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Stress contagion in the classroom? The link between classroom teacher burnout and morning cortisol in elementary school students

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... However, it is not only our individual stress that is at stake; manifesting the social nature of the brain, research demonstrates that stress is contagious. Measurement of salivary cortisol in teachers and students has shown that teachers' occupational stress is linked to students' physiological stress regulation (Oberle and Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Functional brain imaging, including studies of the brain's default-mode network, has provided us with significant insights into mental health, executive functioning, ethical decision making and emotional intelligence, which have various implications for education (Ergas and Berkovich-Ohana, 2017;Immordino-Yang, Christodoulou and Singh, 2012;Jazaieri et al., 2016;WG3-ch2;WG3-ch3;WG3-ch5). ...
... Analyses revealed that, after support for stress contagion in the classroom and the potential detrimental role of teacher stress in predicting student well-being (WG2-ch5; WG2-ch10). Drawing from the stress-contagion framework, Oberle and Schonert-Reichl (2016) examined the link between teacher burnout and student stress in a sample of fourth and seventy grade children in Canada. To assess teacher burnout, adjusting for differences in cortisol levels due to age, gender and time of waking, higher morning cortisol levels in students could be significantly predicted from higher levels of self-reported burnout of classroom teachers. ...
... To assess teacher burnout, adjusting for differences in cortisol levels due to age, gender and time of waking, higher morning cortisol levels in students could be significantly predicted from higher levels of self-reported burnout of classroom teachers. Although these findings were correlational, the research conducted by Oberle and Schonert-Reichl (2016) was the first to show that teachers' occupational stress is linked to students' physiological stress regulation. What is not yet known is the direction of the stress contagion. ...
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This is the first volume of the International Science and Evidence-Based Educational Assessment conducted by UNESCO's MGEIP. The first volume deals with education for flourishing.
... However, teacher burnout may also negatively affect students, and teacher well-being is the most essential determinant of a healthy classroom environment (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). Studies have demonstrated that students can detect teacher burnout (Evers et al., 2004), and evidence suggests associations between teacher burnout and higher cortisol levels among elementary school students (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Moreover, students perceive teachers who are burned out to be less emotionally supportive (Shen et al., 2015), and negative associations have also been found between teacher burnout and the quality of socioemotional relations between students in the classroom (Jensen & Solheim, 2020). ...
... High workloads, a lack of social support from colleagues and management, and an increased focus on testing is a major concern within education, as these factors may contribute to work stress and burnout among teachers, which may threaten a positive classroom environment (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Generally, this statement is in line with the abovementioned research, indicating that increased focus on performance goals eventually relates to student outcomes through burnout. ...
... In addition to a direct association between performance goals and bullying, performance goals may relate to bullying indirectly through teacher burnout. The process through which stress and burnout from teachers relate to negative outcomes for students has been referred to as a burnout-cascade (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016), implying that the stress perceived by students and teachers is cyclically associated. More specifically, this implies that when teachers are overwhelmed by high work demands and a lack of resources, occupational stress increases, leading to negative affect as emotional exhaustion. ...
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Research is lacking regarding how teachers’ perceptions of a performance goal structure, relate to teacher and student outcomes. Thus, the present study examined associations among performance goal structure, teacher burnout, and bullying among students, and further whether pupil-teacher ratio moderated the relation between teacher burnout and bullying. 300 class teachers from 150 schools participated in the project, and structural equation modeling was applied. Results revealed significant associations among performance goal structure, teacher burnout, and bullying. However, having an additional teacher in the classroom did not moderate the association between burnout and bullying.
... Most importantly, there are few studies that examine this relationship from the perspective of teachers and students. The few exceptions are the studies by Oberle and Schonert-Reichl (2016) and Harding and colleagues (2019). Oberle and Schonert-Reichl (2016) found an association between burnout in classroom teachers and the salivary cortisol levels of their elementary school students, which is an indicator of the physiological stress response. ...
... The few exceptions are the studies by Oberle and Schonert-Reichl (2016) and Harding and colleagues (2019). Oberle and Schonert-Reichl (2016) found an association between burnout in classroom teachers and the salivary cortisol levels of their elementary school students, which is an indicator of the physiological stress response. Using data from 8th grade students and their teachers in the United Kingdom, Harding and colleagues (2019) found a weak association between teachers' mean well-being and mean depression and students' wellbeing and distress. ...
... Alongside classmates, teachers are the central contact persons of students in school settings, and their behavior can shape the climate in classrooms and schools. This finding is in line with previous research on the association between teachers' mental health and students' stress and well-being (Harding et al., 2019;Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). The association between teachers' emotional exhaustion and students' health complaints aligns with Oberle and Schonert-Reichl (2016) that teacher burnout correlates with the salivary cortisol levels of their students. ...
Article
Many studies have focused on the effects of teachers’ well-being on the development of students, in particular their academic achievement. To date, little is known about the association between teachers’ well-being and students’ well-being. In the present study, we analyze this relationship and examine the mediating role of teacher support using linked data from 2,686 students and 805 teachers from 48 schools in Germany. Multilevel regression analyses show that there is a relationship between teachers’ emotional exhaustion and students’ subjective health complaints, and between teachers’ psychological well-being and students’ satisfaction with school. The latter association is mediated by teacher support as perceived by students. This study extends current knowledge about the relevance of teachers’ well-being for their students’ socio-emotional development and the mechanisms that underlie this association. Implications for the promotion of mental health in schools and for future research are discussed.
... Chronically stressed teachers are less likely to use evidence-based classroom management and instructional strategies, more likely to experience physical and psychological health problems, and more likely to leave the field of education prior to retirement [8,9]. Students of chronically stressed teachers are more likely to demonstrate disruptive behaviors [10], higher suspension rates [11], and increased salivary cortisol levels -an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity associated with the stress response [12]. ...
... Six teachers identified as female, one identified as male. On average, they had 11 years teaching experience (range: [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]. ...
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Background Teachers have high rates of daily stress and the majority of available interventions are focused at the teacher-level. Yet, best practices in Total Worker Health ® approaches indicate organization-level interventions identified using a participatory approach are most effective. We conducted an exploratory scale-out pilot study to examine the adoption of the Healthy Workplace Participatory Program (HWPP), an evidence-based, Total Worker Health approach to engage employees (e.g., teachers) and supervisory personnel (e.g., administrators) in the design and implementation of workplace well-being interventions within two elementary schools. Methods We evaluated the program both quantitatively and qualitatively collecting implementation outcome data (i.e., fidelity, acceptability, understanding, feasibility, system alignment) as well as data-driven adaptations using the Framework for Reporting Adaptations and Modifications-Expanded. Data from the first school informed scale-out adaptation of the HWPP intervention, HWPP-Education, within the second school. We compared implementation outcomes between Pilot Schools 1 and 2 to evaluate improvements in the adapted HWPP. Results Adaptations to HWPP program content and process were suggested to increase feasibility and contextual fit. Acceptability, understanding, and feasibility ratings showed statistically significant improvements comparing School 1 to School 2 which implemented the improved HWPP-Education. Furthermore, users reported adaptations including shorter meeting design and faster process were feasible within their work context. Conclusion This pilot study is the first attempt to scale out the HWPP to educators, and while not intended to confirm efficacy, it showed promising results for scale-out. Results from Pilot Schools 1 and 2 suggest systematic use of quantitative and qualitative implementation data can effectively inform scale-out efforts that increase critical outcomes such as fidelity, acceptability, understanding, feasibility, system alignment, and leader engagement as well as decrease the extent of system resources needed. As such, this scale-out process may be a feasible approach on which to base large-scale implementation efforts of the HWPP among educators.
... Teacher attrition and the issues surrounding rising levels of mental ill-health among teachers has resulted in higher numbers of teachers leaving the profession (Department for Education, 2018b; Teaching Council of Ireland, 2015). Teachers have been identified as one of the highest ranked professional groups to experience burnout (Corcoran & O'Flaherty, 2018;Naghieh, Montgomery, Bonell, Thompson, & Aber, 2013;Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). An estimated 22% of teachers in the US abandoned their career within the first three years, while some states reported up to 50% leaving teaching within the first five years citing psychological distress as one of the key reasons why teachers become discontent and leave the profession (Darling-Hammond, 2000;Fitchett, McCarthy, Lambert, & Boyle, 2018;Ingersoll, 2001). ...
... An estimated 22% of teachers in the US abandoned their career within the first three years, while some states reported up to 50% leaving teaching within the first five years citing psychological distress as one of the key reasons why teachers become discontent and leave the profession (Darling-Hammond, 2000;Fitchett, McCarthy, Lambert, & Boyle, 2018;Ingersoll, 2001). A high level of occupational stress mitigates teacher SEL and well-being (Harmsen, Helms-Lorenz, Maulana, & van Veen, 2018;Schonert-Reichl, 2017), and may impact their intention to leave their position (Klassen & Chiu, 2011;Newberry & Allsop, 2017), their teaching quality (Hanif, Tariq, & Nadeem, 2011), student stress (Milkie & Warner, 2011;Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016) and ultimately student achievement (Arens & Morin, 2016;Ronfeldt, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2013). ...
Article
Teachers' social and emotional competence has influenced the recruitment, preparation, and retention of teacher candidates. Latent growth models assessed the growth trajectories of pre-service teachers' (N = 305) reported levels of psychological well-being during four years of teacher preparation. Ryff's 54-item scale, six sub-domain model, of eudaimonic psychological well-being was used. Results indicated there were longitudinal mean changes in the six sub-domains across four years: autonomy showed a significant increase; environmental mastery, positive relations with others, and purpose in life all decreased significantly; self-acceptance and personal growth showed non-significant decreases. Evidence-based teacher preparation programs are needed to develop pre-service teachers' academic, social, and emotional learning.
... The stress teachers face is one of the leading factors in their disengagement, health issues, dissatisfaction with the job, and burnout, which fosters a desire for them to leave the profession. Teacher occupational stress has been a concern among researchers for many years and has impacted educational systems and resulted in the development of teacher stress scales with various approaches to address the negative effects of stress and burnout (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). ...
... Moreover, burnout progresses slowly and is characterized as the end stage of various negative reactions to stress and is accompanied by the appearance of emotional exhaustion, which is considered the key symptom of burnout (Sifferlin, 2016). In the first three years of entering the profession, 40% to 50% of new teachers leave their teaching career and burnout from chronic occupational stress is cited as the most probable cause in North America (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Mindfulness is one form of intervention that can be especially effective for addressing general and occupation stress before it leads to burnout. ...
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This study investigated how to decrease teacher stress and burnout by a virtual online mindfulness practice intervention with the cognitive apprenticeship, self-determination, and self-efficacy theory as the frameworks. My research project examined instruction and training in mindfulness practice as a tool to cultivate stress coping skills in K–12 teachers through a six-week mindfulness virtual online course (MVOC). This study involved five participants and employed an explanatory sequential mixed-methods approach comprised of quantitative data collection with pre- and post-surveys followed by three qualitative interviews over six weeks to facilitate a case study consideration. The results exhibited reduced stress in participants following an increase in awareness from developing a personal mindfulness practice. Furthermore, the MVOC intervention helped the participants build a daily personalized mindfulness practice that improved their stress coping skills and was beneficial in specific ways. Teachers who practice routine mindfulness will cultivate progressively effective stress coping skills and K–12 teachers can enjoy increased job satisfaction and decreased burnout.
... Teacher burnout has an impact on students' well-being. In their study on stress contagion, Oberle and Shonert-Reichl [12] show that students in burnt-out teachers' classrooms burnout. The link between neuroticism and emotional exhaustion is weak in this study which is surprising and could be explained by the sample of police officers used. ...
... Knowing that teachers' well-being impacts that of students [12,66], it becomes even more critical to address burnout in order to preserve teachers from exhaustion and their students from related stress. Furthermore, as personality is also related to emotional competencies [67], taking into account how teachers use such competencies (to manage not only their own emotions but also those of their students) would not only allow for more comprehensive profiles to be drawn up but also for concrete avenues to be explored in order to decrease the risk of burnout and to promote a more serene classroom climate for better emotional outcomes for students. ...
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Teachers’ well-being, including burnout, impacts the stress and well-being of students. Understanding the development of burnout requires not only an examination of stressors, but also a consideration of personality factors. While teachers are subject to many pressures in their profession, they have personalities that make them more or less vulnerable. Our research with 470 secondary school teachers reveals four distinct negative affectivity profiles. Our results show that negative affectivity (tendency to feel depression, anxiety, or stress) plays a role in the development of burnout. However, while teachers with a more anxious profile experience greater emotional exhaustion, those with a depressive profile have more difficulty developing a strong sense of personal accomplishment. The findings highlight the need to take into account the various facets of negative affectivity, particularly in order to be able to propose prevention and intervention approaches adapted to these specific profiles
... Furthermore, the stress experienced by a teacher or a headmaster goes far beyond the individual and affects other members of the educational community who are in close contact with this person. In addition, a recent study found differences in a biological indicator of stress (salivary cortisol) in elementary school students in classrooms with teachers who reported higher symptoms of burnout [11]. Schonert-Reichl [12] indicate that teachers who are not coping well may be less effective in modeling important social emotional competencies for the students in their classrooms. ...
... It turns out that this is not the case. Teachers are one of the most-researched professional groups in terms of stress and burnout [6,11,13,[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37]. Unfortunately, although occupational stress is given due importance, and it is emphasized simultaneously that the ability to cope with stress is one of the key competencies of those in managerial positions, in educational institutions, headmasters are very poorly researched in this regard. ...
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Although the ability to deal with stress is one of the key competences of people working in managerial positions in schools and educational establishments, principals in this area are very poorly diagnosed. The aim of this study was to consider the coping strategies used by headmasters and deputy headmasters of schools and educational establishments during the COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, Mini-COPE was used. The respondents (N = 159) obtained a higher mean for “active coping”, “planning”, “positive reframing”, “acceptance”, “use of instrumental support”, “venting”, and “problem-focused strategies” than the normative value. Compared to deputy headmasters, headmasters obtained higher mean results for “planning” and “religion”, and lower results for “behavioral disengagement”. Respondents with longer job seniority in a managerial position, obtained a higher mean for “use of instrumental support” and lower for “religion”. Compared to respondents employed in private schools, people in the public education sector are more likely to use “behavioral disengagement” and less their “sense of humor”. The respondents working in primary schools scored higher on average for “use of instrumental support” and “problem-focused strategies”. It would be advisable to compare the results with the teachers and the persons holding managerial positions in institutions and organizations not related to education.
... El reflejo de estados emocionales o de excitación entre individuos, se observa comúnmente en especies que viven en grupo (de Waal, 2008). Ejemplos de esto, son la resonancia fisiológica empática de respuestas agudas al estrés en quienes observan a otros que sufren las causas reales de ese estrés (Buchanan, 2012); o el contagio emocional entre perros y humanos, al mostrar la misma respuesta fisiológica ante el llanto de un bebé (Yong & Rufman, 2014); o las elevadas concentraciones de cortisol en estudiantes de educación básica, cuando tienen profesores que experimentan altos niveles de estrés (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). ...
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Resumen: La relación humano-mascota ha demostrado tener efectos benéficos en la salud mental de las personas, entre ellos la disminución de la ansiedad, la generación de vínculos de apego y una mejora en la autovaloración. Es sabido que las medidas necesarias para frenar los contagios en la actual situación de pandemia provocada por el COVID-19, pueden generar síntomas de ansiedad, estrés, depresión e insomnio. La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo caracterizar los posibles efectos de las mascotas sobre los indicadores de salud mental de sus dueños, en el contexto de la pandemia. Una muestra de 531 voluntarios (404 mujeres), dueños de mascotas, participaron en el estudio. Todos respondieron una batería de instrumentos, integrada por (1) un cuestionario sociodemográfico; (2) una escala sobre apego y tenencia responsable de mascotas; y (3) la escala de depresión, ansiedad y estrés (DASS-21). La batería fue administrada online, a través de la plataforma QuestionPro, durante dos semanas de agosto de 2020. Los resultados no mostraron diferencias significativas en los niveles de salud mental entre los grupos de participantes. Sin embargo, contrario a lo esperado, a mayor apego en la relación humano-mascota, mayores fueron los puntajes de depresión, ansiedad y estrés. Estos resultados se discuten en función de los antecedentes aportados por la literatura y las condiciones contextuales del estudio. Palabras clave: Acompañamiento humano-mascota, salud mental, crisis sanitaria, apego, tenencia responsable de mascotas. Abstract: Human-pet interactions have been shown to have beneficial effects on people's mental health, including a reduction of anxiety, the generation of attachment bonds, and an increase in self-worth. It is well known that the necessary restrictions to stop the contagion in the midst of the current pandemics originated by COVID-19, have generated symptoms of anxiety, stress, depression and insomnia. The objective of this research was to characterize the effects of pets on the mental health indicators of their owners, in the context of the pandemics. A sample of 531 volunteer pet owners (404 women), participated in the study. They completed a set of instruments, integrated by (1) a sociodemographic questionnaire; (2) a specially built scale of pet-attachment and responsible pet ownership; and (3) the scale for depression, anxiety and stress (DASS-2). This battery was administered online, via the QuestionPro platform during two weeks, in August of 2020. The results showed no significant differences in the levels of mental health between the groups of participants. However, contrary to expectations, to higher levels of human-pet attachment, higher scores in depression, anxiety and stress also were found. These results are discussed based on the background information provided by the literature and the contextual conditions of the study.
... The model of Gil Monte is characterized by cognitive impairment, poor work excitement, and disillusionment. Feelings of low personal accomplishment and physical and workrelated exhaustion are shown by professors, followed by negative attitudes and behaviors towards students, administrative and teaching staff with cynical, indifferent, cold, and distant behaviors, sarcasm, passive aggression, depersonalization, and lack of sensitivity to situations that require empathy, experiencing feelings of guilt when performing these attitudes [51][52][53][54][55][56]. ...
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This research aims to describe the relationship between resilience and burnout facing COVID-19 pandemics. The sample was n = 831 lecturers and professors of a Mexican public university. This study is a quantitative, non-experimental, cross-sectional, explanatory, and ex post facto research using Structural Equations Modeling with latent variables under the partial least square’s method technique. We used the CD-RISC-25 and SBI questionnaires to measure resilience and burnout, respectively. Structural Equations Modeling (SEM–PLS) allowed the visualization of the exogenous variable (resilience) in endogenous variables (dimensions of SBI burnout: E9 guilt, E7 emotional exhaustion, E8 indolence, and E6 work illusion). To this day, there are very few previous studies that jointly analyze in Mexico the characteristics of resilience and burnout in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings show that resources availability has the strongest correlation with accomplishment in teaching, followed by cynicism and emotional exhaustion. These results have important professional implications.
... As a result, nominations are restricted to the (participating) children from the same classroom, whereas it was not feasible to qualify peer relationships outside the classroom. It could, however, be argued that at a young age, children spend most of their time at school rather than at sport or hobby clubs, making the peer relationships measured at school a proper one [68,69]. Secondly, our study is limited by the fact that our sample consisted of parents with a relatively high educational level. ...
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Background Children with autism have difficulties in understanding relationships, yet little is known about the levels of autistic traits with regard to peer relationships. This study examined the association between autistic traits and peer relationships. Additionally, we examined whether the expected negative association is more pronounced in children with a lower non-verbal IQ and in those who exhibit more externalizing problems. Method Data were collected in a large prospective birth cohort of the Generation R Study (Rotterdam, the Netherlands) for which nearly 10,000 pregnant mothers were recruited between 2002 and 2006. Follow up data collection is still currently ongoing. Information on peer relationships was collected with PEERS application, an interactive computerized task ( M = 7.8 years). Autistic traits were assessed among general primary school children by using the Social Responsiveness Scale ( M = 6.1 years). Information was available for 1580 children. Result Higher levels of autistic traits predicted lower peer acceptance and higher peer rejection. The interaction of autistic traits with externalizing problems (but not with non-verbal IQ or sex) was significant: only among children with low externalizing problems, a higher level of autistic traits predicted less peer acceptance and more peer rejection. Among children exhibiting high externalizing problems, a poor peer acceptance and high level of rejection is seen independently of the level of autistic traits. Conclusion We conclude that autistic traits—including traits that do not classify as severe enough for a clinical diagnosis—as well as externalizing problems negatively impact young children’s peer relationships. This suggests that children with these traits may benefit from careful monitoring and interventions focused at improving peer relationships.
... Although we framed expulsion decision risk as teacher's perceptions of expulsion risk, it also may be that teachers' trauma-informed attitudes and stress actually influence children's behaviors, and that children in classrooms with more trauma-informed teachers have less severe behaviors. It has been found in prior work that teacher stress influenced indicators of children's stress and regulation in a classroom, such as cortisol (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016) and student-teacher relationships (Whitaker et al., 2015). Future research should include parentreport and observational measures of children's behavior and expulsion decision risk to examine these alternate pathways. ...
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Despite the known relationship between trauma and academic outcomes, including expulsion risk, for preschoolers, little is known about the role that teachers may play in addressing the effects of childhood trauma within preschool settings. The current study examined the relationship between a teacher’s overall stress, trauma-informed attitudes, and indicators of children’s expulsion decision risk using a sample of preschool lead and assistant teachers (n = 129) recruited from Head Start classrooms in the Mountain West. Multivariate multiple regression was used to determine whether teachers stress and trauma-informed attitudes (trauma-informed knowledge, self-efficacy, and reactions) were related to three indicators of expulsion decision risk using subscales of the Preschool Expulsion Risk Measure (classroom disruption, fear of accountability, and child-related stress) for the most disruptive child in the teacher’s classroom. Higher overall stress significantly predicted higher fear of accountability (β = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.07, .45, p = 0.007). Higher trauma-informed knowledge was significantly related to lower child-related stress (β = −0.40, 95% CI = −0.63, −.17, p = 0.001). Higher trauma-informed self-efficacy was significantly related to lower classroom disruption (β = −0.45, 95% CI = −0.66, −.25, p < 0.001). Multigroup models revealed significantly different pathways for children of color (Black, Latinx, and American Indian children) compared to White children; teacher stress predicted higher expulsion decision risk for children of color and trauma-informed attitudes predicted lower expulsion decision risk for White children. Implications for development and evaluation of trauma-informed approaches for early childhood settings are discussed.
... Specific abilities of teachers and school culture, including collaborative work and supportive environment (Castro Silva et al., 2017), increase chances to pilot innovative activities and strive for teachers' leadership. Teachers' positive attitudes, teachers' activeness, and teachers' stress at school are linked with their leadership in a classroom (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016;Charkowski, 2018). ...
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Today, the traditional role of teachers is challenged, and teaching practice requires less time for face-to-face instruction, a unique position that does not impose responsibilities on one person (teacher or student) and creates a common teaching and learning space in which new knowledge is co-created and socially developed. This change requires teachers’ high professionalism and leadership skills, which is the key component of a successful educational process. Therefore, it is important for researchers, school principals, and teachers to understand better the predictive factors of teachers’ leadership, which should be developed, nurtured, and sustained. This study addresses the teachers’ leadership regarding their attitudes toward themselves, attitudes towards the school, teachers’ activeness, and stress experienced at school. The study involved 418 teachers from five regions in Lithuania. The findings indicate that the four analyzed factors, influencing teacher leadership are strongly interrelated. Moreover, the research results reveal determinants surrounding the factors of interest, which leads to a more complex understanding of underlying reasons and problems related to practicing teachers’ leadership at school.
... The way children perceive and respond to stimuli is strongly related to the environment they experience now and have experienced in the past [17,22]. Specifically, unsafe, threatening or challenging contexts may repetitively trigger a stress response in students and require the dissipation of a great amount of energy to regulate it [23]. In addition, past experiences related to a specific environment might generate negative or worrisome expectations that cause or reinforce a stress response that needs to be downregulated in order to function adequately in terms of emotional and physical well-being [24]. ...
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This study examines the associations between physical and emotional well-being and classroom climate, cardiac vagal response, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 6- to-8-year-olds. Specifically, we expected a direct link between classroom climate, vagal withdrawal, BMI and children’s physical and emotional comfort. Furthermore, we explored whether these individual and environmental characteristics influenced well-being in an interactive fashion. Participants were 142 (63 boys, 44%) first and second graders living in the North of Italy who were interviewed on their emotional and physical comfort. Heart rate and a measure of vagal influence on the heart (cardiac vagal tone) were recorded at rest and during an oral academic test. Height and weight were collected. Classroom climate was positively linked with physical well-being, whereas emotional well-being was negatively related with BMI. In addition, an inverted U-shaped effect of cardiac vagal withdrawal (i.e., cardiac vagal tone during stress minus resting vagal tone) on emotional well-being was found. Two regression models highlighted the role played by BMI when interacting with vagal withdrawal in predicting children’s physical and emotional well-being. The interplay between BMI and cardiac vagal withdrawal played an important role in primary school children’s well-being. From a clinical perspective, preventive training to improve autonomic regulation in concert with interventions promoting healthy eating attitudes might be critical for supporting primary school children’s emotional and physical health.
... Existing relationships may have prompted teachers to seek direct support from coordinators (see Sibley et al., 2017) to vent and discuss self-care. This may lessen feelings of teacher burnout, which in turn may support student learning (McLean & Connor, 2015;Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Future studies of teachers' experiences can probe how existing relationships may have affected teachers' practice and effectiveness during COVID-19. ...
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As COVID-19 shuttered schools, it created widespread student and family needs and exacerbated challenges stemming from long-standing racial and economic inequities. Here, we examine how an evidenced-based, integrated student support intervention responded to systematically identify and address the academic and nonacademic needs of students and families in 94 high-poverty, urban schools. We conduct thematic analysis of open-ended survey responses about intervention personnel’s work in spring 2020 and triangulate findings with descriptive analyses of service provision records and mid-spring estimates of crucial needs. We find that intervention schools developed specific processes to respond to immediate needs, which included resource, academic, and socioemotional support. To accomplish this, the intervention leveraged existing processes and relationships to maintain intervention-specific practices, facilitate referrals and connections to resources, and expand direct intervention for education stakeholders. Findings elucidate practices for meeting academic and nonacademic needs that affect student learning and that may arise in future schooling disruptions.
... Moreover, and notwithstanding moderators of intervention effects that require further study, PP interventions can be applied across multiple student contexts and practiced outside of the school (e.g., Huppert and Johnson, 2010), making them relatively accessible and scalable (Chafouleas and Bray, 2003). Finally, PP was shown to be applicable to teachers and faculty (McGovern, 2011;Critchley and Gibbs, 2012), which is important given that teacher well-being is associated with a range of student outcomes, including wellbeing and academic results (Oberle and Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Finally, positive psychology research has also adopted ecological theories of well-being and organizational change models to inform whole-school and whole-university change (Hoy and Tarter, 2011;Oades et al., 2011a,b), thus further bolstering its place in shaping education-based mental health research. ...
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This large-scale quantitative review used publication data to track the presence of positive education terms over a 100+ year period across 35 psychology journals and education journals utilizing two analytical methods. First, computer-generated linguistic word count analysis identified that positive education terms have shown small but steady growth in psychology and education research for more than a century. From 1904 to 2016, positive education terms have risen consistently, with increases in 1952, 1982, 2010, and 2014 to over 4, 5, 6, and 7 percent, respectively. Four new terms were present in the top 20 most prevalent terms following the official launch of positive education in 2009: well-being, satisfaction, motivat*, and engag* (note: terms ending with an asterisk are word stems). Three terms also increased in rank order prevalence from 2009 onwards: emotion*; health; and goal*. The second analytical method involved in-depth human coding of a subset of positive education abstracts ( n =2,805) by a team of five researchers ¹ to identify trends pertaining to how positive education research has been conducted in terms of paradigms, designs, methods, tools, samples, and settings from 1950 to 2016. College students and students in secondary school make up the most common samples, with little research in the early childhood years. Quantitative, cross-sectional studies using self-report surveys have been the most common design and method used over the past six decades, suggesting room for growth in qualitative methods and the need for greater longitudinal and intervention designs. The human coding was also used to classify positive education variables into broader categories of research. Nine categories were identified: positive functioning; well-being; ill-being; strengths; agency; connection and belonging; identity and personality; school climate and outcomes; and demographics. By tracking positive education science over time, the current paper allows researchers to take stock of the field, identify gaps, outline areas of growth, and pursue fruitful topics for future research.
... In addition, teacher's stress negatively impacts pupils' social adjustment, academic performance [18] and mental wellbeing [19][20][21]. For example, Oberle and Schonert-Reichl [22] revealed that student's cortisol levels were much higher in classrooms led by a teacher who reported feeling overwhelmed. Longitudinal studies have further revealed that teachers reporting higher burnout early in the year have classrooms presenting more behavioural problems across the year [23]. ...
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Objectives Schools are experiencing an unprecedented mental health crisis, with teachers reporting high levels of stress and burnout, which has adverse consequences to their mental and physical health. Addressing mental and physical health problems and promoting wellbeing in educational settings is thus a global priority. This study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of an 8-week Compassionate Mind Training program for Teachers (CMT-T) on indicators of psychological and physiological wellbeing. Methods A pragmatic randomized controlled study with a stepped-wedge design was conducted in a sample of 155 public school teachers, who were randomized to CMT-T ( n = 80) or a waitlist control group (WLC; n = 75). Participants completed self-report measures of psychological distress, burnout, overall and professional wellbeing, compassion and self-criticism at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-months follow-up. In a sub-sample (CMT-T, n = 51; WLC n = 36) resting heart-rate variability (HRV) was measured at baseline and post-intervention. Results CMT-T was feasible and effective. Compared to the WLC, the CMT-T group showed improvements in self-compassion, compassion to others, positive affect, and HRV as well as reductions in fears of compassion, anxiety and depression. WLC participants who received CMT-T revealed additional improvements in compassion for others and from others, and satisfaction with professional life, along with decreases in burnout and stress. Teachers scoring higher in self-criticism at baseline revealed greater improvements post CMT-T. At 3-month follow-up improvements were retained. Conclusions CMT-T shows promise as a compassion-focused intervention for enhancing compassion, wellbeing and reducing psychophysiological distress in teachers, contributing to nurturing compassionate, prosocial and resilient educational environments. Given its favourable and sustainable effects on wellbeing and psychophysiological distress, and low cost to deliver, broader implementation and dissemination of CMT-T is encouraged.
... The teacher wellbeing crisis not only hurts the educator workforce but also affects students in their classrooms. Higher teacher-reported stress and burnout are associated with teachers providing lower quality emotional and instructional supports (Sandilos et al., 2018), greater teacher-student conflict (Spilt et al., 2011;Yoon, 2002), and poorer academic (e.g., McLean & Connor, 2015) and social-emotional outcomes for students (Jeon et al., 2014;Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). ...
... Teachers are human beings with both emotional and cognitive capacities and their interactions with the students can elicit all feelings which could be productive or non-productive. If non-productive, in the long run, their feelings of anger, anxiety and their inability to manage relationships with students (Zandvliet et al., 2014) could make them less sensitive to students which could lead to lower motivation and achievement in their classes (Aldrup et al., 2020) and increases stress in students (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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... While the current results are consistent with both theoretical and empirical findings that have indicated associations between teacher wellbeing and their students' socio-emotional outcomes (e.g., Jennings & Greenberg, 2009;Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016), this is the first study to specifically examine the role of STS in this regard. By controlling for the more general construct of teacher burnout within the model, the current findings indicate that the experience of STS symptoms, specifically, may make a unique contribution to the socio-emotional functioning of the students within a particular teacher's class. ...
Article
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Teacher emotional wellbeing can exert a strong influence over the ability to effectively perform important aspects of the job, including fostering healthy teacher–student relationships. Our investigation explores one understudied aspect of teacher wellbeing, the presence of secondary traumatic stress (STS). Across helping professions, STS has been associated with a range of emotional and occupational impairments, including difficulty connecting with others (Clunies-Ross et al. in Educ Psychol 28:693–710, 2008). The primary goal of the current study was to determine whether teacher STS influences student socio-emotional functioning through its effects on teacher–student relationship quality. This study was conducted with 150 educators (79% Female, 63% White, 32% Black) and 610 students (59% Female, 91% Black, 1% White) across six urban, public, charter schools in the Gulf South. Results from multi-level structural equation modeling indicated that, as hypothesized, teacher STS symptoms were positively associated with their ratings of students’ socio-emotional difficulties (β = .28, p < .01) such that as teacher symptomology increased, so did the level of student difficulties reported. Contrary to the hypothesis, teacher reports of relationship quality with students were not found to mediate this relationship. Teacher–student relationship quality was negatively associated with their ratings of student socio-emotional difficulties (β = − .30, p < .01). As teacher reports of relationships improved, their ratings of socio-emotional difficulties decreased. These findings highlight the importance of efforts to identify the prevalence and impact of STS among teachers and the associated outcomes for students. Additionally, results can inform efforts to train and support educators as they work to build relationships with students and foster student socio-emotional functioning.
... Firstly, it is a matter of fact that teachers' wellbeing has direct link to students' wellbeing. In an empirical research, Oberle and Schonert-Reichl (2016) remark that cortisol levels in the morning in students can be related to teacher burnout. The researchers also comment that students will normally perceive teachers' negative emotions and its manifestation, and the negative emotions are contagious which could pose the harm on teacher-student healthy relationship (Schonert-Reichl, 2017). ...
Article
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In the last twodecades more and more studies have emphasized the central role of teachers’ social and emotional competence in their teaching performance. In spite of this, there are not enough programs focused on developing teachers’ social and emotional competence that are integrated into teacher education. This is particularly true in Vietnam where the concepts of social and emotional competence (SEC) and social and emotional learning (SEL) are rather new. In the study, we present four main emerging impact aspects of teachers’ SEC including teachers’ well-being and career motivation, teacher-student relationship, classroom management, and the effectiveness of SEL implementation. The article gives some recommendations for teacher education regarding SEC issue in Vietnam as well. These recommendations would contribute to develop a new approach of teacher education to meet the country’s new general education curriculum enacted in 2020.
... Teachers and parents have reported increased stress as a result of schools moving to distance learning (Bonal & Gonzales, 2020;Kimm & Ashbury, 2020). As teacher stress increases, there is a corresponding decrease in student learning (e.g., Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Additionally, parents have become proxy educators during emergency remote instruction-a responsibility they cannot easily abdicate. ...
Article
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the sudden cancellation of in-class instruction for many students around the world presented an unprecedented disruption in children’s education. As the COVID-19 pandemic took form, multiple concerns were raised about the potential negative impact on students’ learning. The current study examined this proposition for children’s writing. We compared the quality of writing, handwriting fluency, and attitude toward writing of first grade Norwegian students during the COVID-19 pandemic (421 girls, 396 boys), which included emergency remote instruction for almost 7 weeks, with first grade students in the same schools a year before the pandemic began (835 girls, 801 boys). Aftercontrolling for variance due to national test scores, school size, proportion of certified teachers, students per special education teacher, school hours per student, student gender, and native language, we found that students attending first grade during the pandemic had lower scores for writing quality, handwriting fluency, and attitude toward writing than their first grade peers tested a year earlier before the COVID-19 pandemic emerged. Implications for policy and instruction as well as future research are presented
... Moreover, teachers' stress and burnout are related to an array of negative outcomes in students. A study showed that students' cortisol levels were much higher in classrooms led by teachers who reported feeling overwhelmed (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Longitudinal studies have revealed that teachers who report higher levels of burnout early in the school year have classes with more behavioural problems across the year (McLean & Connor, 2015). ...
Article
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Objectives Mounting research has supported the beneficial effects of compassion-based interventions for improving psychosocial and physiological well-being and mental health. Teachers present a high risk of professional stress, which negatively impacts their mental health and professional performance. It is crucial to make compassion cultivation a focus in educational settings, supporting teachers in coping with the school context’s challenges, and promoting their mental well-being. This study aims to test the feasibility of the Compassionate Mind Training programme for Teachers (CMT-T), as well as to preliminary explore possible mechanisms of change. Methods Participants were 31 teachers from one public school in the centre region of Portugal, who underwent the CMT-T, a six-module Compassionate Mind Training group intervention for teachers. Feasibility was assessed in six domains (acceptability, implementation, practicality, adaptation, integration, and preliminary effectiveness), using self-reports, overall programme assessment, attrition, attendance, and home practice. Using a pre-post within-subject design, changes were assessed in self-reported psychological distress, burnout, well-being, compassion, and self-criticism. Mediation analysis for repeated measures designs was used to explore mechanisms of change. Results The CMT-T was feasible in all the six domains. Participants revealed significant decreases in depression, stress, and fears of compassion to others, as well as significant increases in compassion to others, self-compassion, and compassion to others’ motivations and actions after the CMT-T intervention. When self-criticism was controlled, decreases in burnout and increases in satisfaction with professional life, and self-compassion, were also found. Fears of compassion for others mediated the impact of CMT-T on teachers’ burnout, and self-compassion mediated the intervention effect on psychological well-being. Conclusions This pilot study provides evidence that CMT-T is feasible and may be effective in promoting teachers’ compassionate motivations, attributes, and actions towards others and themselves and improving their mental health and well-being. These promising findings warrant further investigation within a randomized controlled trial.
... Teachers' high stress is associated with physical and mental health problems (Shernoff et al., 2011), increased intention to leave the field, and attrition (Ryan et al., 2017;McCarthy et al., 2019). Student wellbeing and achievement are also impacted when teachers struggle (Oberle and Schonert-Reichl, 2016;Herman et al., 2018). To further complicate the issue, teachers face a unique constellation of demands within their work environment: low student motivation, challenges disciplining students (Skaalvik and Skaalvik, 2017), burdensome workloads (Shernoff et al., 2011), and high-stakes testing (Lever et al., 2017) to name a few. ...
Article
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Teaching is widely recognized as a stressful profession, which has been connected to burnout and high turnover of qualified teachers. Despite increasing attention on teacher wellbeing, stress management interventions are often underutilized and demonstrate small effect sizes, and research on teachers’ informal stress management practices and desired resources is limited. It is likely that formal and informal intervention effectiveness is limited by teachers’ ability to access existing resources and navigate the complex educational systems they inhabit. The study explored the barriers to and facilitators for teachers’ engagement in formal and informal stress management interventions and desired resources across socioecological levels. Thirty-two teachers participated across four focus groups. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify relevant themes. Personal barriers (e.g., guilt about self-prioritization), environmental barriers (e.g., mixed messages about self-care), and improved campus resources (e.g., scheduled opportunities to destress) were common themes. Recommendations for supporting teachers’ wellbeing include self-care affirming messages from peers and administrators, campus- and district-level changes to remove logistical barriers to stress management, and increased connectedness among campus community members.
... Adjusting school start times, 8:30am onwards, and introducing sleep hygiene programming are policy-driven solutions that have shown positive academic and mental health outcomes (Dunster et al., 2018;Gee et al., 2019;Gruber, 2017;Hayes & Bainton, 2020;Marino et al., 2021;Orchard et al., 2020;Scott et al., 2021;Troxel & Wolfson, 2017). We further echo findings recommending that teacher wellbeing be addressed (Lawler et al., 2017;Marquez & Main, 2021), given its links to student wellbeing and academic performance (Harding et al., 2019;Milkie & Warner, 2011;Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Overall, a more systemic view of wellbeing must be promoted where MPPI programs are extended to improve the overall school climate so that the wellbeing of all stakeholders is supported (Marquez & Inchley, 2020). ...
Article
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Positive psychology interventions hold great promise as schools around the world look to increase the wellbeing of young people. To reach this aim, a program was developed to generate positive emotions, as well as improve life satisfaction, mental toughness and perceptions of school kindness in 538 expatriate students in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Starting in September 2019, the program included a range of positive psychology interventions such as gratitude, acts of kindness and mental contrasting as examples. Life satisfaction and mental toughness at mid-year were sustained or grew by the end of the year. Positive affect, emotional wellbeing and social wellbeing increased at post-intervention 1, compared to baseline. However, this improvement reverted to baseline levels at post-intervention 2, when data were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only psychological wellbeing, negative affect, perceptions of control, and school kindness were increased at post-intervention 2. During the lockdown, students moved less, but slept and scrolled more. Those who extended their sleep duration reported greater wellbeing. Boosting wellbeing through the use of positive psychology interventions works – even in a pandemic – and extended sleep duration appears to be a driving factor for this observation.
... For instance, when teachers experience high levels of stress during an emergency, students could be negatively affected. This phenomenon is known as stress contagion (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). The combination of high workload and lack of support and resources can lead to increasing levels of occupational stress. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 outbreak significantly impacted people’s lives. Within the education system, the teaching mode drastically changed to adapt to the social distancing restrictions due to the pandemic. Consequently, teachers have been facing challenges associated with remote learning in addition to those of the pandemic. The aim of the present study was to assess the psychological state among teachers at two stages: prepandemic (November 2019) and during the pandemic (June-July 2020 and June-July 2021). Information regarding demographic data, depression, anxiety, and stress (DASS-21), and burnout syndrome (MBI-ES) was collected using validated questionnaires. Results showed a significantly higher scores as well as a higher prevalence in the DASS-21 and the MBI-ES scales, on the second measurement taken during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period and the first evaluation during the pandemic. During the second evaluation on pandemic stage, female teachers of ≥45 years of age with a college-level of education, 11 years of teaching experience, and currently teaching at preschools and primary schools were significantly associated with higher anxiety, stress, EE, and burnout scores. In addition, female teachers aged ≥45 years reported higher PD and PA scores. Finally, an association between burnout syndrome and depression was identified in the evaluations carried out during the pandemic considering both the total sample and the analysis per gender. The study shows that teachers’ mental health has been negatively affected by the pandemic. Efforts from the education system and health authorities are crucial to design and implement strategies to improve teachers’ mental health during the fight against COVID-19.
... Many studies have established an association between teacher burnout and various negative outcomes, including less impactful teaching, disruptive behavior in class, reduced relationships with students, and teacher turnover (e.g., Perrone et al., 2019). If teachers have increased levels of burnout, their students also experience increased levels of stress and reduced academic accomplishment (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Even in non-pandemic situations, teacher stress and feelings of burnout are associated with their own poor psychological wellbeing and more negative emotions towards students (Buri c et al., 2019) and with elevated stress of the children in their elementary school class (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Further, previous research from the UK has suggested that teaching is one of the occupations that is worse than average on stress related factors (i.e., physical health, psychological well-being, job satisfaction) and therefore should be given careful consideration (Johnson et al., 2005). ...
Article
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The present study, conducted during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada, addressed the association between family responsibilities and mental health (depression and anxiety) among kindergarten educators. Participants comprised 1790 (97.9% female) kindergarten educators (73.6% kindergarten teachers; 26.4% early childhood educators) across Ontario. Results revealed that educators were more likely to report moderate levels of depressive symptoms if they had the responsibility of caring for their own children, and more likely to report moderate levels of depressive and anxious symptoms if they had the responsibility of caring for an older adult. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... In this study, teacher-student interactions were objectively observed by trained data collectors; however, all other constructs were reported on by teachers or students. Future research might aim to gather independent observations of dyadic classroom relationships and aggressive behaviors, or get 'under the skin' of teacher burnout and stress by collecting cortisol or heart rate (Oberle, & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). Furthermore, researchers may want to study the implications of other classroom social factors (e.g., peer relationships) for teaching practice, particularly within the context of highneeds schools. ...
Article
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Research consistently demonstrates that high quality teacher-student interactions have meaningful links to students’ learning, development, and mental health (Choi et al., Early Education and Development, 30(3):337–356, 2019; Mashburn et al., Child Development 79:732–749, 2008; McLean and Connor, Child Development 86:945–954, 2015). However, little is known about the factors that contribute to quality teacher-student interactions (Early et al., 2007). These interactions are dynamic; therefore, they are likely influenced by teacher characteristics, student characteristics, and dyadic relational elements. In 330 third- and fourth-grade classrooms across 60 high needs elementary schools, we aimed to better understand how teacher burnout, student aggression, and teacher-student relational closeness explained variation in observed classroom interaction quality (i.e., emotional support, instructional support, and classroom organization) later in the year, controlling for earlier observations. Importantly, student aggression and teacher-student relational closeness were measured from both teacher and student perspectives. While teacher burnout earlier in the year was not significantly associated with changes in interaction quality across the year, the results highlighted the importance of student behavior and relational factors. Specifically, more teacher-reported classroom-level aggression was associated with less emotional support and classroom organization across the year. Additionally, greater student-reported teacher-student relational closeness was linked to increased emotional support, instructional support, and classroom organization. These results indicate that fostering close teacher-student relationships may contribute to improved classroom interaction quality. Practical implications for teachers, instructional coaches, and school psychologists are discussed.
... Reactions to stress can include coping responses but also maladaptive behaviors such as denial, withdrawal, alcohol or substance abuse, and anger or aggression (Carver & Connor-Smith, 2010). Teachers will encounter stress, and therefore coping is particularly important both for teachers' health and because of the influence teachers can have on learners, sometimes called stress-contagion (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). The degree to which a teacher experiences stress is related to a variety of factors, such as appraisals of what is at stake and coping resources, expectancies, strategies, skill, preparedness and practice in effectively dealing with stress (Bottiani et al., 2019;Dunham, 1992). ...
Article
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This study focuses on understanding language teachers’ lived experiences of their stressors and positive uplifts from a holistic perspective covering their professional lives in school, their personal lives beyond, and the connection between the two. The aim was to explore the nature of teachers’ experiences of stress and how they spilled over from work into home domains. We also were keen to understand the dynamics of their experiences of stress and how their perception of daily stressors was related to their overall sense of wellbeing as well as their life and chronic stressors. The data were collected via a specially created app, which collected survey data and experience sampling method (ESM) data from language teachers across the globe. Teachers’ wellbeing was investigated using the PERMA Profiler (Butler & Kern, 2016), their personality using Goldberg’s (1992) Big Five measurement tool, and a questionnaire on chronic stressors and stressful life events. From a larger sample (n = 47), a set of 6 case studies of teachers who scored highly for wellbeing and those who scored low on wellbeing was examined to explore in depth and across time, the relationships between overall wellbeing, chronic stressors and stressful life events, the experience of daily stressors, and perceptions of health. The findings point to the complexity of the relationships between stress, wellbeing, and health as well as the dynamism of stress and the relationships between stress experienced in the workplace and at home. The study has important implications for research in this area and reveals the merits of working with this innovative data collection tool.
... However, evidence suggests that cynicism involving a distant or negative attitude towards work, students, colleagues or parents may be a more crucial determinant of teacher burnout than increased exhaustion (Hakanen, Bakker, and Schaufeli 2006;Leiter and Maslach 2016;Maslach, Schaufeli, and Leiter 2001). All three symptoms are necessary for understanding teacher burnout (Maslach et al. 2008), which may lead to dysfunctional teacher behaviour, with obvious negative implications for teachers' health (e.g., depression), motivation and organisational commitment (Capone, Joshanloo, and Park 2019;Hakanen, Bakker, and Schaufeli 2006), classroom management and climate (Oberle and Schonert-Reichl 2016), and student outcomes, including students' adaptive behaviours and academic achievement (Herman, Hickmon-Rosa, and Reinke 2018). Moreover, to cope with the imbalanced relationship between demands and resources (i.e. the joint/reciprocal effect of the increased stress and dysfunctional teacher behaviour), teachers may start to entertain persistent career turnover intention as a coping mechanism to tolerate work-related stressors (Billingsley 2004;Huang, Chuang, and Lin 2003). ...
... A recent report showed that up to one-third of Finnish teachers experience high levels of work-related stress (Länsikallio et al., 2018), implying high risk of developing burnout. Teacher burnout has been shown to have negative effects for both the individual and the school community, including depression symptoms, poor quality sleep (Saleh and Shapiro, 2008;Shin et al., 2013), decline in student study wellbeing, reduced motivation, and academic achievement (Klusmann et al., 2008;Pakarinen et al., 2010;Oberle and Schonert-Reichl, 2016;Madigan and Kim, 2021). ...
Article
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Differences in teacher burnout between schools are likely to occur due to differences in the quantity and quality of interaction within the schools. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses of burnout symptoms were performed on three-wave longitudinal data collected from 2,619 teachers in 75 schools in Finland. The results showed that differences in teacher burnout between schools were pronounced in cynicism, followed by emotional exhaustion. Organizational factors were not strong predictors of differences in teacher burnout. Proactive co-regulation strategies were related to lower levels of teachers’ cynicism about the professional community, implying that they might be useful in preventing the teachers’ cynicism at the school level.
... Many studies have established an association between teacher burnout and various negative outcomes, including less impactful teaching, disruptive behavior in class, reduced relationships with students, and teacher turnover (e.g., Perrone et al., 2019). If teachers have increased levels of burnout, their students also experience increased levels of stress and reduced academic accomplishment (Oberle & Schonert-Reichl, 2016). ...
Article
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The substantial changes in the workplace caused by the Covid-19 pandemic restrictions have contributed to teacher burnout. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the relationships between spirituality, connectedness to nature, and burnout in schoolteachers, as well as to investigate the mediating part of spirituality in the relationship between connectedness to nature and burnout, and the moderating role of gender. This study was conducted using a quantitative method, with a sample size of 123 schoolteachers in Malaysia. Data analysis using partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) revealed that schoolteachers who had a strong connection to nature were less likely to experience burnout. Spirituality acted as a buffer in the relationship between connection to nature and burnout. The results also differed according to gender for the nature connectedness-burnout relationship. Going forward, the findings of this study offer practitioners better insights about the importance of selected factors, including nature concreteness and spirituality as a promising avenue for reducing burnout among schoolteachers during online classes amid the Covid-19 pandemic.
... Schussler et al. 2016, S. 140 280Oberle/Schonert-Reichl 2016 ...
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This chapter is a compressed overview on the research on effects of mindfulness based interventions on teacher health.
Article
The main purpose of this study was to explore the mental health and subjective well‐being of staff working with adolescents with severe and profound multiple learning difficulties. The participants were 19 teachers and 25 teaching assistants working in an inner London, local authority, specialist day provision. A demographic questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Connor‐Davidson Resilience Scale, the Positive Affect Scale, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale were used as data collection tools. The inferential statistical tools used were t‐tests and correlational analyses. The study brought to light a high number of borderline and abnormal anxiety scores among all staff. The study also found a significant difference in the resilience scores of teachers and teaching assistants, with teaching assistants scoring higher on the resilience scale. The results, alongside findings from previous research, call for better mental health support for teachers and staff working in the field of special educational needs and disabilities. The study highlights the emotional toll on educators, and the need for mitigation strategies that promote good mental health outcomes for both teachers and students.
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This article discusses the potential that trauma-informed pedagogy and social-emotional learning practices hold for supporting educators during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. The authors bring a critical lens to considering these approaches, noting some limitations and provisos in their use. We advocate for dialogue, mentorship, and professional learning in using them not only to support educators but to authentically include diverse ways of knowing, doing, and being in early childhood environments.
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Bu araştırmada Türkiye'deki ilköğretim ve ortaöğretim kurumlarındaki öğretmenlerin COVID 19 dönemi acil uzaktan eğitim döneminde yaşadıkları psikolojik güçlükler, bu güçlüklerin kaynakları, güçlüklerle başa çıkma stratejileri ve yaşadıkları güçlüklerin salgın sonrası mesleklerine olası etkilerine ilişkin görüşlerinin betimlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada nitel araştırma desenlerinden olgubilim kullanılmış; 25 öğretmen ile yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu aracılığıyla görüşmeler gerçekleştirilmiştir. Öğretmenler, stres ve kaygı gibi duygulanım odaklı güçlüklerin yanında mesleki yetersizlik ve tükenmişlik gibi doğrudan meslek odaklı psikolojik güçlükler yaşadıklarını belirtmişlerdir. Ayrıca öğretmenlerin bu dönemde yaşadıkları güçlüklerin temel kaynakları olarak Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı politikaları, belirsizlikler, öğrencilerin derslere katılmıyor olması belirlenmiştir. Öğretmenler yaşadıkları güçlüklerle başa çıkmakta zorlandıklarını ifade ederken; kendilerini rahatlamak adına hem bireysel hem de çevresel stratejiler kullandıklarını dile getirmişlerdir. Öğretmenler yaşadıkları psikolojik güçlüklerin salgın sonrasında bir süre daha etkisini sürdüreceğini, ancak bu dönemde okula gitmenin değerini anladıklarını ifade etmektedirler. Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı'nın gelecekteki olası acil uzaktan eğitim faaliyetlerine yönelik bir öğretim programı hazırlaması ve kriz dönemlerinde öğretmenlere psikolojik destek sunması önerilmektedir. ABSTRACT In this study, it was aimed to describe the psychological difficulties experienced by teachers working in primary, secondary and high schools in Turkey during the emergency distance education period, the sources of these difficulties, strategies to cope with the difficulties, and the effects of the difficulties they experienced on their professions after the pandemic. The research was constructed with phenomenology, one of the qualitative research methods. Interviews were conducted with 25 teachers through a semi-structured interview form. According to the results of the research, the teachers stated they experienced directly occupational-oriented psychological difficulties such as occupational inadequacy and burnout, besides affect-oriented difficulties such as stress and anxiety. In addition, it is seen that factors such as the Ministry of Education policies, uncertainties, and students' not attending classes stand out as the primary sources of difficulties experienced by teachers in this period. While the teachers stated they had difficulty coping with the difficulties they experienced; Also, they stated they used
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The chapter examines the urgent need for pre-service teacher training programs to integrate content on mental health. In the current neo-liberal context, there is increasing pressure on universities to streamline and shorten these programs, when in fact there might be a need to add content to their existing structure. Developing pre-service teachers' awareness around student mental health is a pressing need but one campuses are usually reluctant to address when it may represent a widening of their scope. The chapter analyzes phenomenological data collected by the author around his lived experience of delivering a course on mental health within a Canadian pre-service teacher training program. It examines the complex, rich, and diverse outcomes that are achieved (1) on teacher candidates' approaches to inclusion, (2) on their ability to navigate their own mental health issues, and (3) more widely on their willingness to embrace social model approaches to disability. The chapter examines the repercussions of this reflection on the transformation of pre-service teacher programs.
Article
The current study extends research on the detrimental health implications of racial discrimination by examining how these implications reverberate across romantic relationships. Using two generations of different-gender romantic couples from the Family and Community Health Study, we examined how racial discrimination experienced by a romantic partner was associated with poor health among Black adults, independent of one's own level of racial discrimination. Results from the actor-partner interdependence model showed that beyond the effects of socioeconomic status, health behavior, relationship satisfaction, and own experiences of racial discrimination, a romantic partner's experiences of discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress for both the middle/older-age generation and the young-adult generation. Further, in the middle/older-age generation, partners' experiences of racial discrimination were associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, particularly for men. These results reiterate recent findings that researchers may underestimate the impact of racial discrimination on health when we fail to consider linked lives. Further, they indicate that there may be gender and generational differences in the individual and relational implications of racial discrimination on health.
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The stressors of teaching can be individual and hard to identify. Merely recalling stressful events after a lesson can be biased by neglect, modification, or extenuation of memories. Therefore, the present study explores how video data can be used to reactivate or relive stressor memory. Eight teachers’ lessons were recorded while their stress was assessed through electrodermal activity (EDA). Teachers then watched their recorded lessons retrospectively while EDA was measured once more but they were additionally asked to use a joystick to indicate when they recalled being stressed during their lesson. Results show that teachers in the watching condition did not re-experience or recall the same situations as stressful as in the teaching condition. They indicate that video feedback can be used as a tool for coping with stressful teaching events only if teachers are also provided with information about their actual stress level during teaching. The implications of these results are discussed.
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Nach einer sechsmonatigen Weiterbildung zur Förderung von Achtsamkeit und Mitgefühl im Schulkontext berichten PädagogInnen von Veränderungen ihrer Wahrnehmungen und ihres Verhaltens in sozi-al-emotional geladenen Situationen mit SchülerInnen und Eltern. An-hand von Beispielen aus der Schulpraxis zeigt das Kapitel gangbare Wege des Umgangs mit Verhaltensauffälligkeiten jenseits von Sanktio-nierung, Verhaltensmodifikation oder sozialem Ausschluss. Es werden Bezüge zur Stress- und Hirnforschung, zur pädagogischen Beziehungs-gestaltung und Werteethik hergestellt. Mit Überlegungen zur bewussten Kultivierung von Selbstwahrnehmung, Selbstreflexion, Selbstregulation und Persönlichkeitsentwicklung im Kontext der pädagogischen Aus- und Weiterbildung schließt der Beitrag.
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This literature review investigates the numerous ways COVID-19-imposed school closures have impacted children, primarily in the United States. The pandemic forced schools to abruptly switch classes from an in-person to a remote-learning format. Remote learning, which is primarily conducted online, is predicted to significantly impact children's academic learning. In addition, this literature review considers the mental health implications of school closures in conjunction with pandemic-related stressors. Research across the world suggests that lockdowns and stressors caused by COVID-19 may lead to an increased risk of developing mood disorders among children. Also investigated are school closures, which have also disproportionately affected children from financially disadvantaged families. The impact of school closures on children's physical health is discussed since it has been predicted to raise childhood obesity. The adversities teachers encountered during this abrupt switch to online teaching and implications on their mental health are also investigated.
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This study examines the effects of policies concerning preschool education developed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey. The study utilizes qualitative methodology to examine how legal documents (laws, circulars, regulations, and directives) were produced during the pandemic, what they contained, and how they were received in practice through interviews with teachers. The data source of the study comprises legal regulations and statements concerning the development of educational policies during the pandemic in Turkey. Focus group interviews with seven (five female and two male) preschool teachers were also conducted. The study revealed that the legal regulations developed during the pandemic created uncertainty in practice, and that the burden of the everchanging decisions fell on the teachers. Furthermore, due to the vague centralized policies, teachers were left alone; they lacked the ability to use digital tools in a pedagogical setting; and the lack of sufficient guidance for face-to-face education during the pandemic period put teachers in a difficult situation. During this period, preschool teachers developed coping strategies. Despite the difficulties, preschool teachers developed their own solutions, took initiative to manage the process effectively, and aimed to cope with the process to the best of their abilities.
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Analysis of social media during the COVID-19 quarantine period in Mainland China provides access to a large amount of user-generated content for sentiment analysis during this unexpected and stressful time period. This study focuses on emotions that were communicated in the context of interactions between parents and young children to explore their emotional attitudes and emotional contagion. Results suggest that positive emotional attitudes were more prevalent in parent-child interactions, which contrasts with previous research. In comparison to their children, parents expressed more negative moods. Nonetheless, Chinese preschoolers and their parents influenced each other's emotions with bi-directional effects, providing evidence of emotional contagion. Parents’ emotional transmission sometimes resulted in passive suppression by the young children. Emotions were manifested more through physical or behavioral interactions as opposed to verbal statements of feelings, especially during parent to child transmissions. The transmission of emotions from children to parents consisted mainly of two types: children's emotional catharsis and children's active emotional agency. The discussion explores explanations for the observed emotional contagion of positive emotions between parents and children, considers the role of power and agency during emotional contagion, and discusses the effects of Chinese socio-cultural factors on the sentiment analysis.
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The goal of this research was to examine the role of supportive adults to emotional well-being in a population of Grade 4 students attending public schools in Vancouver, Canada. Reflecting the ecology of middle childhood, we examined the extent to which perceived family, school, and neighborhood support relate to young people’s self-reported emotional well-being (N = 3,026; 48% female; M age = 9.75). Furthermore, we investigated the hierarchy of importance among those support factors in predicting students’ well-being. As expected, adult support in all three ecological contexts was positively related to emotional well-being. School support emerged as the most important adult support factor, followed by home and neighborhood support. All three support factors emerged as stronger predictors than socioeconomic status (SES) in our study. We discuss our findings in relation to the empirical field of relationship research in middle childhood, and how our findings can inform educational practice.
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The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social–emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables—teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction—and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job satisfaction and teaching efficacy, two types of stress (workload and student behavior stress) were examined. The sample included 664 elementary and secondary school teachers from British Columbia and Ontario, Canada. Participants completed an online questionnaire about the teacher outcomes, perceived school climate, and beliefs about social–emotional learning (SEL). Structural equation modeling was used to examine an explanatory model of the variables. Of the 2 SEL beliefs examined, teachers' comfort in implementing SEL had the most powerful impact. Of the 4 school climate factors examined, teachers' perceptions of students' motivation and behavior had the most powerful impact. Both of these variables significantly predicted sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction among the participants. Among the outcome variables, perceived stress related to students' behavior was negatively associated with sense of teaching efficacy. In addition, perceived stress related to workload and sense of teaching efficacy were directly related to sense of job satisfaction. Greater detail about these and other key findings, as well as implications for research and practice, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The effects of randomization to mindfulness training (MT) or to a waitlist-control condition on psychological and physiological indicators of teachers’ occupational stress and burnout were examined in 2 field trials. The sample included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female) from Canada and the United States. Measures were collected at baseline, post-program, and 3-month follow-up; teachers were randomly assigned to condition after baseline assessment. Results showed that 87% of teachers completed the program and found it beneficial. Teachers randomized to MT showed greater mindfulness, focused attention and working memory capacity, and occupational self-compassion, as well as lower levels of occupational stress and burnout at post-program and follow-up, than did those in the control condition. No statistically significant differences due to MT were found for physiological measures of stress. Mediational analyses showed that group differences in mindfulness and self-compassion at post-program mediated reductions in stress and burnout as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression at follow-up. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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While the roles of student misbehavior and teacher self-efficacy in teacher burnout have been investigated, there is still a pressing need to determine the processes involved and the degree to which these generalize across early career teachers. The present research integrates findings on teacher self-efficacy, occupational stressors, and emotional exhaustion. A moderated mediation model is hypothesized where self-efficacy in classroom management predicts emotional exhaustion via classroom disturbances, but the strength of this whole mediation process is moderated by teachers’ level of self-efficacy in classroom management. A sample of 1,227 German teacher candidates was used to test this hypothesis in 2 complementary studies. Study 1, based on the whole sample, utilized latent modeling and latent interactions, while Study 2 was based on a random longitudinal subsample of Study 1. The results generally supported our assumptions; the proposed moderated mediation model proved to be statistically significant, even when introducing background covariates into the model to control for pre-existing differences. Thus, self-efficacy in classroom management predicted emotional exhaustion via classroom disturbances only when self-efficacy in classroom management was low. Implications for teacher preservice training, based on the results, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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The current research integrated components of the transactional model of stress and coping with self-worth and goal theories to examine a model where (a) teachers’ goal orientation (as indicated by mastery and failure avoidance) was hypothesized to predict their teaching coping strategies (as indicated by problem- and emotion-focused coping) and (b) teaching coping was hypothesized to predict occupational well-being (as indicated by engagement and burnout). A longitudinal sample of 430 teachers took part in the research. With the structural equation model suggesting an acceptable fit to the data, findings generally supported hypotheses. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
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The authors propose a model of the prosocial classroom that highlights the importance of teachers’ social and emotional competence (SEC) and well-being in the development and maintenance of supportive teacher–student relationships, effective classroom management, and successful social and emotional learning program implementation. This model proposes that these factors contribute to creating a classroom climate that is more conducive to learning and that promotes positive developmental outcomes among students. Furthermore, this article reviews current research suggesting a relationship between SEC and teacher burnout and reviews intervention efforts to support teachers’ SEC through stress reduction and mindfulness programs. Finally, the authors propose a research agenda to address the potential efficacy of intervention strategies designed to promote teacher SEC and improved learning outcomes for students.
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The authors investigated how students’ (N = 233) perceptions of the social environment of their eighth-grade classroom related to changes in motivation and engagement when they moved from seventh to eighth grade. In general, prior motivation and engagement were strong predictors of subsequent motivation and engagement, whereas gender, race, and prior achievement were not related to changes in motivation or engagement. A higher-order classroom social environment factor accounted for significant changes in all motivation and engagement outcomes. Four distinct dimensions of the social environment were differentially important in explaining changes in various indices of motivation and engagement. In general, however, students’ perceptions of teacher support, and the teacher as promoting interaction and mutual respect were related to positive changes in their motivation and engagement. Students’ perceptions of the teacher as promoting performance goals were related to negative changes in student motivation and engagement. Implications for recent educational reform initiatives were also discussed.
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The years between 6 and 14-middle childhood and early adolescence-are a time of important developmental advances that establish children's sense of identity. During these years, children make strides toward adulthood by becoming competent, independent, self-aware, and involved in the world beyond their families. Biological and cognitive changes transform children's bodies and minds. Social relationships and roles change dramatically as children enter school, join programs, and become involved with peers and adults outside their families. During middle childhood, children develop a sense of self-esteem and individuality, comparing themselves with their peers. They come to expect they will succeed or fail at different tasks. They may develop an orientation toward achievement that will color their response to school and other challenges for many pars. In early adolescence, the tumultuous physical and social changes that accompany puberty the desire for autonomy and distance from the family, and the transition from elementary school to middle school or junior high can all cause problems for young people. When adolescents are in settings (in school, at home, or in community programs) that are not attuned to their needs and emerging independence, they can lose confidence in themselves and slip into negative behavior patterns such as truancy and school dropout. This article examines the developmental changes that characterize the years from 6 to 14, and it highlights ways in which the organization of programs, schools, and family life can better support positive outcomes for youths.
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Researchers have been incorporating ambulatory cortisol sampling into studies of everyday life for over a decade. Such work provides an important supplement to acute laboratory stress paradigms and provides a novel perspective on the interrelationships between stress, psychological resources, and health. However, the results of many field studies have been inconclusive and more studies have been undertaken than published. We describe some of the challenges facing naturalistic cortisol researchers, including lack of power, methodological and analytical problems, and patterns of confusing or conflictual results. We then summarize key findings of published naturalistic cortisol studies to date, grouped by type of cortisol outcome (morning awakening response, diurnal slope, area under the curve, and associations between momentary experiences and cortisol). We propose research questions relevant to everyday stress researchers and suggest next steps for researchers who are interested in incorporating naturalistic cortisol sampling into future studies.
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Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.
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A scale designed to assess various aspects of the burnout syndrome was administered to a wide range of human services professionals. Three subscales emerged from the data analysis: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Various psychometric analyses showed that the scale has both high reliability and validity as a measure of burnout. Since the publication of this article in 1981, more extensive research was done on the MBI, which resulted in some modifications of the original measure. The present article has been re-edited to reflect those modifications. However, it does not include other new additions (which are contained in the MBI Manual distributed by the publisher, Mind Garden).
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This study examined the direction and time-frame of relationships between perceived self-efficacy in classroom management and the three dimensions of burnout among 243 secondary school teachers. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that perceived self-efficacy had a longitudinal effect on depersonalization and a synchronous effect on personal accomplishment. However, the direction was reversed for the relationship between perceived self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion; the time frame was synchronous. It was concluded that perceived self-efficacy in classroom management must be taken into consideration when devising interventions both to prevent and to treat burnout among secondary school teachers.
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This paper examines the relative importance of family socioeconomic status (SES) and school-based peer hierarchies for young people's psychoneuroendocrine response, represented by cortisol level. Data are drawn from a study of 2824, 15-year-olds in 22 Scottish secondary schools in 2006 who provided information on family SES (parental occupation, material deprivation and family affluence) and social position in school hierarchies, together with two morning salivary cortisol samples. School social position was assessed by participants placing themselves on seven 'ladders', from which three factors were derived, termed scholastic, peer and sports hierarchies. Controlling for confounds, there was little or no variation in cortisol by any SES measure. By contrast, each school hierarchy was independently associated with cortisol, but in different ways. For the scholastic hierarchy, an inverse linear relationship was found for females, cortisol increasing with lower position. For peer hierarchy, an opposite (direct) linear relationship occurred for males, while for females elevated cortisol was associated only with 'top' position. For sports, elevated cortisol among males was associated with 'bottom' position, among females with all except the 'top'. These results are interpreted in the context of Sapolsky's (Sapolsky, 2005) predictions for stress responses to hierarchical position in stable and unstable social systems, the former represented by the scholastic hierarchy involving elevated cortisol in lower positions, the latter by peer hierarchy with elevated cortisol in higher positions. Overall, the results highlight the greater importance of school-based peer groups than family SES for young people's psychoneuroendocrine response.
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The influence of perceived teacher support on trajectories of depression and self-esteem in middle school was examined using multigroup latent growth cross-domain models. A longitudinal sample of 2,585 students was followed from the sixth through the eighth grades. Students' perceptions of teacher support and general self-esteem declined and depressive symptoms increased over the course of middle school. We further found that, for both boys and girls, changes in perceptions of teachers' support reliably predicted changes in both self-esteem and depression. In particular, those students perceiving increasing teacher support showed corresponding decreases in depressive symptoms and increases in self-esteem. Gender differences were found for the initial levels of both perceptions of teacher support and general self-esteem. A competing model was also tested, which gave additional support for pathways of influence from perceptions of teacher support to depression and self-esteem, rather than the reverse. This study underscores the role of teacher support in facilitating students' adjustment to middle school and highlights the importance of using idiographic methodologies in the study of developmental processes. Implications and future directions are discussed.
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In recent years, researchers and policymakers have told us again and again that severe teacher shortages confront schools. They point to a dramatic increase in the demand for new teachers resulting from two converging demographic trends: increasing student enrollments and increasing numbers of teachers reaching retirement age. Shortfalls of teachers, they say, are forcing many school systems to lower their standards for teacher quality (National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 1997).
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This study examines the stress, burnout, satisfaction, and preventive coping skills of nearly 400 secondary teachers to determine variables contributing to these major factors influencing teachers. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics were conducted that found the burnout levels between new and experienced teachers are significantly different, with novice teachers having higher burnout, but their difference in stress levels was not statistically significant. In three multiple regression tests, stress and burnout were found to be statistically significant predictors of job satisfaction; years of experience, job satisfaction, and burnout were statistically significant predictors of stress; and job satisfaction, preventive coping skills, and stress were statistically significant predictors of burnout.
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A conceptual model of the relationship between stress, the mediating role of burnout, and depressive symptoms was examined. Results indicated that teachers (n = 267) experiencing greater stress were more burned out. The subscale emotional exhaustion was moderately related to depressive symptoms, whereas depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment had small positive relationships. After controlling for burnout and demographics, the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms was small but significant. Emotional exhaustion mediated the association between stress and depressive symptoms. The total effect of stress on depressive symptoms, taking together the direct and indirect effects via burnout, accounted for 43% of the total variance. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Like many in the human services professions, teachers are susceptible to the feelings of burnout due to their job demands, as well as interactions with students, colleagues, administrators, and parents. Many studies have identified teacher burnout as one of the crucial components influencing teacher attrition. It has been suggested that self-efficacy is a protective factor against burnout. By way of multivariate meta-analysis, we examined the evidence for classroom management self-efficacy (CMSE) in relation to the three dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and (lowered) personal accomplishment. Results from sixteen studies indicate that there is a significant relationship between classroom management self-efficacy and the three dimensions of burnout, suggesting that teachers with higher levels of CMSE are less likely to experience the feelings of burnout. Practical implications, as well recommendations for future research, are discussed.
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This study investigated the relationship between shared psychosocial school environment and subjective health complaints. A representative sample of 1585 Norwegian grade 8 students (mean age 13?5 years) from 82 schoolclasses completed scales on health complaints, academic stress, the teacher and classmate support scale, decision control, and noise and disturbance in class. Multilevel analysis (MlwiN) revealed that level of health complaints varied across schoolclasses (ICC = 5?6%). School class differences in psychosocial environment accounted for 40% of the between-schoolclass variance in health complaints. Tests of cross-level interaction showed a statistically significant interaction between mean schoolclass-level of classmate support and individual level of academic stress. Findings suggest that shared schoolclass contextual factors may have main and stress-moderating effects on adolescent health complaints.
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To explore the significance of social integration in the educational system, this study examined whether student-teacher relationships predicted two important student behavioral outcomes (academic achievement and disciplinary problems); whether these within-school intragenerational relationships were predicted by the structural, compositional, and climate-related characteristics of schools; and how the behavioral and contextual correlates of student-teacher relationships varied by race-ethnicity. Our findings, based on nationally representative panel data, indicated that stronger intergenerational bonding in school was associated with higher academic achievement, especially for Hispanic American girls, and with a lower likelihood of disciplinary problems, especially for white girls. Moreover, these intragenerational bonds were stronger in schools with several characteristics (private sector, greater racial-ethnic matching between students and the student body, greater perceived safety, and lower socioeconomic status), although these associations also differed by race-ethnicity.
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Research on teacher stress has become a major area of international research interest. This paper reviews research findings on teacher stress and suggests five directions for future research: (i) monitoring the extent to which particular educational reforms are generating high levels of teacher stress; (ii) exploring why some teachers are able to successfully negotiate periods of career reappraisal and retain a positive commitment to the work, whilst others are not; (iii) clarifying the nature of the stress process in term of two types of triggers' one based on excessive demands and the other based on a concern with self-image; (iv) assessing the effectiveness of particular intervention strategies to reduce teacher stress; (v) exploring the impact of teacher-pupil interaction and classroom climate on teacher stress.
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Three-factor first order analyses have been used in the most successful of previous attempts to define the factor and subscale structures of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. It is suggested in the present paper that although a three factor structure has been shown to be the most readily replicable, this result does not exhaust the number of possible replicable factors in the Inventory. Using six independent sets of data drawn from previous studies involving a variety of subjects, the present analysis revealed the somewhat doubtful status of the general factor underlying the total score on the 22 items of the Inventory. In all six sets of data, the 22 items of the Inventory also divided between two clearly replicable factors, the larger of which was tentatively identified as the "Core of Burnout." Responses to the 14 items loading on this factor were subsequently found to divide in turn, into two equally replicable factors. These two factors, together with that differentiated from the "Core of Burnout," were exactly the same as those most frequently identified in previous three factor analyses of the Inventory.
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A wide range of factors have been proposed as antecedents of burnout in teachers, including student behaviour in the classroom. Several studies have shown associations between student misbehaviour and teacher burnout. However, researchers have rarely incorporated a direct measure of teachers' perceptions of student behaviour in their own classroom. The main aims of the present study of 100 British primary school teachers were: (a) to explore the properties of a measure of student behaviour in the classroom (the Pupil Behaviour Patterns scale PBP; Friedman, 1995) and (b) to test the prediction of burnout dimensions from dimensions of student behaviour assessed by the PBP. An exploratory factor analysis confirmed the PBP domains of disrespectful behaviour, sociability and attentiveness. Furthermore, reliability analyses supported the internal consistency of the scales. Regression analysis of teacher burnout showed differential prediction by PBP sub-domains: disrespect predicted emotional exhaustion and depersonalization burnout, and lack of sociability predicted depersonalization and personal accomplishment burnout. Methodological problems are discussed along with suggestions for future theoretical and empirical development. In particular, we focus on the potential role of psychological variables such as teacher self-efficacy and coping strategies in explaining how teacher well-being is affected by student behaviour in the classroom.
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This review investigates the state of teacher self- and collective efficacy research conducted from 1998 to 2009. Two hundred and eighteen empirical articles published in 1998–2009 were examined for key characteristics and compared to research published in the previous 12 years (i.e., 1986–1997). Results from the review show increases in overall teacher efficacy research, methodological diversity, domain specificity, internationalization, and focus on collective efficacy. Continuing problem areas were a lack of attention to the sources of teacher efficacy, continued measurement and conceptual problems, a lack of evidence for the links between teacher efficacy and student outcomes, and uncertain relevance of teacher efficacy research to educational practice. An outline of directions for future teacher efficacy research is provided.
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The purpose of this paper is to address recent theoretical and methodological developments relating to social and organizational aspects of stress. Further advances are dependent on a more thorough exploration of stress contagion processes. Contagion is defined as a cascade of demands and consequent emotional arousal from one area of life into another, between closely related individuals, and across the life course. Stress originates in the daily course of life as a consequence of social interaction in dyads and groups, opportunities and challenges shaped by social structure, and constraints and demands channeled by organizations and institutions. The paper focuses on three types of stress contagion as social aspects of the stress process, spillover, crossover, and stress trajectories. The review raises new questions to address in this area, and reviews data and methodological work that sheds light on the three types of contagion. In the view of the author, the most fruitful path for advancing research on stress contagion is to combine the insights of more qualitative research with data derived from empirically rigorous quantitative designs and analytic strategies. Researchers should combine careful theoretical analysis of stress processes with measurement technologies capable of distinguishing individual personality factors from situational, socially created factors. The paper also examines the relative strengths and shortcomings of several different research design strategies to advance theory and measurement: (1) life event measurement techniques more sensitive to stress contagion, (2) life history data collection, measuring stress contagion over time, (3) longitudinal prospective studies of stress contagion, (4) paired-informant and group-level designs, (5) daily diary techniques, and (6) experience sampling.
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Using nationally representative samples for public school teachers and principals, the authors inquired into whether principal background and school processes are related to teacher job satisfaction. Employing hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), the authors were able to control for background characteristics at both the teacher and school levels. They found that 17% of the total variance in teacher job satisfaction is between schools, a statistically significant amount that indicates schools can make a difference in teacher job satisfaction. The authors found that school processes—particularly career and working conditions, staff collegiality, administrative support, and to a lesser extent, positive student behavior and teacher empowerment—are positively associated with teacher job satisfaction. Although two principal background variables—the experience of being a department head or an athletic coach/director—are statistically significant, the authors found the block of school process variables explains far more variance than the block of principal background variables. Based on the findings, the authors discussed issues such as the complexity of the phenomenon of teacher job satisfaction, the role of school process versus principal background, and monetary versus cultural factors.
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Multilevel modeling (MLM) is growing in use throughout the social sciences. Although daunting from a mathematical perspective, MLM is relatively easy to employ once some basic concepts are understood. In this article, I present a primer on MLM, describing some of these principles and applying them to the analysis of a multilevel data set on doctor–patient communication during medical consultations.
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The hypothesis was tested that educational expectations of junior high school students in interaction with school-related stress during early adolescence would adversely affect grades during high school. Multiple regression analyses of data from home interviews of 1034 students during junior high school and 3 years later during high school supported the hypothesis that early adolescent school-related stress both independently and in interaction with high academic expectations negatively affected academic performance 3 years later. These results suggest that for students in high stress school environments, an increase in academic expectations may serve to increase their school-related stress and impede their academic performance.
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The present study investigated components of school climate (i.e. parent/community relations, administration, student behavioral values) and assessed their influence on the core burnout dimensions of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and feelings of low Personal Accomplishment. The study weighed the relative contributions of demographic factors (i.e. gender, age, years of teaching experience), teacher satisfaction, and teacher-rated school climate that predict resultant levels of teacher stress and burnout from 17 rural schools in southeastern Ohio. Results revealed that different aspects of school climate related to each of the three primary burnout dimensions. Further, the inverse relationship between school climate and burnout was mediated by teacher satisfaction levels for both Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization dimensions. Results from the present study may be used in the development of future intervention targets for reducing teacher stress and burnout.
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Exclusion and victimization by classmates were related to levels and diurnal change in cortisol in 97 fourth graders (53% boys, M = 9.3 years). Number and quality of friendships were considered as moderators. Salivary cortisol was collected 5 times daily on 2 school days. Excluded children had elevated cortisol levels at school and a flattened diurnal cortisol curve, suggesting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis dysregulation. This effect was weaker for children with more friends or better friendships. Victimization was not associated with cortisol level or change. The results demonstrate the role of HPA activity in peer group processes and indicate that group and dyadic factors interact in predicting stress in the peer group.
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Sociological research focuses on how poverty, family, and neighborhood dynamics shape children's problems, but knowledge about how school is related to children's mental health is underdeveloped, despite its central presence in children's lives. Using a social structure and personality-stress contagion perspective, the authors use a nationally representative sample of first graders (N = 10,700) to assess how the classroom learning environment affects children's emotional and behavior problems. Children in more negative environments-such as classrooms with fewer material resources and whose teachers receive less respect from colleagues-have more learning, externalizing, interpersonal, and internalizing problems. Moreover, children in classrooms with low academic standards, excessive administrative paperwork, rowdy behavior, and low skill level of peers have more problems across one or more outcomes. Some school effects vary across race and ethnicity.
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Childhood-onset antisocial behavior is an important predictor of chronic and serious forms of antisocial behavior in later life. Both biological and social factors are involved in the development of abnormal behavior. We examine the underlying role of stress-response systems in the link between early social adversity and juvenile antisocial behavior, and propose that children with genetically and/or perinatally based n