Conference Paper

AVN-AHH-VBF: Avoiding Void Node with Adaptive Hop-by-Hop Vector Based Forwarding for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

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Abstract

In this paper, we propose a routing protocol AVN-AHH-VBF for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Sensor nodes forward data packets in multi-hop fashion within a virtual pipeline. As nodes outside pipeline do not forward data packets, thus, flooding is avoided in the network. Mitigating flooding in network, in turn, decreases energy consumption and improves delivery ratio. Moreover, on each hop, forwarding towards void region of the network is avoided with the help of two hop information. Avoiding void hole on each hop reduces number of transmissions for a data packet, for which route to sink does not exist. Thus, energy wastage by each dropped packet is reduced. In addition, taking the benefit of broadcast nature of the network, best forwarder (non-void) is selected from the transmission range of a node. Best forwarder selection results in increased delivery ratio. Furthermore, we incorporate two new factors in holding time calculation. First, the number of hops a data packet has already traversed along its journey that is started from source node. Second, the number of neighbors of a node which is calculating the holding time, is incorporated. A sensor node with less number of neighbors holds data packet for long duration of time than the node with more neighbors. By doing so, holding time is reduced on each hop throughout the journey of a data packet. Extensive simulations verify that AVN-AHH-VBF minimizes end-to-end delay upto 57% as compared to existing AHH-VBF. Also, in the proposed technique, energy wasted by a dropped packet is about 54% less than counterpart technique. At the same time, compared with AHH-VBF, delivery ratio of AVN-AHH-VBF is approximately 8% improved .

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... In this paper, we propose two new routing schemes for UWSNs: (i) co-operative AVN-AHH-VBF and (ii) non-cooperative AVN-AHH-VBF [9]. Both the schemes avoid the void node by checking the status of a node before transmitting the data packet (using two hop information). ...
... where n b denotes number of neighbors of a node which calculates holding time using Eq. (9). h tr is number of hops the packet has already traversed. ...
... To transmit the data packet, either two non void nodes must be available or at least one neighbor with two neighbors in its neighbor table. If two or more non void nodes are available, node computes values for every neighbor according to Eq. (9), and all values are sorted in ascending order. Among the first two values, node with the minimum Euclidean distance to the sink is selected as next hop, whereas other one is selected as a relay node. ...
Article
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For energy-efficient resource management, void node avoidance is one of the key objectives in the energy constrained underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). In this paper, we propose two new routing protocols for the UWSN which is one of the end parts of a cloud. The first protocol is avoiding void node with adaptive hop-by-hop vector based forwarding (AVN-AHH-VBF), and second is cooperation-based AVN-AHH-VBF (CoAVN-AHH-VBF). In both schemes, sensor nodes forward data packets in multi-hop fashion within a virtual pipeline. The nodes outside the pipeline do not forward data packets to avoid flooding in the network. At each hop, forwarding towards void region of the network is avoided by utilizing two hop information. Results of extensive simulations show that our proposed schemes significantly improve the network performance in terms of the selected performance metrics as compared to the selected existing schemes.
... The selection of next hop forwarder node set depends on forwarding direction of neighbor node. Hafeez et al. proposed technique " Avoiding Void Node with Adaptive Hop-by-Hop Vector Based Forwarding for UWSNs (AVN-AHH-VBF) "[12]uses virtual routing pipeline having predetermined radius for data processing. While receiving a packet, a node checks its distance with forwarder node whether the calculated distance is well with in the given threshold or not. ...
... For cylindrical spreading, k = 1, value of k for practical scenario is 1.5 and for spherical spreading value of k is 2. u(f ) is the absorption coefficient generally described in dB/km. We use Thorp's formula[6],[12],[15]in underwater to minimize the effect of noise: ...
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Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have been quite useful in monitoring different tasks and exploring various resources. The major factors which limit the network performance are the bandwidth limitation, node movement, high bit error rate and signal distortion. The need is to maximize the network performance through designing a fast and reliable routing protocol. In this paper, three scenarios are presented namely Improved GEogrphic Depth Adjustment Routing (Im-GEDAR), Mobile Sonobuoy GEographic Routing (MS-GER) and Mobile Sonobuoy Improved GEographic Depth Adjustment Routing (MS-Im-GEDAR) for UWSNs. They use the concept of GEDAR for the selection of data forwarder. Exploiting the void node occurrence, Im-GEDAR uses the depth adjustment strategy by moving void node at new location to start its data forwarding. The movement of void node within maximum transmission range avoids the packet drop. MS-GER considers the movement of sonobuoy for the collection of data from the nodes, while MS-Im-GEDAR uses both the movement of void node as well as mobility of sonobuoy for receiving data from the nodes. Linear optimization is proved to be effective in terms of minimizing the energy consumption of nodes and simulation results further validate the effectiveness of our proposed schemes in terms of maximizing the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR).
... In [1] the authors have addressed the problem of the void regions that occurs when a node is unable to find the next forwarder node, the protocol is based on the Avoiding Void Holes Adaptative Hop by Hop Vector Based Forwarding routing protocol (AVN-AHH-VBF) [17] that is aimed to avoid transmissions towards void regions and select an alternate non-void node with the help of two hop information, in the proposed mechanism, a sensor node is selected as forwarder if it is within the transmission range of the source node and heading toward the destination node, instead of a sensor node that is in the region leading to the destination and has a minimum depth. The protocol includes in addition the deployment of a mobile sink in a sparse region to improve the collection of information in order to reduce the packet loss and the consumption of energy. ...
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In those last decades the Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSNs) have become the commonly explored technology by the scientific community, for the numerous benefits that it can brings to the researchers, however the frequent movement of the underwater sensors due to their mobility or water current factor may severally affect the efficiency of the acoustic wireless communication and reduce it performance. In this paper a Mobility Aware Strategy for Geographical Routing scheme (MAGR-VBF) has been proposed for an early prevention from the mobile sensor during the packet transmission, the protocol is aimed to predict the mobility and switch to another candidate sensor enable to recover the data packet in order to mitigate the packet loss problem. Based on the well-known routing protocol for the UWSNs 'Vector Based Forwarding' (VBF) the proposed study has been implemented and designed using the NS-2 simulator and Aqua-Sim. The result has shown that the presented work (MAGR-VBF) has brings a good performance over the basic VBF, where the energy consumption and the average end to end delay have been reduced by 8.97 % and 5.55 % respectively, and an average of 6.16 % has been increased of packet delivery ratio metric.
... However, this protocol is limited to select the forwarder by ignoring any residual energy which results in replication packages and unbalanced energy usage. • ANU-AHH-VBF: In [7], the author suggests another location-based protocol called Avoiding Void Node with Adaptive Hop-by-Hop Vector-Based Forwarding (AVN-AHH-VBF) that uses a virtual routing pipeline with the configured radius for data analysis. In this protocol, when a node receives a packet, the distance from the forwarder is observed in the predefined range. ...
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A significant increase has been observed in the use of Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) over the last few decades. However, there exist several associated challenges with UWSNs, mainly due to the nodes' mobility, increased propagation delay, limited bandwidth, packet duplication, void holes, and Doppler/multi-path effects. To address these challenges, we propose a protocol named "An Efficient Routing Protocol based on Master-Slave Architecture for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (ERPMSA-UWSN)" that significantly contributes to optimizing energy consumption and data packet's long-term survival. We adopt an innovative approach based on the master-slave architecture, which results in limiting the forwarders of the data packet by restricting the transmission through master nodes only. In this protocol, we suppress nodes from data packet reception except the master nodes. We perform extensive simulation and demonstrate that our proposed protocol is delay-tolerant and energy-efficient. We achieve an improvement of 13% on energy tax and 4.8% on Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), over the state-of-the-art protocol.
... AHH-VBF [27] Consumption of battery issues are highly affected Energy consumption model is provided for the approximate energy utilization of network NADEEM [28] Low network throughput, fails to find another routing path when the void nodes are present on a dedicated path Expected transmission count is considered for the selection of reliable link to maximize network throughput ASEDG [29] Link quality and AUVs time for data gathering process not considered, thus unexpected delay occur Link quality is measured for data gathering process and expected delay is measured Used greedy approach in term of depth and not considered links quality between nodes Next node selection based on link quality and depth threshold is defined for routing process R-ERP2R [31] Maximum range of physical distance is not set, it takes greedy approach to choose the next one and only makes one path for sending the data Physical distance is set and it takes account multiple possible paths from source to sink, after that it sorts the path and chooses the optimal one 3H-RM [32] There is no mechanism introduced for the acknowledgment process when step size is less than 3 thus it makes higher probability of packets duplication at sink node 2N-RM consists of two nodes reliability model and no step size is taken. When data reached at sink node, there is a zero probability of duplication data packet at sink node due to one to one relationship. ...
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Nowadays, there is a growing trend in smart cities. Therefore, the Internet of Things (IoT) enabled Underwater and Wireless Sensor Networks (I-UWSN) are mostly used for monitoring and exploring the environment with the help of smart technology, such as smart cities. The acoustic medium is used in underwater communication and radio frequency is mostly used for wireless sensor networks to make communication more reliable. Therefore, some challenging tasks still exist in I-UWSN, i.e., selection of multiple nodes' reliable paths towards the sink nodes; and efficient topology of the network. In this research, the novel routing protocol, namely Time Based Reliable Link (TBRL), for dynamic topology is proposed to support smart city. TBRL works in three phases. In the first phase, it discovers the topology of each node in network area using a topology discovery algorithm. In the second phase, the reliability of each established link has been determined while using two nodes reliable model for a smart environment. This reliability model reduces the chances of horizontal and higher depth level communication between nodes and selects next reliable forwarders. In the third phase, all paths are examined and the most reliable path is selected to send data packets. TBRL is simulated with the help of a network simulator tool (NS-2 AquaSim). The TBRL is compared with other well known routing protocols, i.e., Depth Based Routing (DBR) and Reliable Energy-efficient Routing Protocol (R-ERP 2 R), to check the performance in terms of end to end delay, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption of a network. Furthermore, the reliability of TBRL is compared with 2H-ACK and 3H-RM. The simulation results proved that TBRL performs approximately 15% better as compared to DBR and 10% better as compared to R-ERP 2 R in terms of aforementioned performance metrics.
... The overhead is higher as compared to that in VBF and it also does not have a strategy for void hole avoidance. In [19], the authors propose a technique called Avoiding Void Node with Adaptive Hop-by-Hop Vector Based Forwarding (AVN-AHH-VBF), which uses virtual routing pipeline having a predetermined radius for data processing. When a node receives a packet, it first checks its distance from the forwarder to see whether it is within a predefined threshold or not. ...
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... is the absorption coefficient generally described in dB/km. Thorp's formula [21], [44], [45] used in underwater to minimize the effect of noise: ...
... The avoiding void node with adaptive hop-by-hop vector-based forwarding (AVN-AHH-VBF) protocol improves the VBF protocol in three ways [41]. Firstly, every node forwards a packet only if the next hop is not a void region. ...
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