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... Although parental alienating behaviors can occur in intact families (Baker & Verrocchio, 2013;Moné & Biringen, 2006), they are reportedly used more frequently in nonintact families, particularly those that are litigating child custody disputes Hands & Warshak, 2011). To date, the majority of research on parental alienation has studied it as occurring between two biological parents; however, the AP and TP could be any parental figure in a child's life (step-parent, coparent, grandparent, etc.), and it does not discriminate: Few gender differences have been found in terms of who is the target of alienating behaviors (Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringen, 2016b). Experts have found that custodial status, rather than gender, is a more important predictor of who is likely to alienate (for a review, see Harman & Biringen, 2016). ...
... Parental alienating behaviors are quite common depending on the type of behavior that is being reported (Johnston, Walters, & Olesen, 2005). For example, between 5% and 42% of parents recruited from an online sample report doing at least one alienating behavior themselves; the behaviors that parents report at higher rates (e.g., yelling at the other parental figure in front of a child) occur more frequently than other behaviors consistent with the concept of parental alienation (e.g., moving the child out of state) because there are more opportunities to engage in the former behaviors (Harman et al., 2016b). Although some of these behaviors occur because of routine conflict (e.g., yelling at the other parental figure in front of the child) or because of necessity (e.g., moving out of state), it is the persistent and strategic use of these behaviors that results in parental alienation. ...
... In addition, parental alienation is sometimes described as a story that only abusive fathers use to obtain custody of their children and to abuse the other parent (e.g., Ellis & Boyan, 2010). This denial detracts attention away from a serious public health crisis (Fidler, Bala, & Saini, 2013;Vezzetti, 2016) that is affecting an estimated 22 million or more fathers and mothers and their children in the U.S. (Harman et al., 2016b), and likely millions more across the world. This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. ...
Article
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Despite affecting millions of families around the world, parental alienation has been largely unacknowledged or denied by legal and health professionals as a form of family violence. This complex form of aggression entails a parental figure engaging in the long-term use of a variety of aggressive behaviors to harm the relationship between their child and another parental figure, and/or to hurt the other parental figure directly because of their relationship with their child. Like other forms of family violence, parental alienation has serious and negative consequences for family members, yet victims are often blamed for their experience. In order to be recognized as a form of family violence and to secure protection for victims under law and social policies, a formal review and comparison of parental alienating behaviors and outcomes to child abuse and intimate partner violence has been sorely needed. The result of this review highlights how the societal denial of parental alienation has been like the historical social and political denial or other forms of abuse in many parts of the world (e.g., child abuse a century ago). Reframing parental alienating behaviors as a form of family violence also serves as a desperate call to action for social scientists to focus more theoretical and empirical attention to this topic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
... For all the studies, the sample included targeted parents and the date of publication ranged from 1997 to 2018. The methods used in the studies to collect the data were through surveys (Baker, 2010;Baker & Darnall, 2006, 2007Balmer et al., 2017;Harman et al., 2016;Poustie et al., 2018), in depth interviews (Finzi-Dottan et al., 2012;Vassiliou & Cartwright, 2001) and the administration of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) and psychological assessment (Gordon et al., 2008). ...
... Specifically, targeted mothers reported experiencing significantly higher severity of exposure to denigration tactics at the hand of the alienating parent than did fathers. Harman et al. (2016) reported no differences in the severity of the alienation between mothers and fathers. ...
... Targeted parents also reported their relationship with the alienating parent was strained after the onset of parental alienation; describing their alienating behaviours as severe (Baker & Darnall, 2006;Harman et al., 2016) and often involving a third party as an alienator such as a family member (Balmer et al., 2017), the child (Vassiliou & Cartwright, 2001) or their mother-in-law (Finzi-Dottan et al., 2012). When considered together, these findings show that targeted parents feel isolated, despair, and frustrated (Balmer et al., 2017;Finzi-Dottan et al., 2012;Poustie et al., 2018;Vassiliou & Cartwright, 2001) and they perceive themselves as victims of a series of strategies used by the alienating parent and their allies to turn the targeted child against them. ...
... This outcome is the result of PA behaviors that are engaged in over time with the deliberate aim of harming the targeted parent and his or her relationship with the child (Baker & Darnall, 2006;Harman et al., 2019;Verrocchio, Baker, et al., 2018). PA impacts individuals across all socioeconomic and demographic indicators, irrespective of gender, marital status, sexual orientation, education level, income, and racial group membership (Harman et al., 2019;Harman, Leder-Elder, et al., 2016). ...
... Although cases of PA have been described in several studies (Harman, Leder-Elder, et al., 2016), it remains difficult to quickly and accurately detect such cases due to the denial and distortions presented by the alienating parent and the child. That is, the alienating parent and the child tend to attribute reasons for their refusal of the targeted parent (Poustie et al., 2018) exclusively to the inappropriate and/or violent behaviors of that parent, thereby denying and mystifying the dynamics of the alienation. ...
Article
Parental alienation (PA) describes a family dynamic in which a parent engages in behaviors that are likely to foster a child’s unjustified rejection of the other parent. PA is considered a particular form of child psychological maltreatment with both short- and long-term negative consequences. Parents who attempt to turn a child against the other parent in cases of separation/divorce can be difficult to identify. Increasing our understanding of the personality features of these parents via psychological assessment may enable us to identify PA more quickly following the onset of abuse. In the present study, the personality characteristics of mothers engaging in PA were examined through a comparative analysis of MMPI-2 profiles. The results indicated that alienating mothers presented higher moral virtue and extroversion. They were more vulnerable to interpersonal stress and they demonstrated unsuccessful self-representation. The findings provide a preliminary model for understanding the profile of mothers who engage in PA.
... Literatürde bu konuda yapılan çalışmada eğitim durumu ve gelir düzeyi daha yüksek ebeveynlerin reddedilen ebeveyn olduklarını daha yüksek oranda ifade ettikleri belirtilir. Ancak söz konusu çalışma ebeveynlerin yabancılaşma konusundaki kendi iddialarına dayanır ve ebeveyn cinsi-ebeveyn cinsiyet farklılığını göz önünde bulundurmaz (27). ...
... Altuntaş ve ark. / Adli Tıp Bülteni, 2018; 23 (1):[25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] ...
Article
Amaç: Ebeveyne Yabancılaşma; çocuğun ebeveynlerden birinin etkisi ile diğer ebeveyne karşı haksız biçimde yürüttüğü sürekli ve ısrarlı kötüleme, reddetme olarak tanımlanır. Çalışmada Ebeveyne Yabancılaşma olgusunu irdelemek, bunu etkileyen mekanizmaları açığa çıkarmak, babanın yabancılaşma konusundaki algılarına açıklık getirmek amaçlanmaktadır. Gereç ve Yöntem: Çalışmaya İstanbul Adliyesi 9. Aile Mahkemesinde 2015-2016 yıllarında boşanma davası devam eden 54 çocuklu aileden 38 baba ve 73 çocuk olmak üzere 111 kişi katılmıştır. Sosyo demografik özellikler sosyo-demografik veri formu ile çocukların ebeveyne yabancılaşmaları Baker Yabancılaşma Ölçeği ile babaların babalık tutumları Aile Hayatı ve Çocuk Yetiştirme Tutumu Ölçeği (AHÇYTÖ) ile değerlendirilmiş, babaların Ebeveyne Yabancılaşma hakkındaki algılarına açıklık getirmek amacıyla derinlemesine görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Niceliksel veriler tanımlayıcı istatistik yöntemleri Ki Kare testi ve Kruskal Wallis testleri ile analiz edilmiş, anlamlılık düzeyi .05 olarak alınmıştır. Derinlemesine görüşme sonucu elde edilen niteliksel veriler ise içerik analizi yöntemi ile değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular: Çalışmada çocukların %42,5’inin babalarına yabancılaşma geliştirdiği, ebeveyne yabancılaşma sürecinin aile içi şiddet ve çocuğa yönelik fiziksel şiddet iddiaları, baba ile görüşme durumları, babaların yaşları ile ilişkili olduğu görülmektedir. Ayrıca kardeşleri babalarına yabancılaşma yaşayan çocukların daha fazla, çocuklarına karşı koruyucu, demokratik ve otoriter tutumlar geliştiren babaların çocuklarının kendilerine daha az yabancılaştıkları anlaşılmaktadır. İçerik analizine göre babaların ifadeleri incelendiğinde anneye yönelik atıflar, sürecin babalık kimliği üzerindeki etkisi, babalık haklarını yitirme hissi ve ayrılık öncesi babalık algıları olmak üzere 4 tema belirlenmiştir. Sonuç: Ebeveyne Yabancılaşmanın ülkemizde de sık görülen bir sorun olduğu ve reddedilen babaların bu konuda daha yoğun paylaşımlarının bulunduğu görülmüştür.
... More than 22 million American adults are estimated as having experienced alienating behaviors by the other parent, with over half reporting this experience as being severe (Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringen, 2016). Fortunately, parental alienating behaviors do not always lead to the ultimate alienation of a child from a parent. ...
... Families exist within communities, societies, and cultures that can promote or deter parental alienation. Research does not yet provide support for there being gender differences in who alienates their children; mothers and fathers appear similarly likely to be perpetrators (Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringen, 2016), but they may use different types of behaviors (e.g., mothers may use more indirect and fathers more direct forms of aggression; López, Iglesias, & García, 2014). Gender differences do arise in how parental alienating behaviors are perceived and addressed by third parties. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parental alienation has been an unacknowledged and poorly understood form of family violence. Research on parental alienation and the behaviors that cause it has evolved out of decades of legal and clinical work documenting this phenomenon, leading to what could be considered a “greening,” or growth, of the field. Today, there is consensus among researchers as to what parental alienating behaviors are and how they affect children and the family system. We review the literature to detail what parental alienation is, how it is different from other parent–child problems such as estrangement and loyalty conflicts, and how it is perpetuated within and across different social systems. We conclude by highlighting research areas that need further investigation to develop and test effective solutions for ameliorating the devastating effects of parental alienation that, we posit, should be considered and understood not only as abusive to the child but also as a form of family violence directed toward both the child and the alienated parent.
... Visto que a AP é uma demanda com alta prevalência (Harman, Leder-Elder & Biringen, 2016) a qual provoca consequências devastadoras na vida dos envolvidos, saber mais sobre as motivações dos pais alienadores é fundamental para que seja possível auxiliar de forma preventiva nas demandas de saúde, psicológicas, judiciais e pedagógicas com o intuito de promover um convívio familiar saudável (Harman, Leder-Elder et al. , 2016;Jonas, 2017). Tendo em vista este cenário, este estudo tem como objetivo investigar quais são os sentimentos e os traços de personalidade presentes nos genitores que podem contribuir para a realização da AP. ...
... Visto que a AP é uma demanda com alta prevalência (Harman, Leder-Elder & Biringen, 2016) a qual provoca consequências devastadoras na vida dos envolvidos, saber mais sobre as motivações dos pais alienadores é fundamental para que seja possível auxiliar de forma preventiva nas demandas de saúde, psicológicas, judiciais e pedagógicas com o intuito de promover um convívio familiar saudável (Harman, Leder-Elder et al. , 2016;Jonas, 2017). Tendo em vista este cenário, este estudo tem como objetivo investigar quais são os sentimentos e os traços de personalidade presentes nos genitores que podem contribuir para a realização da AP. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the last years, the rise in the number of separations and divorces has contributed to the increase of the demands related to cases of parental Alienation (PA) both in the legal disputes for custody and in the clinics of psychology. Considering the impacts of this condition, the present study aimed to investigate which are the feelings and personality traits present in the parents that can contribute to the presentation of PA. An integrative literature review was conducted by consulting the virtual databases Vhl, Scielo, Pepsic, Pubmed and PsycINFO. Initially, 418 articles were found, after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, nine studies remained. The main findings suggest that the aggressiveness predominate in the alienating parents, followed by feelings associated with danger and sadness. About the personality, histrionic, narcissistic and paranoid personality traits were observed. New studies that investigate the personality of alienating parents are needed, as well as the development and implementation of laws that make mandatory the presence of psychological counseling during legal proceedings related to PA.
... The poll sampled adults (18 years of age and older) in North Carolina, U.S. who were selected using random digit dialing of home and cell phone numbers. Results indicated that 13.4% of parents reported being the targets of PABs which, based on the U.S. population at the time of the survey, generalizes to an estimated 22,141,650 adults in the U.S. Notably, about half of the sample rated their experience as "severe" (Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringen, 2016). ...
... In other words, there were not differences in these beliefs across gender, marital status, sexual orientation, education level, income, or racial group membership. Building from our previous findings (Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringen, 2016), the current polls confirm that PA impacts individuals across all socio-economic and demographic indicators. ...
Article
Estimating the prevalence of parental alienation is challenging because not all children who are exposed to parental alienating behaviors become alienated (Harman, Bernet, & Harman, 2019). The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the proportion of adults who indicate being alienated from a child will be similar to results from a previous poll of North Carolina adults (Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringen, 2016) using three nationally representative on-line survey panels from United States and Canada, and to determine the mental health impact of parental alienating behaviors. Results from the first two polls indicate that the prevalence of parents who feel they are being alienated from their children is higher than originally estimated: 35.5% (of 273) in the U.S. and 32% (of 397) in Canada. Using another means of assessment for the third poll, 39.1% (of 594) of parents in the US are the non-reciprocating targets of parental alienating behaviors, which is over 22 million parents and confirms previous estimates that did not differentiate between reciprocating and non-reciprocating parents (Harman et al., 2016). Of these, 6.7% of the parents had children who were moderately to severely alienated, which is at least 1.3% of the US population. Alienated parents also had high levels of depression, trauma symptoms, and risk for suicide. Ramifications of these findings for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
... Mothers and fathers are both likely to be the target of parental alienating behaviors (Harman et al. 2016(Harman et al. , 2019b, so perpetrators of this form of family violence can be either gender. López et al. (2014) found that alienating mothers were more likely than fathers to frequently telephone their children when with the targeted parent, seek accomplices for their alienating behaviors, frighten their children into thinking the targeted parent will harm them, and seek medical or psychological reports as "evidence" to use against the targeted parent. ...
... Our results suggest that women engage in considerably more indirect than direct forms of aggression, so gender biases in assessment of parental alienation are likely because such behaviors are harder to identify than direct behaviors. Indeed, despite there being few gender differences in who is likely to be a perpetrator of parental alienating behaviors (Harman et al. 2016(Harman et al. , 2019b, Lorandos (2020) has found large gender disparities in the proportion of appellate cases brought by mothers and fathers due to parental alienation, with fathers being overrepresented. Legal and administrative aggression, such as making false claims of abuse, are more easily used by women against men because people are likely to believe claims of abuse made by women (Hines et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Past research indicates females prefer the use of indirect over direct forms of aggression, whereas the opposite pattern has been found for males. We investigated a specific form of aggression: parental alienating behaviors. Parents who alienate their children from another parent utilize both direct and indirect forms of aggression. We examined whether there are gender differences in the use of these behaviors by analyzing data from two samples: interviews with parents who have been the target of parental alienating behaviors, and family law appellate court rulings in which parental alienation was found. In both studies, mothers used significantly more indirect than direct parental alienating strategies. In contrast, fathers tended to use similar levels of both indirect and direct parental alienating strategies. Further, fathers did not use more direct forms of this type of aggression than mothers. Better standards of practice for the assessment of parental alienation must be developed to prevent misdiagnoses and gender biases.
... Here, Gardner makes clear that without the legal system stepping in, significantly, children and adolescents who suffer in the throes of Parental Alienation dynamics have limited prospects for their situation to improve and to avoid the long-lasting effects described by the title of Baker and Ben-Ami's 2011 article, To Turn a Child Against a Parent Is to Turn a Child Against Himself: The Direct and Indirect Effects of Exposure to Parental Alienation Strategies on Self-Esteem and Well-Being. The incidence for these different phenomena varies depending on the study, but two recent publications do supply useful numbers (Anderson, Feldman, & Bryce, 2018;Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringen, 2016;American Psychiatric Association, 2013;Stirling, 2007). For Factitious Disorder by Proxy estimates range from either 2 per 100,000 or 1,000 of the 2,500, 000 annual cases of child abuse. ...
... 65). Meanwhile, Harman, Leder-Elder, and Biringen (2016) have described Parental Alienation this way: ...
Book
Preface The text that follows is a group of proposals borne from the necessities of clinical practice, informed by the literature, and refined by collegial discussions as well as legal cases across the state of Montana. For those of you who may not be familiar with the geography of this part of the world, it is five hundred rugged miles in any direction to the next major city from Billings, Montana. What that means for a practitioner, such as this author, is that the scope of practice is unusually broad and need for sound services high. Every day and each case is different, demanding in its own way, and often times requires a renewed familiarity with the area of practice as well as its literature. It follows that the referral request is either addressed thoroughly, or many a time these clients will need to travel to Denver, Salt Lake City or Seattle to have her or his needs met. The concept of an Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnosis was derived out of such needs in our state and this author’s inability to find a more useful way to approach these phenomena. What is an Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnosis? That will be answered in a myriad of ways over the balance of this book. The short version is that this term was meant to define a set of diagnoses that holistically describe interrelated individual and system characteristics. These characteristics, together with subdynamics, cumulatively create a multidimensional pathological dynamic. It will be argued that the pathological dynamic created is known, for example, by the name of one of the three other terms that are the focus of this book: Munchausen’s Syndrome by Proxy, Factitious Disorder by Proxy or Parental Alienation. These phenomena each describe a pathological dynamic, wherein Munchausen’s Syndrome by Proxy or Factitious Disorder by Proxy is the number one health concern for most child protection agencies, since estimates are that between one-in-ten and one-in-twenty children who carry the diagnosis dies. Meanwhile, the latest estimates are that Parental Alienation here in the United States impacts between twenty-two and forty-four million children, and recent estimates are far higher in other countries. So, this approach was developed to address a need in my community. This conceptualization of an Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnosis will not answer every problem given the convoluted nature of these phenomena. But, what you may find across the pages of this book are a series of proposals, one proposal after another intended to address the needs and problems related to these phenomena. What is being offered here is admittedly a conceptual leap too. My colleague Dr. Evans and I put it this way in our most recent article (2019, in press): We recognize that what we are proposing throughout this article may seem radical. Yet, we argue that clinicians have continually wrestled with ways to more fully describe the experiences they have encountered with these sorts of complex multidimensional phenomena. In many cases these clinicians have been dissatisfied with the status quo and struggled to stem the suffering and/or death of the children whom they ultimately serve in medical and legal systems. What follows in the pages ahead is a journey, and it is my hope that it will prove to be worthy of the reader’s time and attention. Practitioners and professionals should, I hope, find this an interesting read with multiple vantage points from which to examine these phenomena. There will be conceptual analogies, real-world practice applications and discussions, as well as innovations that include, for example, a new diagnostic approach to each phenomena at the end of Chapters 5 and 6. For those of you who are academics and researchers, there will be plenty of citations, details, and patterns that are repeated over and over by different authors in different parts of this text that clarify some of the remarkable consistencies within the literature on these two diagnostic topics. To start with, heroes and heroines from different disciplines and different fields will be discussed to demonstrate the inherent challenges of articulating novel insights. Do not be alarmed when quantum physics and the structure of DNA are discussed at the outset, since it will also be argued that behavioral scientists, practitioners in healthcare and professionals in law have long been dealing with equally complex phenomena. Understanding the concept of an Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnosis may sound insurmountable, but there are regular encounters with similar phenomena on a daily basis. Further, the concept is no more difficult to understand than a campfire or, at times perhaps, the workings of an orchestra. On this journey there are awful sounds, such as those that were produced by the Portsmouth Sinfonia, and still thoughts will turn toward understanding what Leonard Bernstein envisioned as art. There will also be examples of how an Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnosis may be revealed in practice early on, both with regard to the matter of Parental Alienation and in cases where there is Factitious Disorder by Proxy. There are, as stated earlier, some highly technical theory and definition matters that do need attention in Chapter 3. These matters will be intertwined with a progression through the history of Munchausen’s Syndrome by Proxy and Factitious Disorder by Proxy, as well as Parental Alienation, to provide a grounding in each phenomenon. Simultaneously, there will be attention to challenges with naming conventions. These matters will be tackled with a set of novel solutions to the Gordian Knot that these matters have created at present, and even the Platypus Paradox will be offered with a cartoon to illustrate the point. After these clarifications, it will be time to get down to the nuts and bolts of what an Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnosis is, how it develops, how it is structured, how individuals and systems interact, and how it turns into a pathological dynamic. This phenomenon has interrelationships on multiple dimensions, wherein one dimension builds on the other and under the right circumstances creates a pathological dynamic—a pathological dynamic that punctuates as a new steady state that describes a change in one member of the family system whose behavior creates a change in the whole system. Once an Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnosis has been defined, the concept will be applied first to Munchausen’s Syndrome by Proxy and Factitious Disorder by Proxy to see if its architecture and dynamics are fitting and explanatory. Parental Alienation will follow, and the literature associated with each phenomenon will be reviewed in detail as each is applied to the psychological surround of these phenomena with background dimensions. These considerations will be followed by individual characteristics and symptoms, systemic interactions and subdynamics, which again under the right conditions create a pathological dynamic. Tables and proofs will be developed from each phenomenon’s literature and research in order to derive a diagnosis and diagnostic process that allows these pathological dynamics to be recognized and studied to the extent that each either conforms to a qualitative description and may be measured against a quantitative cut-off of more probable than not. These data and literature-rich chapters are followed by a shift back to conceptual matters. In Chapter 7 the journey leads to a discussion of how, despite the fact that the two phenomena under discussion are very different and occur in very different environments, all Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnoses hold a number of characteristics in common. Each also has variable criteria unique to the individuals in the system and the quality of the systems with which they interact. To clarify these matters the role of stress in time and space will be discussed by way of its lasting impact in development stresses, which, coupled with contemporary and situational stresses, amplify the symptoms that create pathological dynamics. Also within that chapter the Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnosis Symbolic Language will be introduced in order to facilitate gathering information from family systems in a fashion consistent with the concepts herein and to create a ready medium with which to converse among colleagues about the structure and functioning of these family systems and the individuals and other systems they interact with. Chapter 8 then deals with the prospect of intervention and the necessity of follow-through with an active Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnosis. Several aspects of intervention will be described with Factitious Disorder by Proxy and Parental Alienation. These discussions will eventually lead to the necessity for systems change in healthcare and law, as well as change in governmental policies and procedures in order to arrest, intervene and treat Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnosis as a larger societal matter. With these discussions behind us, then, four Interrelated Multidimensional Diagnoses will be proposed for future consideration. It is this author’s hope that this journey will prove challenging and informative, and that it will promote a new way of considering these phenomena and the families and individuals they impact. https://www.routledge.com/Parental-Alienation-and-Factitious-Disorder-by-Proxy-Beyond-DSM-5-Interrelated/Butz/p/book/9780367345815
... When parents and/or children make repeated allegations or report fear of harm against a parent, when a child protests visiting a parent, displays fear, or withdraws from a parent, experts may be called in to evaluate the child and such concerns. Unfortunately, terms such as "parent alienation" (Harman et al., 2016;Warshak, 2020) have persisted. Court officials, custody evaluators, and judges erroneously apply these terms despite multiple studies that have effectively debunked this process (e.g., Meier, 2009;Saunders et al., 2013). ...
... According to the Encyclopedia of family studies, parent-child alienation results when parents intentionally (or unintentionally) persuade their children to distance themselves from or reject the other parent (Scharp, 2016b). A recent representative poll indicates that 13.4% of parents have been alienated by at least one or more of their children (Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringen, 2016). Yet, to date, social scientific research about parent-child alienation is extremely limited and practical and legal opinion is inconsistent as to the nature of alienation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite assumptions that families are close and intact, the prevalence of family member marginalization, parent–child alienation, and parent–child estrangement is overwhelming. Largely ignored by the research community, these three family distancing processes pose significant disruptions to the entire family system. Although some of associated behaviors lead to turmoil and decreased well-being, distancing can also be a healthy solution to an unhealthy environment. This manuscript traces the history of these three processes; offering conceptualizations, strengths, and critiques of each perspective. Specifically, we discuss the way communication researchers have influenced these processes as well as how they can contribute to this sparse body of research in the future. Finally, we compare the processes and question whether families should be considered nonvoluntary.
... More than 1,000 references throughout 35 different countries have described the phenomenon of children's unreasonable rejection of a parent (Lorandos, Bernet, & Sauber, 2013). Harman, Leder-Elder, and Biringe (2016) estimated that 9% of U.S. parents were alienated from their children. However, this is likely an overestimate because their study focused on the experience of alienating behaviors and no attempt was made to assess whether and how many participants in the study were actually alienated from their children. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Rowlands’ Parental Alienation Scale (RPAS) was administered to 592 parents along with measures of convergent and discriminant validity. The scale was designed to capture the eight domains of parental alienating behavior posited in the literature. Factor analysis extracted only six factors, one of which was not included in the original eight: (a) campaign of denigration towards the alienated parent, (b) the independent thinker phenomenon, (c) reflexive support, (d) presence of borrowed scenarios, (e) spread of animosity to extended family, and (f) lack of positive affect towards the alienated parent. Parents who reported either that a court evaluation or court findings had confirmed the presence of parental alienation scored significantly higher on all six RPAS factors as well as on the overall RPAS score.
... Establishing the prevalence of parental alienation is hampered by issues of data samples and definitions. The most recent study of 610 randomly selected adults in the USA suggests that 13.4 percent of parents have been alienated from one or more of their children which is much higher than previous estimates (Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringen, 2016). ...
... More than 1,000 references throughout 35 different countries have described the phenomenon of a child's unreasonable rejection of a parent (Lorados, Bernet, & Sauber, 2013). The estimated prevalence of alienated children varies depending on the focus and methodology of the study (Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringe, 2016). Fidler and Bala (2010) estimated that 11-15% of children in divorcing families were alienated from one parent and aligned with the other. ...
Article
Full-text available
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate the factor structure of the Rowlands Porental Alienation Scale (RPAS). The RPAS was administered to 521 parents along with measures of convergent and discriminant validity. The eight-factor model proposed in the original study, which included the eight domains posited in the literature, and the proposed six-factor model identified in the original study through exploratory factor analysis, which included five of the original eight domains, i.e. campaign of denigration towards the alienated parent, the independent thinker phenomenon, reflexive support, presence of borrowed scenarios, spread of animosity to extended family, and one not included in the original eight domains, lack of positive affect towards the alienated parent, were tested through confirmatory factor analysis procedures. The more parsimonious six-factor model fit the data better than the eight- factor model, i.e. the CFI for the six- factor model was higher and both the RMSEA and the SRMR values of the six-factor model were lower. All constructs had both convergent and discriminant validity. Parents who reported either that a court evaluation or court findings had confirmed the presence of parental alienation scored significantly higher on all six RPAS factors as well as on the overall RPAS score.
... Family distancing: the case of parental alienation Although the majority of communication research on family distancing has been in the contexts of parent-child estrangement and family member marginalization (Scharp & Dorrance Hall, 2019), parental alienation has begun to gain more attention despite the critiques of and lack of empirical evidence (Faller, 1998) based on its original conceptualization in the 1980s (see Gardner, 1982). This is important considering in a random sampling of 610 adults, 13.4% of parents identified as being alienated from at least one child regardless of socioeconomic or demographic factors (Harman et al., 2016). Researchers are now concluding that parental alienation is much more severe than it once was imagined which has prompted clinicians, researchers, and courts to question whether it is some sort of child abuse, collective abuse, and/or family violence (see Kruk, 2018). ...
Article
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Parental alienation occurs after parents divorce and intentionally or even unintentionally persuade their children to distance themselves from or reject the other parent. Framed by the communication theory of resilience, this study explores the communicative practices that enable and constrain the targeted alienated parents’ ability to create normalcy at the individual and online community levels. We also examine the relationships between individual-level and online community-level resilience. Findings from 40 narrative interviews reveal communicative practices/processes that enable and constrain alienated parents at both the individual and online support group levels. Findings also suggest that there is a robust relationship between resilience practices at the individual and community levels. Theoretical implications and practical applications are discussed.
... Baker (2010) señala que el 25% de los casos expuestos a conductas alienantes desarrollaron alienación parental. Por su parte, una encuesta a padres de familia mayores de edad de matrimonios intactos, separados y divorciados en Estados Unidos de Norteamérica, estimó una prevalencia del 9.03% de hijos distanciados de uno de sus padres debido a conductas alienantes, de ellos el 48% fueron identificados como casos de alienación parental severa (Harman, Leder-Elder & Biringen 2016). ...
Article
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A bibliometric study was carried out to determine the development of the concept of parental alienation and of the psychometric instruments designed to evaluate it. Seventeen databases were consulted using the term “Parental Alienation Syndrome”. 221 publications were identified in 89 journals in a period covering January 2000 to June 2017. The evaluation revealed that 90% of the published articles were narrative reviews of literature, clinical cases, and editorials, pointing to an early stage in research. No clinical studies that used psychometric tests to quantify the efficacy of treatment were found. Five psychometric instruments were identified in eight publications. This study provides a synthesis of the metric properties of the instruments, the methodology of the studies and the factors studied.
... Despite this gendered understanding, a growing body of both qualitative and quantitative research has found a large number of men are victimized by their intimate partners (Desmarais et al., 2012;Lysova et al., 2019). Research shows that men suffer from various types of IPA, including physical violence and abuse, psychological, financial, sexual, and legal and administrative abuse, parental alienation, and homicide (e.g., Harman et al., 2016;Hines & Douglas, 2016). For example, the U.S. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) found that the annual prevalence of physical victimization in the intimate relationships was 4.0% among women compared to 4.7% among men (Breiding, 2014), while the 2014 general Social Survey on Victimization in Canada found that the number of men who reported to have experienced physical or sexual violence in ongoing intimate relationships in the past 5 years significantly exceeded that of women (2.9% and 1.7%, respectively; Lysova et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The criminal justice system plays a pivotal role in addressing the safety of victims of intimate partner abuse (IPA). Over the past 40 years, most changes in the criminal justice response to IPA have been made with the intention of improving support to abused women and their children. However, a growing body of research shows there are many men who are victims of IPA. This qualitative study explored the help-seeking experiences of 38 abused men within the criminal justice system in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Twelve online focus groups (three in each country) were conducted and themes were identified inductively at a semantic level. Thematic analysis identified that most of their experiences were negative and reflected the gender paradigm embedded in the criminal justice response. This study offers insights into the relevance of a gender-inclusive criminal justice response in addressing IPA.
... Wyniki badań dotyczących różnic płciowych w zakresie skłonności do wykorzystywania zachowań alienujących nie są spójne. Istnieją doniesienia, z których wynika, że matki i ojcowie wydają się być sprawcami z podobnym prawdopodobieństwem (Harman, Leder-Elder, Biringen, 2016), ale mogą wykorzystywać różne rodzaje zachowań (np. matki mogą używać bardziej pośrednich, a ojcowie bardziej bezpośrednich form agresji; López, Iglesias, García, 2014). ...
Article
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Artykuł jest analizą alienacji rodzicielskiej z perspektywy diagnozy psychologicznej umożliwiającej jej odróżnienie od reakcji dziecka na rodzica faktycznie krzywdzące-go. W pierwszej kolejności należy wskazać, że wywieranie na dziecko wpływu prowa-dzącego do alienacji jest formą emocjonalnej przemocy i powoduje skutki podobne do innych form jego krzywdzenia. Opiniowanie i wyciąganie wniosków wyłącznie na podstawie diagnozy dziecka nie jest wystarczające. Opierając się na współcze-snych modelach alienacji rodzicielskiej, proponujemy systemowe podejście do jej dia-gnozowania, w którym konieczne jest uwzględnienie psychologicznej charakterystyki funkcjonowania dziecka, cech funkcjonowania rodziców oraz interakcji między nimi, podłoża motywacyjnego towarzyszącego alienacji, a także relacji każdego z rodziców z dzieckiem. Artykuł kończą wskazówki mogące służyć diagnozie alienacji rodziciel-skiej i różnicowaniu tej sytuacji z innymi formami przemocy oraz sygnalizujące sytu-acje złożone, w których dziecko doświadcza wielu form krzywdzenia. Słowa kluczowe: alienacja rodzicielSka, przemoc, rodzina jako SyStem, diagnoza różnicowa
... Targeted parents specifically identify alienating behaviors as emotional manipulation, encouragement of the child's defiance and of an alliance between the alienating parent and the child, perception of being blocked from information, being the target of a denigration campaign and an overall sense of being eradicated from their child's life (Poustie et al. 2018). In fact, targeted parents perceive their relationship with their child as restricted by the other parent's behaviors, such as intercepting calls or messages when they try to make contact (Baker and Darnall 2006;Harman et al. 2016). One of the indicators of parental alienation is the decrease of contact between the targeted parent and the child, which may have a significant impact on their relationship (Vassiliou and Cartwright 2001). ...
Article
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The term parental alienation refers to the negative influence of one parent over a child’s perception of the other parent (targeted parent). The aim of this research was to gain further understanding of targeted parents’ experience of parental alienation from their own perspectives. For this qualitative study, a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with eight participants aged between 33 and 51 years was conducted. The data from individual semi-structured interviews enabled the identification of four main themes: perception of personal impact, coping strategies, family relationships and support network. Parents identified a serious impairment of their physical and emotional well-being and mainly identified emotion-focused coping strategies to deal with this adverse ongoing situation. Furthermore, they reported changes in key relationships, with emphasis on difficulties in family and social contexts. The contribution of the findings to research and interventions with parents and families experiencing parental alienation are discussed.
... Parental alienating behaviours can include the alienating parent discrediting the targeted parent by sabotaging, undermining, and manipulating their relationship with the child [6]. It is thought that at least 19% of the population in the United States has been exposed to parental alienating behaviours [7]. This contrasts with parental estrangement, where the parent-child relationship has been negatively affected, usually with a sound rationale for the child's rejection of the parent [5,8]. ...
Article
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This study qualitatively investigated the mental health of adults exposed to parental alienating behaviours in childhood. Research suggests that exposure to parental alienating behaviours in childhood can have a profound impact on the mental health of those children later in life, including experiencing anxiety disorders and trauma reactions. An international sample of 20 adults exposed to parental alienating behaviours in childhood participated in semi-structured interviews on their experience and its impact. Four themes were identified: mental health difficulties, including anxiety disorders and trauma reactions, emotional pain, addiction and substance use, and coping and resilience. Intergenerational transmission of parental alienation was found. Confusion in understanding their experience of alienation, the mental health sequelae, and elevated levels of suicidal ideation were found. This study demonstrated the insidious nature of parental alienation and parental alienating behaviours and provided further evidence of these behaviours as a form of emotional abuse.
... Although the discussion on parental alienation as a syndrome is still ongoing (Gardner 1985;, there is a consensus that parental alienation does, in fact, occur, with the therapy and judicial contexts as main sources of report (e.g., Meier 2009;Warshak 2015). In a recent U.S. study with a representative poll of adults (Harman et al. 2016), 68.7% of the participants reported knowing someone who was being alienated and 13.4% (n = 55) reported feeling that they were the targeted parent; among these, 48% regarded their experience of alienation as being severe, 31% moderate and only 13% mild. ...
Article
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The main aim of the present study was to examine the psychological adaptation and beliefs of parents who identified themselves as experiencing a situation of parental alienation (targeted parents). Firstly, we compared psychological adaptation (depression, satisfaction with life) and belief in an unjust world in targeted parents and parents from the community. Secondly, we examined the associations between individual (depression, belief in an unjust world) and family (child behavior related to parental alienation, other parent’s alienating behavior and triangulation) factors and satisfaction with life in targeted parents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with two sub-samples (N = 106) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression symptoms, belief in an unjust world, and satisfaction with life. Targeted parents additionally reported on parental alienation and triangulation measures. Results showed that targeted parents presented higher scores of depression symptoms and of beliefs in an unjust world and lower scores in satisfaction with life, compared to parents in the community. Standard multiple regression analysis showed a significant contribution of depression, belief in an unjust world and child behavior related to parental alienation for the satisfaction with life of targeted parents. The findings provide an important contribution to characterize targeted parents’ psychological adaptation and beliefs, and to identify correlates of poorer satisfaction with life in the adverse context of parental alienation.
... Throughout the Western world, to different degrees, courts and mental health professionals are confronted with the phenomenon of parental alienation. 13 Following the deterioration of the relationship between the parents, one parent may turn the child against the other parent. This can be done intentionally as well as implicitly, by displaying a consistently negative attitude towards the other parent, whom the child may then begin to resent and ultimately even reject. ...
Article
Even though co‐parenthood is one of the most significant close personal relationships that people can have, there is relatively little philosophical work on the moral duties that co‐parents owe each other. This may be due to the increasingly questionable assumption, still common in our societies, that co‐parenthood arises naturally from marriage or romantic coupledom and thus that commitment to a co‐parent evolves from a commitment to a marital or romantic partner. In this article, we argue that co‐parenthood should be seen as a relationship in its own right, which generates specific moral duties. Co‐parents should come to explicit agreements with each other regarding the most important areas of potential conflict between them. Such agreements may have to be renegotiated over time. We explore some possible non‐negotiable co‐parental duties such as the duties not to alienate the child from the other parent(s) and not to trap a co‐parent in a particularly vulnerable situation. We consider some legal and societal implications of our argument and, finally, suggest some pragmatic benefits of our proposal.
... These divorces are considered regular divorces. Yet, in 10 to 20 percent of the cases, divorced parents do not succeed in developing a co-parenting relationship and become involved in so-called complex divorces (Harman et al., 2016;Joyce, 2016). Although there is no clear consensus on the definition of complex divorces, most researchers agree that these divorces are characterized by long-lasting post-separation conflicts regarding co-parenting (Demby, 2016;Smyth & Moloney, 2017). ...
Article
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In this study, we examined whether regular divorces can be distinguished from complex divorces by measuring the intensity of negative emotions that divorced parents report when thinking about their ex-partner. We recruited two groups of parents: n = 136 in a regular divorce, and n = 191 in a complex divorce. Based on the existing literature, we predicted that parents in complex divorces experience more intense negative emotions than parents in regular divorces; especially emotions that motivate emotional distancing (contempt, disgust, anger, hatred, and rage) and emotions that impair self-regulation (fear, shame, guilt, and sadness). We also predicted that these emotions would hamper co-parenting, particularly in complex divorces. The results provided support for our predictions, except for fear and sadness. We found that parents in a complex divorce reported more co-parenting concerns than parents in a regular divorce. In contrast to our expectations, the relation between negative emotions and coparenting concerns was stronger among parents in a regular divorce than in a complex divorce. These findings underline the importance of emotions in the divorce trajectory and suggest that especially the intensity of emotional distancing emotions may serve as a screening tool to identify parents at risk for a complex divorce.
... To date, research on parental alienation is relatively sparse, and research on alienated parents, as opposed to their children, is even more uncommon (Poustie, Matthewson, & Balmer, 2018). The limited amount of research on parental alienation and alienated parents is surprising because representative polling suggests that 13.4% of parents identify as being alienated by at least one or more children (Harman, Leder-Elder, & Biringen, 2016). More than surprising, the lack of research about alienated parents is problematic considering these parents have to negotiate distressing events such as divorce, custody hearings, legal battles, and courtappointed reunification interventions (Reay, 2015;Sauber, 2013;Warshak, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
More than 13% of parents identify as being alienated by at least one of their children. Parental alienation often occurs after divorce when one parent (un)intentionally persuades his or her children to distance themselves from or reject the other parent. This study, couched in relational dialectics theory, explores the meaning of parenting from the perspective of 40 alienated parents. This analysis yielded two competing discourses: the culturally dominant discourse of parental norms (DPN) and the culturally marginalized discourse of parental victimization (DPV). Throughout the narrative interviews, the DPV resisted the DPN in four ways (diachronic separation, entertaining, countering, and negating). This study's findings provide insights into the perspective of the alienated parents, advance what we know about family distancing, and provide practical implications.
... When parents and/or children make repeated allegations or report fear of harm against a parent, when a child protests visiting a parent, displays fear, or withdraws from a parent, experts may be called in to evaluate the child and such concerns. Unfortunately, terms such as "parent alienation" (Harman et al., 2016;Warshak, 2020) have persisted. Court officials, custody evaluators, and judges erroneously apply these terms despite multiple studies that have effectively debunked this process (e.g., Meier, 2009;Saunders et al., 2013). ...
Article
Family structures in the United States have changed dramatically. Almost half of children growing up will spend some portion of their childhood in one of the following arrangements: single parent home, two homes, or living with one parent and a stepparent/intimate partner of their parent. Although child and adolescent mental health-care providers are treating children in families with complicated histories, and evidence supported interventions (ESI) typically include caregivers in child treatment, neither research nor manuals speak to variability in family structure, especially if parents are engaged in frequent court contact on divorce/child-related issues and/or there have been allegations of violence, abuse, or impaired parenting behavior. Children whose parents are frequently in court are vulnerable and also at risk of not having access to ESIs – even when an ESI is strongly indicated. Instead, children may be court ordered to alternative treatments or changes in parenting time after allegations of violence without protective or therapeutic interventions. Mental health clinicians can be informed of these risks, knowledgeable about family violence and prepared to expertly and ethically adapt ESI for this vulnerable population. This paper addresses adaptations in ESI for this population by providing a brief review of the underlying developmental and legal issues at play, recommended adaptations, and using three fictional and representative case studies.
... Estimates of its prevalence have shown great variability (e.g., Ͻ10% of divorce cases; Baker, 2007, to 25% or more;Bow, Gould, & Flens, 2009), and there are many local (e.g., meet-up groups) and national movements with millions of members that have formed to address parental alienation and family court reform (e.g., Divorce Corp's Family Law Reform). In a recent representative poll of North Carolina adults, Harman, Leder-Elder, and Biringen (2016) have found prevalence of parental alienation at 13.3% of adult parents, which represents approximately 22 million or more adults in the United States alone. Our convenience sample here reported a wide range of specific alienating behaviors that they have seen other parents do, and many who are no longer with the parent of their child also reported they have been targeted by the tactics themselves. ...
Article
According to gender role theory, individuals who confirm expectations associated with their gender roles are rewarded and judged against these expectations when they deviate. Parental roles are strongly tied to gender, and there are very different expectations for behaviors of mothers and fathers. This study examined how mothers' and fathers' behaviors that support or discourage a positive relationship with the other parent are perceived in terms of their acceptability. Two-hundred twent-eight parents completed an online survey assessing perceptions of acceptability of negative (parental alienating) and positive coparenting behaviors. Results provided support for our hypothesis: Although parental alienating behaviors were rated unacceptable, they were more acceptable for mothers than fathers. Expectancy violation theory can explain why parental alienating behaviors are not viewed as negatively when mothers exhibit them than fathers. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
The aim of this study was to identify, synthetize and describe targeted parents’ experiences of being alienated from their child/ren. Fifty-four self-referred targeted parents were interviewed. Two relevant themes emerged in regard to their experiences: targeted parents experiencing family violence before the alienation and what they experienced during the alienation. Mental health and legal practitioners need to be aware that targeted parents have suffered the significant loss of their child/ren. Importantly, many parents experienced family violence before family separation and continue to experience coercion and control post family separation.
Article
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This study aimed to investigate Turkish targeted parents’ experience of alienating tactics used in the process of being alienated from their child. The study also aimed to explore targeted parents’ thoughts on the services they have received from mental health and legal professionals that they encountered during the process of family separation. Eighty-four targeted parents completed an online survey. The survey consisted of questions pertaining to sociodemographic information, questions developed by the researchers asking about the targeted parents’ experiences, and questions regarding 13 alienation tactics described in the literature. The majority of participants were male (94%), with an average age of 42 years. Participants reported they had been exposed to many alienating tactics and almost half of the participants had not seen their child despite the existence of court ordered visitation. Half of the participants had been referred to mental health professionals during the divorce process, with the majority of these participants of the opinion that these professionals had insufficient knowledge of parental alienation. Further, most participants thought that the legal professionals they encountered had insufficient knowledge of parental alienation. Participants also reported feeling hopeless, desperate, lonely, anxious, and unable to enjoy life. These findings are consistent with research with participants from other countries.
Article
Strong claims have been made for the possibility of diagnostic discrimination between children who refuse contact with a nonpreferred divorced parent due to parental alienation (PA) created by the preferred parent and those who refuse for other reasons such as abuse. PA proponents have also argued that interventions, which include custody changes, can alter the alienated children’s attitudes and create positive behavior toward the nonpreferred parent. This article examines the plausibility of PA diagnostic and treatment claims and relevant empirical evidence. It is concluded that PA advocates have failed to provide empirical support for the safety and effectiveness of their methods and that custody proceedings should take these facts into consideration. Future research directions based on established understanding of child development are suggested.
Chapter
In the last decade and a half, there have been significant changes in Spanish legislation on marital breakdowns. One of the reforms with the greatest impact has been the possibility of shared custody. However, although regulations have not ceased, there have been no studies, such as this one, that relate to the legislation on joint custody in Spain. The data source used is the Survey of Annulments, Separations and Divorces by the Spanish National Institute of Statistics. The study concluded that the presence of a specific law promotes shared parenting, although it increases in Autonomous Communities where its presence was previously greater. However, other variables are involved, as confirmed by cases in the Balearic Islands and the Community of Valencia.
Article
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The present study aimed at understanding the personality features of mothers and fathers engaged in parental alienation—a family dynamic in which one parent behaves in a way that foments a child’s unfounded emotional rejection of the other parent. The process is considered a complex form of child psychological maltreatment, with significant negative consequences. In cases of conflictual separation and divorce, parental alienation can be difficult—yet important—to identify. In this context, use of psychological assessment to understand parents’ personality characteristics may facilitate the early identification of parental alienation and related abuses. A comparative analysis of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 profiles of 41 couples engaged in parental alienation and 39 control couples (i.e., not involved in parental alienation) was used to assess the personality characteristics of mothers and fathers engaged in parental alienation. The results indicated that mothers who were classified as alienating presented a faking-good defensive profile, denied hostile and negative impulses, blamed others for their problems, and displayed excessive sensitivity. On the other side, fathers who were classified as targets of alienating behaviors were adapted to chronic depressive states, social isolation, and interpersonal conflict. The results suggest that the personality profile of parents involved in parental alienation may provide useful insight for custodial cases, prevent further abuse, and contribute to improving psychological and rehabilitative programs. Clinical and forensic implications are discussed.
Article
This article aims to review the literature published in the UK, Australia and the US during the last 10 years on adult child–parent estrangement to increase awareness among health visitors of the complexity, frequency and consequences for new parents, especially mothers. Adult child–parent estrangement encompasses a deliberate distancing between the adult child and parent, resulting in an absence of communication. By increasing health visitors' awareness of the issues, it is hoped they may be able to reduce the distress, social isolation and potential consequences for new mothers and families in their care.
Chapter
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Parental alienation (PA) is a form of childhood emotional abuse in which one parent instrumentally uses the child to inflict psychological harm on the other parent for revenge. The consequences of parental alienating behaviours range from mild (e.g., the child shows a certain resistance towards visiting the targeted parent but warm parenting is still possible) to severe, where the positive affective parent–child bond is severed and extremely difficult to reinstate under family therapy. In PA processes, parenting is disrupted with the targeted parent and dysfunctional with the alienating parent. Consequently, the child is at a high risk of developing internalising (e.g., depression, anxiety) and externalising (e.g., use of drugs/alcohol, violence) problems during later developmental stages and through the lifespan. Although the prevalence and severity of PA cases in our societies are largely unknown, in part because the construct is still an ongoing debate among academics, practitioners and family justice professionals, different authors defend that it should be treated as a public health problem. Early prevention should be the primary objective and family justice, child protection and mental health services must coordinate efforts to support the families and promote the best conditions for the development of affected children.
Article
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Antecedentes: Son diversos las/os investigadoras/es que se han interesado por el fenómeno de la alienación parental. No obstante, esta compleja dinámica relacional no ha estado exenta de controversias. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de las perspectivas y tendencias actuales del concepto de alienación parental, sus características y efectos en la población que experimentan estas circunstancias. Método: Se utilizó la metodología PRISMA-P para llevar a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica exhaustiva de artículos publicados entre el año 2016 y junio de 2020 en revistas indexadas Scopus y/o WOS. Se contemplaron 95 estudios, de los cuales 11 fueron considerados para la revisión, de acuerdo con los criterios de inclusión y exclusión preestablecidos. Se identificó un amplio campo investigativo en el cual se circunscribe la alienación parental, como dinámica relacional. Resultados: Los 11 estudios seleccionados establecían relaciones entre la experiencia de alienación parental e indicadores de salud mental, tanto en niños, niñas, adolescentes, como adultos que experimentan o experimentaron estas dinámicas. Así también, se relacionó con maltrato psicológico. Conclusiones: La alienación parental es un fenómeno con una importante prevalencia en la población y se ha vinculado con un deterioro en la salud mental de las personas que la experimentan o la han experimentado.
Book
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Parental Alienation: The Handbook for Mental Health and Legal Professionals is the essential “how to” manual in this important and ever increasing area of behavioral science and law. Busy mental health professionals need a reference guide to aid them in developing data sources to support their positions in reports and testimony. They also need to know where to go to find the latest material on a topic. Having this material within arm’s reach will avoid lengthy and time-consuming online research. For legal professionals who must ground their arguments in well thought out motions and repeated citations to case precedent, ready access to state or province specific legal citations spanning thirty-five years of parental alienation cases is provided here for the first time in one place.
Article
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Parental alienation is an important phenomenon that mental health professionals should know about and thoroughly understand, especially those who work with children, adolescents, divorced adults, and adults whose parents divorced when they were children. We define parental alienation as a mental condition in which a child—usually one whose parents are engaged in a high-conflict divorce—allies himself or herself strongly with one parent (the preferred parent) and rejects a relationship with the other parent (the alienated parent) without legitimate justification. This process leads to a tragic outcome when the child and the alienated parent, who previously had a loving and mutually satisfying relationship, lose the nurture and joy of that relationship for many years and perhaps for their lifetimes. The authors of this article believe that parental alienation is not a minor aberration in the life of a family, but a serious mental condition. The child's maladaptive behavior—refusal to see one of the parents—is driven by the false belief that the alienated parent is a dangerous or unworthy person. We estimate that 1% of children and adolescents in the U.S. experience parental alienation. When the phenomenon is properly recognized, this condition is preventable and treatable in many instances. There have been scores of research studies and hundreds of scholarly articles, chapters, and books regarding parental alienation. Although we have located professional publications from 27 countries on six continents, we agree that research should continue regarding this important mental condition that affects hundreds of thousands of children and their families. The time has come for the concept of parental alienation to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V), and the International Classification of Diseases, Eleventh Edition (ICD-11).
Article
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There has been considerable interest among forensic practitioners in the proposals that parental alienation be included in the next editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases (DSM) and The International Classification of Diseases (ICD). However, there has also been a great deal of misunderstanding about the proposals, and misinformation has been expressed in professional meetings, on websites, and in journal articles. In this article we address four common misunderstandings regarding parental alienation: that there is a lack of research to support it as a diagnosis; that adopting parental alienation as a diagnosis will lead to serious adverse consequences; that the advocates of parental alienation are driven by self-serving or malevolent motives; and that Richard Gardner should be criticized for self-publishing his description of parental alienation syndrome.
Article
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Two hundred fifty-three adults working in a New York child welfare agency agreed to complete anonymous research packets containing, among other measures, 6 existing scales of psychological maltreatment and a single item about exposure to parental alienation as a child. Results revealed that one fourth of the full sample reported some exposure to parental alienation, which itself was associated with greater likelihood of reporting psychological maltreatment. These data document just how widespread parental alienation may be, as well as the likelihood that those exposed to it will experience themselves as having been psychologically maltreated. Implications of these findings are presented in terms of public awareness, education for divorcing families and their children, and professional training for the mental health and legal professionals working with them.
Article
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This article examines the assertions, made by two main groups of critics, about Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) and parental alienation (PA). Among the topics discussed are: role of the alienating parent; structural interventions such as custodial transfer; relationship between PAS and allegations of sex abuse; and controversy over use of the term syndrome.
Article
Parental alienation refers to a parent's attempts to distance a child from the child's other parent. We examined (1) the effects of “feeling alienation” upon college students' recollections of their childhood relationships, (2) the effects of “feeling alienation” on perceptions of adult parent-child relationships, and (3) the likelihood of alienation in intact and divorced families. A sample of undergraduates (N = 227) completed the Relationship Distancing Questionnaire and numerous other relationship questionnaires. Results suggested feeling alienation is inversely related to the quality of parent-child relationships during childhood and young adulthood and can be found in intact as well as divorced families. Findings also indicate parental conflict is a better predictor of whether alienation occurs than parents' marital status is.
Article
This treatise is based on years of experience counseling families in divorce and evaluating children during custody litigation. It should provide guidance to the bar, bench, and mental health professionals in ascertaining whether a child has been intentionally brainwashed or alienated from one parent by the other parent, and if so, it offers methods of dealing with these children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This paper presents the results of a 6-year follow-up of a longitudinal study of the effects of divorce on parents and children. It was found that, whereas divorce had more adverse effects for boys, remarriage was more disruptive for girls. The stability of the long-term adjustment of boys and girls differed, with externalizing being more stable in boys and internalizing more stable in girls. Children in divorced families encountered more negative life changes than children in nondivorced families, and these negative life changes were associated with behavior problems 6 years following divorce.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 5:518–530, 1985.
Divorce casualties: Protecting your children from parental alienation
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Darnell, D. (1998). Divorce casualties: Protecting your children from parental alienation. New York: Taylor Publishing.
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5
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Parents acting badly: How institutions and societies promote the alienation of children from their loving families. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado Parental Alienation Project
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Harman, J. J., & Biringen, Z. (2016). Parents acting badly: How institutions and societies promote the alienation of children from their loving families. Fort Collins, CO: Colorado Parental Alienation Project, LLC.
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Baker, A. (2007). Adult children of parental alienation syndrome: Breaking the ties that bind. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
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Statistical Services Centre (2001, March). Approaches to the analysis of survey data. The University of Reading Statistical Services Centre, Biometrics Advisory and Support Service to DFID. Retrieved on November 20, 2015 from http://www.reading.ac.uk/ ssc/resource-packs/ILRI_2006-Nov/GoodStatisticalPractice/publications/guides/ topasd.html United States Census Bureau (2014a). U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American community survey 1-year estimates. Retrieved on December 9th, 2015 from http://factfinder. census.gov United States Census Bureau (2014b). U.S. Census Bureau, 2010-2014 American community survey 5-year estimates. Retrieved on December 9th, 2015 from http:// factfinder.census.gov