with the recent theoretical literature on infidelity. Infidelity displays seasonality and state dependence. In the US socioeconomic status is not a driver of infidelity and females and males are equally likely to be unfaithful.
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This paper examines if workplace sex ratios are associated with marital infidelity. I find that the likelihood of ever having been sexually unfaithful to a partner increases with a fraction of opposite-sex coworkers for men but not for women.
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Using data from the General Social Survey (GSS), we model the probability of engaging in Extramarital Sex (EMS) with a focus on variables that allow us to discern evidence of assortative mating. We find that couples with the same religion and both having high levels of education are less likely to engage in EMS. We also find that work status matters: those who are employed are more likely to cheat if their spouses are not working.
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Research on divorce during the past decade has focused on a range of topics, including the predictors of divorce, associations between divorce and the well-being of children and former spouses, and interventions for divorcing couples. Methodological advances during the past decade include a greater reliance on nationally representative longitudinal samples, genetically informed designs, and statistical models that control for time-invariant sources of unobserved heterogeneity. Emerging perspectives, such as a focus on the number of family transitions rather than on divorce as a single event, are promising. Nevertheless, gaps remain in the research literature, and the review concludes with suggestions for new studies.
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The purpose of the paper is to describe and analyse the prevalence of parallel sexual relationships among adult Norwegians in terms of social background variables, possibility factors and motivational factors. Data stem from two cross-sectional, postal questionnaire surveys in 1987 and 1992 on two separate representative samples of 10,000 Norwegians aged between 18 and 60. The results showed that 16% of the respondents reported one or more parallel sexual relationships. The prevalence of parallel sexual relationships increased with possibility factors, such as the number of travelling days and population density. Among motivational factors, parallel sexual relationships increased with the number of years married/cohabiting, except for those married the longest. It decreased with increasing age of first intercourse, and increased with the number of partners before the last partnership. Of those not satisfied with coital frequency with their permanent partner, 22% had parallel sexual relationship experience compared to 12% among those who were satisfied. Furthermore, more men than women reported parallel sexual relationships; respondents with higher levels of education more often reported parallel sexual activity than those with lower level of education; and subjects born between 1937 and 1956 reported more parallel sexual activity than the other cohorts. When controlled for the number of years married/cohabiting, the predicted trend suggests that for the cohorts born up to 1970, men and women with lower and higher levels of education have become more similar as regards parallel sexual behaviour. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Divorce is a complex event that can be viewed from multiple perspectives. For example, sociological research has focused primarily on structural and life course predictors of marital disruption, such as social class, race, and age at first marriage (Bumpass, Martin, & Sweet, 1991; White, 1991). Psychological research, in contrast, has focused on dimensions of marital interaction, such as conflict management (Gottman, 1994), or on person- ality characteristics, such as antisocial behavior or chronic negative affect (Leonard & Roberts, 1998). One limitation of these approaches is that nei- ther considers the individual's perceptions about why the divorce oc- curred. Indeed, when explaining what caused their marriages to end, peo- ple appear to give relatively little credence to widely studied factors such as age at marriage or conflict resolution skills. In this article, we use a third approach to studying divorce—one that considers the subjective accounts of recently divorced individuals. Examining the accounts of divorced indi- viduals provides a useful complement to more objective methods and is necessary for a full understanding of the divorce process. This approach to
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Because sexual fidelity is a key norm regulating the institution of marriage, any occurrence of extramarital sex (EMS) could potentially contribute to marital dissolution. Although the relationship between EMS and marital dissolution has been demonstrated in past research, studies have yet to show if the occurrence of EMS causes a marriage to break down, or if an unraveling marriage prompts spouses to seek alternative sexual partners. In this 17-year longitudinal study (N= 1,475), we assessed whether EMS precedes or follows deteriorations in marital quality. We estimated the effects of marital happiness and divorce proneness on EMS, the effects of EMS on subsequent marital happiness and divorce proneness, and the effects of all three variables on divorce. Our results indicate that divorce proneness predicts the occurrence of EMS. Results also suggest that EMS lowers subsequent marital happiness, increases subsequent divorce proneness, and increases the odds of divorce. We conclude that infidelity is both a cause and a consequence of relationship deterioration.
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Infidelity can be a traumatic occurrence in a relationship. People tend to believe that sexual behavior should be exclusive to a romantic relationship but are less certain about which types of nonsexual behaviors are acceptable in other relationships. The Relationship Issues Scale (RIS) was developed to explore attitudes/values and expectations/behaviors regarding relationship exclusivity and nonexclusivity (which may or may not include infidelity). Three studies resulted in a final 37-item scale that measures eight dimensions of relationship exclusivity/nonexclusivity. Validity for the RIS was assessed through correlations with permissive sexuality, idealistic sexuality, and relationship satisfaction. Analyses also showed that men were more likely than women to favor nonexclusivity. Three additional sets of items examined participants' frequency of communication about and participation in v