Article

Empathy can increase customer equity related to pro-social brands

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Abstract

Reducing the target customers' sensitivity to price is one way in which a firm can increase customer equity. To this end, actions related to corporate social responsibility (CSR) can invoke a sense of empathy among customers who respond to pro-social products with an increased willingness to pay (WTP). The purpose of this paper is therefore to determine the emotional mechanism of empathy and its neural correlates underlying consumers' positive reactions to pro-social marketing, which can increase WTP and customer equity. Study 1 is a behavioral study that intends to discover the underlying psychological mechanism of emotional empathy through which a message communicating CSR actions can increase customers' WTP for pro-social products. A neuromarketing study was conducted using electroencephalogram (EEG) to uncover the neural mechanism for customer empathy in response to CSR messages as enhanced theta-band activities of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a frontal brain area that previous neuroscience research has linked to the affective empathic response.

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... It can be defined as the ability for people to feel others' emotions, which enables them to predict others' behaviour and to motivate altruistic behaviour (Smith, 2006). It is believed that empathy relates to the neural mechanism which involves in altruistic pro-social behaviour (Lee, 2016). Using EEG, it has been shown that the neural mechanism of customer empathy plays a key role in responding to corporate social responsibility messages, in terms of reducing price sensitivity to prosocial products and increasing consumers' willingness to pay for these products (Lee, 2016). ...
... It is believed that empathy relates to the neural mechanism which involves in altruistic pro-social behaviour (Lee, 2016). Using EEG, it has been shown that the neural mechanism of customer empathy plays a key role in responding to corporate social responsibility messages, in terms of reducing price sensitivity to prosocial products and increasing consumers' willingness to pay for these products (Lee, 2016). ...
... For example, Minas et al. (2018) showed that an achievement prime led to a greater alpha wave desynchronisation compared with a neutral prime, suggesting an increase in cognitive activity in the right frontal areas. Lee (2016) evaluated the neural correlates of empathy, focusing on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The ACC, a part of the brain's frontal and limbic connectivity, is connected to various affective responses believed to be associated with empathy (Lloyd, Di Pellegrino & 16 Neil, 2004). ...
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This study investigates the prospects of using Electroencephalography (EEG) in tourism and hospitality research. It first discusses the concept and importance of EEG. Then, it systematically reviews articles that have used EEG to measure psychophysiological responses in business and management. The review mainly discusses EEG themes/theories/concepts, and EEG methods and indices. Based on the review, this study analyses main challenges of applying EEG and suggests solutions to solve them. It finally proposes some future applications of EEG in tourism and hospitality. This study is one of the first to offer a better understanding of the literature, analysis methods and theories/concepts associated with EEG, informing future EEG applications in tourism and hospitality research.
... Ao perceber que existe abertura por parte do cliente, é importante perguntar sobre questões pessoais, solidarizar-se com histórias e acontecimentos, avaliar o humor do cliente e adequar a prestação do serviço à situação. Sabe-se que indivíduos possuem diferentes níveis de empatia (Lee, 2014), mas a empatia pode ser desenvolvida por meio de treinamentos sobre a forma de interagir com clientes, conforme as percepções do prestador (Lee, 2014). Assim, prestadores com dificuldade em se relacionar devem investir em treinamentos. . ...
... Ao perceber que existe abertura por parte do cliente, é importante perguntar sobre questões pessoais, solidarizar-se com histórias e acontecimentos, avaliar o humor do cliente e adequar a prestação do serviço à situação. Sabe-se que indivíduos possuem diferentes níveis de empatia (Lee, 2014), mas a empatia pode ser desenvolvida por meio de treinamentos sobre a forma de interagir com clientes, conforme as percepções do prestador (Lee, 2014). Assim, prestadores com dificuldade em se relacionar devem investir em treinamentos. . ...
... Quando o provedor dá atenção às emoções dos clientes, ele consegue fazer com que estes sigam melhor as orientações(Dellande et al., 2004).Muitas vezes, os consumidores desejam que a pessoa que os atende conecte-se com a sua situação, e não apenas escute seu problema, mesmo que isso não resulte na solução de sua necessidade(Gorry & Westbrook, 2011). Como a empatia do prestador pode despertar sentimentos como carinho e generosidade(Lee, 2014), ela o leva a se comportar de maneira mais benevolente e atenciosa. Pode-se, então, criar uma conexão emocional entre as partes(Development, Hoffman, & York, 2008).Dessa forma, foram propostas as seguintes hipóteses:H4a: A empatia emocional do prestador está positivamente associada ao ato de o cliente seguir instruções.H4b: A empatia emocional do prestador está positivamente associada ao ato de o cliente fornecer feedback. ...
Article
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RESUMO Esta pesquisa desenvolve um modelo teórico que relacionou as ações de participação dos clientes em serviços intensivos em conhecimento (SIC), as ações dos prestadores de serviço para estimular o envolvimento dos clientes e a eficácia dos serviços. Cinco hipóteses foram testadas por meio de equações estruturais, e os dados foram coletados por meio do levantamento de uma amostra de 106 usuários de serviços de fisioterapia, personal trainers, pilates e reeducação postural global. Os resultados mostram que não basta educar clientes; prestadores precisam ter empatia e criar um vínculo emocional com eles. Adicionalmente, a educação dos clientes e a empatia emocional influenciam de maneira diferenciada o fornecimento de feedback e até que ponto os clientes seguem as instruções. Este estudo contribui para a literatura, ao promover uma visão holística sobre os fatores que influenciam a participação do cliente e sua eficácia em SIC
... Findings from past research show that individuals are willing to pay higher prices for socially conscious products. Most studies focused on fair-trade coffee highlighting consumers' positive reactions to pro-social marketing campaigns, which can increase WTP (e.g., De Pelsmacker et al., 2005;Lee, 2016;Yang et al., 2012). This research offers further contribution to the discussion of this issue, by shifting the focus on a different type of product. ...
... Several studies have highlighted that, depending upon the characteristics and the preferences of individuals, different dimensions may result in differences in WTP for fair-trade products. Among these, emotional empathy can motivate consumers to behave altruistically toward products with social claims and reduce price sensitivity, thus increasing WTP (Lee, 2016). Emotional empathy (EE) is the human ability to behave altruistically toward others and provides the fundamental basis for social bonding (Smith, 2006). ...
... In the past several decades, firms have been increasingly attentive to their social responsibilities and consumers have shown a growing concern about the ethical impact of their everyday purchases (Lee, 2016). These high levels of consideration for the ethical issues across the population and the growing penetration of socially compatible products in the marketplace point to the need for more research on the ethically conscious consumer. ...
Conference Paper
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Concerns related to the ethical issues are evident in the increasingly socially conscious marketplace. This paper investigated the importance of fair-trade communication activities in the buying decision-making process. The role of empathy in influencing the willingness to pay (WTP) and the purchase intention (PI) was also explored. A mail survey with a sample of 199 Italian people was conducted. A between subjects factorial design was used to test the hypotheses. Results showed the effectiveness of pro-social marketing campaigns in increasing consumers' WTP and PI for fare-trade chocolate. Contextually, consumers with a high level of emotional empathy showed a greater PI as opposed to those with a low level. The study enriches the literature on ethical consumption and provides some guidance to manufacturers and product managers for understanding the role of pro-social marketing communication in influencing consumer behaviour. Introduction This study aims to investigate how consumers evaluate the fair-trade attribute when buying chocolate in terms of willingness to pay and buy. The ethical consumer feels responsible toward society and expresses this sentiment by means of his/her purchasing behaviour (De Pelsmacker et al., 2005). In light of the evidence of a growing market for ethical products, understanding the role and impact of companies' pro-social activities on the consumer decision-making process is paramount. The study focuses on the chocolate sector and marketing campaigns that highlight the companies' fair-trade engagement and the ethical nature of the product. A further clarification of the role of empathy in influencing both willingness to pay (WTP) and purchase intention (PI) is essential to the advancement of literature on behaviours that contain an ethical dimension. Some guidance to manufacturers and product managers for improving the
... Fair-trade activities generally increase production costs, thereby increasing end-user prices. Therefore, consumers who choose ethical products must be willing to absorb these additional costs and pay a premium price (Lee, 2016). Given this evidence, it is important to understand 1606 BFJ 121,7 how a company's success in addressing its social responsibilities can become profitable and positively affect its assets by, for example, increasing customer equity. ...
... Most studies focused on fair-trade coffee highlighting consumers' positive reactions to pro-social marketing campaigns, which can increase willingness to pay (e.g. De Pelsmacker et al., 2005;Lee, 2016;Yang et al., 2012). ...
... Several studies have highlighted that, depending upon the characteristics, the preferences and personality traits of individuals, different dimensions may result in differences in willingness to pay for fair-trade products. Among these, emotional empathy can motivate consumers to behave altruistically towards products with social claims and reduce price sensitivity, thus increasing willingness to pay (Lee, 2016). Emotional empathy is the human ability to behave altruistically towards others and provides the fundamental basis for social bonding (Smith, 2006). ...
Article
Purpose Concerns related to the ethical issues are evident in the increasingly socially conscious marketplace. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the importance of fair-trade communication activities in the buying decision-making process of chocolate. The role of emotional empathy in influencing the willingness to pay and the purchase intention was also explored. Design/methodology/approach A mail survey with a sample of 199 Italian chocolate consumers was conducted. Respondents were equally and randomly distributed among the four print advertising stimuli: conventional brand with conventional campaign; conventional brand with pro-social campaign; pro-social brand with conventional campaign; and pro-social brand with pro-social campaign. A between-subjects factorial design was used to test the hypotheses. Findings Results showed the effectiveness of pro-social marketing campaigns in increasing consumers’ willingness to pay and purchase intention for fair-trade chocolate. Contextually, consumers with a high level of emotional empathy showed a greater purchase intention as opposed to those with a low level. Research limitations/implications As the ethical nature of the product should be communicated in several ways, the effect of different types of textual information on the dependent variables should be considered. Originality/value The study enriches the literature on ethical consumption and provides some guidance to manufacturers and product managers for understanding the role of pro-social marketing communication in influencing consumer behaviour.
... Fair price means "a price that is higher than would be in a free-market situation and that enables local producers to develop a sustainable business and produce in environmentally and socially better conditions" (De Pelsmacker, Janssens, Sterckx, & Mielants, 2006). Therefore, consumers who chose fair-trade products must be willing to sustain the increased production costs and accept to pay a price premium (Lee, 2016). ...
... Egbert, Miraldi, & Murniadi, 2014;Hoffman, 2001;Neff & Pommier, 2013;Paciello, Fida, Cerniglia, Tramontano, & Cole, 2013;Pavey, Greitemeyer, & Sparks, 2012;Welp & Brown, 2014) and provides the fundamental basis for violence inhibition, social bonding and group cohesion (Plutchik, 1987;Smith, 2006). Lee (2016) found that EE can induce consumers to behave altruistically towards products with social claims and reduce price sensitivity, thus increasing willingness to pay. In a similar way, it is conceivable that high emotions of concern towards excluded and/or disadvantaged producers and workers in developing countries could enhance moral obligation and, consequently, increase intention to buy fair-trade products. ...
... If the consumer is inclined to behave altruistically, s/he will show higher purchase intention and moral obligation towards fair-trade products. To the authors' knowledge, only Lee (2016) investigated the impact of emotional empathy on the willingness to pay for fair-trade products, while no study exists on the proposed relationships. ...
Article
The study aims to enrich the knowledge on the consumer's decision-making process towards fair-trade products. Starting from Theory of Planned Behaviour and Norm Activation Theory basic assumptions, the systemic effect of awareness of consequences, emotional empathy, attitude and personal norms on purchase intention is considered. The empirical research builds on an online survey with a sample of 215 consumers. The proposed model was tested through structural equation modelling. Results showed a positive effect of attitude towards the product, personal norms and empathy on purchase intention. Personal norms were, in turn, influenced by awareness of consequences of fair practices and emotional empathy and positively impacted on attitude towards the product. The paper offers recommendations to governments, industries and non-profit organisations for better marketing and promoting fair-trade products.
... The participant chooses one product or bundle of product out of a choice set Ravaja et al., 2016 Willingness to pay The participant observes a product (e.g., image, price, and description) and indicates if the product is cheap or expensive Lee, 2016 Stimuli Audiovisual TV commercials, movie trailers, movie clips, TV series scenes Gupta et al., 2016 Visual Images, description, and price of a product, brands or logos, ads pictures, app screenshots Ramsøy et al., 2018 Real products Interaction with the real product (e.g., brew coffee using a coffee machine) involving preferences over crackers, Khushaba et al. (2013) vary shape, flavor, and topping of the stimuli and ask the participants to indicate the preferred items. By combining behavioral, EEG, and eye-tracking data, the authors analyze the spectral activity associated with preferences (delta, alpha, and beta activity in the frontal area) and use mutual information analysis to identify the most salient attributes. ...
... In a study involving the pricing for various product categories (including apparel and fast-moving consumer goods) Ramsøy et al. (2018) find that willingness to pay correlates with prefrontal asymmetry in the gamma oscillation bands and with the trend in the beta frequency band during the first second of product viewing, a result that can be interpreted in terms of approach behavior and attentional gating. In a series of studies on corporate social responsibility and pricing, Lee (2016) displays different products accompanied by price and neutral or prosocial messages. The higher willingness to pay for the latter products can be explained by an empathic reaction to the stimulus. ...
Article
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Background: In the past decade, marketing studies have greatly benefited from the adoption of neuroscience techniques to explore conscious and unconscious drivers of consumer behavior. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the most frequently applied neuroscientific techniques for marketing studies, thanks to its low cost and high temporal resolution. Objective: We present an overview of EEG applications in consumer neuroscience. The aim of this review is to facilitate future research and to highlight reliable approaches for deriving research and managerial implications. Method: We conducted a systematic review by querying five databases for the titles of articles published up to June 2020 with the terms [EEG] AND [neuromarketing] OR [consumer neuroscience]. Results: We screened 264 abstracts and analyzed 113 articles, classified based on research topics (e.g., product characteristics, pricing, advertising attention and memorization, rational, and emotional messages) and characteristics of the experimental design (tasks, stimuli, participants, additional techniques). Conclusions: This review highlights the main applications of EEG to consumer neuroscience research and suggests several ways EEG technique can complement traditional experimental paradigms. Further research areas, including consumer profiling and social consumer neuroscience, have not been sufficiently explored yet and would benefit from EEG techniques to address unanswered questions.
... Hay que añadir que, gracias al neuromarketing, se han hecho diferentes estudios en los que se ha determinado que el desarrollo de ciertas actividades por parte de la empresa, denominadas acciones de Responsabilidad Social Corporativa (RSC) (Lee, 2016) llegan de una mejor manera a la parte frontal del cerebro, parte que se ha comprobado que es donde nace la empatía de los individuos. Se puede interpretar entonces que, si las empresas consiguen llegar a esta parte del cerebro de los consumidores, éstos tendrán una mejor imagen de ellos y, por tanto, podrán ser influenciados en su proceso de compra. ...
... aspecto que se ha de tener en cuenta a la hora de desarrollar este tipo de campañas. Es por esto que algunos estudios relacionan el hecho de llevar a cabo acciones de RSC con la creación de actitudes positivas hacia los productos (Lee, 2016). ...
Article
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Los supermercados utilizan toda serie de técnicas de marketing para atraer a sus clientes potenciales a su establecimiento e incitarles a comprar sus productos. Una de las técnicas más novedosas en este ámbito ha sido el neuromarketing, ciencia que estudia los efectos de la publicidad y otras acciones de comunicación en el cerebro humano con la intención de poder llegar a predecir la conducta del consumidor a partir de las impresiones creadas. Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de las técnicas de neuromarketing utilizadas por los supermercados de nuestro país en sus redes sociales durante el confinamiento debido a la pandemia de la COVID-19, de forma que se pueda determinar que dichas técnicas varían en comparación de situaciones normales, para lo que se han utilizado como ejemplos Carrefour e Hipercor. Se ha realizado una investigación con enfoque cualitativo donde se ha desarrollado una comparativa sobre la comunicación en redes sociales (Instagram, Facebook y Twitter) realizada por dichos supermercados a nivel nacional antes de la crisis de la COVID-19 y durante la misma. Se ha observado que la publicidad varió de un 10-30% de comunicación enfocada al cliente antes de la crisis, a un 100% durante la misma. Llegando a la conclusión de que en tiempo de crisis el neuromarketing sale más a la luz, humanizando más a las empresas para situarse más cerca del cliente. También se puede observar que las técnicas usadas varían dependiendo de cada supermercado y de la etapa de la crisis por la que esté pasando.
... For example, Couwenberg et al. (2017) demonstrated that functional (i.e., show good product quality) and experiential (i.e., warm expression) advertising evoked different brain areas, such as the temporal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), related to lower-and higher-level cognitive processes. In addition, recent neuroimaging studies have captured the brain activities when subjects were exposed to prosocial brands (Lee, 2016), CSR messages (Medina et al., 2021), and green logo products (Lee et al., 2020). They found the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in the evaluation of CSR-related messages, which was a brain region associated with improved attention and affective awareness (Seghier, 2013). ...
... As previously mentioned, while the CSR activity is always considered as pro-social and moral and recruited more positive affect value, the CA activity just objectively reflects the brand itself competence and product quality. In addition, several lines of neural evidence have shown that prosocial products or brands could gain preference and good brand attitude of consumers, and augment brain activations associated with emotional awareness processing (Lee, 2016;Lee et al., 2020). Thereby, we suggested that a brand with CSR reputation which induced more attention and preference might arouse larger emotional motivations than CA reputation. ...
Article
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Brand extension, as a marketing strategy, is frequently utilized by enterprises to produce new products. There exist several critical factors determining its success, such as brand reputation and perceived fit. The present study adopts the event-related potentials (ERPs) method to explore the underlying neural mechanism of the joint influence of the two factors on consumers’ evaluation of brand extension. Specifically, consumers were presented with a brand with corporate social responsibility (CSR) or corporate ability (CA) reputation, following attached to an extension product (high fit vs. low fit). And then, they were given a 5-point scale to report their acceptance intention (AI) toward the brand extension. Behavioral data showed a higher AI and a shorter reaction time for high fit in contrast to low fit conditions. For low fit conditions, consumers were more inclined to accept the extension product with a brand with CSR than CA reputation. Neurophysiologically, CSR reputation evoked a larger P2 amplitude and LPP amplitude than CA reputation. Moreover, the low fit conditions elicited a more positive LPP amplitude than the high fit conditions in the context of a brand with a CSR reputation. Yet, for a brand with a CA reputation, the effect of perceived fit was not found. These results may reflect early attention resources engagement and altruistic motivation at the late stage during brand extension evaluation. The findings provided neurological evidence for which of the two types of brand reputation (CSR vs. CA) have a more positive effect on brand extension.
... Neuroscience offers the opportunity to fully explore decision making processes involving attention, attitudes, emotions and memory (Bettina et al. 2017;Plassman et al. 2012;Lim 2018). Hence, neuroscience may be particularly useful for exploring sensitive issues that are often the focus of social marketing or public service campaigns (Achrol and Kotler 2012), as indicated by the greater predictive power of neuroscience tests compared to more traditional methods applied to a variety of pro-social messages (Lee 2016). However, despite such growing evidence, the full potential of neuroscientific research methods in marketing research is not yet fully realized and more studies need to be conducted in this regard (Daugherty, Hoffman, and Kennedy 2016;Lee 2016;Lim 2018;Telpaz et al. 2015). ...
... Hence, neuroscience may be particularly useful for exploring sensitive issues that are often the focus of social marketing or public service campaigns (Achrol and Kotler 2012), as indicated by the greater predictive power of neuroscience tests compared to more traditional methods applied to a variety of pro-social messages (Lee 2016). However, despite such growing evidence, the full potential of neuroscientific research methods in marketing research is not yet fully realized and more studies need to be conducted in this regard (Daugherty, Hoffman, and Kennedy 2016;Lee 2016;Lim 2018;Telpaz et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing popularity of neuroscientific methods to elicit more objective information compared to the traditional research methods, there is little research on the impact of social marketing and public service messages, using a combination of qualitative and neuroscience research methods. This paper compares the overall impact of an anti-binge-drinking campaign using focus group discussions and experimental Electroencephalography (EEG), a neuroscientific research tool. We find many similarities and differences in the results from these two methods. We also identify specific time and message points when attention and memorization processes occur, by combining two analytical tools for the EEG data - Global Field Power (GFP) and standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (sLORETA). These findings provides valuable insights into the impact of content, style and composition of public service and social marketing messages. We discuss the managerial implications of our findings for social marketers and public policy makers and future research directions.
... A number of researchers have worked and achieved significant success in the neuromarketing field (Sebastian, 2014;Lee, 2016;Vargo and Lusch, 2017;Boz et al., 2017;Koc and Boz, 2018;Lim, 2018;Golnar-Nik et al., 2019;Muñoz Leiva et al., 2019;Kaklauskas et al., 2019a,b,c;Zavadskas et al., 2019). Neuromarketing, also known as consumer neuroscience, is an interdisciplinary marketing research field (Lee, 2016). ...
... A number of researchers have worked and achieved significant success in the neuromarketing field (Sebastian, 2014;Lee, 2016;Vargo and Lusch, 2017;Boz et al., 2017;Koc and Boz, 2018;Lim, 2018;Golnar-Nik et al., 2019;Muñoz Leiva et al., 2019;Kaklauskas et al., 2019a,b,c;Zavadskas et al., 2019). Neuromarketing, also known as consumer neuroscience, is an interdisciplinary marketing research field (Lee, 2016). Vargo and Lusch (2017) predict that future research in neuroscience and neuromarketing will cover the ways in which cognitive assistants/mediators can alter brain activity and affect a multitude of marketing phenomena, such as the adoption of new services (''products''), value assessment and brand choice. ...
Article
Personal interests constitute the emphasis of client-centered, personalized marketing, which leads to personalized client fulfillment. Current shoppers are interested in more than simply buying products and services; shoppers are also interested in the surroundings of the shopping site. Everywhere in the world, an analysis of marketing value, with rare exceptions, does not integrate criteria relevant to the emotional, affective and biometrical states, valence and arousal of potential buyers. Such parameters require assessment for implementing an accurate and more effective, client-centered marketing process. This research, which required developing the Emotional, Affective and Biometrical States Analytics of the Built Environment (VINERS) Method, provides a “big picture” of built environment neuromarketing. A multiple-criteria analysis integrated the emotional, affective and biometrical states of potential buyers and the surrounding environment (its physical, economic, social and environmental criteria). Neuro-decision and neuro-correlation matrices analysis constituted its basis. This research involved the accumulation and analysis of over 350 million remote data points, which aimed to ascertain the development of the biometrical, affective and emotional maps and sought to determine over 35,000 of average and strong correlations. The obtained dependencies constituted the basis for calculating and graphically submitting the VINERS circumplex model of affect, which the authors of this article had developed. This model is similar to Russell’s circumplex model of affect. However, now, the VINERS Method has provided supplements offering new opportunities. Determination of an integrated emotional market rental (IEMR) value, provision of digital tips and optimization of the IEMR value are made possible by the VINERS Method.
... Several experiments relating to neuromarketing using EEG were implemented to assess how advertising design can influence consumer decision-making and shopping behavior. Lee [3] showed that improved theta activation is correlated to the frontal brain area for the induction of empathy and increased buying rates. Research also performed automatic identification of preference prediction using machine learning. ...
... It is a wearable headset that contains 14 channels (AF3, F7, F3, FC5, T7, P7, O1, O2, P8, T8, FC6, F4, F8, AF4) according to the 10-20 electrode system. For this work, we used eight frontal channels as they showed better performance in previous studies [3], [4]. Illustrated in Fig 2, each product has been shown followed by its endorsement for five seconds throughout the experiment. ...
Conference Paper
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The traditional marketing research tools (Personal Depth Interview, Surveys, FGD, etc.) are cost-prohibitive and often criticized for not extracting true consumer preferences. Neuromarketing tools promise to overcome such limitations. In this study, we proposed a framework, MarketBrain, to predict consumer preferences. In our experiment, we administered marketing stimuli (five products with endorsements), collected EEG signals by EMOTIV EPOC+, and used signal processing and classification algorithms to develop the prediction system. Wavelet Packet Transform was used to extract frequency bands (delta; theta; alpha; beta1; beta2; gamma) and then statistical features were extracted for classification. Among the classifiers, Support Vector Machine (SVM) achieved the best accuracy (96.01±0.71) using 5-fold cross-validation. Results also suggested that specific target consumers and endorser appearance affect the prediction of the preference. So, it is evident that EEG-based neuromarketing tools can help brands and businesses effectively predict future consumer preferences. Hence, it will lead to the development of an intelligent market driving system for neuromarketing applications.
... Furthermore, it has been suggested that positive emotions of consumers could reduce the cognitive conflict, in which case a decreased N2 amplitude was observed (Jin et al., 2018). Compared with low empathy individuals, empathic consumers were more apt to be elicited positive affect responses by good brand performance (Lee, 2016). Meanwhile, consumers with different prosocial traits respond in a dissimilar way toward CSR and CC brand association messages (Chen et al., 2015;Medina et al., 2021). ...
... A 2 (empathy level: high, low) × 2 (brand association: corporate social responsibility and corporate competence) between-subjects design was conducted in the experiment. For the empathy level measurement, the present study referenced Lee (2016) and Yen and Yang (2018) to design a 7-point Likert scale containing six items. To ensure the effectiveness of the scale, we followed the cross-cultural adaptation procedure (Beaton et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Distant brand extension as an essential strategy of obtaining benefits was highly focused on the normal marketing practice and academic research. In the current study, we aim to recognize that how individuals with different levels of empathy respond to distant extensions under corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate competence (CC) associations to explore the corresponding neural mechanisms using event-related potentials (ERPs). We divided subjects into two groups involving a high empathy (HE) group and a low empathy (LE) group according to an empathy measure questionnaire. The subjects first faced a brand name following the CSR or CC association descriptions, and then, they were asked to evaluate the new product of brand by a five-point scale. Current results revealed that the participants of the HE group were more apt to accept the distant extension products than those of the LE group. Additionally, in the HE group, products from a brand with CSR associations were more acceptable than CC associations. Moreover, a larger N2 amplitude was elicited in the LE group than in the HE group. For the LE group, an augment N2 was found under CSR than CC associations, reflecting that LE consumers might perceive conflict when evaluating distant extensions and allocate more cognitive resources to deal with CSR information. At the later stage, the HE group showed a greater P3 than the LE group. For the HE group, an increased P3 was elicited under CSR than CC associations, suggesting that empathic individuals might show motivational salience and helping willingness toward distant extension products, especially under the CSR scenario. These results provide potential electrophysiological evidence for the positive impact of brand associations on the evaluation of distant brand extension in the case of subdividing different empathic individuals.
... The objective of this paper is to present the LORETA family of techniques as a viable alternative to enhance NeuroIS EEG research. The LORETA family of techniques has been adopted as adequate source localization techniques utilizing EEG in various disciplines (Cannon, 2012;Cecchini et al., 2013;Kalgotra et al., 2019;Lee, 2016). Furthermore, the technique has been validated by testing it in comparison to fMRI methods (Mulert et al., 2004). ...
... In the field of psychology, Cecchini et al. (2013) used sLORETA for detecting the neural activity of subjects when shown the eyes of an intact face as opposed to other features (mouth, nose, or hair). Likewise, in marketing research, Lee (2016) used sLORETA to study empathy in relation to increasing customer equity -specifically, customer's response to corporate social responsibility. The study revealed empathy in response to corporate social responsibility messages enhanced theta-band activities, localized in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex. ...
Article
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NeuroIS presents a new opportunity for information systems research. Often used neuroscience techniques include brain mapping with the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) device or event-related potential time-domain studies with the electroencephalogram (EEG). The critics of EEG consider the poor spatial resolution as justification for EEG's inadequacy to brain mapping studies. However, the low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) technique provides strong estimation parameters allowing EEG to perform brain mapping. This paper presents EEG (with lower number of channels) and LORETA techniques as an effective approach for exploratory investigation specially when researchers are constrained with lack of resources (specially at significantly lower costs). We demonstrate the effectiveness of EEG using sLORETA with respect to fMRI as proof-of-concept approach to study IS phenomenon. The results of such studies can serve as a preliminary step for further analysis with the use of more sophisticated neuroscience devices. This can enhance IS research by taking advantage of both high temporal and spatial resolution leading to reduced estimation errors of neural activity and stronger basis for correlating neural activity and specific tasks. We also present a set of guidelines for using the LORETA family of techniques in IS research.
... However, investments in reputation (e.g., sustainability and CSR) do not guarantee increased brand equity (Page & Fearn, 2005;Sierra et al., 2017). In fact, some research only finds an indirect reputation-brand equity relationship (Lee, 2016;Sierra et al., 2017). We predict that this could be due to other signals that undermine or enhance reputation signal effectiveness. ...
... These extraneous signals may explain why past research has found an indirect relationship between corporate brand reputation and equity (e.g. Lee, 2016;Sierra et al., 2017). ...
Article
Can CSR and sustainability signals increase corporate brand performance and brand equity? What makes these signals more effective? Although research largely evaluates these questions, this research, using secondary data on 135 different brands across industries and countries, explores foreign and domestic performance, and compares sustainability and CSR signals, providing new perspectives. Further, we uniquely contribute to the dialogue that country origin influences signal effectiveness, using the corporate brand's country of origin sustainability reputation (COSR). Using bivariate analysis and OLS regression to discover these relationships, the exploratory findings provide theoretical and practical implications. For domestic (vs. international) performance, sustainability (vs. both) signals are important, especially for corporate brands from mid-ranked CORS. Interestingly, consumer misbeliefs in sustainability affect domestic performance and brand equity. For equity, consumer perceptions, CSR signals, and sustainability signals contribute to brand equity, and can be more effective for corporate brands from low or mid-ranked COSR.
... The objective of this paper is to present the LORETA family of techniques as a viable alternative to enhance NeuroIS EEG research. The LORETA family of techniques has been adopted as adequate source localization techniques utilizing EEG in various disciplines (Cannon, 2012;Cecchini et al., 2013;Kalgotra et al., 2019;Lee, 2016). Furthermore, the technique has been validated by testing it in comparison to fMRI methods (Mulert et al., 2004). ...
... In the field of psychology, Cecchini et al. (2013) used sLORETA for detecting the neural activity of subjects when shown the eyes of an intact face as opposed to other features (mouth, nose, or hair). Likewise, in marketing research, Lee (2016) used sLORETA to study empathy in relation to increasing customer equity -specifically, customer's response to corporate social responsibility. The study revealed empathy in response to corporate social responsibility messages enhanced theta-band activities, localized in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex. ...
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NeuroIS presents a new opportunity for information systems research. Often used neuroscience techniques include brain mapping with the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) device or event-related potential time-domain studies with the electroencephalogram (EEG). The critics of EEG consider the poor spatial resolution as justification for EEG's inadequacy to brain mapping studies. However, the low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) technique provides strong estimation parameters allowing EEG to perform brain mapping. This paper presents EEG (with lower number of channels) and LORETA techniques as an effective approach for exploratory investigation specially when researchers are constrained with lack of resources (specially at significantly lower costs). We demonstrate the effectiveness of EEG using sLORETA with respect to fMRI as proof-of-concept approach to study IS phenomenon. The results of such studies can serve as a preliminary step for further analysis with the use of more sophisticated neuroscience devices. This can enhance IS research by taking advantage of both high temporal and spatial resolution leading to reduced estimation errors of neural activity and stronger basis for correlating neural activity and specific tasks. We also present a set of guidelines for using the LORETA family of techniques in IS research.
... FT issues (Nicholls and Lee 2006;Doran and Natale 2011;Lee 2016;Hwang and Kim 2018). The moderating role of consumer hypocrisy on the relationship between each of the three proximity dimensions and consumer FT engagement was also supported. ...
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The article reports the findings of an empirical study among consumers, regarding the impact of physical, social, and psychological proximity on their engagement to the fair trade idea and purchasing behavior. Based on a random sample of 211 British and 112 Indian consumers and using structural equation modeling, it was found that high levels of physical, social, and psychological proximity leads to high consumer fair trade engagement. Moreover, consumer fair trade engagement was confirmed to have a positive impact on fair trade purchasing behavior. Furthermore, consumer empathic concern was found to positively moderate the association between proximity and consumer fair trade engagement, while the opposite was true with regard to consumer hypocrisy. Finally, consumer nationality was found to have a control effect on physical, social, and psychological proximity, with the latter felt stronger among Indian, as opposed to British consumers.
... As studies already have shown, consumers may exhibit positive attitudes toward socially responsible products (Loureiro & Lotade, 2005) and motivate consumers to behave altruistically toward products with social claims (Smith, 2006). Also, consumers who score high in emotional empathy show greater willingness to pay a price premium for a pro-social product as a opposed to for a conventional product (Lee, 2016b). But empathy also leads to an increased loyalty (A. ...
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Empathy is a critical interpersonal and societal role, which enables cognitive and emotional understanding of other's feelings and experiences. Harvard Business Review conducted an analysis of The Global Empathy Index that they established, on a sample of companies with major financial indexes. They started the above-mentioned analysis in 2014 and over the years, they adjusted the criteria and expanded the data sources. In 2016 the Empathy index was based on the analysis of the internal culture, CEO performance, ethics and social media presence. The empathy was fragmented into following categories: ethics, leadership, company culture, brand perception and public messaging through social media. The conducted research revealed that top 10 companies in the 2015 Global Empathy Index increased in value more than twice as much as the bottom ten and generated 50% more earnings. In 2014 at the World's Economic Forum, the CEO of a British bank, said that empathy is important, but that most of his people think that empathy is for ''wimps''. This point of view is not an isolated case, as Belinda Parmer mentions, many CEO’s see empathy as an intangible quality and as such hard to quantify. So even though the empathy is recognized, it still has some negative connotations, and there are problems with the empathy implementation. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of larger scale empathy indicators and to define empathy as a discipline that can be learned with the proper education and promotion among the leaders.
... Further, the present research suggests advancing qualitative research in this domain due to its novelty and innovativeness. In particular, qualitative studies would be important for identifying further variables that could have an impact on consumers' intentions toward products made from bioplastics, and integrate the theoretical model with other variables related, for instance, to consumers empathy (Lee, 2016), materialism , or the purchase frequency of green products. Our findings also highlight the importance for future studies to address the awareness that consumers have of these innovative materials. ...
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Bioplastics represent an innovation for replacing materials obtained from fossil fuels and could provide significant benefits to the environment. A new generation of bioplastic from urban waste is now technically feasible. This paper is among the first to assume the perspective of the consumers rather than the manufacturers in addressing what could lead to the market acceptance of this particular type of bioplastic. A conceptual model is developed addressing psychological drivers that could encourage consumers’ transition from a linear to a circular economy, with the purpose of better understanding what drives consumers’ intentions to switch to and purchase products obtained from organic waste. Specifically, we find that green self-identity positively impacts perceived value, leading to higher behavioral intention. In addition, the relationship is moderated by self-congruity but not by differences in product involvement.
... Lee evaluated how including the concept related to human right in the advertisement, which might elicit the empathy, could increase the willingness to pay among consumers. The enhanced theta activity in the frontal brain region which is related to the affective empathic response was proposed for eliciting empathy and increased rate of decisions for purchase [16]. Jin et al. investigated the effect of a product description on consumer decision in online shopping using ERP analysis. ...
... Adopting a neuromarketing approach can help to identify hidden process mechanisms without explicit verbal questioning, as brain responses can reveal the naturally occurring thought processes as they happen. Previous empirical studies have identified the brain's empathetic responses to prosocial brands (Lee, 2016) and green marketing messages as increased theta band brain wave activities in the frontal brain. ...
Article
This research seeks to understand how time constraint can escalate mental efforts and change the outcome of moral judgment when we face moral dilemma. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), hemodynamic responses in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were recorded while subjects were deliberating over choices under the situations of business moral dilemma. Bilateral increase of oxyhemoglobin values on DLPFC was observed from subjects who made moral choices under time constraint. The results of suggest that severe time constraint can overburden the activities of moral brain and elevate decision stress, possibly leading to moral incompetency.
... Second, there is evidence from complementary research agendas that relational values might be effective across distance. Some studies of consumers' consumption decisions, for example, find empathy to be an important factor motivating prosocial purchases (Doran, 2010;Gillani et al., 2019;Lee, 2016;Zerbini et al., 2019), though other studies dispute this connection (Hwang and Kim, 2018). The capacity to imagine a relationship with a commodity's producer, in other words, might support pro-social purchasing behavior. ...
Article
In credit systems, purportedly sustainable activities are undertaken in one place to compensate for unsustainable activities elsewhere. These mechanisms originated in pollution abatement systems but now are found in many sustainability programs, including supply chain certification. Credit programs are used in various sustainability certification programs to lower transaction costs, boost uptake, and direct more resources to small producers, but they are also controversial. The relational values framework argues that one way to motivate people to support sustainability efforts is to emphasize what behaviors are appropriate to specific relationships. We ask whether changing the way we think and talk about credits may be a way to direct more resources to producers or places willing to engage in sustainability certification. Using an embedded survey experiment, we test this reframing with a sample of representatives of member organizations of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). We find that the relational values reframing of the RSPO's crediting mechanism is perceived to be less confusing and potentially damaging to the standard's reputation than the existing framing. This evidence suggests that relational values frames might be helpful tools as part of efforts to improve sustainability in global value chains.
... We can attempt to expound on the indirect association between SR-HRM and turnover intention via the perception of organizational support. Besides, the individual traits of conscientiousness and empathy can influence employees' approval of CSR (Lee, 2016). Therefore, it is necessary to consider these personality traits into the boundary conditions of the model in future research, such as conscientiousness and empathy. ...
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This study explores the impact of socially responsible human resource management (SR-HRM) on the turnover intention by exploring the effects of psychological contract violation (PCV) and moral identity. Using a sample of 284 employees in China, we found that PCV mediated the negative relationship between SR-HRM and turnover intention. Moral identity moderated the direct effect of PCV on turnover intention as well as the indirect effect of SR-HRM on turnover intention via PCV, such that both the direct and indirect effects were stronger for employees with a low level of moral identity compared to those with the high level of moral identity. Findings from this study provide a greater understanding of the internal mechanisms and boundary conditions of SR-HRM that affect turnover intentions. Study findings also provide guidance to organizations seeking to reduce employee turnover.
... The articles within this percentile can be classified into three different categories: audience response studies, methodology improvement studies, and literature reviews. Audience response studies [45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52] explore the impact of marketing campaign pieces on the consumer decision-making process and examine consumer responses and preferences. These studies are applied to many consumer industries and specific markets, such as the coffee industry and hotel industry, and are applied to specific marketing functions, such as corporate communication and brand image. ...
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(1) Background: Using neuroscience to understand and influence consumer behavior often leads to ethical controversy. Thus, it is necessary to demystify the use of neuroscience for marketing purposes; the present paper, by accessing the worldwide academic performance in this domain, fulfills this objective. (2) Methods: All extant literature on neuromarketing indexed to the Scopus database—318 articles—was subjected to a bibliometric analysis through a mixed-method approach. (3) Results: The results show that Spain leads the ranks of the most productive countries, while Italian researchers clearly dominate in terms of collaboration. Regarding the most prominent topics, the connection between “Neuroscience” and “Advertising” is highlighted. The findings provide a better understanding of the state-of-the-art in neuromarketing studies, research gaps, and emerging research topics, and additionally provide a new methodological contribution by including SciVal topic prominence in the bibliometric analysis. (4) Conclusions: As practical implications, this study provides useful insights for neuromarketing researchers seeking funding opportunities, which are normally associated with topics within the top prominence percentile or emerging topics. In terms of originality, this study is the first to apply SciVal topic prominence to a bibliometric analysis of neuromarketing, and provides a new bibliometric indicator for neuromarketing research.
... Subsequently, Berčík et al. (2016b) conducted interdisciplinary research on the impact of illumination on the emotional state (valence) of customers in a food store by calculating and comparing alpha and beta spectral power. Lee (2016) explored the emotional mechanism of empathy indexed by the theta-band power spectra of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for customer equity and willingness to pay. Moreover, Vecchiato et al. (2011b) showed that an increase in PSD in the left frontal lobe is negatively related to the degree of perceived pleasantness. ...
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Affect plays an important role in the consumer decision-making process and there is growing interest in the development of new technologies and computational approaches that can interpret and recognize the affects of consumers, with benefits for marketing described in relation to both academia and industry. From an interdisciplinary perspective, this paper aims to review past studies focused on electroencephalography (EEG)-based affective computing (AC) in marketing, which provides a promising avenue for studying the mechanisms underlying affective states and developing recognition computational models to predict the psychological responses of customers. This review offers an introduction to EEG technology and an overview of EEG-based AC; provides a snapshot of the current state of the literature. It briefly presents the themes, challenges, and trends in studies of affect evaluation, recognition, and classification; and further proposes potential guidelines for researchers and marketers.
... Their results show that satisfaction provided by the offered services is higher when both employees and consumers are empathic. Fun-Ju [34] concludes that empathy of consumers towards the companies involved in corporate social responsibility projects determine people to even pay a higher price which might be used by companies to increase their profits. Dawson, Soper and Pettijohn [35] analysed the impact of employees' empathy on their performance and their findings did not reveal a positive connection as they previously assumed. ...
Article
The main purpose of this study is to assess the impact that food delivery mobile applications have on consumers' behaviour in the context of the changes generated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, we aimed to bridge the gap in the literature and practice by studying intrinsic and extrinsic variables that affect 18–50+ years old consumers' decision process. The data set was analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling Part Least Square model because this model has no limitations to integrating more variables into a path model. From a managerial perspective, our results show that food delivery companies should implement customer loyalty strategies, as the users' perceived risk of changing the online food supplier is high. The high degree of visibility of the food delivery applications is positively reflected in the consumers' empathy level and loyalty. Consumer loyalty is also based on the pricing strategy and time saving associated with using this type of applications. The safety value and accessibility represent both consumers' and organisations’ priorities that underline the importance of the strategies of reducing the perceived risks during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our research offers to researchers and practitioners a starting point for their future activities. It can help them make decisions considering both periods (during a crisis as generated by pandemic crisis and post-crisis as new normality).
Chapter
Neuromarketing is a growing topic in marketing literature. Furthermore, businesses also started to use neuromarketing-related results in their marketing decisions. Accordingly, it is crucial and relevant to make a research regarding neuromarketing topic in the marketing area. The main objective of this study is to provide an evaluation of neuromarketing topic regarding its relations with marketing field that will generate key insights. A literature review was conducted for this study and articles containing “neuromarketing” topic were included in the review. The articles were chosen from top-rated marketing journals according to Google Scholar’s ratings. The criterion to be included in the review is explained in the paper accordingly. The results showed important insights such as neuromarketing topic has begun to rise after 2010; neuroscience methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and other important methods have been used in marketing field; neuromarketing-related methods are applied in the context of different industries such as food, cleaning, personal care products and so on. In conclusion, neuromarketing can be classified as a trending topic in marketing field which is evolving and providing unique results. Both academicians and marketing practitioners are interested in neuromarketing which makes the topic important for marketing literature and businesses.
Chapter
In a world where brands are becoming ever more ubiquitous, competition is increasing, and consumers are, every day, more demanding, creating and maintaining powerful, emotional, and reciprocal relationships between brands and their stakeholders is no longer just an ambition, but an imperative call. This can potentially be accomplished by focusing on a brand purpose that consumers identify with and can be stimulated through the creation of unique and distinct experiences and by the development of interpersonal feelings, such as empathy. This chapter proposes a new model for measuring and evaluating brand empathy. For this study, the automotive sector was chosen to test the proposed model. Through a quantitative study, divided into two periods, the awareness of the automotive brands was evaluated, after which the proposed model was applied. This investigation concluded that the majority of automotive industry are characterized by consumers as not very empathetic, as well as the advertising campaigns created by these brands.
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While marketing scholars recognize the importance of the sustainable development paradigm when evaluating perceptions of brands’ corporate social responsibility (CSR), the contribution of the United Nations’ sustainable development goals (SDGs) remain unexplored. In the present research, two versions of an index measuring the consumer’s perceptions of brands’ SDGs (SDG index) are developed. Then, the SDG index is applied to predict dimensions of CSR and customer loyalty. PLS-SEM results (n = 682) confirmed that both versions of the SDG index can be used to predict consumers’ behaviors. In addition, SDGs relative to environmental protection decreased the predictive power of both versions of the SDG index.
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This study offers a retrospective commentary on a high-impact article and contributes to the extant literature by examining the relationship between sustainable marketing performance and customer equity. The study helps clarify perceived sustainable marketing performance, providing new insights into the relationship between perceived sustainable marketing performance and customer equity, including value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity. It also shows that environmental concerns are a key factor in enhancing customer equity for the fast fashion industry context. The high-impact article offers an initial examination of the key features of sustainability and customer equity. An assessment of works citing the article shows how it has shaped sustainable marketing and customer equity.
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Cause-related marketing is prevalent in today’s marketing environment. The purpose of this research is to build and test a conceptual model surrounding the idea of a generous consumer – and what may lead a consumer to buy products affiliated with cause-related marketing. To do this, we examine the impact of pro-social consumer behaviors (i.e., social responsibility, empathy, moral reasoning, and self-report altruism (SRA) past helpfulness) on interpersonal generosity. Further, we explore the role of both pro-social consumer behaviors and interpersonal generosity on cause-related purchase intentions. Findings indicate that several pro-social consumer behaviors are predictors of cause-related purchasing intentions. Additionally, it is found that interpersonal generosity mediates other pro-social behaviors in determining consumer receptiveness to cause-related market exchanges.
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Today’s interconnected environment is characterized by ESG (environmental, social, and corporate governance), networks of people, organizations, and devices that are continuously interacting, conversing, and exchanging information. These forms of communication indicate that information sharing, signaling, and brand value creation have evolved in the past decade. This study examines brand valuation through two fundamental questions: (1) What ESG achievements do firms share and signal information about? and (2) How do firms share and signal this information in today’s interconnected environment? We find that automotive brands signal their ESG achievements in products, people, and a history of financial performance. These brands signal to consumers by communicating advertising spending, research and development investments, social media participation, ESG reputation, and appropriate linguistic styles. Automotive brands can signal ESG information for brand valuation directly and interactively through social media, the latter of which provides evidence of brand value co-creation.
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Consumers often have positive attitudes about green marketing, yet their fashion purchases are not linked to sustainability, revealing an unbalanced psychological state. Based on balance theory, we explain how environmental priming can increase consumer preferences for fashion products with green logos. Using fMRI, we identify the neural representation of the green logo effect as significant activations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Prior exposure to environmental priming messages increased brain activations in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the bilateral lingual gyri (LG) during green-related communication, reflecting brain processes of relational reasoning and leading to increased preference for fashion products that bear a green logo. We discuss managerial implications related to the effectiveness of “nudge” communication techniques in setting up the tone for sustainable fashion marketing.
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Despite individuals expressing concerns for the privacy of their personal information, they act contrarily by disclosing their personal information in e-commerce transactions. This phenomenon of contradictory privacy-related decisions is referred to as the privacy paradox. Researchers have explained privacy paradox as either a rational function resultant of a calculus of costs and benefits, or due to the effects of emotions (affect), psychological deviations and cognitive biases. However, the nature of mental perceptions in privacy have not been properly examined. This study investigates the nature of mental perceptions formed in a given privacy-related situation and their influence on privacy-related decision-making in the context of e-commerce. We argue that individuals’ privacy-related decisions are based on mental perceptions formed during privacy-related situations that are both rational and emotional, as well as, interconnected with one-another. Based on the privacy calculus and the findings of neuroscience, we developed the research model and subsequently evaluated it using two within-subject experiments using an EEG device. The results of the study indicate that individuals’ privacy-related decisions tap into both executive and emotional areas of the brain, which involves assessments of risks and rewards, as well as, emotional regulation.
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International organizations, governments and companies are increasingly committed to developing measures that encourage adoption of sustainable consumption patterns among the population. However, their success requires a deep understanding of the everyday purchasing decision process and the elements that shape it. Price is an element that stands out. Prior research concluded that the influence of price on purchase decisions varies across consumer profiles. Yet no consumer behavior study to date has assessed the differences of price processing among consumers adopting sustainable habits (prosocial) as opposed to those who have not (non-prosocial). This is the first study to resort to neuroimaging tools to explore the underlying neural mechanisms that reveal the effect of price on prosocial and non-prosocial consumers. Self-reported findings indicate that prosocial consumers place greater value on collective costs and benefits while non-prosocial consumers place a greater weight on price. The neural data gleaned from this analyses offers certain explanations as to the origin of the differences. Non-prosocial (vs. prosocial) consumers, in fact, exhibit a greater activation in brain areas involved with reward, valuation and choice when evaluating price information. These findings could steer managers to improve market segmentation and assist institutions in their design of campaigns fostering environmentally sustainable behaviors.
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The importance of branding in marketing strategies makes it essential to understand the elements that give value-added to the brands. The very nature of ecological brands adds value to them. Knowing the underlying emotions of the elements that add value to brands can justify the benefit of applying neuromarketing to branding. The objective of this study is to justify the use of neuromarketing tools in the ecological branding strategy by analysing the existing literature on branding, ecological branding and neuromarketing. The existing relationship between the elements that give value-added to the brand and the emotional variables that neuromarketing measures, justifies the use of neuromarketing tools in the ecological branding strategy.
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The rising demand for exploring what is inside consumers' brains and the growth of neuroscience stimulated research efforts to explore the subtle centers in the consumer's brain that responsible for making-decisions. Therefore, understanding the essential subjects relevant to neuromarketing is important for expanding collaboration and to push the progression of research towards the desired goals perfectly. In this paper, our goals were to assess the global research trend in neuromarketing field upon on outputs of publication, co-authorships, countries, and co-occurrences. This paper has used the Scopus database to analysis related articles between 2007 and 2018, the result was 137 journal articles. In 2012, the publications' number has increased by about 12 articles each two-year, which led to a steady rise in the sum of the total publications. Approximately 52% of the universal publications were published in the USA, Spain, UK, Italy and Germany leading the other 32 countries/territories.
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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is progressively gaining in relevance in business management. CSR messages aimed at consumers have nonetheless not bolstered sales. Given this, the current study, a first of this type, turned to neuroimaging to evaluate the neural mechanisms involved when processing CSR messages (responsible business practices messages) among two opposing consumer profiles, notably those that avoid purchasing socially responsible products (reluctant consumers) and those that purchase them habitually (habitual consumers). The findings of the neural study reveal variations in the processing of CSR messages by each profile, results that were not identified through self-reports. CSR messages generate stronger neural activation among reluctant consumers in brain regions linked to negative value and aversion (the putamen and the ACC). CSR messages among habitual consumers, in turn, do not generate negative or positive neural reactions. The findings are then discussed from the perspective of deliberative and automated decision-making processes.
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The present research explores the role of psychological reactance, individual precursors and moral disengagement in explicating customer behaviour in Pay-what-you-want (PWYW). Psychological reactance is examined with individual factors i.e., empathy, positive reciprocity beliefs, consumer cynicism, self-enhancement and moral disengagement in PWYW. Mediating impact of moral disengagement on customers’ distinct psychological differences and willingness-to-pay is also explored. Study 1 operationalised complete freedom to choose the prices (no price suggestion) with the student population to arouse a lower level of reactance. Study 2 triggered a higher level of reactance by restricted freedom to choose the prices (price suggestions) with a non-student sample and two moderators i.e., perceived threat to freedom and proneness to psychological reactance. Empathy and positive reciprocity beliefs significantly impact moral disengagement. Individuals with higher cynicism and self-enhancement traits are more likely to disengage from moral concerns. Individuals with higher moral disengagement tendencies are likely to exhibit lower payment intentions.
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Negative emotional stimuli activate a broad network of brain regions, including the medial prefrontal (mPFC) and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices. An early influential view dichotomized these regions into dorsal-caudal cognitive and ventral-rostral affective subdivisions. In this review, we examine a wealth of recent research on negative emotions in animals and humans, using the example of fear or anxiety, and conclude that, contrary to the traditional dichotomy, both subdivisions make key contributions to emotional processing. Specifically, dorsal-caudal regions of the ACC and mPFC are involved in appraisal and expression of negative emotion, whereas ventral-rostral portions of the ACC and mPFC have a regulatory role with respect to limbic regions involved in generating emotional responses. Moreover, this new framework is broadly consistent with emerging data on other negative and positive emotions.
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Important features of the self-concept can be located outside of the individual and inside close or related others. The authors use this insight to reinterpret data previously said to support the empathy-altruism model of helping, which asserts that empathic concern for another results in selflessness and true altruism. That is, they argue that the conditions that lead to empathic concern also lead to a greater sense of self-other overlap, raising the possibility that helping under these conditions is not selfless but is also directed toward the self. In 3 studies, the impact of empathic concern on willingness to help was eliminated when oneness--a measure of perceived self-other overlap--was considered. Path analyses revealed further that empathic concern increased helping only through its relation to perceived oneness, thereby throwing the empathy-altruism model into question. The authors suggest that empathic concern affects helping primarily as an emotional signal of oneness.
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Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a part of the brain's limbic system. Classically, this region has been related to affect, on the basis of lesion studies in humans and in animals. In the late 1980s, neuroimaging research indicated that ACC was active in many studies of cognition. The findings from EEG studies of a focal area of negativity in scalp electrodes following an error response led to the idea that ACC might be the brain's error detection and correction device. In this article, these various findings are reviewed in relation to the idea that ACC is a part of a circuit involved in a form of attention that serves to regulate both cognitive and emotional processing. Neuroimaging studies showing that separate areas of ACC are involved in cognition and emotion are discussed and related to results showing that the error negativity is influenced by affect and motivation. In addition, the development of the emotional and cognitive roles of ACC are discussed, and how the success of this regulation in controlling responses might be correlated with cingulate size. Finally, some theories are considered about how the different subdivisions of ACC might interact with other cortical structures as a part of the circuits involved in the regulation of mental and emotional activity.
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EEG spectral power and coherence estimates in the individually defined delta, theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, and alpha-3 bands were used to identify and characterize brain regions involved in meditative states, in which focused internalized attention gives rise to emotionally positive "blissful" experience. Blissful state was accompanied by increased anterior frontal and midline theta synchronization as well as enhanced theta long-distant connectivity between prefrontal and posterior association cortex with distinct "center of gravity" in the left prefrontal region (AF3 site). Subjective scores of emotional experience significantly correlated with theta, whereas scores of internalized attention with both theta and alpha lower synchronization. Our results propose selective associations of theta and alpha oscillating networks activity with states of internalized attention and positive emotional experience.
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The key mental domains in which sex differences have traditionally been studied are verbal and spatial abilities. In this article I suggest that two neglected dimensions for understanding human sex differences are 'empathising' and 'systemising'. The male brain is a defined psychometrically as those individuals in whom systemising is significantly better than empathising, and the female brain is defined as the opposite cognitive profile. Using these definitions, autism can be considered as an extreme of the normal male profile. There is increasing psychological evidence for the extreme male brain theory of autism.
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Scalp electric potentials (electroencephalograms) and extracranial magnetic fields (magnetoencephalograms) are due to the primary (impressed) current density distribution that arises from neuronal postsynaptic processes. A solution to the inverse problem--the computation of images of electric neuronal activity based on extracranial measurements--would provide important information on the time-course and localization of brain function. In general, there is no unique solution to this problem. In particular, an instantaneous, distributed, discrete, linear solution capable of exact localization of point sources is of great interest, since the principles of linearity and superposition would guarantee its trustworthiness as a functional imaging method, given that brain activity occurs in the form of a finite number of distributed hot spots. Despite all previous efforts, linear solutions, at best, produced images with systematic nonzero localization errors. A solution reported here yields images of standardized current density with zero localization error. The purpose of this paper is to present the technical details of the method, allowing researchers to test, check, reproduce and validate the new method.
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Experiments in animals leave no doubt that androgens, including testosterone, produced by the testes in fetal and/or neonatal life act on the brain to induce sex differences in neural structure and function. In this article, we argue that prenatal and neonatal testosterone exposure are strong candidates for having a causal role in sexual dimorphism in human behaviour, including social development.
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Females frequently score higher on standard tests of empathy, social sensitivity, and emotion recognition than do males. It remains to be clarified, however, whether these gender differences are associated with gender specific neural mechanisms of emotional social cognition. We investigated gender differences in an emotion attribution task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either focused on their own emotional response to emotion expressing faces (SELF-task) or evaluated the emotional state expressed by the faces (OTHER-task). Behaviorally, females rated SELF-related emotions significantly stronger than males. Across the sexes, SELF- and OTHER-related processing of facial expressions activated a network of medial and lateral prefrontal, temporal, and parietal brain regions involved in emotional perspective taking. During SELF-related processing, females recruited the right inferior frontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus stronger than males. In contrast, there was increased neural activity in the left temporoparietal junction in males (relative to females). When performing the OTHER-task, females showed increased activation of the right inferior frontal cortex while there were no differential activations in males. The data suggest that females recruit areas containing mirror neurons to a higher degree than males during both SELF- and OTHER-related processing in empathic face-to-face interactions. This may underlie facilitated emotional "contagion" in females. Together with the observation that males differentially rely on the left temporoparietal junction (an area mediating the distinction between the SELF and OTHERS) the data suggest that females and males rely on different strategies when assessing their own emotions in response to other people.
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Using the case of shade-grown coffee, this paper examines the market impacts of eco-labels for credence attributes. First, the Mattoo and Singh (1994) test is conducted for the case of shade-grown coffee to investigate the market impacts of a shade label. This analysis in section 2 shows that a shade label could pass the test, but the market impacts are likely to be minor. Section 2 also shows how to use estimates of supply, potential demand, and price elasticities of demand and supply to predict eco-label premiums in the post-label equilibrium. And second, given the importance of consumer demands for eco-label impacts, and since the theoretical foundations of demand for eco-labeled items are not well developed in the literature, Section 3 takes a closer look at the microeconomics of labels and consumer demand. A nested constant-elasticity-of-substitution preference structure is used to derive theoretically consistent Marshallian demands for shade and non-shade coffee. A numerical simulation shows how relative prices and consumer preferences for the credence attribute and variety are both important factors in demand creation of labeled items.