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Understanding and unlocking transformative learning as a method for enabling behaviour change for adaptation and resilience to disaster threats

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Abstract

This paper calls for transformational learning, and recognition for its trans-scalar application arising from the acknowledgement that existing dominant systems of social and economic life are reproducing, and often accelerating the root cause of disaster risk. Disaster adaptation and resilience require learning that is flexible and able to adapt to complex disaster risks. However there is a value action gap between intentions and behaviour, which need to be addressed. Transformative Learning has the potential to address this through instigating changes in behaviour that are maintained over time. A visual model for transformative learning is presented for the first time in order to illustrate how it can lead to perspective transformation via a process of learning and critical reflection. It is argued that new ways of approaching learning are required to help break-out of established ways of thinking and tackling problems. Transformative Learning provides a means of achieving this. Furthermore, it helps to open conceptual and policy spaces for deep reflection; allowing public policy to move away from reducing risk to protect development – to questioning the root causes of risk that lie in dominant development pathways.

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... A process of social learning [44,[46][47][48][49][50][51][52]-the taking, that is, of collective action in the management of social ecological systems-is essential in order to develop and enhance an adaptive capacity [42] to pro-environmental attitudes [53,54]. The outcomes of this learning should, in turn, contribute to creating a socio-ecological structure-as a part of a fundamental change in attitudes, behaviors and social norms [44,55,56]-that is, one that is less vulnerable to wildfires and which can coexist with fire as a natural element [57,58]. ...
... One of the first authors to lay the theoretical groundwork for understanding social learning was Albert Bandura [46], who highlighted the mutual relationship between our experiences (cognitive learning) and our observations of other people in a given normative setting (social context). A number of recent theoretical contributions to the concept turn the spotlight on three principal dimensions, considered central to any analysis of social learning: First, the depth of learning, that is, changes in understanding, attitudes and behaviour; second, the collective character of learning, facilitated by processes of social interaction, and, third, the internalization of this learning by broad segments of society [49,50,52,56,[86][87][88][89]. Reed et al. [49] consider social learning to involve a change of understanding within wider social units or communities of practice and going from superficial to deeper levels, entailing a change in attitudes, world views or epistemological beliefs. ...
... Reed et al. [49] consider social learning to involve a change of understanding within wider social units or communities of practice and going from superficial to deeper levels, entailing a change in attitudes, world views or epistemological beliefs. Authors such as Mezirow [88] and Sharpe [56], who link social learning with transformative learning, argue that this change is related to the ability to move from a critical examination of experience to action and, so, to question the unsustainable practices associated with a greater community exposure to risk and to embrace resilience [56] and creativity processes [90]. ...
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Over the last few decades, according to the Forest Fire Prevention Services of the Catalan Government, a small number of fires (less than 1%) have been responsible for the destruction of more than three quarters of the burnt forest area in Catalonia. However, while these wildfires have transformed many components of the landscape, including its vegetation and soils, they offer landowners the opportunity to learn from past decisions. This article aims to analyze the responses of forest owners in Central Catalonia after the great forest fires of the 1980s and 1990s, including the way in which their objectives and strategies are defined and their actions implemented. By conducting interviews with the members of forest owners' associations and by means of participant observation at association meetings, we seek to examine the processes of social learning experienced by this collective and to identify the mechanisms used in their efforts to create socio-ecological structures that are less vulnerable to fire. Associationism is unusual in the world of Catalan forest ownership, despite the great number of private forest areas. In our results, however, associationism emerges as a strategy for cooperation, a recognition of the need to link ecological and social structures in the territory, and one which we define as a form of 'socio-ecological resistance'. Our study highlights that the goals and actions of forest owners' associations have both an instrumental and emotional component, so that reason, emotion and action have come to form the three vertices of socio-ecological resistance to fire.
... Furthermore, TL is that which leads to a change in an individual's frame of reference, defined as the "associations, concepts, values, feelings and conditioned responses that are the result of experiences that define an individual's life world" [34] p. 5). Sharpe [2]. notes that "frames of reference can result in a rejection of ideas that fail to fit an individual's preconceptions, leading ideas to be dismissed as irrelevant or wrong, irrespective of evidence" Sharpe. ...
... notes that "frames of reference can result in a rejection of ideas that fail to fit an individual's preconceptions, leading ideas to be dismissed as irrelevant or wrong, irrespective of evidence" Sharpe. [2]; p. 214). TL and its potential impact on frames of reference are therefore suitable for addressing DRR through learning programmes. ...
... It is important to note that not all phases need to be experienced and that phases may occur in a non-sequential order. The TL method [23,24,30] for enabling individuals to develop key competencies required for on-going resilience to disaster threats, was first proposed by Sharpe [1][2][3]; see Fig. 3) and tested through PhD thesis [3] research (in part presented here) with the aim of understanding its efficacy in real-world situations. These included: Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) programmes and Listos (Spanish Language disaster aware and prepare) programmes working in Santa Barbara, California. ...
Article
Efforts to address disaster risk reduction have predominantly focused on top-down methods of risk communication, rooted in assumptions of knowledge deficit. Alternatively, deeper learning that allows for capacities to be enhanced via Transformative Learning (TL) practices that enable individuals to move from intentions to behaviours may be required. This requires critical reflection that allows acceptance of ideas that can be tested and found to have efficacy. Fieldwork interviews took place in April-May 2015 and April-May 2017, with Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) trainees and Listos (a Spanish language family disaster preparedness) learners, in Santa Barbra, California. A total of 48 semi structured interviews were carried out (22 with CERT and 16 with Listos) alongside six interviews with trainers of these programmes. A TL framework model [[1], [2], [3]] was utilised as an analytical tool, identifying how TL occurred via analysis of narratives using narrative inquiry methodology. Key findings showed how CERT and Listos programmes enhanced personal relationships and connections to others, creating or enhancing existing social capital. Socially constructed learning underpinned trust and maintenance of learned behaviours. The training programmes led to mastery of competency accomplishments for disaster preparedness, strengthening self and group efficacy beliefs. Key to the success were knowledge brokers working via informal channels, enhancing ‘community connectedness’ by building social networks for disaster preparedness. Overall, CERT and Listos were shown to be practice oriented, culturally and socially adapted programmes that fostered transformative learning, trust and social networks as key resources for community resilience to disaster risk.
... These frames of reference are the cognitive building blocks supporting the deep changes in values, attitudes, and associated behavior that are central to evolving how people respond to disaster threats, including climate change. Learning outcomes, including transformative learning outcomes, are strongly influenced by their social context and the learner's capacity to reflect (Phuong et al., 2017a;Phuong et al., 2018a;Sharpe, 2016). Consequently, learning outcomes expressed through values and behavior changes are linked to the experience of learningwho learning is shared with, what is being learned and how this is reinforced. ...
... Thus, transformative learning focuses on the learning process, taking into account the social context in which learning occurs (Diduck et al., 2012;Sinclair and Diduck, 2001). Most research in transformative learning determines learning outcomes after examining and governing individual's frames of reference (Cranton, 2009;Sharpe, 2016;Taylor, 2007). Nevertheless, this study starts with learning outcomes in terms of change in action and then seeks to examine more deeply the drivers behind the change in action in terms of changes in points of view and habits of mind. ...
... In the context of climate change, adaptation measures must contribute to increasing resilience and reducing vulnerability for the communities through reflecting learning, flexibility to experiment and to adopt novel solutions (Walker et al., 2002). Thus, learning process through instrumental and emancipatory learning at the heart of adaptive capacity allows for flexibility, refection, and ability to transform practices that can react more positively to change (Sharpe, 2016). Farmers in My Khanh commune started applying some adaptation measures to adapt to the change in climate and market conditions. ...
... According to the social-ecological systems approach, learning lays at the core of resilience while adaptive capacity is associated with flexibility, experimentation with novel solutions, and generalization of responses to broader challenges (Sharpe, 2016). The capacity and the depth or superficiality of any kind of learning are recognized as basic factors that may limit the range of adaptations in crisis situations (Sharpe, 2016). ...
... According to the social-ecological systems approach, learning lays at the core of resilience while adaptive capacity is associated with flexibility, experimentation with novel solutions, and generalization of responses to broader challenges (Sharpe, 2016). The capacity and the depth or superficiality of any kind of learning are recognized as basic factors that may limit the range of adaptations in crisis situations (Sharpe, 2016). Transformative learning which describes a learning process leading to changes in our IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 DISRUPTION ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS AND BEHAVIOR European Journal of Education Studies -Volume 7 │ Issue 11 │ 2020 226 fundamental ways of thinking, feeling, and acting may serve as a means of evolving through reflecting on life experiences and enabling behavior change for adaptation and resilience (MacLellan & Soden, 2003;Sharpe, 2016). ...
... The capacity and the depth or superficiality of any kind of learning are recognized as basic factors that may limit the range of adaptations in crisis situations (Sharpe, 2016). Transformative learning which describes a learning process leading to changes in our IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 DISRUPTION ON UNIVERSITY STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS AND BEHAVIOR European Journal of Education Studies -Volume 7 │ Issue 11 │ 2020 226 fundamental ways of thinking, feeling, and acting may serve as a means of evolving through reflecting on life experiences and enabling behavior change for adaptation and resilience (MacLellan & Soden, 2003;Sharpe, 2016). Several skills and coping strategies beneficial for the development of resilience, such as self-awareness, empathy, mindfulness, adaptability and flexibility, appreciation of and reflection on our experiences, development of informed action (Polizzi, Lynn & Perry, 2020), are also recognized as important prerequisites for transformative learning (Sharpe, 2016). ...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 disruption on university students, namely pre-service teachers from an Early Years Learning and Care Department in Greece. The study was conducted by the end of the third month of higher education lockdown and online shift, a period which coincides with the completion of the online courses for the spring semester and students’ preparation for the long-distance exams. It was based on probing students’ reflections on the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic had on their perceptions and behavior. Α questionnaire with open-ended and closed-ended questions was designed and was filled in by 127 students of the specific Department online. The questions explored: (a) the degree to which the pandemic disruption experience affected students’ perceptions and actions regarding their social roles, the organization of social life, and the management of personal time; (b) the skills they consider as most important in order for someone to respond more effectively to the new reality, including their learning practice and expertise; (c) the benefits and concerns they attached to the new learning and teaching conditions. The results show that the students were urged to have an immediate and quick response to the implications of the current situation due to its novel and intense character. There had been some shifts concerning students’ way of thinking and acting but none of the students who participated in the study was led to perspective transformation. Findings imply the need for cultivating a learning environment that supports the practicing of strategies and the development of skills that can help learner’s transformation when necessary and reinforce resilience. Article visualizations: </p
... Dow and Berkhout et al, 2013). One important limiting dynamic is associated with capacity to learn, and the depth or superficiality of any learning (Sharpe, 2016). This includes the relative capacity individuals hold to deal with the challenges to normality that disasters bring. ...
... Placing learning at the heart of adaptive capacity allows for flexibility of thought, reflection and an ability to transform practices that are able to react more positively to change (Sharpe, 2016). Therefore, learning intentions are likely to be influential in framing the extent to which learning, rather than knowledge transmission or direction is allowed to unfold. ...
... Research in this field that supporting the vulnerability approach to disaster risk reduction goes back more than forty years (e.g. Hewitt, 1983;Cannon, 1994;Oliver-Smith, 1996), yet the impact of continued disturbance and shocks brought about through disasters remain (Sharpe, 2016). Consequently, this requires learning that can escape from its own social context of institutions, ...
Thesis
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Taking the first steps towards learning to cope with both the threat and the actuality of disasters is a great challenge. Resilience and adaptation to climate change indicate processes of flexibility and adjustment. The range of adaptations open to individuals and by extension collectives will be limited in many ways. One important limiting dynamic is associated with capacity to learn, and the depth or superficiality of any learning. This includes the relative capacity individuals hold to deal with the challenges to normality that disasters bring. Central to the argument of experience of learning as influencing learning outcomes is the degree to which learning opens space for reflection. Having the time, space and opportunity for reflection is more likely to allow the learner to undergo deeper shifts in values and associated behaviour - so called transformational learning and that this opens important space for learning to live with disaster risk and loss. This provides a framework with which to identify and assess TL and its drivers, rather than explain how it might be carried out. Study populations were identified to represent a specific social context for learning: 1. The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT). This group provides formal training courses for local actors at risk to become community emergency response teams. 2. Listos. A less formal learning programme aimed at Spanish speakers in Santa Barbara, centred on personal and family preparedness. 3. UK based humanitarian NGO practitioners whose responsibility lies with enacting policy change within their organisations through monitoring and evaluation and learning roles. This thesis explores these different learning contexts, testing the hypothesis that learning outcomes expressed through value and behavioural change are linked to the experience of learning - who learning is shared with, what is being learned and how this is reinforced.
... Knowledge gained through experience can be appreciated by individuals so that they can increase self-awareness, can be applied in daily life, and be stored longer in each individual's memory (Sharpe, 2016). ...
... Learning is defined as a process whose results lead to 'changes in knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, or attitudes that are the result of experience' (Ambrose et al., 2010). Learning is also understood as experience and built socially with the power to be transformative when individuals are challenged and given expertise, knowledge, and time for reflection (Sharpe, 2016). ...
... With this approach, individuals can activate all aspects of themselves totally, touching cognitive, affective, and psychomotor aspects. Knowledge gained through experience can be appreciated by individuals so that they can increase self-awareness, can be applied in daily life, and be stored longer in each individual's memory (Sharpe, 2016). ...
Article
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In the subject of disaster education, it is crucial to establish a practical approach to give an impactful impression for the student so that it can increase self-awareness as well as for it to be applicable in daily life and memorized longer in each individual. This community services program titled "Development of Learning Packages by and for Students towards a Smart and Resilience Generations in dealing with Disaster." aims at developing creative and innovative disaster education learning packages that meet the needs and characteristics of students. This activity was carried out using a participatory method, through three (3) stages, namely: i) design phase, ii) production stage, and iii) evaluation phase. This activity adopts the experiential learning process, to assist the students in internalizing disaster knowledge in order for them to be able to apply the principles and develop the characters and competencies needed when disasters occur. The implementation of the program has resulted in the compilation of creative and innovative disaster education learning packages that meet the needs and characteristics of students, namely posters, poems, short stories, videos, and dances.
... Recovery from disaster impacts is a necessary condition for securing community livelihoods and resilience [10,68,74,75]. Relevant disaster research literature defines the process of disaster recovery in various terms, such as "bounce-back" [76], "bounce-forward" [77], "move-forward" [73], "build back better" [78] and as creating a "new normal" [79] (Fig. 1). In this regard, the Daly et al. [1] study revealed that aid-based disaster recovery interventions are not sustainable and fail to complete a bounce-back to pre-disaster livelihoods, as they observed following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Indonesia. ...
... Zolli and Healy [76] and Zolli [94] have argued that recovering and regaining pre-disaster equilibrium is a necessary condition for the continuity of community livelihoods and resilience. However, numerous contrasting studies suggest that disaster impacts also create windows of opportunity to create a new state of stability, rather than re-establishing pre-disaster conditions [64,95,96], i.e., attaining a "new normal" [79], or "bouncing forward" [77]. In line with this, our study found that instead of attempting to return to their pre-disaster state, a significant proportion of cyclone-affected families attempted to transform their livelihoods to become more resilient and flexible by earning higher wages and achieving a better standard of living. ...
Article
In the face of serious disruptions to local livelihoods and asset bases by extreme climatic events, it is paramount to reconstruct but also to transform and diversify livelihoods. However, the literature on these aspects is scant. In this paper, we posit that two frameworks, namely the livelihood strategy approach and community resilience thinking, are useful tools for effectively analyzing post-disaster transformational changes. In the empirical context of coastal communities of Bangladesh, our study specifically examines the changes experienced in livelihood assets due to Cyclones Sidr and Aila. Two coastal communities, namely Nilganj and Dhulasar Unions in the Kalapara Upazila of Patuakhali District, were selected to analyze the strategies used by local people to cope with and adapt to cyclone and storm surge disaster-shocks. Primary data were collected from three sources: a socioeconomic survey of 300 households, eight focus group discussions, and 20 key informant interviews. Our findings reveal that a significant number of cyclone victims were displaced from their homes by recent severe cyclones, changed their occupations -- both intra- and intersectorally -- and confronted increased consumption and social costs. We observed significant differences in impacts between farmers and those engaged in other occupations, such as fishing, with the latter being far more likely to change occupation post-disaster. The study uncovered significant evidence that local people are learning to live with change and uncertainty by nurturing and combining various types of knowledge and social memory, generating diversified livelihood options, and self-organizing to enhance their resilience to future extreme weather events.
... Echoing the current trends in the field of nature conservation, disaster risk management has evolved from a top-down to people-centred and participatory since its institutionalisation in the 1970's [80]. Consequently, social learning has gained recognition in implementing actions to reduce risks to communities posed by potential disasters [33] as prioritisation of engaging local stakeholders, preparedness planning, iterative learning for solution oriented approaches and co-generation of knowledge have become increasingly critical [82]. Recent research has shown that, if planned and facilitated effectively, social learning can support the development of community capital amongst flood action groups in urban settings, where social capital may inherently be lower due to urban settings [45]. ...
... "Focusing on social learning and cooperation draws us away from the pure egoistic approach of rational choice theories towards an approach which highlights the interaction of individuals and puts emphasis on understanding the values, beliefs, and intentions of oneself and others" [94, p447]. Through this process, change in individual values to collective and co-owned values for a resource can occur amongst a group [10,28,82]. Such a change in value through recognition of the importance of ecosystem services for disaster risk reduction can be leveraged to put in place informal and/or formal policy and planning, in order to regulate current and future use of such services for immediate and long term needs of a community, respectively [11]. ...
Article
Ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction, a concept that has recently evolved from the notion of employing ecosystem management approaches for reducing societal risks to disasters, requires active and inclusive involvement of a range of stakeholders in order to enhance the knowledge base, facilitate favourable policy mechanisms and inform suitable practices on the ground. The integration of different disciplines of knowledge, alignment of policies such as those related to natural resource management, disaster risk management and development, as well as execution of unified practices are necessary conditions in order to successfully harness the benefits of nature for protecting people from the impacts of disasters. Social learning is an iterative, collective learning process that can convene the wide range of stakeholders support co-creation of knowledge, enhance collective understanding of what action is needed as well as strengthen the willingness for joint action and advocacy. The paper explores opportunities in applying social learning for ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction, especially in light of the emerging challenges documented from early applications and in evolving literature. It also elaborates on the limitations of social learning itself and the research opportunities social learning for ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction holds.
... Critical reflection on assumptions embedded in problematic frames of reference is fundamental to transformative learning and can lead to transformed frames of reference and/or better-supported assumptions, enabling clearer understanding of and functionally improved responses to future experiences [13]. Relatedly, the resilience literature, drawing on the work of Paulo Freire, highlights the importance of 'conscientization'-coming to a critical awareness of one's present circumstances (cf [20,21]). ...
... Furthermore, many individuals have no choice but to accept environmental risk because poverty, exploitation, and marginalization make it impossible to relocate, find alternate livelihood sources, or take other risk mitigation actions. Transformative learning requires time, space, and opportunity for critical reflection in order to meaningfully alter deeply-rooted values, beliefs, and practices [21]. These elements are not attainable when people are fully consumed with their daily survival. ...
Article
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While it has been widely recognized that building community resilience to climate-induced shocks requires learning processes at multiple societal levels, there has been limited research on the specific types of learning required at individual level to influence change and transformation at the community level. To determine how transformative learning and risk-mitigation actions shape community resilience to climate-induced disasters, we carried out a mixed-method empirical investigation on the southern coast of Bangladesh. We found that the relationship between transformative learning and resilience-building is complex, involving multiple social-cultural-structural factors (e.g., beliefs, values, power structures), practical considerations (e.g., impact on livelihood, evacuation and relocation logistics), and cognitive factors. From our observations, we draw four general conclusions: i) local culture can constrain people’s framing of risk and capacity for critical reflection, resulting in a deliberate denial and amnesia of past traumatic experiences; ii) learning alone cannot enhance resilience unless it is translated into action; iii) dependence on experiential learning can lead to the assumption that the severity of past disasters will not be surpassed, generating a false sense of security; and iv) the cultivation of forward-thinking attitudes coupled with innovative strategies, such as social networking, can successfully enhance resilience to climate-related disasters. Future policymaking aimed at building community resilience to climate shocks should therefore take into account cultural and individual cognitive barriers to transformative learning and attempt to remove structural barriers to translating learning into practical action.
... Deep transformations in attitudes, values and behaviours are needed to impede and adapt to the perils of current the unsustainable state of the world (O'Sullivan, 2012, pp. 165, 176;Sharpe, 2016). Transformational learning can facilitate this learning by eliciting transformations in learner's worldview, self, epistemology, ontology, behaviour and capacity (Hoggan, 2016;see O'Sullivan, 2012;Sharpe, 2016;Sterling, 2011b). ...
... 165, 176;Sharpe, 2016). Transformational learning can facilitate this learning by eliciting transformations in learner's worldview, self, epistemology, ontology, behaviour and capacity (Hoggan, 2016;see O'Sullivan, 2012;Sharpe, 2016;Sterling, 2011b). The theory shares some characteristics with action competence approach and critical pedagogy (Piasentin & Roberts, 2018;Sterling, 2011b), and critical reflection is at the heart of transformative learning (Taylor, 2007). ...
Thesis
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Sustainable Development is a contested concept, yet some major transformations towards a more sustainable world must occur to ensure global wellbeing within planetary boundaries. The United Nations’ Agenda2030 provides a global vision for pathways towards sustainability. For achieving its goals, learning and education are in a crucial role. This report is a conceptual literature review synthesising international and mainly peer-reviewed research on sustainable behaviour and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The aim is to explore what kinds of factors explain sustainable behaviour and how learning and education can further sustainability transformations. There are several factors that explain commitment to sustainable behaviour, including demographic factors (such as age and gender), internal factors (for example nature connectedness and self-efficacy), as well as external factors (such as cultural and social norms). There seems to be a positive connection between education and sustainable behaviour, yet higher income may also result in adopting individual behaviours with a negative environmental impact. Moreover, it is typical that people’s behaviours demonstrate a value-action, attitude-action, concern-action, or knowledge-action gap. The aim of ESD is to support developing the knowledges, skills, competencies and attitudes needed to live in an ecologically, socially and economically sustainable manner in the changing world. ESD has potential to drive sustainability transformations through providing meaningful learning experiences for people at all ages both in formal education from early childhood education to higher education and outside formal education systems in everyday life, at work, in communities and generally in the society. Pedagogical solutions that enable critical deliberation, experiential learning, authentic participation and multi-actor collaboration while maintaining hope seem to support implementing transformative ESD. However, individual learning experiences are undermined if the surrounding society does not support sustainable behaviour and sustainability transformations. Thus, the magnitude and urgency of the current local and global problems require a joint and continuous learning process, which involves all societal actors to collaboratively seek for sustainable solutions.
... There is an intellectual effort here to shift the adaptation debate away from what are seen as technical/managerial approaches to climate change that deflect attention from the social and political root causes of vulnerability (Wisner et al., 2004;Ribot, 2011) and that arguably perpetuate dominant versions of development (Godfrey-Wood and Naess, 2016). It looks to empower actors to challenge the conditions that generate risk and to promote different forms of development (O'Brien et al., 2014), especially through a broadening and opening-up of processes for decisionmaking, learning and action (Moser and Ekstrom, 2010;Sharpe, 2016). The articulation of the term "transformation" here is therefore inherently normative. ...
... At the heart of this question is concern to understand the depth of change that is being considered, in the light of wellestablished arguments in the literature that highlight the differential social dimensions of risk. Drawing in large part on social critiques within disaster studies (for example, Bankoff et al., 2004;Wisner et al., 2004), writers on adaptation have underlined that vulnerability to climate change impacts is not merely a product of physical exposure to its effects but of variation in social vulnerability: in people's and institution's ability to avoid, resist, cope with, recover from and adapt to the impacts (for example, Adger, 2006;Schipper and Pelling, 2006;Sharpe, 2016). Moreover, the social processes that generate differentiated vulnerability can often be traced to deep-seated underlying factors within society. ...
Article
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In recent years there has been a growing number of academic reviews discussing the theme of transformation and its association with adaptation to climate change. On the one hand this has stimulated exchange of ideas and perspectives on the parameters of transformation, but it has also given rise to confusion in terms of identifying what constitutes a non-incremental form of adaptation on the ground. What this article aims to do instead is help researchers and practitioners relate different interpretations of transformation to practice by proposing a typological framework for categorising forms of change that focuses on mechanisms and objectives. It then discusses how these categorisations link to the broader conceptions and critiques noted above, with the idea that this will enable those who seek to analyse or plan adaptation to better analyse what types of action are potentially constitutive of transformation. In doing so, it should equally assist in the identification and specification of critical questions that need to be asked of such activity in relation to issues of sustainability and equity.
... There is an intellectual effort here to shift the adaptation debate away from what are seen as technical/managerial approaches to climate change that deflect attention from the social and political root causes of vulnerability (Wisner et al., 2004;Ribot, 2011) and that arguably perpetuate dominant versions of development (Godfrey-Wood and Naess, 2016). It looks to empower actors to challenge the conditions that generate risk and to promote different forms of development (O'Brien et al., 2014), especially through a broadening and opening-up of processes for decisionmaking, learning and action (Moser and Ekstrom, 2010;Sharpe, 2016). The articulation of the term "transformation" here is therefore inherently normative. ...
... At the heart of this question is concern to understand the depth of change that is being considered, in the light of wellestablished arguments in the literature that highlight the differential social dimensions of risk. Drawing in large part on social critiques within disaster studies (for example, Bankoff et al., 2004;Wisner et al., 2004), writers on adaptation have underlined that vulnerability to climate change impacts is not merely a product of physical exposure to its effects but of variation in social vulnerability: in people's and institution's ability to avoid, resist, cope with, recover from and adapt to the impacts (for example, Adger, 2006;Schipper and Pelling, 2006;Sharpe, 2016). Moreover, the social processes that generate differentiated vulnerability can often be traced to deep-seated underlying factors within society. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years there has been a growing number of academic reviews discussing the theme of transformation and its association with adaptation to climate change. On the one hand this has stimulated exchange of ideas and perspectives on the parameters of transformation, but it has also given rise to confusion in terms of identifying what constitutes a non-incremental form of adaptation on the ground. What this article aims to do instead is help researchers and practitioners relate different interpretations of transformation to practice by proposing a typological framework for categorising forms of change that focuses on mechanisms and objectives. It then discusses how these categorisations link to the broader conceptions and critiques noted above, with the idea that this will enable those who seek to analyse or plan adaptation to better analyse what types of action are potentially constitutive of transformation. In doing so, it should equally assist in the identification and specification of critical questions that need to be asked of such activity in relation to issues of sustainability and equity.
... Providing credible and readily usable information on the "carbon footprints" of consumer products (Cohen and Vandenbergh, 2012), the energy efficiency of homes and buildings (Cox, Brown, and Sun, 2013), and levels of indirect consumption are promising examples. But to help break--out of established ways of thinking and to instigate changes in behavior that are sustained over time, new ways of achieving transformative learning may be required (Sharpe, 2016). Identify and address the key factors, many of them non--financial, inhibiting and promoting the target behaviours in particular populations. ...
... Fundamentally, learning refers to the change in individuals' "frame of reference", which is a prerequisite for a change in their attitudes, values and behaviors (Sharpe 2016). Individuals learn in many different ways from natural disasters and with many different consequences. ...
Article
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The varied interpretations of the concept of resilience in natural hazards research literature has attracted numerous criticisms. A common criticism centers around a poor understanding of the changes caused by natural disasters by the research stream. Considering resilience as a metaphor of change, and newspaper as a catalyst that often highlights post-disaster opportunities for “forward looking” (rather than bouncing back) changes, we examined some specific aspects of change in Canadian communities by analyzing coverage of natural disasters in daily newspapers.We posit that post-disaster newspaper discourse on resilience and change can not only assist enhancing academic inquiries on resilience but also contribute to improving practices for transformative changes in post-disaster contexts. We adopted a social constructivist approach to analyzing newspaper discourse, using the ProQuest database to find articles from the 1996–2017 period. The findings exhibited a trend of the increased use of narratives on resilience in Canadian newspapers since the 1990s that substantiates the hypothesis that transformative change in the personal and practical spheres requires alteration of peoples’ attitude, behavior, and thinking toward environmental risks. The discourse emphasized incremental changes at the policy level: (i) to improve response and recovery, and (ii) to address the needs of vulnerable and disaster-affected population. Our findings overall underscore the importance of documentation and efforts towards streamlining learning; application of learning at multiple interconnected levels for progressive changes to enhance community resilience, and the need for building consensus among academicians, practitioners and policy makers regarding the meaning and use of the concept of resilience.
... Moreover, sustainability education is mostly concerned with educating for change towards sustainability in normal times. Many of these programs also foster in students a "conservative resilience thinking" as opposed to transformation thinking [44], although such transformative learning would be necessary to help break-out of established ways of problem-solving [62]. Thus, students often graduate with little experience of how to advance sustainability in times of disasters. ...
Article
Urgent sustainability problems call for accelerated and transformational change. Disasters can provide opportunities for accelerating such change towards sustainability by eliminating the impediments of "normal times," but only if a new breed of change agents is able to seize these opportunities. However, current educational programs in sustainability and disaster risk management insufficiently prepare change agents for this challenging task. Recent reforms of curricula, institutional innovations, and actual experience from such change agents could be used to help design curricula that train students in seeing and seizing post-disaster opportunities for change towards sustainability. Linking sustainability education and disaster risk management education might be a co-benefit in the future.
... Providing credible and readily usable information on the "carbon footprints" of consumer products (Cohen & Vandenbergh, 2012), the energy efficiency of homes and buildings (Cox, Brown, & Sun, 2013), and levels of indirect consumption are promising examples. But to help break out of established ways of thinking and to instigate changes in behavior that are sustained over time, new ways of achieving transformative learning may be required (Sharpe, 2016). ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the well-documented misalignment between energy-related behaviors and the personal values of consumers, which has become a major source of angst among policymakers. Despite widespread pro-environmental or green attitudes, consumers frequently purchase non-green alternatives. The chapter identifies 50 theoretical approaches that can be divided almost equally into two types: those that emphasize beliefs, attitudes, and values; and those that also consider contextual factors and social norms. Three principles of intervention are recommended: provide credible and targeted information at points of decision; identify and address the key factors inhibiting and promoting the target behaviors in particular populations; and rigorously evaluate programs to provide credible estimates of impact and opportunities for improvement. The chapter recommends that research on the value-action gap be expanded beyond the traditional focus on individuals to include decision-making units such as households, boards of directors, commercial buying units, and government procurement groups.
... A growing literature now focuses on transformative agendas to address climate change, since Pelling (2011) spearheaded this discussion. Transformation is often seen as proposing far-reaching and, at times, swift changes to systems deemed inadequate (Archer and Dodman 2015;Burch et al. 2017;Pelling 2011;Sharpe 2016;Shi et al. 2016). However, the International Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 identifies transformation simply as a fundamental change in basic aspects of natural or human systems (Field et al. 2014). ...
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This research examines climate change responses by experts from government, national agencies, civil society organizations, and private firms in Metro Manila. We found that highly bonding social capital, often forged through more familiar relationships, reduces organizational interactions and the potential for efficient knowledge mobilization. Specifically, results show deficiencies in information delivery (inconsistent lexicon) and support systems (knowledge sharing, partnerships, and resources), situations known to hinder climate change action. Despite ambivalence toward changing the current system, experts expressed (a) undertones of displeasure in how the system operates, and (b) a clear desire for more institutionalized action and mandates at various institutional scales. A predominance of bonding social capital can preclude participation from outside actors resulting in the exclusion of innovations needed to advance climate response. Therefore, we propose incremental shifts to existing social capital as a means to achieve transformations, arguing that a synergy of horizontal and vertical networks could increase efficiencies in information processes, strengthen collaborations, and enhance governance to confront climate change in this context.
... Approaches that include capacity for learning and change in the planning and implementation process foster adaptation [64,92,93]. The case studies presented here reinforce findings in the literature regarding the importance of flexibility and learning when grappling with adaptation decisions. ...
Article
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Countries across the world aspire towards climate resilient sustainable development. The interacting processes of climate change, land change, and unprecedented social and technological change pose significant obstacles to these aspirations. The pace, intensity, and scale of these sizeable risks and vulnerabilities affect the central issues in sustainable development: how and where people live and work, access to essential resources and ecosystem services needed to sustain people in given locations, and the social and economic means to improve human wellbeing in the face of disruptions. This paper addresses the question: What are the characteristics of transformational adaptation and development in the context of profound changes in land and climate? To explore this question, this paper contains four case studies: managing storm water runoff related to the conversion of rural land to urban land in Indonesia; using a basket of interventions to manage social impacts of flooding in Nepal; combining a national glacier protection law with water rights management in Argentina; and community-based relocation in response to permafrost thaw and coastal erosion in Alaska. These case studies contribute to understanding characteristics of adaptation which is commensurate to sizeable risks and vulnerabilities to society in changing climate and land systems. Transformational adaptation is often perceived as a major large-scale intervention. In practice, the case studies in this article reveal that transformational adaptation is more likely to involve a bundle of adaptation interventions that are aimed at flexibly adjusting to change rather than reinforcing the status quo in ways of doing things. As a global mosaic, transformational change at a grand scale will occur through an inestimable number of smaller steps to adjust the central elements of human systems proportionate to the changes in climate and land systems. Understanding the characteristics of transformational adaptation will be essential to design and implement adaptation that keeps society in step with reconfiguring climate and land systems as they depart from current states.
... All three forms of learning involve critical reflections and critical discourses [33]. Through these processes, individuals critically validate new experiences, opinions and the underlying assumptions that shape perceptions and behaviors [9,10,48]. ...
Article
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Climate change has seriously affected agriculture and many aspects of the life of local people in the Vietnam Mekong Delta (VMD). Learning to shift towards sustainable development to successfully adapt to climate change is essential. The VACB (V-garden/orchard; A-fishing farm; C-livestock farm; B-biogas) model is considered one of the best approaches and methods to adapt to climate change in the VMD. This paper aims to explore the transformative social learning and sustainable development associated with this model in terms of agricultural transformation for sustainability to climate change adaptation in the VMD. The mixed methods approach that guided the data collection included focus group discussions, in-depth interviews with key informants and household surveys. Our findings show that there are three learning processes associated with transformative social learning linked to the VACB model: instrumental, communicative and emancipatory learning. Farmers reported increased knowledge and improved relationships and efficiency when applying the VACB model using several learning channels, both formal and informal. Farmers highlighted six factors that influenced transformative social learning during the adoption and development of the VACB model and several barriers to implementing adaptation strategies to climate change in an attempt to upscale the VACB model.
... Recovery and regaining pre-disaster equilibrium has been cited as a necessary condition of securing community livelihoods and resilience (Zolli and Healy, 2012;Zolli, 2012); however, adapting to attain a new state of stability is more desired, in particular to address the pre-disaster physical exposure and vulnerability (Cutter et al., 2008;Cutter, 2016b). Relevant literature labels the process of recovery from environmental disasters using various terms: on the one hand describing recovery as "bounce back" (Gilbert, 2010;Zolli, 2012;Zolli and Healy, 2012), "regaining [the] pre-disaster state of economy" (Mutter, 2013), and "build back better" (UNISDR, 2017); and on the other hand as "bounce forward" (Sharpe, 2016), "move forward" (Manyena et al., 2011), following "trajectories" (Norris et al., 2008), and developing a "new normal" (Leitch and Bohensky, 2014). We posit that this multidimensional conceptualization of disaster recovery is rooted in the debate on whether resilience is a process or an outcome. ...
Article
In this study, we posit that in determining the underpinnings and attributes of community resilience to disaster-shocks, an analysis of actual and potential disaster victims' emic perspectives, that is the views of cultural insiders , on recovery processes and community resilience is crucial. We argue that community resilience must be framed within a deeper understanding of the subjective views of the actors themselves, their local knowledge and culture, and the historical context of the place or social formation. In this context, the primary goal of this study was to delineate the fundamental elements of community recovery and attributes of resilience to cyclones, storm surges, and other environmental disaster-shocks in Bangladesh's coastal communities, and, recognizing that social actions are pivotal elements of community resilience, we attempt to make a novel contribution by underscoring local emic perspectives. Using the tools of participatory research methods, we collected empirical data from four sources: a household survey of 300 household heads, eight focus group discussions, 20 key informant interviews, and five in-depth, household case studies. Our research findings revealed that the roles of traditional-informal as well as quasi-formal institutions were vital for rapid recovery and transformation to new local economic and livelihood trajectories. Resilience attributes that were deeply embedded in community characteristics assisted in ameliorating immediate impacts as well as in building future adaptive capacities. Out of 12 resilience attributes identified by the respondents, 'knowledge, skills and learning', 'values and beliefs', 'people-place connection', 'social networks and support', 'active institutions', and 'self-organization' capacities were ranked highest. The community resilience attributes and their functionality in the context of the coastal communities studied varied significantly depending on their economic base, occupations, and their respective contexts of vulnerability. Overall, the findings demonstrate that community resilience attributes function interactively rather than independently, and analyses of community attributes therefore require a clear understanding of network functioning and the processes that drive institutional structures, relations, and outcomes.
... Transformative learning leads to change in individual reference and can be identified as the series of concepts, values, feelings, and responses to conditions and the result of experience determining an individual's life all at once. Individual reference consists of cognitive construct supporting the fundamental change of values, attitude, and conduct important in developing life strategy in dealing with threat of disaster and other environmental changes (Sharpe, 2016). ...
Article
The degradation of urban rivers is a serious problem and community participation is required to maintain and take care of rivers. This research aims to describe the practice of a transforma-tive learning model among sociology students in taking care of Pepe River in Surakarta, Indonesia. The authors employed participatory action research with sociology students as the subjects of research. Data were collected using observation, in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and documentation. Data collected were then analyzed using Freire's theory on critical education. Transformative learning for sociology students was conducted for two semesters in the course on environment sociology and social change and results of research showed that transformative learning connects cognitive, affective, and psychomo-tor aspects. Through workshop, training, and public campaign, this model played a very significant role in building students' care toward problems of river surroundings, helping the community produce information about the river, and facilitating the community in taking care of the river.
... The most recent revision of the conceptualization of the TLT was published in 2006 (28). However, throughout each revision of the TLT, it has maintained the stage-based cyclical process and has been employed within modern research efforts such as Sharpe's work on enabling behavior change for adaptation and resilience to disaster threats using the TLT (32). The visual depiction of Mezirow's (28) TLT can be found in Figure 1. ...
Article
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Collaborative online international learning programs, such as virtual exchange, that utilize telecollaborative activities have been integrated into more classrooms within the higher education setting. These programs provide students exposure to international cultures, perspectives, and ideas is no longer considered “value added”, but a prerequisite to entering many workforces. These programmatic objectives compliment Mezirow's Transformative Learning Theory, that substantiates two major elements of transformative learning are critical reflection and dialectical discourse. This study presents the second half of a qualitative inquiry into the prominent themes that arose during a virtual exchange that was conducted in March 2021 between students in the United States (US) enrolled in a global public health course and Egyptian microbiology students. This study sought to expand upon the Transformative Learning Theory through inductive analysis procedures to offer a modernized adaptation of the theoretical framework within international learning environments. Student responses enrolled in an undergraduate global public health course were collected and analyzed by two coders using inductive/open coding to identify salient codes. These codes were then summarized into categories and subsequently defined. Resulting themes include Connectedness, Openness, Acquisition of Knowledge and Skills, Communication, Cultural Identity, Anticipation of Options for New Roles, Relationships, and Actions, and Absence of Change. Several themes have corresponding categories and subcategories. Adult learning environments such as the modern college classroom have changed with the introduction and reliance upon online learning domains, as well as the diversification of higher education student demographics, accentuating the need to inductively analyze student learning processes and outcomes. In doing so, our findings provide a modernized adaptation of the Transformative Learning Theory that allows for adult learning theorists, researchers, and scholars to integrate tenets of transformative learning more appropriately. As such, this provides an opportunity for educators to coalesce the identified mechanisms (e.g., openness, cultural background, anticipation of roles and relationships) to bolster student's willingness and ability to engage in transformative critical reflections. By capitalizing on students' innate characteristics, such as open-mindedness predispositions and cultural background, educators are able to augment transformative learning strategies through tailored assignments and course activities.
... Whereas there is dearth of literature on capacity building and training in the field of tourism, this is not the case in other disciplines such as agriculture, education and health where research abounds (Moscardo, 2008b). The same can be said for the field of resilience studies, where the literature on climate change (Christmann & Aw-Hassan, 2015;Shaw et al., 2009), disaster risk reduction (Sharpe, 2016), public health issues (John, Gopalakrishnan, & Javed, 2015) or even a combination of both (Huang et al., 2011) has explored the nuances of adaptive and participatory capacity building processes in the face of change. ...
Chapter
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This chapter explores the possibilities of adaptive capacity building as an alternative strategic tool for building resilience in Indigenous tourism. Following an orthodox approach to development, public tourism initiatives in Mexico have promoted the homogenization of destinations and capabilities. Through a collaborative research process with four Lacandon companies in the rainforest of Mexico, this chapter presents a tourism collaborative capacity building (TCCB) approach as an instrument for training Indigenous entrepreneurs and local staff in remote rural areas. TCCB is based on knowledge dialogue and integration, built on pre-existing capabilities, and fosters innovation through co-creation and the use of creative tools.
... The MHW provides an avenue for individuals to reflect and challenge thoughts, acknowledge automatic thought processes, develop new ideas and experiment in a safe environment [49]. Additionally, the programs generate an environment where individuals are encouraged to be active members in the education provisions. ...
Preprint
The utilization of person centered care is highlighted as essential for health promotion, yet implementation has been inconsistent and multiple issues remain. There is a dearth of applied re-search exploring the facets of successful implementation. In this paper, a person centered wellbeing program spanning various groups is discussed outlining the central principles that have allowed for successful outcomes. The main data emerges from 10 years of pragmatic pre-post service evaluation. Measures of functional capacity and wellbeing were captured using validated measures. The method for this paper is a narrative exploration of the theory and practices that can explain the continual improvement the clinics have achieved over 10 years. Core principles relate to connecting with people, connecting through groups, and connecting with self. The operationalization and theoretical explanation of these principles is outlined alongside 10 years of data which shows sustained improvement in a range of outcomes. The discussion of these principles posits essential factors to prioritize to advance the implementation of person centered care in health promotion for long term conditions.
... This demonstrates that a better recall of previous experiences with disasters together with CBO empowerment can help guide community response measures (Becker et al., 2017). For state actors, this can help contextualize and localize interventions, build trust, and treat communities and their actors as partners and not barriers to health disaster response measures (Enria, 2020;Sharpe, 2016). ...
Article
Freetown is confronted with health-related risks that are compounded by rapid unplanned urbanisation and weak capacities of local government institutions. Addressing such community health risks implies a shared responsibility between government and non-state actors. In low-income communities, the role of Community-Based Organisations (CBOs) in combatting health disasters is well-recognized. Yet, empirical evidence about how CBOs have drawn on their networks and coordinated community-level strategies in responding to the Covid-19 pandemic is scant. Based on a qualitative study in two informal settlements in Freetown, this paper draws on actor-network theory to understand how CBOs problematize Covid-19 as a health risk, interact with other actors and the tensions that arise within these actor networks. The study findings show that community vulnerabilities and past experiences with health disasters such as Ebola informed CBOs' perception of Covid-19 as communal emergency. In response, CBOs coordinated sensitization and mobilization programs by relying on a network of internal and external actors to support Covid-19 risk reduction strategies. Nonetheless, misunderstandings among actors caused tensions in the actor- network. The study suggests that creating new channels for knowledge exchange and building on CBO capacity can help strengthen actor networks in communities and combat current and future health disasters. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... 1) Education has to support individuals in bringing their subconscious actions into cognition and raise their ability to reflect on it. This is supported by the findings that people more likely act sustainable if they have more discriminatory time (Binder and Blankenberg, 2017;Chai et al., 2015) and if they reflect or are reminded (Sharpe, 2016). Also, educational institutions can help in building new sustainable habits and heuristics for example through a supportive surrounding and role models. ...
Presentation
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See also the shared Pre-Conference Ressource: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8EDUvv7k0VQ The goal of education is often described as to enable individuals to preserve and improve society (e.g. Dewey, 1986). Currently the future of all societies and the survival of the human species are at threat because of a dramatic climate change. Therefore, sustainable action and education towards it is vital. Initiatives like UNESCOs Education for Sustainable Development impart knowledge and programs to support people to build sustainable values. But they do not tackle a vibrant underlying problem: Even if individuals know, value and even intend to act sustainable, when it comes to real life, they do not bring it into action (Li et al. ,2019; Moser und Kleinhückelkotten, 2018; Binder and Blankenberg, 2017; Allen, 2016; Frederiks et al., 2015). Psychological research calls this phenomenon value-action gap. We claim that without exact knowledge on how to close this gap, Education for Sustainable Development and in this regard education for a future society cannot be effective. Therefore, we gathered scientific findings on what is necessary to bridge the gap. We spotted 56 relevant articles from diverse subjects like economics, wildlife preservation and moral education and in a systematic literature review. From the empirical evidence within these articles, we developed an overall framework of successful transformation of values into action, always focusing on the topic of sustainability action. This framework is based on three main findings: 1) Most relevant actions concerning a sustainable life style are made unconscious, based on habits or heuristics (Haidt, 2009; Higgins-D'Alessandro, 2008; Narvaez and Lapsley, 2005). 2) Conscious actions are based on decisions that root back to either a focus on the self, a social focus or a caring meta focus. This tripartite structure is to be found again and again in different research; a focus on the self always reinforces the gap, a social focus could go in both directions and a caring meta focus bridges the gap. This should have consequences for education.
... Transformative learning theory is most strikingly applied in the technical learning center model due to the intentional promotion of learning as opposed to simply reacting to something that does not work. (Sharpe, 2016;Mezirow, 1991, Mezirow, 1995Mezirow, 1996;Mezirow, 2000;Mezirow, 2009) In a technical learning center, user and learner become interchangeable as throughout the chapter. ...
Chapter
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As our education system becomes more technology-driven and dependent, technical support is a part of the infrastructure for successful higher education performance. Self-service technology (SST) systems allow users to access solutions without agent involvement are viewed as the most cost-effective way to provide learning support. Support design in SSTs is every bit as critical as instructional design is to content-based education. Designing a technical learning center may be far more effective to address technical support needs, as well as creating other beneficial outcomes. In theory, SST systems are viewed as beneficial because they support self-efficacy, which has a direct relation to self-actualization. Self-efficacy has also been found to promote problem solving as well as higher achievement. Creating a learning center as an SST may contribute to transformative learning in that it changes the learner's perspective of their own capabilities and encourages them to be more flexible when introduced to other technologies. Several examples are presented.
... The MHW provides an avenue for individuals to reflect and challenge thoughts, acknowledge automatic thought processes, develop new ideas and experiment in a safe environment [48]. Additionally, the programs generate an environment where individuals are encouraged to be active members in the education provisions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The utilization of person-centered care is highlighted as essential for health promotion, yet implementation has been inconsistent and multiple issues remain. There is a dearth of applied research exploring the facets of successful implementation. In this paper, a person-centered wellbe-ing program spanning various groups is discussed, outlining the central principles that have allowed for successful outcomes. Ten years of pragmatic pre-post service evaluation have shown consistent improvement in measures of functional capacity and wellbeing. The method for this paper is a reflective exploration of the theory and practices that can explain the continual improvement the clinics have achieved over 10 years. Core principles relate to connecting with people, connecting through groups, and connecting with self. The operationalization and theoretical explanation of these principles is outlined. The discussion of these principles posits essential factors to prioritize to advance the implementation of person-centered care in health promotion for long-term conditions.
... Understanding short-term household recoveries in Nepal and rural and Indigenous disaster recovery contexts in general can contribute to crisisand transformative-learning [43,72], encourage multi-and poly-vocality [9], engender local-global linkages and communication among households, settlements, government institutions, and outside entities [45], and provide development opportunities [8]. These findings and their interpretations can help to change "one size fits all" relief and recovery policies and interventions that do not account for cultural and biological diversity, history, livelihood, place, or inequalities. ...
Article
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We assess tangible and intangible disaster recovery dynamics following the 2015 Nepal earthquakes and aftershocks in order to understand household adaptive capacity and transformation. We randomly selected 400 households in four communities across two highly impacted districts for surveys and interviews at 9 months and 1.5 years afterwards and returned at 2.5 years to share and discuss results. We found that household recoveries were heterogenous, context specific, and changing. Tangible hazard exposure, livelihood disruption, and displacement and intangible place attachment and mental well-being influenced recoveries. We also illustrate challenges related to government programs, housing designs and codes, and outside aid.
... In prior literature, Kolb's experiential learning has been found to be effective for reflective thinking in the context of architecture education (Whetten & Cameron, 2005), culinary arts (Smyth, 2016), pharmacy education (Nazar et al., 2017), e-portfolios (Heinrich & Rivera, 2017),, accounting (McCarthy, 2016, leadership (Ng, Dyne, & Ang, 2009), business communication (Javed et al., 2014)), finance, marketing, strategy and operations (Javed & Ayub, 2017). Mezirow's learning theory has been used in multiple disciplines including disaster management (Sharpe, 2016), entrepreneurship (Arpiainen & Kurczewska, 2017) and medical education (Marlowe, 2016). This research advances social and dialogical theories through developing and testing a framework in the context of business education. ...
Article
Experiential learning is considered important to develop managerial skills. Several archetypes are developed to facilitate learning, and various outcomes of experiential learning have been studied by organizational scholars. In an effort to contribute to the literature about learning, this research pursues (1) to examine the effect of students' learning behaviours on their perception about the quality of learning experience in business education , (2) to examine the mediating role of psychological safety between learning behaviours and students' perception about quality of their learning experience. Based on Kolb's experiential-learning theory and Mezirow's transformational learning theory this research used a cross-sectional design. Data were collected from 208 students studying in the final semester of their master degree program. Initially, the use of con-firmatory factor analysis helped in assessing the validity of the scales in this research context. Later on, hypothesized relationships were tested through structural equation modelling (SEM). Results revealed significant positive impact of critical reflection, student-to-student interactions, and instructor-to-student interactions on students' perceptions about the quality of learning experience. Moreover, psychological safety was found to mediate the relationship between learning behaviours and students' perceptions about quality of learning experience. Practical implications for management educators have also been discussed in this paper.
... Such outcomes of transformative learning have been increasingly sought not only in ESD, but also in applied sustainability settings. In climate change adaptation and risk resilience, Sharpe (2016) identified TL towards sustainable behaviour among local people at community level, and called for more related research. In resource management, Diduck et al. (2012) identified important TL influences in a study of sustainable behaviour compliance from local farmers. ...
Article
Transformative learning is considered a cornerstone for advances in sustainability, because transformative shifts in perspective will be necessary for humankind to transition towards it. The theory of transformative learning (TL) has been considered in hundreds of applied studies in diverse fields, yet it remains descriptive and unable to prescribe which conditions and processes could reliably produce TL outcomes. Here an in-depth case study is used to investigate a candidate process from another field and unknown to TL researchers (called WeValue InSitu) which has been reported to regularly produce some forms of informally denoted ‘transformative outcomes’. The goal is to determine if these formally qualify, because this would imply the standard WeValue InSitu process could be a reliable way to produce, and investigate, TL and TL outcomes (TLOs). Using grounded thematic open-coding of full transcripts of three sets of post-event interviews, compared against statements made prior to the event, it is shown unambiguously that four outcomes have formal TL nature, as shifts in meaning schemes, one of which developed into a wider shift of meaning perspective over three weeks. These findings indicate that the WeValue InSitu process can likely produce TLOs regularly and identifiably, offering a ‘pedagogical laboratory’ which can be used for systematic studies to link its sub-processes in detail to the TL outcomes it produces, allowing step-wise progress in theory-building. It also indicates that WeValue InSitu can be prescriptively applied, within its limitations such as maximum group sizes and specialist facilitators, to trigger TL in local groups of villagers, governance officers, environmental enthusiasts, community-based organizations and/or government committees, to become more focused and self-aware and more mobilized towards sustainability actions. This study thus opens the door to new research agenda in theory-building and applications of TL towards sustainability.
... Governments and the aid industry can also use them to facilitate multi and polyvocality (Barrios, 2016a) and foster linkages among local-global actors (Kilby, 2007). Contextualizing impacts and recovery trajectories can also contribute to crisis (Kapucu & Demiroz, 2017) or transformative learning (Sharpe, 2016), which builds upon resilience to inform decision making, such as appropriately integrating work exchange into recovery programs or scaling programs to market access that consider inflation due to geographic marginality. Mapping recovery using multidimensional variables can thus help to navigate how rural mountain communities and others recover from extreme disturbances, such as an earthquake and its cascading effects, over time and some of the drivers of these outcomes leading to improved response and longer-term planning. ...
Article
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Natural disaster recovery is multidimensional and takes time depending on vulnerabilities. Change occurs as households embedded within integrated social and environmental systems adapt or transform. We focus on the April/May 2015 Nepal earthquakes to understand rural natural disaster recovery. We conducted household surveys on critical earthquake impacts and recovery trajectories with 400 randomly selected households in four clusters of settlements in two districts with catastrophic impacts to all houses and infrastructure. To track rapid change in the short-term, we completed surveys at two intervals—approximately 9 months and 1.5 years. Using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination, our analysis explores relationships among critical recovery indicators, households, and clusters of settlements. Disaster recovery for these rural mountain households and settlements was spatially and culturally heterogenous, context specific, and changing over time, for better and worse. First, households dependent on place-based agropastoral livelihoods had more challenges recovering compared to households with more diverse market-based livelihoods. Second, the experiences of households in displacement camps were distinct from non-displaced households. Third, accessibility was a determining factor in recovery but not consistently. Fourth, households in the planned dam inundation zone were stagnant waiting for relocation. We presented results to research participants and stakeholders 2.5 years after the earthquakes in a series of research return workshops, which linked the results of our quantitative analysis with study participant experiences and perspectives. Our research contributes to the disaster and development aid literature in four ways by: 1) providing a unique dataset with a random sample over two time intervals collected immediately following a natural disaster; 2) offering a methodology that documents and analyzes recovery as a multidimensional phenomenon; 3) empirically illustrating linear and non-linear disaster recovery dynamics; and 4) capturing the complexity of variation at the household and settlement levels while also identifying patterns that resonate on the ground.
Technical Report
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Working in the complex context of climate change adaptation and resilience, individuals and organisations are often required to work together in consortia across disciplinary, institutional, geographical, and cultural boundaries. Working in large consortia offers great opportunities for addressing complex problems. It enables those with a wide variety of technical skills and other capacities to come together and devise more integrated responses. However, diversity of backgrounds and approaches to issues means that joint identification of challenges and solutions can be complex. Without explicit attention to roles, responsibilities, and relations, a variety of obstacles may undermine or obstruct effective collaboration and achievement of intended goals. This guide shares some examples and lessons learnt from a range of consortia operating across different programmes. We provide some pointers for researchers, practitioners, and other stakeholders to work and learn together in complex consortia, which should lead to a smoother process of arriving at more effective adaptation and increased resilience for the most vulnerable.
Article
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Disaster studies is replete with common expressions and concepts. A particularly revolutionary concept has increasingly appeared in the discourse in recent years - transformative adaptation (most often expressed as “transformation”). These terms have been used to represent fundamental change from a status quo based on processes that create vulnerability. Coined as a form of adaptation, transformative adaptation seeks bottom-up and long-term changes that reduces vulnerability. However, despite increasing interest in the concept, the overall understanding of its practicability and potential outcomes remains fragmented. In this paper we present the results of a systematic literature review undertaken to assess the current state of knowledge regarding transformative adaptation in existing literature and identify opportunities for further research. The research uses a well-defined protocol for identifying relevant academic papers on transformative adaptation and the findings are analyzed using both qualitative and quantitative tools. Findings from the systematic review highlight the complex nature of change, key theories used in the study of transformative adaptation, the variables necessary for its application and the interdependencies among the variables. This provides a theoretical foundation for future practical application of the concept by highlighting variables and measures to implement and assess transformative adaptation in real life situations.
Chapter
This chapter introduces the concept of disaster resilience and looks at Disaster Education, Communication, and Engagement (ECE) content and methods to encompass the concept and its implementation for people and their communities. It does this by exploring the fields of psychology and sociology as they relate to disaster management to attempt to identify ways to improve existing Disaster ECE activities. The chapter also examines learning theories to try to find out the most appropriate learning methods for resilience‐related Disaster ECE.
Chapter
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The shocks presented to communities by environmental hazards can cause disruption or be absorbed, depending on the ability of a community or society to respond to them in the short term and adapt to living with them. This seemingly benign statement obscures the complexity of resilience narratives that have been ignored in favour of ostensibly simple technocratic or bureaucratic solutions to living with such hazards, such as dredging a river channel or distributing advice leaflets. This chapter challenges these approaches while outlining how social learning can help frame research to better engage, challenge, and evolve communities to learn how to adapt and transform–as subjects of and partners in research.
Conference Paper
This paper discusses the necessity to develop approaches to urban and regional planning that incorporate the perception of risk associated with climate change. Our paper advocates for seeing community resilience as a process of social learning and highlights how risk perception could play a key role in it, which is crucial for envisioning and learning collectively how to produce more just and resilient socio-ecological urban and regional systems. Public risk perception is usually thought to have overriding importance in community resilience as it plays an important role in shaping community preparedness to risks. Our paper argues that in order to play a relevant role in constructing cities that are resilient to climate change, risk perception should be considered as a socio-cultural construction that embodies citizens' experience of risk and its associated tensions between frames of crises and frames of change. Through a case study we show how the use of the categories that describe the tensions between the frames of crisis and change can be decisive in the constitution of resilient cities and spaces of learning. We call these categories cooperative bridges and discuss their role in building community resilience.
Thesis
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Coastal communities in Bangladesh and around the world are at increasing risk of climate-induced disaster-shocks. In recent years, Bangladesh has been able to reduce the risk of disasters through a robust institutional intervention. It is assumed that learning from past experience has played a significant role in such risk reduction and resilience-building processes. However, how learning at multiple societal levels shapes community resilience to disaster-shocks is poorly understood. In light of this gap, the present research empirically investigates social learning at community and multiple institutional levels, and transformative learning at the individual level, from cyclonic shocks in selected coastal communities in Bangladesh. This thesis departs from the normative framing and thoughts on the relationships among learning, resilience, and DRR; it adopts a critical approach to investigate the role of learning at different levels that shapes community resilience. I followed a qualitative research approach that was supplemented by a household survey (n=240). The results revealed that the coastal communities in Bangladesh have a rich stock of indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) that helps them to generate early warnings and reduce their risk from cyclones and associated storm surges. Translation of such ILK into action often depends on the state of social memory. Formal institutional interventions often contribute to the development of negative social memory. Moreover, formal institutional interventions (e.g., NGO-led) often deny ILK a meaningful role in social learning processes. Concerning transformative learning, I further found that the relationship between transformative learning and resilience building is complex, involving multiple social-cultural-structural factors (e.g., beliefs, values, power structures), practical considerations (e.g., impact on livelihood, evacuation and relocation logistics), and cognitive factors. Regarding the multi-loop learning at multi-level institutions, loop learning is found to be different for different level of institutions and contributed differently to community resilience. Bridging organizations played critical roles in institutionalizing and scaling up social learning from episodic events as well as in innovation and knowledge management. Future efforts to build community resilience to climate-induced disaster-shocks should pay more attention to learning-based action and the feedback relationships among multiple societal levels in shaping community resilience to disaster-shocks.
Article
Climate change can lead to changes in the frequency, intensity, spatial extent, duration and timing of weather extremes, which pose disaster risks to exposed and vulnerable communities. Capacity development is a common disaster risk reduction (DRR) action and a climate change adaptation. There is a knowledge gap on what is involved in and what works in practice of bottom-up approaches to develop DRR capacity that incorporates local ownership, local knowledge and learning. The participatory research described in this paper applied Wenger's conceptual framework for social learning systems to establish a community of practice (CoP) for DRR between 2016 and 2017 in Maruleng Local Municipality, South Africa. Planning documents, event and reflection notes, office reports and artefacts were initially coded based on key concepts of the framework and further coded based on emerging sub-themes. The results showed that the framework provided a useful structure for designing capacity development that emphasises learning and organically integrates local knowledge. Structuring capacity development as a social learning system has the potential to make the CoP's learning effort self-sustaining and shift the focus of capacity development from a specific task to a long-term common interest shared by CoP members. The framework, however, did not provide adequate consideration for institutional challenges such as high leadership turnover and limited political power of the CoP, which impacted alignment, mutuality and membership – all of which are important to sustaining the CoP for capacity development.
Technical Report
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This report explores how the challenges faced by communities at risk from environmental hazards might be tackled via the application of social learning practices. By outlining the theoretical framework for social learning a better understanding of its application for developing resilient communities is been proposed. The mechanisms for triggering social learning are then outlined, with examples from flood and heat wave risk in the UK employed to highlight how this might be achieved. Gaps and further opportunities for learning and research are outlined, again supported with examples from the UK and Turkey. This provides context for enhancing understandings of the utility of social learning. Most notably, as a way of evolving resilience discourse and practice in order to mitigate the potential and manifest consequences of the disaster risks posed by environmental hazards, by adapting to changes, understanding the wider context and bouncing forwards.
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Hurricane Katrina was one of the most devastating natural disasters in the U.S. history. The economic, physical, and psychological damage to survivors of Katrina may ultimately be incalculable. While this natural disaster affected all racial groups, it was low-income African Americans who disproportionately experienced the greatest suffering. This study examines factors related to psychological resilience in the Hurricane Katrina evacuee sample (N = 363) drawn from the Kaiser Washington Post Harvard Poll #2005 WPH020. The structural equation model (SEM) used explains 34% of the total variance on Katrina victims' resilience measured by their perceived sense of recovery. Findings suggest that those evacuees who reported psychological distress as a reaction to the disaster were less likely to report that they would fully recover from the disaster. All three Hurricane Katrina experience-related variables— being insured, home destruction, and human loss—have significant effects on psychological distress, with human loss having the strongest effect. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
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Many disasters are a complex mix of natural hazards and human action. At Risk argues that the social, political and economic environment is as much a cause of disasters as the natural environment. Published within the International Decade of Natural Hazard Reduction, this book suggests ways in which both the social and natural sciences can be analytically combined through a 'disaster pressure and release' model. Arguing that the concept of vulnerability is central to an understanding of disasters and their prevention or mitigation, the authors explore the extent and ways in which people gain access to resources. Individual chapters apply analytical concepts to famines and drought, biological hazards, floods, coastal storms, and earthquakes, volcanos and landslides - the hazards that become disasters'. Finally, the book draws practical and policy conclusions to promote a safer environment and reduce vulnerability.
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The scholarship about transformative learning theory has continued to grow exponentially, although much of the research is redundant with a deterministic emphasis while overlooking the need for more in-depth theoretical analysis.Explanations for this oversight are numerous, including a failure to ground research in primary sources, an over-reliance on literature reviews of transformative learning, lack of critique of original research; marginal engagement in positivist and critical research paradigms, and a lack of involvement in transformative learning by European adult education scholars. In order to stimulate theoretical development, this paper discusses five specific issues that will hopefully provoke further discussion and research. They include the role of experience, empathy, the desire to change, the theory's inherently positive orientation, and the need for research involving positivist and critical approaches.
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Climate change is but one expression of the internal contradictions of capitalism that include also economic inequality and political alienation. Seen in this way analysis of human responses to climate change must engage with social relations of power. We explore the potential for resilience theory to meet this challenge by applying a framework that integrates the adaptive cycle heuristic and structuration theory to place power at the heart of the analysis and question the transformational qualities of social systems facing climate change. This theoretical frame is applied to Mahahual and Playa del Carmen, two rapidly expanding towns on Mexico's Caribbean coast. The resilience lens is successful in highlighting internal contradictions that maintain social relations of rigidity above flexibility in the existing governance regimes and development pathway. This generates a set of reinforcing institutions and actions that support the status quo while simultaneously undermining long-term flexibility, equitable and sustainable development. One outcome is the placing of limits on scope for adaptation and mitigation to climate change which are externalized from everyday life and development planning alike.
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This article is a review of Mezirow's transformative learning from its inception to the latest definition. The review builds on Taylor's earlier discussions, but unlike his review, this history of transformative learning relies predominantly on Mezirow's publications to authenticate the discussion with support from the extant literature. The article begins with Mezirow's explanation of the stages of transformative learning, continues with the influences on the theory, transitions into the criticisms, and concludes with a discussion of its evolution and development.
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The 15 papers in this book are all abstracted separately. They are arranged in three sections: natural disaster: mischance or misnomer; hazards in context: problems of agricultural development and food security; alternative frameworks.-K.Clayton
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Through the inception of the Chartered Teacher Programme in Scotland there is the intention that continuing professional development can enable teachers to become increasingly effective in promoting learning in the classroom (Scottish Executive, 2002a & b). Whilst this seems a very laudable aim, it is nevertheless a very woolly aim since what is meant by learning (and its promotion) is not contextualised either in a body of literature or within any framework to link the many possible influences on learning in any coherent way. The implications of such a ‘non-located’ idea suggest that any conception of learning – from the lay person’s common sense ideas to the most theoretically rigorous - are equally valid within formal schooling: clearly a conclusion that one hopes would neither be intended by the teaching profession, nor by society at large. However, one of the most important influences on contemporary conceptions of learning comes from research on what experts know and how they think, in contrast to the ways novices approach new tasks and solve problems. This article examines conceptions of ‘expertise’ and through these and findings from a small-scale research study, discusses understandings of the ‘expert teacher’, concluding that for the Chartered Teacher Programme to be meaningful, provision must be made for the incorporation of constructivist theories of knowledge.
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This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely learning and leadership, might be related with one another. Responses on the learning tactics inventory and leadership practices inventory are compared for a managerial sample (n = 312). Results indicate that more active and versatile learners subsequently consider themselves more frequently involved and engaged in leadership behaviors. Implications for transformational learning and leadership theories are explored, as well as thoughts about how the development of leadership competencies may be enhanced and affected by various learning techniques.
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▪ Abstract Recent perspectives in anthropological research define a disaster as a process/event involving the combination of a potentially destructive agent(s) from the natural and/or technological environment and a population in a socially and technologically produced condition of vulnerability. From this basic understanding three general topical areas have developed: (a) a behavioral and organizational response approach, (b) a social change approach, and (c) a political economic/environmental approach, focusing on the historical-structural dimensions of vulnerability to hazards, particularly in the developing world. Applied anthropological contributions to disaster management are discussed as well as research on perception and assessment of hazard risk. The article closes with a discussion of potentials in hazard and disaster research for theory building in anthropology, particularly in issues of human-environment relations and sociocultural change.
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Climate change is not ‘a problem’ waiting for ‘a solution’. It is an environmental, cultural and political phenomenon which is re-shaping the way we think about ourselves, our societies and humanity’s place on Earth. Drawing upon twenty-five years of professional work as an international climate change scientist and public commentator, Mike Hulme provides a unique insider’s account of the emergence of this phenomenon and the diverse ways in which it is understood. He uses different standpoints from science, economics, faith, psychology, communication, sociology, politics and development to explain why we disagree about climate change. In this way he shows that climate change, far from being simply an ‘issue’ or a ‘threat’, can act as a catalyst to revise our perception of our place in the world. Why We Disagree About Climate Change is an important contribution to the ongoing debate over climate change and its likely impact on our lives.
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In this presentation I intend to narrate a story that has its particular origins in three strategic decisions collectively taken, almost 20 years ago now, by a small group of educators within a small agricultural polytechnic located on the urban/rural fringe of Australia’s largest city. It is a story which arises out of the integrated thoughts and actions of an academic community, which, tired of its marginal status, decided in the late 1970s, to profoundly and concurrently transform itself as a School of Agriculture in three fundamental ways: (a) to change its own focus from production agriculture to responsible rural development, (b) to change its own emphasis from a teaching approach based on courses to one of learning based on projects, and (c) to change its own prevailing reductionist paradigm to embrace an holistic one. The mission became one of helping people in rural communities across the state, to learn their way forward to better futures, in the face of the immensely complex, dynamic, and slowly degrading environments – socio-economic, politico-cultural and bio-physical – in which they increasingly recognised they were deeply embedded. The intent would thus become that of helping people to see their worlds differently as a prelude for doing things differently – essentially more systemically. The context for this grand enterprise is captured in the aphorism ‘if we always see how we’ve always seen, we’ll always be who we’ve always been’! Changing the way we collectively construe ourselves means collectively changing the way we think about ourselves, to lead in turn, to changing the way we collectively act.
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Much emphasis has been placed on the importance of learning to support collaborative environmental management and achieve sustainability under conditions of social–ecological change. Yet, on-going struggles to learn from experience and respond to complex social–ecological conditions reflect an emerging paradox. Despite widespread support of learning as a normative goal and process, core concepts, assumptions and approaches to learning have been applied in vague and sometimes uncritical ways. Greater specificity with respect to learning goals, approaches and outcomes is required. In response to this gap, we examine five dimensions of the learning paradox in the context of adaptive co-management, where the learning and linking functions of governance are stressed: (i) definitions of learning; (ii) learning goals and expectations; (iii) mechanisms by which learning takes place; (iv) questions regarding who is involved in the process of learning; and (v) the risks and ethical ambiguities faced by different actors expected to willingly participate in a learning process, whether formal or informal. Lessons from experience with a series of cases from the global North and South illustrate the implications of these dimensions. Resolving the dimensions of this learning paradox will require greater attention to capacity-building, recognition of the role of risk, and consideration of how incentives could be used to encourage learning. Further consideration of the role of power and marginality among groups participating in the learning process is also needed, as is more systematic evaluation to monitor and measure learning outcomes.
Chapter
There is an instinctive drive among all humans to make meaning of their daily lives. Since there are no enduring truths, and change is continuous, we cannot always be assured of what we know or believe.
Article
The impacts of climate change are already being felt. Learning how to live with these impacts is a priority for human development. In this context, it is too easy to see adaptation as a narrowly defensive task - protecting core assets or functions from the risks of climate change. A more profound engagement, which sees climate change risks as a product and driver of social as well as natural systems, and their interaction, is called for. Adaptation to Climate Change argues that, without care, adaptive actions can deny the deeper political and cultural roots that call for significant change in social and political relations if human vulnerability to climate change associated risk is to be reduced. This book presents a framework for making sense of the range of choices facing humanity, structured around resilience (stability), transition (incremental social change and the exercising of existing rights) and transformation (new rights claims and changes in political regimes). The resilience-transition-transformation framework is supported by three detailed case study chapters. These also illustrate the diversity of contexts where adaption is unfolding, from organizations to urban governance and the national polity. This text is the first comprehensive analysis of the social dimensions to climate change adaptation. Clearly written in an engaging style, it provides detailed theoretical and empirical chapters and serves as an invaluable reference for undergraduate and postgraduate students interested in climate change, geography and development studies.
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Five presidents, two vice presidents, and three organizers (10 total) were chosen in purposive sampling to research both the social and personal change experienced as a result of participation in the Lincoln Alliance. The Alliance was a broad-based, multi-group, and multi-issue organization that existed in Lincoln, Nebraska from 1974-1982. At the Founding Convention there were 500 delegates present representing 28 civic, neighborhood, and church organizations. The Industrial Areas Foundation, founded by Saul Alinsky, served as consultants in the early formative years.^ The constant comparative method for grounded theory was employed to ascertain the nature of personal change as well as the shift in meaning perspectives (Mezirow, 1991) experienced by the leaders. An analysis of two schools of thought, critical social theory grounded in psychoanalytic psychology and transpersonal theory grounded in Jungian analytical depth psychology, provided dialogue for the purpose of deriving at an integrated theory of personal transformation. Specifically Jack Mezirow's (1991) theory of perspective transformation and Robert Boyd's (1989) theory of transformative learning provided the lens through which the data was assessed.^ Two broad conceptual themes were found: cognitive rational assumption changes and socio-emotional beliefs about the self in society. Four categories were found in the cognitive dimension: an awareness of power, focusing, awareness of connections grounded in values, and a vision for democracy. Three categories were found in the affective dimension: (1) social conflict vs. personal disequilibrium, (2) self-confidence, creativity, and empowerment, and (3) transcendence of the ego. All leaders experienced at least one meaning perspective shift; some experienced many perspective transformations.
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This chapter focuses on the role of learning in advancing climate change adaptation. The main research questions are, How can participatory processes contribute to learning on climate change and adaptation? What characterizes this learning process and how, if at all, does it contribute to a self-perceived increase in the capacity to adapt to climate change? The chapter uses a case study of the Swedish forestry sector to address these questions. It presents an empirical analysis of data obtained from twelve focus groups, a joint stakeholder workshop, and follow-up interviews. The analysis then provides the basis for a discussion of the potential for participatory processes and learning to build adaptive capacity to climate change.
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The most important book yet from the author of the international bestseller The Shock Doctrine, a brilliant explanation of why the climate crisis challenges us to abandon the core “free market” ideology of our time, restructure the global economy, and remake our political systems.In short, either we embrace radical change ourselves or radical changes will be visited upon our physical world. The status quo is no longer an option. In This Changes Everything Naomi Klein argues that climate change isn’t just another issue to be neatly filed between taxes and health care. It’s an alarm that calls us to fix an economic system that is already failing us in many ways. Klein meticulously builds the case for how massively reducing our greenhouse emissions is our best chance to simultaneously reduce gaping inequalities, re-imagine our broken democracies, and rebuild our gutted local economies. She exposes the ideological desperation of the climate-change deniers, the messianic delusions of the would-be geoengineers, and the tragic defeatism of too many mainstream green initiatives. And she demonstrates precisely why the market has not—and cannot—fix the climate crisis but will instead make things worse, with ever more extreme and ecologically damaging extraction methods, accompanied by rampant disaster capitalism. Klein argues that the changes to our relationship with nature and one another that are required to respond to the climate crisis humanely should not be viewed as grim penance, but rather as a kind of gift—a catalyst to transform broken economic and cultural priorities and to heal long-festering historical wounds. And she documents the inspiring movements that have already begun this process: communities that are not just refusing to be sites of further fossil fuel extraction but are building the next, regeneration-based economies right now. Can we pull off these changes in time? Nothing is certain. Nothing except that climate change changes everything. And for a very brief time, the nature of that change is still up to us.
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This chapter summarizes learning processes at individual, action group, organizational, network, and societal levels of analysis, and details connections linking learning outcomes across multiple levels. The discussion highlights how learning processes may not adequately accommodate contested values, power imbalances, and socio-economic constraints. The chapter casts light on adaptive capacity in multi-level governance by developing the concept of multi-level learning, suggesting ways to produce complementarity across multiple organizational levels, and supporting the proposition that relational spaces enhance adaptive capacity. The chapter also reveals the need for further theoretical development, including fully accounting for network and societal levels of analysis, assessing promising linking institutions (such as community-based social marketing and adaptive co-management), and addressing power asymmetries in learning dynamics. A promising avenue regarding the last point is giving more attention in theory and practice to critical, non-formal education. Further, the chapter emphasizes the need for place-based empirical studies of existing institutions.
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Between December 2013 and February 2014, an extreme storm surge, a series of intense storms, and the cumulative effects of heavy and persistent rainfall caused widespread flooding throughout the UK, prompting renewed public and scientific debates on who, or what, might be to blame. The public divided fairly evenly into two diametrically opposed groups, the first blaming the government (who initially responded by trying to shift blame to their expert advisors), attributing the mounting flood losses and prolonged misery to lack of investment in flood defences and river dredging. The second group blamed farmers for over-intensive agriculture in upstream catchments, inappropriate development in floodplains, and poor judgement on the part of the victims in choosing to live, work or farm in areas vulnerable to inundation. The floods resulted from a protracted sequence of deep, Atlantic depressions that followed a more southerly track than usual due to the position and configuration of the planetary jet stream. This prompted a second, no less polarised, scientific debate concerning whether the meteorological characteristics of the floods provided evidence that climate change has started to influence not only the probability of UK flooding, but also its nature, spatial distribution and duration. Both debates are intrinsically geographical, and this commentary sets out how understanding the geographies of flooding can help frame and inform them. This is addressed through consideration of these geographies, characterised as physical, rural, urban, social, economic and political. While an individual event (or even a sequence clustered of floods) cannot alone prove anything, the winter floods reinforce the conclusions of the Government's Flood Foresight study, which was commissioned in response to the 2000 (Millennium) Floods and updated following nationwide floods in summer 2007.
Article
Social cognitive theory adopts an agentic perspective in which individuals are producers of experiences and shapers of events. Among the mechanisms of human agency, none is more focal or pervading than the belief of personal efficacy. This core belief is the foundation of human agency. Unless people believe that they can produce desired effects and forestall undesired ones by their actions, they have little incentive to act. The growing interdependence of human functioning is placing a premium on the exercise of collective agency through shared beliefs in the power to produce effects by collective action. The present article analyzes the nature of perceived collective efficacy and its centrality in how people live their lives. Perceived collective efficacy fosters groups' motivational commitment to their missions, resilience to adversity, and performance accomplishments.
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THIS REVIEW EXPLORES BOTH ECOLOGICAL THEORY AND THE BEHAVIOR OF NATURAL SYSTEMS TO SEE IF DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES OF THEIR BEHAVIOR CAN YIELD DIFFERENT INSIGHTS THAT ARE USEFUL FOR BOTH THEORY AND PRACTICE. THE RESILIENCE AND STABILITY VIEWPOINTS OF THE BEHAVIOR OF ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS CAN YIELD VERY DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO THE MANAGEMENT OF RESOURCES. THE STABILITY VIEW EMPHASIZES THE EQUILIBRIUM, THE MAINTENANCE OF A PREDICTABLE WORLD, AND THE HARVESTING OF NATURE'S EXCESS PRODUCTION WITH AS LITTLE FLUCTUATION AS POSSIBLE. THE RESILIENCE VIEW EMPHASIZES DOMAINS OF ATTRACTION AND THE NEED FOR PERSISTENCE. BUT EXTINCTION IS NOT PURELY A RANDOM EVENT: IT RESULTS FROM THE INTERACTION OF RANDOM EVENTS WITH THOSE DETERMINISTIC FORCES THAT DEFINE THE SHAPE, SIZE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DOMAIN OF ATTRACTION. THE VERY APPROACH, THEREFORE, THAT ASSURES A STABLE MAXIMUM SUSTAINED YIELD OF A RENEWABLE RESOURCE, MIGHT SO CHANGE THESE CONDITIONS THAT THE RESILIENCE IS LOST OR IS REDUCED SO THAT A CHANCE AND RARE EVENT THAT PREVIOUSLY COULD BE ABSORBED CAN TRIGGER A SUDDEN DRAMATIC CHANGE AND LOSS OF STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF THE SYSTEM. A MANAGEMENT APPROACH BASED ON RESILIENCE, ON THE OTHER HAND, WOULD EMPHASIZE THE NEED TO KEEP OPTIONS OPEN, THE NEED TO VIEW EVENTS IN A REGIONAL RATHER THAN A LOCAL CONTEXT, AND THE NEED TO EMPHASIZE HETEROGENEITY. THE RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK DOES NOT REQUIRE A PRECISE CAPACITY TO PREDICT THE FUTURE BUT ONLY A QUALITATIVE CAPACITY TO DEVISE SYSTEMS THAT CAN ABSORB AND ACCOMMODATE FUTURE EVENTS IN WHATEVER UNEXPECTED FORM THEY MAY TAKE.
Article
This book describes the theory and process of transformative learning (TL) and presents practical strategies for fostering and supporting TL. In chapters 1 and 2, TL is placed within the broader context of adult learning and Mezirow's 1991 theory of TL is presented. Chapter 3 examines the following: TL's relationship to the instrumental, communicative, and emancipatory learning domains and the perspectives of psychological, sociolinguistic, and epistemic reflection; critical responses to TL theory; and the relationship between TL and self-directed learning, autonomy, and critical thinking. Chapter 4 contains a taxonomy of TL and the learner's perspective on the process of working toward transformation. In Chapter 5, Jung's theory of psychological types is used to explain the different ways in which individuals engage in TL. Chapter 6 discusses teaching roles in relation to the three domains of learning, Chapter 7 describes the process of fostering learner empowerment, and Chapter 8 presents strategies that can be used to stimulate TL (including questioning techniques, consciousness-raising exercises, and experiential activities). Chapter 9 describes ways of supporting TL and practical techniques for encouraging learners to support one another. In chapter 10, the process of TL is applied to the adult educator's role. Contains 185 references. (MN)
This chapter updates transformative learning theory through discussing emerging alternative theoretical conceptions, current research findings, and implications for practice.
Article
There is considerable research interest on the meaning and measurement of resilience from a variety of research perspectives including those from the hazards/disasters and global change communities. The identification of standards and metrics for measuring disaster resilience is one of the challenges faced by local, state, and federal agencies, especially in the United States. This paper provides a new framework, the disaster resilience of place (DROP) model, designed to improve comparative assessments of disaster resilience at the local or community level. A candidate set of variables for implementing the model are also presented as a first step towards its implementation.
Article
The resilience perspective is increasingly used as an approach for understanding the dynamics of social–ecological systems. This article presents the origin of the resilience perspective and provides an overview of its development to date. With roots in one branch of ecology and the discovery of multiple basins of attraction in ecosystems in the 1960–1970s, it inspired social and environmental scientists to challenge the dominant stable equilibrium view. The resilience approach emphasizes non-linear dynamics, thresholds, uncertainty and surprise, how periods of gradual change interplay with periods of rapid change and how such dynamics interact across temporal and spatial scales. The history was dominated by empirical observations of ecosystem dynamics interpreted in mathematical models, developing into the adaptive management approach for responding to ecosystem change. Serious attempts to integrate the social dimension is currently taking place in resilience work reflected in the large numbers of sciences involved in explorative studies and new discoveries of linked social–ecological systems. Recent advances include understanding of social processes like, social learning and social memory, mental models and knowledge–system integration, visioning and scenario building, leadership, agents and actor groups, social networks, institutional and organizational inertia and change, adaptive capacity, transformability and systems of adaptive governance that allow for management of essential ecosystem services.