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Leading with their hearts? How gender stereotypes of emotion lead to biased evaluations of female leaders

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Abstract

The belief that women are more emotional than men is one of the strongest gender stereotypes held in Western cultures (Shields, 2002). And yet, gender stereotypes of emotion have received little attention from gender and leadership scholars. In this paper, I review the existing research on gender and emotions and propose that gender stereotypes of emotion present a fundamental barrier to women's ability to ascend to and succeed in leadership roles. I first define the nature of people's gender-emotion stereotypes and outline why perceptions of emotionality may be particularly detrimental to women when they are in high-status positions in work contexts. I then suggest that gender-emotion stereotypes create two complex minefields that female, but not male, leaders have to navigate in order to be successful: (1) identifying how much emotion should be displayed and (2) identifying what kind of emotions should be displayed. Specifically, female leaders can be penalized for even minor or moderate displays of emotion, especially when the emotion conveys dominance (e.g., anger or pride), but being emotionally unexpressive may also result in penalties because unemotional women are seen as failing to fulfill their warm, communal role as women. I conclude by considering the interactive role of race and ethnicity with regards to gender stereotypes of emotion and proposing avenues for future research.

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... Moreover, Sloan [42] argues that while a "neutral" expression of emotions is permissible in many professional occupations, supervisors' higher hierarchical status may make it more acceptable for them to express negative behaviors associated with anger. This is at least partly because the free expression of anger is often associated with a higher status, masculinity, and power [12,[43][44][45]. ...
... While the existence of gender differences regarding the frequency of such emotional experiences have been called into question, women are expected and found to be more "emotionally expressive" than men [41,46,47]. This greater acceptance of emotional expression often leads to the stereotype that women are less able to control their emotions and are at higher risk of having their emotions influence their thoughts and behaviors [43]. In contrast, traditional gender stereotypes depict men as engaging in behaviors involving agency (i.e., being aggressive, ambitious, dominant, and independent). ...
... Men are also stereotypically considered to be less emotionally intense and more in control of their positive and negative emotions, with two exceptions: anger and pride are considered acceptable emotions for men at work [12,45,48]. When men display anger, it is considered an indicator of power and may even lead to more respect and fear; in contrast, angry women are often judged as complainers or as being too emotional and lacking a communal orientation [43]. ...
Article
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Workplace bullying consists of repeated, long-term exposure to a variety of negative behaviors. However, it remains unclear when behaviors are seen as morally acceptable vs. become bullying. Moral judgments affect whether third parties deem it necessary to intervene. In this qualitative study, we first conceptualize and then explore via 27 interviews with Austrian HR professionals and employee representatives whether twelve diverse negative behaviors elicit distinct causal attributions and moral judgments. In particular, we examine how a perpetrator’s hierarchical position and gender shape the third parties’ evaluations. A qualitative content analysis reveals the behaviors vary in their perceived acceptability and associations with workplace bullying. Ambiguous behaviors require specific cues such a perpetrator’s malicious intent to be labeled workplace bullying. Overall, third parties judge behaviors by supervisors more harshly, particularly when managerial role expectations are violated. The majority of informants reject the notion that their perceptions are affected by perpetrator gender. Still, women who engage in behaviors associated with anger or a lack of empathy are often perceived as acting with intent. The findings suggest that the violation of social role expectations amplifies the attribution of dispositional causes (e.g., malicious intent). We discuss the relevance of perpetrator intent for research and practice.
... Young women's exposure to emotion-related stereotypes leads to many non-trivial negative outcomes, such as social and economic penalties (Salerno et al. 2019;Smith et al. 2016), internal attributions of failure (Barrett and Bliss-Moreau 2009), and altered identities or career paths (Brescoll 2016). Despite the well-documented negative effects of emotion-related stereotypes, research on the extent to which young women's emotional experiences and expressions are influenced by exposure to emotion stereotypes has yet to be examined. ...
... Gender stereotypes about emotion specifically, then, reflect shared beliefs about and expectations for how men and women should experience and express emotions (Fischer 1993). Social role theory of emotion (Brescoll 2016;Eagly et al. 2000;Fiske et al. 2002) describes that gender differences in emotional experiences and expressions are largely culturally constructed and used to reinforce social role expectations which, unfortunately, in American culture, are used to "justify the disadvantaged position of women in society" relative to men (de Lemus et al. 2013, p. 109). ...
... Specifically, because messages about females' heightened emotional experiences and expressions are pervasive in American society, it is important to begin identifying and challenging the deeply engrained emotion-related stereotypes that contribute to gender inequality in society. The identification and challenging of emotion stereotypes may begin to mitigate the many non-trivial negative outcomes-social and economic penalties (Salerno et al. 2019;Smith et al. 2016), internal attributions of failure (Barrett and Bliss-Moreau 2009), and altered identities or career paths (Brescoll 2016)-that have been routinely linked to young women's exposure to emotion-related stereotypes. ...
Article
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Despite prevailing scientific evidence to the contrary, gender stereotypes of emotion maintain that females are more emotional than males. Although inaccurate gender stereotypes of emotions abound, the extent to which young women are influenced by emotion stereotypes is unknown. The current study examines if exposure to stereotype messages about expressing emotions, and the consequences of expressing such emotions, affects young women’s experience and expression of emotions. Using an experimental design, young women were randomly assigned to hear (and read) one of four messages directly or indirectly describing females’ emotional experiences and expressions relative to males’, and the negative or positive consequences of such experiences and expressions. Participants then reported their willingness to express emotions via the 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al. in J Personal Soc Psychol 54(6):1063–1070, 1988. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063) and engaged in an “Emotion-Recollection Task” (Hess et al. in Cognit Emot 14(5):609–642, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699930050117648; Weinstein and Hodgins in Personal Soc Psychol Bull 35(3):351–364, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167208328165) where they described, in writing, a recent emotional life event. Results revealed that participants were more comfortable expressing negative emotions, and demonstrated a greater willingness to actually express their emotions, when exposed to direct rather than indirect stereotyped messages. Although the young women did not report feeling more comfortable expressing their emotions following emotion-related stereotypes with positive or negative consequences, they did in fact use more emotion words when a stereotype message reflected positive rather than negative consequences. The study demonstrates how emotion-related stereotypes may affect the lived experience of young women.
... In addition to emotion stereotypes, people often believe that there is a tradeoff between emotion and cognition. Throughout Western cultures, emotions are believed to hinder the ability to think rationally; therefore, individuals should control their emotions when making decisions (Barrett & BlissMoreau, 2009;Brescoll, 2016). This belief in an affectcognition conflict persists despite research that supports affective and cognitive processes occurring interdependently in the brain (Brescoll, 2016). ...
... Throughout Western cultures, emotions are believed to hinder the ability to think rationally; therefore, individuals should control their emotions when making decisions (Barrett & BlissMoreau, 2009;Brescoll, 2016). This belief in an affectcognition conflict persists despite research that supports affective and cognitive processes occurring interdependently in the brain (Brescoll, 2016). Furthermore, the ability of emotions to aid in decisionmaking tends to be disregarded (Seo & Barrett, 2007). ...
... Furthermore, the ability of emotions to aid in decisionmaking tends to be disregarded (Seo & Barrett, 2007). This perceived tradeoff between emotion and cognition could negatively affect women's success as leaders and in STEM fields (Brescoll, 2016;Shields, 2002); thus, we are concerned with understanding how women endorse both cognition and emotion stereotypes. ...
Article
Clothing type can have a significant impact on the way people are perceived. In this study, we were interested in the effect of business versus casual clothing on the perception of Asian American women, given various stereotypes about them. We used a between-subjects design with a sample of college students from a university in the United States. Participants saw 3 Asian American women (and 1 European American woman to distract from the nature of the study) in either business attire or casual outfits, and rated each woman on a series of descriptors based off various stereotypes of Asian American women. We used the Scale of Anti-Asian American Stereotypes to measure internal prejudice toward Asian Americans and the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory to measure sexism. The Scale of Anti-Asian American stereotypes was a significant covariate, F(4, 233) = 6.09, p < .001, ηp2 = .10. Participants rated models in business attire as less stereotypically Asian, F(1, 239) = 46.56, p < .001, ηp2 = .17, less sexualized, F(1, 239) = 12.91, p < .001, ηp2 = .05, and less invisible, F(1, 239) = 42.01, p < .001, ηp2 = .15. Our results show that stereotypes can indeed be influenced by business attire. It is important to note that future research may be oriented toward changing the attitudes of those who hold harmful stereotypes, rather than the actions (i.e., clothing choices) of the subjects of prejudice.
... Other scholars have found that women in power are rated as less effective (Lucas and Baxter, 2012;Hoyt and Burnette, 2013;Hoyt and Simon, 2016), receive lower performance ratings, fewer rewards (i.e., salary, bonuses and promotions; Joshi et al., 2015) and are less likely to be hired in male-dominated jobs than men (Koch et al., 2015). Further, work performance of women is more scrutinized (Kanter, 1977;Ryan and Haslam, 2007;Brescoll, 2016) and women are held to higher standards when it comes to promotions compared to their male colleagues (Lyness and Heilman, 2006;Inesi and Cable, 2015;Hoobler et al., 2018). ...
... We developed a scale using a genetic algorithm with the goal to assess the two facets microinsults and microinvalidations. The microinvalidations factor consists of items focusing on the unequal standards women are held against compared to their male colleagues (e.g., women might have to prove themselves more and find their work overly scrutinized compared to men, Ryan and Haslam, 2007;Brescoll, 2016;Hoobler et al., 2018). The factor microinsults includes items that convey hostility such as sexualization, being made fun of or mentioning the menstrual cycle. ...
... The data suggest a low association between the MIMI-16 and work engagement and occupational self-efficacy, respectively. This might point to the fact that women in general feel the need to work harder in order to fulfill the higher standard and receive promotions (Brescoll, 2016;Hoobler et al., 2018), regardless of their experience of microinvalidations and -insults. Another possible explanation for this result could be rooted in the fact that the majority of participants held a university degree, indicating the possibility that they are operating on a high level of professionalism. ...
Article
Full-text available
Gender microaggressions, especially its subtler forms microinsults and microinvalidations are by definition hard to discern. We aim to construct and validate a scale reflecting two facets of the microaggression taxonomy: microinsults and microinvalidations toward women in the workplace, the MIMI-16. Two studies were conducted (N1 = 500, N2 = 612). Using a genetic algorithm, a 16-item scale was developed and consequently validated via confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) in three separate validation samples. Correlational analyses with organizational outcome measures were performed. The MIMI-16 exhibits good model fit in all validation samples (CFI = 0.936-0.960, TLI = 0.926-0.954, RMSEA = 0.046-0.062, SRMR = 0.042-0.049). Multigroup-CFA suggested strict measurement invariance between all validation samples. Correlations were as expected and indicate internal and external validity. Scholars on gender microaggressions have mostly used qualitative research. With the newly developed MIMI-16 we provide a reliable and valid quantitative instrument to measure gender microaggressions in the workplace.
... Pre-existing gender biases in science therefore present a particular barrier to female scientists in their media appearances, alongside other challenges faced by women in science (Bostock, 2014;Cislak et al., 2018;Handelsman et al., 2005;Moss-Racusin et al., 2012, 2016. Women receive less support when considering entry to PhD areas, lower evaluations for writing skills and journal articles (Gannon et al., 2001), fewer citations (Larivière et al., 2013), lower funding success (Bornmann et al., 2007), lower pay and slower career progression (Ceci and Williams, 2007). ...
... More significantly, male participants rated the female scientists as significantly more biased and dramatic than the female participants did, both of which are stereotypically seen as being contrary to the norms of science. This finding is consistent with similar studies on gender-based stereotypes of those in leadership positions, with female leaders generally considered as more dramatic and more prone to making emotionally-driven judgements (Brescoll, 2016;Fischbach et al., 2015). It is also notable that these attributes are associated with media coverage of science, which scientists generally view as negative (Besley and Nisbet, 2013). ...
Article
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This research explores whether environmental scientists perceive their male and female peers differently when making statements in the media including policy advocacy. Environmental scientists in the United Kingdom were provided with a media statement by a fictitious scientist containing a mixture of scientific information and advocacy, and asked to rate the statement against various attributes. Attributes were designed to represent stereotypes associated with male and female tendencies, and with science (impartial objectivity) and the media (dramatic narrative). The statements were randomly assigned to one of two male and two female scientists. Where the statements were attributed to a female scientist, male environmental scientists rated the fictitious scientist as significantly more 'dramatic' and 'biased' than their female counterparts did. These gendered attributes are typically held as contrary to the norms of science, suggesting an implicit bias among male scientists when reviewing their female peers' media statements.
... Thus, men might not benefit as much from expressing anger as women do from expressing sadness. Also, authors have argued that stereotypes about emotion expression might especially impede women (Brescoll, 2016;Fischer, 1993;Shields, 2002). Hence, we posit the difference between the effects of leader counter-stereotypical (i.e., male-sadness, female-anger) and stereotypical emotion expression (i.e., male-anger, female-sadness) on leadership evaluations will be greater for female leaders than it is for male leaders. ...
... In addition, we highlight that male leaders do not "benefit" from angry displays; rather, they seem to be less penalized than female leaders are. Altogether, this is in line with the idea that gender-emotion stereotypes might be more damaging to women than they are to men (Brescoll, 2016;Shields, 2002) because of the historically charged stereotypes of women being labeled as "emotional" (Shields, 2007). This is also in line with an Affect ...
Article
The goal of this research was to replicate findings related to followers’ negative evaluations of leaders expressing counter-stereotypical emotions (e.g., females displaying anger, males displaying sadness). Drawing on predictions of the Challenge versus Threat model, this research also extended those findings by examining whether follower positive and negative affects mediated the relationship between leaders’ counter-stereotypical emotional displays and followers’ leadership evaluations. In an online experiment, participants completed a reasoning task and received personalized performance feedback from a virtual manager represented by an avatar (male or female) displaying an emotion (neutral, angry, or sad). Participants reported task-related positive and negative affects and rated their manager (trust, perceived effectiveness, and leader-member exchange). We replicated previous studies showing that displaying counter-stereotypical emotions has a negative influence on leadership evaluations. We did not find support for the mediating role of followers’ affects in the relationship between counter-stereotypical emotional displays and leadership evaluations; although these affects influenced followers’ ratings of their manager. We discuss these findings using Backlash and Role Congruity Theory perspectives and present their theoretical and practical implications.
... Servant leaders appear as visionary with a high level of trust, role models empowering followers, communicating through listening and influencing the followers (Gregory Stone et al., 2004). Brescoll (2016) highlighted that women exhibit more emotion-driven behavior than men, while emotional behavior can negatively affect leadership behavior, especially when it comes to female leaders. ...
... However, Brescoll (2016) also identified emotional behavior as a potential strength and an advantage of female leaders, while this behavior manifests itself as a trait of a servant leader. Reynolds (2011) states that adapting the servant leadership style as a combination of agentic and communal features is a potential leadership style that would help women exhibit behaviors congruent with their gender role and be perceived as successful leaders. ...
Conference Paper
Purpose: This paper examines insights into leadership communication at German public universities during the Covid-19 pandemic. It aims to answer the following two research questions: Did the communication of rectors and vice-rectors during the pandemic show signs of transformational, transactional, or servant leadership styles, and were there gender differences? Did the rectors communicate in a positive, neutral, or negative tone, and did this communication differ by gender? Design/methodology/approach: We examine three leadership styles (i.e., transformational, transactional, and servant leadership styles) in a sentiment-based qualitative study of web-based data, such as online texts and verbal statements from publicly available communication channels. The significance of this study is to examine gender differences in text and verbal messages and also to understand how communication and social media reflect on leadership. Findings: The findings support our hypotheses, and confirm gender differences: Women are more likely to have a transformational leadership style than men. Men are often attributed to transactional leadership characteristics. Furthermore, women's communication is more favorable than that of male rectors and vice-rectors at German public universities, whilst communicating messages more positively has the power to encourage and inspire. Research limitations/implications: The manually collected data (for an intense time period for public universities) appears to create the possibility that not all of the individual's online communication statements are captured. Practical Implications: The statements' content appears mainly in German, and the tone and message may appear to be linguistic inconsistencies. All comments are translated into English by an online translator. Originality/value: How women exercise leadership and publicly communicate in a crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, has not yet been researched extensively. Workspace gender equality is an essential aspect of leadership, despite decades of regulation and intended interventions to ideally promote gender-equal representation in leadership positions. The findings positively contribute to the academic literature and encourage greater representation of women in leadership positions, as their potential remains untapped.
... Among various verified emotions, gender stereotypes for happiness and anger were found to be strongest in interpersonal settings (Scherer et al., 1986), making these two emotions widely applied to test implicit attitudes of emotional expression (Hess et al., 2009;Krumhuber & Manstead, 2011;Åsli & Øvervoll, 2020). Such studies mostly focused on the gender stereotypes of emotion, particularly regarding women in high-status professions (e.g., Lewis, 2000), exploring the preconception of women as lacking emotional control (Brescoll, 2016). However, this feminine stereotype is likely to affect the interpersonal communication and interaction of men and women in the workplace (Moons et al., 2016). ...
... Our findings also offer a fresh perspective on intensive emotional labor management in hospitality. Different from findings in other studies that mostly emphasized gender stereotypes of emotion as factors delaying female workers' promotion and success in leadership roles (Brescoll, 2016), our study indicates that this stereotype brings development opportunities for female leaders in hotels when masculine and feminine traits are well leveraged in challenging times. The hospitality sector has high requirements for employees' emotional management, particularly in emotional expression and contagion (Xu et al., 2020). ...
Article
Gender stereotyping has brought enormous challenges to organizational human resource management, and scholars and practitioners have devoted efforts to weaken or even eliminate the negative effects of masculine stereotypes on female workers. However, feminine stereotypes are not well understood, and the opportunity for femininity as a leadership trait in certain fields begs further empirical examination. For that reason, this study breaks down the single gender-leadership stereotype of masculinity, extending the gender-emotion stereotype of femininity to explore androgynous cues for employees’ perceived emotional leadership (PEL) in hospitality. By conducting three studies—two Implicit Association Tests with 124 participants and a study with 466 participants—we verified the effect of gender stereotypes on hospitality leadership traits and emotional traits. The findings show that employees with different ideal gender roles of leadership (IGRL) have different degrees of PEL and employees with androgynous IGRL have higher PEL. Overall, this study suggests the necessity of androgynous leadership role and androgynous management styles in hospitality workplaces.
... Among the emerging topics, the most pervasive one is women reaching leadership positions in the workforce and in society. This is still a rare occurrence for two main types of factors, on the one hand, bias and discrimination make it harder for women to access leadership positions [e.g., [214][215][216], on the other hand, the competitive nature and high pressure associated with leadership positions, coupled with the lack of women currently represented, reduce women's desire to achieve them [e.g., 209,217]. Women are more effective leaders when they have access to education, resources and a diverse environment with representation [e.g., 218,219]. ...
... Among other factors, an entrepreneur's success depends on her/his ability to gather financial support for her/his venture, which plays a crucial role in venture survival and growth (Amit et al., 1990;Berger & Udell, 1998). Access to financing is a great challenge for female entrepreneurs (Alsos et al., 2006;Azam Roomi et al., 2009;Harrison & Mason, 2007) because investors are typically influenced by gender stereotypes (Eagly & Karau, 2002), according to which women are less competent (e.g., De Pater et al., 2010;Northouse, 2003;Oakley, 2000;Yang & Aldrich, 2014) and trustworthy (e.g., Brescoll, 2016;Hacker, 1951) than men. These stereotypes lead investors to differently value female entrepreneurs (Carter et al., 2007;Eddleston et al., 2016;Kanze et al., 2018), associating poorer evaluations to their business ideas (Malmström et al., 2017(Malmström et al., , 2018Tinkler et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Plain English Summary University education affects the gender gap in entrepreneurship among STEM graduates! Attending courses aggregating students from multiple STEM programs and doing internships enhance this gap, while training in economics and management reduces it. Women are severely underrepresented among STEM graduate entrepreneurs. Our study investigates the relationship between university education in STEM fields and entrepreneurial entry of recent female and male graduates. Using data on 13,840 graduates who obtained a Master of Science degree in the 2005–2009 period from Politecnico di Milano, we find that attending courses in economics and management reduces the gender imbalance in entrepreneurial entry among STEM recent graduates. The gap is instead larger among the graduates who attended courses aggregating students from different STEM fields or did an internship. Our study offers important implications for university managers, as it helps them design university curricula in STEM fields that may be more conducive to female entrepreneurial entry.
... Again, although these findings represent only a small sample of leaders, they do provide some insight into the potential differences and similarities across gender. We might speculate, for example, that findings are consistent with the argument that women may be viewed negatively if they display emotion by engaging in either a charismatic or ideological style (Brescoll, 2016;Brescoll et al., 2018) and may be pressured into a more pragmatic leadership style as they feel it necessary to explain and justify their leadership decisions. Future research will be necessary (see also Griffith & Medeiros, 2020), but this area of investigation appears worthy of consideration. ...
Book
Abstract: The charismatic, ideological, and pragmatic (CIP) theory of leadership has emerged as a novel framework for thinking about the varying ways leaders can influence followers. The theory is based on the principle of equifinality or the notion that there are multiple pathways to the same outcome. Researchers of the CIP theory have proposed that leaders are effective by engaging in one, or a mix, of the three leader pathways: the charismatic approach focused on an emotionally evocative vision, an ideological approach focused on core beliefs and values, or a pragmatic approach focused on an appeal of rationality and problem-solving. Formation of pathways and unique follower responses are described. The more than fifteen years of empirical work investigating the theory are summarized, and the theory is compared and contrasted to other commonly studied and popular frameworks of leadership. Strengths, weaknesses, and avenues for future investigation of the CIP theory are discussed
... Our results echo this line of research and show that women are less frequently penalized when they violate gender norms for emotionality in politics because it seems that people understand that the arena demands actions that are sometimes at odds with feminine stereotypes. The findings about women's ability to avoid penalties for expressing masculine emotion challenges a body of literature that suggests gender-emotion stereotypes present fundamental barriers to women's ability to effectively lead, particularly when those emotional displays are overtly masculine (Brescoll, 2016;Brescoll & Uhlmann, 2008). This may be good news for women entering politics, but it does not mean that gender biases no longer permeate and influence voter perceptions. ...
Article
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Emotional appeals are powerful motivators of political action. Yet the gender of a politician and the existing stereotypes held by audiences complicate the determination of which type of emotional appeal is best suited for different issue areas. In what ways do politicians' emotional appeals serve to mitigate or exacerbate the impact of gender stereotypes across different policy domains? This research examines when politicians pay penalties or gain rewards for their emotional expressions using a survey experiment on a diverse national sample. We find evidence that women politicians are on equal footing or stand to benefit when expressing masculine emotions while also having greater emotional freedom across policy domains. Men politicians, on the other hand, are significantly punished for not acting "manly" enough in masculine policy domains. Nonetheless, these patterns become complicated by both situational context and partisan expectations. The results provide promise for the future prospects of women politicians while pointing to the continued relevance of gendered stereotypes about emotionality in today's political world. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11109-021-09727-5.
... Among the emerging topics, the most pervasive one is women reaching leadership positions in the workforce and in society. This is still a rare occurrence for two main types of factors, on the one hand, bias and discrimination make it harder for women to access leadership positions [e.g., [214][215][216], on the other hand, the competitive nature and high pressure associated with leadership positions, coupled with the lack of women currently represented, reduce women's desire to achieve them [e.g., 209,217]. Women are more effective leaders when they have access to education, resources and a diverse environment with representation [e.g., 218,219]. ...
Article
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Gender equality is a major problem that places women at a disadvantage thereby stymieing economic growth and societal advancement. In the last two decades, extensive research has been conducted on gender related issues, studying both their antecedents and consequences. However, existing literature reviews fail to provide a comprehensive and clear picture of what has been studied so far, which could guide scholars in their future research. Our paper offers a scoping review of a large portion of the research that has been published over the last 22 years, on gender equality and related issues, with a specific focus on business and economics studies. Combining innovative methods drawn from both network analysis and text mining, we provide a synthesis of 15,465 scientific articles. We identify 27 main research topics, we measure their relevance from a semantic point of view and the relationships among them, highlighting the importance of each topic in the overall gender discourse. We find that prominent research topics mostly relate to women in the workforce-e.g., concerning compensation, role, education, decision-making and career progression. However, some of them are losing momentum, and some other research trends-for example related to female entrepreneurship, leadership and participation in the board of directors-are on the rise. Besides introducing a novel methodology to review broad literature streams, our paper offers a map of the main gender-research trends and presents the most popular and the emerging themes, as well as their intersections, outlining important avenues for future research.
... Alternatively, gender norms may play an influential role in the formation of the promotora identity. For instance, women are often expected to be accommodating and emotional while engaging early on in domestic behaviors such as caretaking (Brescoll, 2016). For some Latinas who were raised in traditional gender roles, the value of marianismo may have led to be socialized into normative behaviors of self-sacrificing and tending to others' needs, starting in early childhood (Mendez-Luck & Anthony, 2016). ...
Article
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Promotoras de salud are community health workers that mostly help the underserved members of Latinx communities. They seek to reduce health disparities through community engagement and work that is voluntary or mostly unpaid. While there is evidence that promotoras aid in prevention, follow-up care, and treatment adherence, little is known about promotoras themselves, specifically, the impact that fulfilling their roles has on their views of themselves and their service identities. Fourteen Spanish-speaking, Latina promotoras were interviewed individually about their experiences and their motivation for the role. Four themes emerged from the content analysis of the participant responses: "Uno Nace Siendo Promotora:" One is Born Being a Promotora, "Poner Esa Semillita:" To Plant a Seed by Sharing Knowledge, "Es un Regalo Ser Promotora:" It is a Gift to be a Promotora, and "Se Hace por Amor pero también Hay Necesidad:" A Labor of Love but there are Needs too. The findings show that assuming and enacting the promotora role had positive benefits, both personal and professional, despite the often-limited recognition they received. The findings have multiple implications for the development of health and prevention programs, particularly for those that involve promotoras de salud.
... This complementary effect has been demonstrated in several studies (Abele and Wojciszke, 2007;Fiske and Taylor, 2007;Kervyn et al., 2012). For example, when women exhibit stereotypically positive traits and behaviors, such as warmth and friendliness, in the work environment, they also tend to be assessed as showing stereotypically negative traits such as being less competent and less capable of leading than men (Williams and Tiedens, 2015;Brescoll, 2016). In summary, the perception of the target as having both stereotypically positive and stereotypically negative traits (in the current study, being virtuous and being incompetent, respectively) could mediate the association between the evaluation and attitude toward the evaluation. ...
Article
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People typically reject being negatively stereotyped but overlook the ways in which they are positively stereotyped. The current study focused on the attitude of Chinese women toward being evaluated based on the traditional positive stereotype that women are virtuous; family/work centrality as a boundary condition of these attitudes; and three perceptions that may mediate the link between this type of evaluation and attitudes of women. In experiment 1, female college students were identified as work-oriented or family-oriented based on their responses to a questionnaire regarding their focus on these two domains. They then read a vignette in which a man evaluated a female target under random assignment to one of three conditions, namely: group positive stereotype evaluation, individual positive stereotype evaluation, or unstereotypical positive evaluation. The participants rated how much they liked the female target, as an indicator of their attitude toward evaluations based on the stereotype that women are virtuous. In experiment 2, female college students were classified as work- oriented or family-oriented, and then read a vignette in which a man (the target) evaluated them. They were randomly assigned to the group positive stereotype evaluation, individual positive stereotype evaluation, or unstereotypical positive evaluation. Participants rated how much they liked the male target, as an indicator of their attitude toward evaluations based on the positive stereotype that women are virtuous. Across both studies, ANOVA showed that work-oriented women liked evaluations based on both group and individual stereotypes less than the family-oriented women. Regression-based analyses showed evidence of a mediation process in which work-oriented women viewed the virtuous positive stereotype as implying a prescriptive social demand that women should engage in family roles, resulting in a negative reaction to this type of evaluation.
... In accordance with Role Congruity Theory (Eagly and Karau, 2002), women are often reluctant to negotiate, because initiating negotiations is perceived as stereotypically male behavior. Moreover, expressions of emotions commonly associated with leadership characteristics, such as anger and pride (Brescoll, 2016), are more widely tolerated and even appreciated when they emanate from men compared to women (Brescoll and Uhlmann, 2008). The expression of gender roles is a complex phenomenon though. ...
Article
Despite increased awareness of the lack of gender equity in academia and a growing number of initiatives to address issues of diversity, change is slow, and inequalities remain. A major source of inequity is gender bias, which has a substantial negative impact on the careers, work-life balance, and mental health of underrepresented groups in science. Here, we argue that gender bias is not a single problem but manifests as a collection of distinct issues that impact researchers’ lives. We disentangle these facets and propose concrete solutions that can be adopted by individuals, academic institutions, and society.
... However, the fact that low value communal traits were judged as not fitting suggests that non-favorable communal traits emerge as genderintensified proscriptions (Prentice & Carranza, 2002) or dark traits that have only a dark side (Judge et al., 2009). Traits such as 'crying easily', due to its high emotional content (Brescoll, 2016), or 'submission', which is the opposite of 'dominance', imply a vulnerability and weakness that seem to inhibit the individual's ability to cope with the demands of any business. ...
Article
Role congruity theory postulates that traditionally there is a mismatch between the communal qualities associated with women and the masculine or agentic qualities considered necessary in a good leader. Thus, female candidates are presumed to be less suitable for leadership roles. The purpose of this study is to discover the conditions under which this (in)congruity may fluctuate. In a hypothetical manager recruitment process done in Spain, two profiles (agentic and communal) were associated with female and male candidates to explore variations according to the organizational setting (profit-oriented or civic-minded company) and the value attributed to candidates’ qualities (high or low). Results showed congruity between candidates’ profile and organizational setting when their trait value was high: agentic candidates were preferred over communal candidates for the profit-oriented company, with the reverse occurring for the civic-minded company. However, candidates’ sex apparently played no significant role in participants’ decision making; additionally, when the value of candidates’ traits was low, congruity was only found for the profit-oriented company. We conclude that, overall, the agentic construal of management, with its good and bad features, still has the upper hand in the current vision of leadership.
... Women politicians have long been subjected to gendered stereotypes apparent in visual representations (Bauer & Carpinella, 2018). Women are often associated with feminine qualities deemed less desirable in the political sphere, such as warmth, collaboration, and emotionality (Brescoll, 2016). Female attractiveness also (typically) negatively activates gender stereotypes and harms perceptions of their electability (Sigelman et al., 1987; see also Mattes et al., 2010). ...
Article
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This study examines how Instagram’s design and norms influence expectations for political imagery and, subsequently, the effects of these images on electability, vote likelihood, and candidate evaluations. Using the Elaboration Likelihood Model, we propose three norms of Instagram that likely function as heuristic cues and affect the reception of political visual communication on the platform: liveness, authenticity, and emotionality. We experimentally test these visual features on Congressional candidate images, finding some evidence that live, authentic, and emotional images positively influence vote likelihood but negatively impact electability. Results also indicate that live, authentic, and emotional images either have no or negative effects on female candidate evaluations or have no or positive effects on male candidate evaluations.
... Additional research on this and related topics are available. This includes evaluations of male versus female leaders based on their competence versus potential, their tendency to express emotions, and evaluations in the aftermath of some failure (e.g., Brescoll, 2016;Ellemers et al., 2012;Gündemir, Carton, et al., 2019;Heilman & Okimoto, 2007;Hoyt & Burnette, 2013;Hutchinson et al., 2017;Lyness & Heilman, 2006;Montgomery & Cowen, 2020;Player et al., 2019;Vial et al., 2016). 21 Begeny, Wong, Kirby, & Rink (2021 ...
Chapter
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Leaders exist in myriad types of groups. Yet in many of them—including in organizational, political, and educational domains—leadership roles are disproportionately occupied by individuals of certain social categories (e.g., men, white individuals). Speaking to this imbalance in representation, there is a wealth of theory and research indicating that gender and race are key to understanding: (a) who tends to get placed in leadership roles, and (b) what an individual’s experience will be like while in that role or on the path to it. In part, this is because there are commonly held stereotypes that make certain individuals—often those of socially dominant racial and gender groups—seem better suited for leadership. By comparison, individuals of other genders and races are often perceived and evaluated as less suitable and treated as such (e.g., deprived of opportunities to become leaders or develop leadership skills). These stereotypes can also elicit disparate internal states (e.g., stereotype threat, internalized negative self-perceptions) that affect individuals’ likelihood of pursuing or obtaining such roles (e.g., by affecting their motivation or performance). In this way, leadership dynamics are intimately connected to the study of gender and race. Overall, these dynamics involve several psychological processes. This includes myriad forms of gender and racial bias—discrimination in evaluations, pay, hiring, promotions, and in access to role models, mentorship, and support; backlash effects, queen bee effects (self-group distancing), glass cliff effects, motherhood penalties, and fatherhood bonuses. It also involves multiple lines of theorizing—role congruity theory, lack of fit, masculine defaults and ambient belonging, modern sexism, aversive racism, social identity threat, and others. Looking ahead, there are several critical directions for advancing research on gender, race, and leadership. This includes examining leadership processes from a more precise, intersectional lens rather than studying the implications of one’s gender or race in isolation (e.g., by integrating work on intersectionality theory, gendered races, and intersectional invisibility). Future study of these processes will also need to consider other relevant social identities (e.g., reflecting class, religion, age, sexuality, ability and neurodiversity, nationality, and immigration status), along with a more thorough consideration of gender—going beyond the study of (cisgender) men and women to consider how transgender and gender-nonconforming individuals are perceived and treated in leadership roles or on the path to such roles. Additionally, and ultimately, it will be critical to develop effective strategies for addressing the underrepresentation of women, racial and ethnic minorities, and other social groups in leadership. In part this will mean carefully evaluating strategies now being employed (e.g., organizational diversity messages, quotas and affirmative action, mentorship programs)—including those that may be largely ineffective, if not causing harm (e.g., implicit bias training, campaigning for women to “lean in”). Addressing the lack of diversity in leadership will be a crucial step toward tackling broader issues of social inequity.
... Self-control refers to the degree of impulse control, the sense of responsibility and the ability to adjust external pressure (McKenna et al. 2020). Brescoll (2016) points out that compared with men, women are less likely to control their emotional exposure, so it is difficult for women to control their thoughts and behaviours caused by emotions. However, the results of this paper show that not all women are difficult to control their emotions and behaviours, female leaders with specific attributes can do the controlling. ...
Article
With the economic globalization, the development of Chinese enterprises and employees' demand for leadership performance of leaders is constantly changing. And the leadership of female leaders or female characteristics has been gradually proved to be more in line with the future development of the enterprise. Due to the continuous growth of the number of female leaders and the continuous recognition of their leadership abilities, it is also important to study the leadership traits of female leaders or the changes in leadership traits brought about by the changes in their personal attributes. The research object of this paper is the female leaders of the Internet promotion service industry in Guangdong Province, China. Independent-Samples T-Test and One-Way ANOVA in the SPSS software are used to analyze whether the personal attributes of female leaders have an impact on the performance of leadership traits, and which traits are affected. The results show that 4 of the 8 personal attributes studied in this paper have an impact on the performance of leadership traits, and 14 of the 34 leadership traits studied are affected by different personal attributes of female leaders. This research can provide a reference for organizations to formulate relevant policies, optimize the structure of managemnet and give female leaders the opportunity to fully demonstrate their strengths. In addition, female staff should be treated more fairly in human resources recruitment and promotion. The behavior of organizations to reduce gender bias can promote women‘s better career development.
... For example, according to role congruity theory, any conflict between the gender norms expected of women (e.g., to be communal) and the social norms expected of a gender-typed job (e.g., an electrical powerline worker), can create challenges for women in these occupations. Women who display agentic traits that are stereotypical of their job position (rather than being stereotypical of women) are more likely to be criticized compared to men who display similar traits in the same situations (Brescoll, 2016;Gupta et al., 2018;Yildirim et al., 2019). ...
Article
Job interviews are cognitively demanding tasks for interviewers. However, it is unclear whether the high cognitive load (CL) that interviewers face will ultimately compromise the resistance to discrimination that otherwise distinguishes structured interviews from other selection methods. Using a two-study experimental design, we explored the effect of cognitive load on gender discrimination in structured job interviews. In Study 1, participants completed an online interview simulation in which they assessed both a male and a female candidate applying for either a male- or female-dominated job, while under either a high or low degree of cognitive load. Participants provided ratings of each candidate's suitability for the job as well as a final, ipsative hiring decision. Study 2 served as a larger replication of Study 1. Overall, CL was not found to affect candidate ratings. These results support the structured interview's general resistance to discrimination. Practitioner points • Previous research supports structured interviews' relative resistance to discrimination. • Our research demonstrates that structured interviews can minimize discrimination, even when hiring for highly “gendered” jobs. • The (small) effects of discrimination were different in our study for each of the following outcomes: ratings of specific competencies, global candidate ratings, and final hiring decisions. • Certain competencies themselves may be gender-typed. Using structured ratings can mitigate the extent to which stereotypes ultimately translate into discriminatory candidate ratings. • Across the two studies, there was some reliance on heuristic decision-making under conditions of high cognitive load. • The overall weak effects of cognitive load on participants' overall hiring decisions highlights the structured interview's resistance to discrimination.
... It occurs unconsciously in the male community and is difficult to avoid (Blair, 2002). The men tend to perceive women as less competent in their interactions (De Pater et al., 2010;Oakley, 2000), more unpredictable (Brescoll, 2016), and less authoritative (Hacker, 1951). This gender bias and stereotyping are grounded and more evident in male-dominated contexts such as entrepreneurship (Acs et al., 2011;Bardasi et al., 2011). ...
... Leadership is, for example, consistently found to be associated with men and masculinity (Hoffman & Musch, 2019;Koenig et al., 2011;Vial et al., 2016). Female leaders are also seen as emotional and lacking emotional stability and control to a higher extent than men (Brescoll, 2016). Not only do stereotypes influence how a person is evaluated, they may also serve as a context for self-perceptions (Eagly et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Gender stereotypes play a potent role in how the work of men and women is perceived and valued. Stereotypes also influence the way people look upon themselves. In the present research, two studies are reported where men and women at work rated the degree of warmth and competence of a person with their own occupation, and how they think people in general would perceive a person in the same occupation. A wider gap between own perceptions and that of people in general was expected for women than for men, as it was assumed that the view of other people’s perceptions would serve as a proxy for stereotype threat for women. Study 1 comprised 449 participants (74 % women) working within the public sector, mainly in social, caring, and education professions, and Study 2 comprised a convenience sample of 189 participants (70 % women) from a variety of sectors and professions. Both studies yielded consistent results; contradictory to what was expected, men and women did not differ in terms of how they thought people in general would perceive the competence of their occupation, instead women rated the competence of their own occupation higher than men did, even after controlling for type of occupation and educational level. Warmth displayed only minor gender differences. The results are discussed in relation to research on counter-reactions against stereotype threat, how the concept of competence could be understood, as well as other possible explanations of the unexpected results.
... Compared to men, women are viewed as less able to control whether their emotions influence their thoughts and behaviour. Brescoll (2016) explained: ...
Chapter
This chapter, ‘National and District Support for Women Aspiring to Careers in School Leadership in Ethiopia’, is by Turuwark Zalalam Warkineh, Tizita Lemma Melka and Jill Sperandio. These authors focused on the experiences of women leaders as they are struggling to make a career in administrative districts and school principalship in Ethiopia. This chapter is based on rich qualitative experiences of twenty-one women currently employed in one district and also serving in some elementary schools. The authors bring attention to structural barriers of patriarchy and gender stereotypes at play against women as they navigate careers in educational leadership and working against traditional stereotypes of the role of women in society. Their analysis highlights why women continue to be under-represented in all levels of educational leadership in Ethiopia, despite policy efforts. The authors end with helpful recommendations on what needs to be done to advance women already serving in educational leadership and those in the pipeline who aspire to serve as school principals. They draw implications for leadership development and bring attention to the need to provide guidelines for pre-leadership training for women at national level and to establish forums for women educational leaders at district level. A more poignant suggestion is made regarding the need for explicit commitment to gender equality through gender training of male officials and principals to change their attitudes and mindsets about their treatment and perceptions of women and their place in society.
... Despite the substantial increase in the number of women in representative political institutions over the past decades, systematic barriers facing women in their pursuit of gender equality in various aspects of political, social, and economic life show no sign of abating (Weldon, 2002). Empirical research from across the globe has shown that women and men are often held to different standards when competence and leadership are evaluated (Heilman, 2001;Eagly & Karau, 2002;Brescoll, 2016), and that female candidates are less likely to get recruited by political parties (Fox & Lawless, 2010;Sanbonmatsu, 2002). Furthermore, they are less likely to respond positively to recruitment efforts due to gendered perceptions of competition in the nomination and promotion processes (Butler & Preece, 2016). ...
Article
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Although various explanations have been proposed in regard to the persistency of patriarchal attitudes and gendered outcomes in political processes, much of the scholarly attention has focused on structural factors related to cultural dynamics and modernization. Motivated by a growing body of research looking into the role political elites play in shaping public attitudes about issues of normative importance, we make an attempt to shift empirical focus to shorter-term dynamics and understand how elite cues can undermine gender egalitarian values within the mass public. Drawing on an original population-based survey experiment of over 2700 subjects from a nation-wide face-to-face survey in Turkey, we examined how President Erdogan’s patriarchal statements influence gender-egalitarian attitudes and how this influence varies across partisan groups. Our results show that the treatment group, relative to the control group, reports significantly lower levels of gender-egalitarian attitudes, and this effect is discernible even among secular opposition party voters. We conclude by discussing the potential implications of our findings for the study of gender-egalitarian values and elite influence in political processes.
... On the other hand, women's social expectations as mothers and guardians are directly and meaningfully related to traits such as productive, participatory or creative (Bhat & Sisodia 2016). In addition, understanding empathy that replicates competencies such as care and community (Brescoll, 2016), emotional sensitivity (Glass & Cook, 2016), or the ability to listen to and help young coworkers qualify, Is considered female leadership (Pafford & Schaefer, 2017). ...
... Therefore, an important element of workers involves in performing one's appropriate role based on interconnecting hierarchies of race, gender and class.' According to the study of Victoria L. Brescoll (2016), beliefs and thought processes of people about gender and emotion may harm the chances of women leaders for getting success. That would be harmful to the organisations too. ...
Conference Paper
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In general terms, it is said that women are more emotional and they are also better at expressing emotions than men. They naturally have an ability to express their emotions. These gender stereotypes of emotions may affect both men and women to enhance their abilities at work. Display of appropriate emotions in employees help organizations in achieving greater productivity. The main aim of this study is to investigate gendered nature of emotional labour and how it influences the working behaviour of teaching faculty in Business schools. Simultaneously this study explores the differences in displaying emotions of male teaching faculty as well as female teaching faculty. According to previous research, there are two main strategies to display emotional labour. They are 'surface acting' and 'deep acting'. This research tries to find out the strategies that help male and female teaching faculty while assigning tasks to students and solving their problems. This research is based on a survey method. The data of 112 respondents from various business schools in Pune, which are affiliated to Savitribai Phule Pune University, has been considered for analysis.
... Obwohl derzeit die empirischen Studien in ihrer Zusammenschau (Meta-Analyse) keine Hinweise darauf liefern, dass das eine oder andere Geschlecht besser für Führungspositionen geeignet ist(Paustian-Underdahl et al. 2014), besteht weiterhin ein "männliches Führungsbild". Frauen werden mit diesen männlichen Rollenerwartungen konfrontiert und stecken damit in einem Dilemma, da sie sowohl schlechter bewertet werden, wenn sie sich stereotyp weiblich verhalten (also entgegen den Erwartungen an eine Führungskraft), als auch wenn sie sich entsprechend der Rollenerwartungen eher stereotyp männlich verhalten(Brescoll 2016). Gerade an dem Beispiel, wie die evolutionär geprägten Mechanismen von Führung zur Benachteiligung von Frauen führen können, lässt sich jedoch gut aufzeigen, dass die evolutionärpsychologische Betrachtung von Persönlichkeit und Führung eine theoretische Basis zur Erklärung bestimmter Phänomene darstellt, nicht aber einen "Soll-Zustand" rechtfertigt. ...
Chapter
In diesem Beitrag wird der konzeptuelle Zusammenhang von Führung und Persönlichkeit aus psychologischer Sicht untersucht. Dafür stellen wir ausgehend von der sozioanalytischen Persönlichkeitstheorie Grundannahmen zur Bedeutung von Führung aus evolutionärer Perspektive dar und erläutern die dazugehörigen Konzepte von Persönlichkeit und sozialen Kompetenzen, sowie deren Zusammenspiel bei der Führung von Gruppen. Wir beleuchten sowohl helle (z.B. Extraversion) als auch dunkle Seiten (z.B. Psychopathie) der Persönlichkeit. Als Anwendungsbeispiel gehen wir auf zwei spezifische Persönlichkeitsmerkmale, furchtlose Dominanz und grandiosen Narzissmus, ein und erläutern den Zusammenhang mit Erfolg und Misserfolg in der US-amerikanischen Präsidentschaft. Abschließend erörtern wir Grenzen des Erklärungswerts der Persönlichkeit, zeigen den zukünftigen Forschungsbedarf auf und diskutieren die praktischen Implikationen der vorgestellten Befunde für das aktuelle Zeitgeschehen.
... Women are perceived negatively when engaging in agentic behavior and yet agentic behavior is expected of effective leaders (Perkins, 2017;Schaubroeck et al., 2016;Van Acker et al., 2018). The dilemma for women is that agentic behavior in male leaders is perceived positively, whereas female agentic behavior is perceived negatively (Brescoll, 2016;Lanaj and Hollenbeck, 2015). Furthermore, the absence of agentic behavior among women is also perceived negatively (Bosak et al., 2018;Ferguson, 2018;Schaumberg and Flynn, 2017). ...
Article
Our understanding of the link between women managers and firm-level innovation remains incomplete. Building on recent research on gender and leadership styles, we argue that there is a positive association between women managers and firm innovation. We highlight the selection process of women managers as an important underlying mechanism and discuss institutional and environmental contingencies as factors that influence this association. Specifically, we theorize and garner empirical support for the idea that in countries with legislation that promotes legally-mandated gender quotas, underqualified women may be selected for management positions, whereas in countries with voluntary gender quotas (or quotas are entirely absent), women are predominantly selected on the basis of their qualifications. The association between women and innovation is strengthened (weakened) in the latter (former) case. We also argue that this positive relationship is stronger under conditions of environmental complexity, which typically characterize innovation activities. These predictions are supported on the basis of data from the Management, Organization and Innovation (MOI) survey which covers manufacturing firms in twelve countries.
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Chinese adults’ preference for long-term partners who had a gender-congruent or gender-incongruent occupation were examined. Participants were 442 university students who described themselves as heterosexual. They evaluated opposite-sex targets in traditional female or male occupations. It was found that the Chinese adults endorsed traditional occupational roles in the selection of ideal partners. Men viewed women in feminine occupations to be more family-oriented, more sexually loyal, and more likely to treat their male partners as the head of household, compared with women in masculine occupations. Women viewed men with traditional male occupations as more work-oriented and more likely to be the head of household, but less sexually loyal and less family-oriented. The results are relevant for interventions aimed at increasing people’s participation in counter-stereotypical careers.
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Implicit theories of leadership emotions (ITLEs) are individuals’ schemas about emotional traits and behaviors characterizing leaders. We investigate the specific emotional content and structure of ITLEs. Five studies involving 1286 participants provide evidence for content, convergent, discriminant, criterion, and incremental validity, and internal consistency of the ITLEs instrument. ITLEs are represented by a first-order structure (Cheer, Calm, Pride, Anger, Fear, and Remorse), and a second-order structure (Positive and Negative ITLEs). Results revealed that female leaders elicited lower ratings on the Anger, Fear, and Remorse prototypes and higher ratings on the Cheer (but not Pride and Calm) prototype. Moreover, the relationship between ITLEs prototypes and leadership perceptions were moderated by management level, such that the relationship was significant only for high level leaders but not low level leaders. Moderated mediation results indicated that leadership perceptions of high level (but not low level) women leaders, as compared with men leaders, are more positive because they elicited lower ratings on the ITLEs prototypes of Anger and Fear and higher ratings on the ITLEs prototype of Cheer. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of ITLEs and offer future directions for this budding construct that is often implicated in leadership discourse but rarely studied explicitly.
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This study sought to enhance, through qualitative methods, an understanding of the othering of Latina girls in school sport contexts. Focus groups with 78 Latina girls (ages 12–15) and semi-structured interviews with 15 coaches were conducted. Thematic analysis of the focus group and interview data revealed that Latina girls receive both implicit and explicit messages that they do not belong in sports. These messages are ingrained within larger discourses about gender, ethnicity, class, and sports, and are expressed at the ideological (beliefs about sport, gender, and culture), institutional (school policy and practices), instructional (coaching pedagogies), and interpersonal (interactions with coaches/peers) levels. Girls both internalized and resisted messages about sport, gender, culture, and belonging. Policy and practice recommendations about how schools can develop more inclusive school sport contexts for Latina girls are presented.
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Building upon the concepts discussed by Cheryl Glenn in her book Unspoken: A Rhetoric of Silence, I conduct a thorough exploration of how silence can be used rhetorically as a unique and powerful form of communication. Because traditional rhetorical theory is rooted in patriarchal bias that “embodies ‘experiences and concerns of the white male as a standard,’” traditional rhetoric is exclusive of groups outside of those that have dominated the discipline (Glenn 155). As a result, it is important to explore rhetoric beyond traditional theory with consideration of feminist and multicultural perspectives, as the exclusion of these perspectives limits the study of rhetoric to only involving traditional values that fail to recognize or consider unconventional forms of communication that harbor rhetorical power similar to that of speech. In a society that greatly values speech, silence is often considered a signification of powerlessness. Yet, when considering silence outside of the male-defined, traditional context, strategic silence can act as a refusal to comply with dominant discourses, allowing for a redistribution of conversational power and the ceasing of gender favorability. Within its refusal to partake in the masculinized exchange of language, strategic silence works to resist patriarchal practices rooted in established social hierarchies that would otherwise reject the speaker, thus exposing the problematic nature of such hierarchies and the rhetorical situations at hand. All in all, this thesis explores theories and practices involving the use of silence as a rhetorical strategy and seeks to uncover the power of strategic silence, as within the absence of sound lies unspoken communication and the capacity to gain control.
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Research in Critical Discourse Studies has for long recognised the central role that both direct and indirect communicative strategies play in the reproduction of social inequality, but a main proponent of this approach has expressed scepticism with regard to the contribution that theories of pragmatics which specifically focus on speaker intentions can make to its agenda. This paper sets out to examine how relevance theory’s theoretical machinery can be applied to the critical discussion of ideology in discourse, by offering insights that overcome the limitations imposed by this concentration of its precursors on speaker intentions. More specifically, I discuss how the cognitive perspective that relevance theory adopts can inform our understanding of the way in which ideological effects automatically arise during spontaneous utterance interpretation. After accounting for the derivation of these effects, I briefly suggest how it can additionally be taken to underlie the propagation of ideologies through discursive practice.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to conceptualize and discuss empathic organizational culture and leadership along with organizational implications. Design/methodology/approach The authors reviewed literature to conceptualize empathic organizational culture and leadership. They referred to Hofstede’s organizational culture concept and studies on empathy to explore how leader–follower relationships are influenced by a leader’s empathic disposition. Findings Organizational leadership is instrumental in shaping employee performance. While work design, culture, peer support and resource accessibility are discernible, leadership style, control and others are covert. Leaders’ empathic attitudes and dispositions can positively influence organizational functions for improved performance. This review suggests that organizational culture should support growth, proper functioning and effective coordination between employees for improved organizational effectiveness. Research limitations/implications The authors conducted searches in leadership and management journals to help conceptualize leaders’ empathic disposition. Future researchers may explore other bodies of literature and the cultural demographic differences in exhibiting empathic leadership and its effectiveness. Researchers can explore how empathic culture relates to job motivation, satisfaction and commitment. The authors suggest that future research may explore how employees’ and supervisors’ behaviors and interactions can create an empathic organizational culture. Practical implications The authors identify the characteristics in an empathic leader to articulate the role of empathy in leadership. Alignment between person, group norms and organizational values is more important than the existence of culture. Originality/value Empathy is studied by researchers from various disciplines. Similarly, employee well-being has received attention from organizational researchers from many fields. However, researchers have given inadequate attention to conceptualizing an empathic organizational culture and its interrelationship with leadership. The authors offer a more positive perspective to the leader-member exchange (LMX) research by describing how leaders can sustain positive relationships with employees rather than the purely transactional exchanges that characterize LMX.
Article
Catalyst study stated that female leaders suggestively can exhibit better leadership behaviour than male and can have more positive effect on their subordinate’s work psychology and performance. But these proclamations, grounded mostly on inadequate research verdicts and subjective evidence, continue empirically unverified in Asian countries. The experiential study is directed to compare whether female managers differ in their leadership style from male managers in bank. Added to that, study led to recognize and compare the difference in subordinate’s work performance behaviour due to the supervisor’s gender. Through multi-stage sampling method, 364 male and 58 female supervisors were examined based on structured questionnaire proposing two hypothetical consent-attainment status quo. Results exhibited and confirmed the significant difference among supervisor’s gender in their leadership style. Noteworthy variances were revealed in subordinates’ work behaviour because of their manager’s gender. Though the effects varied for diverse dimensions of managerial behaviour and employees conduct. Hypothesis verified that female supervisors are more transformational and transactional in style than male. Furthermore, female leaders were rated more significantly positive on subordinates’ task and contextual performance than male. Research entitled that Indian female supervisor with transformational and transactional style could be more influential to induce subordinates work behaviour and performance in banks. It is imperious to analyse leader’s behaviour in context to their gender, as female leaders play a substantial role in organization growth and performance.
Article
Work-family management has become a highly salient issue for organizations as the world of work experiences ongoing changes due to globalization, technological advances, and new challenges spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the past decade or so, the concept of family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) has been recognized by management and organizational science scholars as an important resource for alleviating negative pressures related to work-family management. However, despite evidence suggesting organizations are heavily gendered (i.e., built upon and structured according to assumptions about gender) and that FSSB represent a set of gendered behaviors, the role of gender is largely missing from FSSB theorization. In addition, little is known regarding the antecedents of FSSB and the mechanisms responsible for the enactment or withholding of FSSB by supervisors. To address these gaps, we perform an interdisciplinary theoretical integration to develop a conceptual and process model of gendered antecedents of the FSSB decision-making process. We present theoretically driven propositions regarding how gender-related variables of the supervisory dyad influence both 1) if/how supervisors become aware of an FSSB opportunity, and 2) supervisors' FSSB decisions to enact, withhold, or neglect FSSB. We conclude with practical implications and opportunities for future FSSB research based on implications of our theoretical insights.
Article
While business models transformed how we describe organizations, the authors apply equivalent modeling to describe industries. Specifically, the authors propose and implement a structured industry model development process (SIMDP) based on the design science research methodology (DSRM). Moreover, our novel approach conceptualizes an industry model scaffolded through academic research and managerial guidance. An industry model creates a holistic view of any target industry to a) guide digital transformation efforts, b) reveal model components and linkages that may not be immediately evident, and c) support strategic decision-making within organizations considering the expansion and refinement of existing business models. The authors demonstrate the SIMDP’s efficacy using a case study of the online learning industry and evaluate the resulting industry model. Finally, the authors suggest future research directions and discuss the practical implications of the SIMDP and its resulting artifacts.
Article
Purpose: This case study aims to demonstrate how the Greater Leadership Opportunities for Women (GLOW) Mayo Clinic Employee Resource Groups (MERG) has positively impacted leadership development focusing on growth, resilience, inspiration and tenacity (GRIT) and increased advancement for female leaders at Mayo Clinic. It will also establish how the innovative utilization of employee resource groups can positively impact the development of leaders within an institution in general and specially can enhance behaviors related to GRIT. Design/methodology/approach: This case study design was used to measure the impact of the GLOW MERG's interventions through qualitative and quantitative approaches that highlight both process and outcome to increase study validity through complementarity, which "seeks elaboration, enhancement, illustration, clarification of the results from one method with the results from another" (Greene, et al., 1989, p. 259) as well as completeness and context (Onghena et al., 2019; Schoonenboom and Johnson, 2017; Bryman, 2006). Learning outcomes (knowledge), skill accomplishments and attitude development were evaluated within two weeks after each session and annually through standardized surveys sent to participants via email. The surveys were designed to capture key information about the sessions, including the impact of the session content, the willingness and ability of attendees to apply the learning and identification of opportunities for improvement in session design and delivery, as well as measure satisfaction with the activities offered, the frequency and method(s) of communication, barriers to session attendance and particular topics or speakers of interest to members (Appendix 1). Response options included dichotomous scales, Likert-type scales, multi-select and free text. This provided a voluntary response sampling, as post-session surveys were sent to all session attendees and annual surveys were sent to all GLOW MERG members, which allowed individuals to choose if they would respond to the surveys (Creswell and Creswell, 2018). To foster an environment of continuous improvement, plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles (Langley et al., 2009) were conducted after every survey by the event planning team and the GLOW MERG Board. Interventions were tested, reviewed and discussed during monthly board meetings and event planning. Improvements were made and results were shared with key stakeholders through regular communication channels. Additionally, 30 past and present GLOW MERG leaders were surveyed to measure their perceived impact of participation in the GLOW MERG interventions using dichotomous scales, multi-select and free text responses (Appendix 2). This targeted purposive sample was selected because of their high level of engagement with the MERG to provide a retrospective evaluation of the success of the GLOW MERG, and its interventions for career advancement related to the development of GRIT attributes, knowledge and skills resulting in career advancement for those who are/have been highly engaged with the MERG. Findings: The results spanning the past few years of GLOW MERG interventions has shown that the GLOW MERG has been successful in providing targeted educational events that address the GRIT knowledge, skills and attributes, needed for female health-care leaders to be successful in developing GRIT capabilities. By staying true to its mission and vision, the GLOW MERG has been able to promote, educate and empower female leaders at Mayo Clinic while actively breaking down the barriers that can prevent women from obtaining leadership positions. Research limitations/implications: There are several limitations with this case study's data collection and sampling methods. First, the post-session and annual survey sampling was based mainly on ease of access, with responses obtained from respondents who are more likely to volunteer or those with the strongest opinions. This allowed for potential bias as responses may not be representative of all GLOW MERG member opinions. Furthermore, the purposive sample of present and past GLOW MERG leaders was also subject to volunteer bias and may not have be representative of the GLOW MERG population. Additionally, the case study examined the practices of only one site and MERG group and may not be representative of all sites or employee resources groups. Practical implications: The interventions implemented by the GLOW MERG to assist women with developing GRIT knowledge, skills and attributes - barriers women often face in leadership roles - were tested, reviewed and discussed during monthly board meetings and event planning. PDSA cycles were conducted, improvements were made and results were shared with key stakeholders through regular communication channels (Langley et al., 2009). Key lessons learned from these assessments include: One size does not fit all for leadership development. GLOW members have a wide variety of backgrounds, skills and experiences. Repetition is important in the development of GRIT knowledge, skills and attributes associated with GRIT. A one-time event provides attendees with an information overview and the steps to start developing a new skill but no dedicated time to practice and implement that skill. Originality/value: The innovative utilization of employee resource groups can positively impact the development of leaders within an institution in general and specially can enhance behaviors related to GRIT.
Article
Information about this project can be found on the OSF through the following link: https://osf.io/ymr53/. This work examines strategic factors that impact women’s intention to express anger. Research suggests that women express anger to a lesser extent than they experience it (Hyers, 2007; Swim et al., 2010), and we focus on the role of gender stereotypes in this phenomenon. We differentiate two “routes” by which gender stereotypes can lead women to avoid expressions of anger. First, in the stereotype disconfirmation route, women become motivated to avoid expressing anger because it supposedly disconfirms stereotypical prescriptions for women to be kind and caring. We also identify a stereotype confirmation route, in which women avoid anger expressions because anger confirms the stereotype that women are overly emotional. Across three experimental studies (Nstudy1 = 558, Nstudy2 = 694, Nstudy3 = 489), we show that women experienced anger about gender inequality, but were relatively reluctant to express the anger they felt. That is, there was evidence for an “Anger Gap.” Feminists in particular showed a large Anger Gap when it was suggested that anger might confirm stereotypes. This work demonstrates that stereotype information introduces strategic concerns that women must take into account when deciding whether to express anger about gender inequality. Additionally, this work highlights that the notion that anger confirms a stereotype can be as powerful in discouraging anger expressions as the idea (identified in previous work) that anger may disconfirm stereotypes.
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The lack of women holding high-level leadership positions in higher education institutions is problematic. From a historical standpoint, women face several more obstacles while working toward obtaining leadership roles in higher education than men do. In addition, from a societal lens, women are judged differently in regard to leadership style, emotion, and success in higher education leadership. This case follows a woman who obtained the position of interim dean and was unceremoniously removed from the role. Authors make suggestions regarding factors for her success, how her emotions affected her performance, and variables leading to her accepting the role of interim dean.
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Compared to their representation in the workforce, women are significantly underrepresented in leadership roles in the United States. Whereas substantial research attention has been paid to the role of bias and discrimination in perpetuating this gap, less has been devoted to exploring the gender difference in aspirations for these roles. We draw from social role theory to hypothesize that men have higher leadership aspirations than women and test our hypothesis using a meta-analysis of 174 U.S. published and unpublished samples (N = 138,557) spanning six decades. The results reveal that there is a small but significant gender difference in the predicted direction (Hedge's g = 0.22). Notably, the gender difference has not narrowed significantly over time, and appears to widen at college age and among working adults within male-dominated industries. Our results also suggest that the process and dissemination of research in this domain exhibits bias. We discuss the implications of our conclusions for future research.
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The current study uses qualitative semi-structured interviews to assess the perceived barriers and best practices of women at two different levels of leadership in the hospitality industry in Aruba. There were differences between levels related to acknowledgement and response to the glass ceiling, stereotyping, and work-life balance. Absence of formal higher education did not limit advancement to higher level positions. The majority of women used an inclusive, democratic leadership style unless it was deemed ineffective, and mentoring played a large role in the success of women in leadership. Implications for academics and practitioners in small island economies are discussed.
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Social role theory What causes sex differences and similarities in behavior? At the core of our account are societal stereotypes about gender. These stereotypes, or gender role beliefs, form as people observe male and female behavior and infer that the sexes possess corresponding dispositions. For example, in industrialized societies, women are more likely to fill caretaking roles in employment and at home. People make the correspondent inference that women are communal, caring individuals. The origins of men's and women's social roles lie primarily in humans' evolved physical sex differences, specifically men's size and strength and women's reproductive activities of gestating and nursing children, which interact with a society's circumstances and culture to make certain activities more efficiently performed by one sex or the other. People carry out gender roles as they enact specific social roles (e.g., parent, employee). Socialization facilitates these sex-typical role performances by enabling men and women to ...
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People believe women are more emotional than men but it remains unclear to what extent such emotion stereotypes affect leadership perceptions. Extending the think manager-think male paradigm (Schein, 1973), we examined the similarity of emotion expression descriptions of women, men, and managers. In a field-based online experiment, 1,098 participants (male and female managers and employees) rated one of seven target groups on 17 emotions: men or women (in general, managers, or successful managers), or successful managers. Men in general are described as more similar to successful managers in emotion expression than are women in general. Only with the label manager or successful manager do women-successful manager similarities on emotion expression increase. These emotion stereotypes might hinder women’s leadership success.
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I draw on research on emotion and gender to illustrate how an essentialized view of gender as difference persists through the circulation of beliefs about gender from popular culture to scientific writing and back again. I begin by describing the paradoxical nature of beliefs about emotion and then show that emotion's representations in beliefs and stereotypes have a powerful effect on how we interpret our own and others' emotional behavior. I consider how the differences paradigm, the study of gender in terms of identification of difference(s) between girls/women and boys/men, aids the circulation of essentialized beliefs about gender from popular culture to psychological science. Specifically, essentializing discourses from popular culture are absorbed into scientific discourse and gain scientific authorization via research undertaken within a differences paradigm. These results circulate back again to popular culture and the cycle continues. I conclude with a discussion of how the differences paradigm can be disrupted by a research approach informed by contextual factors that moderate gender effects, the intersectionality of social identities, and attentiveness to gender fault lines, giving examples from our work on the negotiability of emotion's meaning and emotion's representation in language. My article has implications for counselors and therapists whose clients struggle with the expression of emotions, instructors who want to encourage their students to explore how they think about gender as essentialized, and researchers concerned with interpersonal interactions, especially workplace interactions where understanding of others' emotions often has a gendered cast.
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As part of a larger study of historical changes in popular American beliefs about emotional development, we examined sex-specific references to emotion in 54 child rearing manuals drawn from six distinct eras in child rearing philosophy between 1915 and 1980. Quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed stable, sex-specific patterns of reference to the form and function of emotion. The emotions of mothers and of fathers are evaluated quite differently from one another, whereas little if any distinction is drawn between the emotional reactions of sons and of daughters. Mothers are represented as exhibiting a tendency to be emotional; the expression of this emotion, if it should become "out of control," is construed as a serious threat to the child's achievement of healthy maturity. Fathers are described as having a tendency to respond to their children with less feeling and more "objectivity." These contrasting representations of maternal and paternal emotion are not simply an artifact of psychoanalytic influence on American theories of child rearing, nor are they related to changes in styles of child rearing. The implications of these beliefs for adult child rearing roles are discussed.
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A longstanding Western belief is that emotionality, such as sadness, is the antithesis to rational thinking and leads to ineffective behavior. We propose that people believe that sadness can actually signal competence when it is expressed in a way that demonstrates control and awareness of one’s authentic emotion, which we label passionate restraint (PR). In two studies, participants rated protagonists displaying sadness either openly or suppressed, or using PR, on their competence, authenticity, and emotional control. We find that PR is rated as more competent than open displays of emotion because of perceived control, and more competent than suppressed emotion displays because of emotional authenticity. Results demonstrate the importance that beliefs about emotions have on how others are perceived and judged. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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The media coverage sometimes given to crying women points to the importance of understanding whether gender affects interpretations of crying. This article reports two studies that examined whether observers infer different emotions or dispositions from crying men and women. Study 1 showed that, in the absence of information about the social context of crying, participants inferred gender-stereotypical traits and emotions. Study 2's manipulation of the social context of crying (relationship versus employment) affected participants' interpretations of crying by men and women. In employment contexts, participants perceived crying men as more emotional and sad than crying women as well as less competent. The emotionality inferences mediated the judgments of differing male and female competence. In relationship contexts, interpretations of crying women and men did not differ. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Fair treatment of other scientists is an essential aspect of scientific integrity, warranting diversity interventions.
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This study explores the proposition that similar to the way that it is more acceptable for women than men to express traits that suggest vulnerability, such as loneliness or depression, it is also more acceptable for women to express emotional intimacy. Participants view an interaction between two men, two women, or a man and a woman, and evaluate the interpersonal attraction of the person expressing emotional intimacy. In Study 1, men gave the most negative evaluations to the man being intimate. In Study 2, thematic analysis of interview content suggests that participants hold gender stereotypes about intimacy and also that men frequently risk social rejection and may be perceived as gay when they engage in intimate expression, particularly when with other men. Overall, findings suggest that gender and related stereotypes have an observable role in the perceptions of an individual who is expressing intimacy.
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In the present research we investigated gender-specific beliefs about emotional behaviour. In Study 1, 180 respondents rated the extent to which they agreed with different types of beliefs (prescriptive, descriptive, stereotypical, and contra-stereotypical) regarding the emotional behaviour of men and women. As anticipated, respondents agreed more with descriptive than with prescriptive beliefs, and more with stereotypical than with contra-stereotypical beliefs. However, respondents agreed more with stereotypical beliefs about the emotional behaviour of women than with those about men. These results were replicated in Study 2 with a sample of 75 students and 80 nonstudents. In Study 3, a sample of 279 respondents rated the extent of agreement with the same items, this time with respect to then own emotional behaviour. A similar pattern of results was obtained, although agreement rates were higher than in Study 1 and 2.
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One consistent element of Western sex stereotypes is that women are emotional, whereas men are rational. This is also widely spread in psychology and defended by feminist authors who equate women's relationality with their emotionality. In this article the concept of `emotionality' is criticized and the assumption that women are generally more emotional than men is questioned. A large amount of empirical research on sex differences in emotions is reviewed, leading to the conclusion that the general idea that women are more emotional than men tells us more about Western sex stereotypes than about women's actual emotions.
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Individuals experience solo status when they are the only members of their social category (e.g., gender or race) present in a group. Field research indicates that women and racial minorities are more debilitated by solo status than White men. However, lab oratory research indicates that men and women are equally debilitated as solos. We noted that laboratory studies introduced solo status during learning, whereas field research examined solo status at performance. Therefore, we predicted that high and low social status group members would be differentially influenced by solo status experienced during testing. In two laboratory experiments, men and women and African Americans and Whites experienced solo status during an oral examination. In Experiment 1, White women performed more poorly than White men taking the exam before an opposite-sex (but same-race) audience. In Experiment 2, African American women performed more poorly than White women taking the exam before an other-race (but same-gender) audience.
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Six studies explored the overlap between racial and gender stereotypes, and the consequences of this overlap for interracial dating, leadership selection, and athletic participation. Two initial studies captured the explicit and implicit gender content of racial stereotypes: Compared with the White stereotype, the Asian stereotype was more feminine, whereas the Black stereotype was more masculine. Study 3 found that heterosexual White men had a romantic preference for Asians over Blacks and that heterosexual White women had a romantic preference for Blacks over Asians; preferences for masculinity versus femininity mediated participants' attraction to Blacks relative to Asians. The pattern of romantic preferences observed in Study 3 was replicated in Study 4, an analysis of the data on interracial marriages from the 2000 U.S. Census. Study 5 showed that Blacks were more likely and Asians less likely than Whites to be selected for a masculine leadership position. In Study 6, an analysis of college athletics showed that Blacks were more heavily represented in more masculine sports, relative to Asians. These studies demonstrate that the gender content of racial stereotypes has important real-world consequences.
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Emotions have a political dimension in that judgments regarding when and how emotion should be felt and shown are interpreted in the interests of regulating the organization and functioning of social groups. This article argues that claims to authenticity and legitimacy of one's self-identity or group identity are at stake in the everyday politics of emotion. A brief discussion of the study of sex differences in the 19th century illustrates how emotion politics can saturate even scientific inquiry. Three ways in which there is a political dimension to socially appropriate emotion in contemporary life are then discussed: (a) Is the emotion the "wrong" emotion for the situation? (b) How are competing standards for emotional experience and expression managed? and (c) What constitutes the boundary between "too much" and "too little" emotion? The author concludes by considering the relevance of emotion politics to research on emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In an experiment, job description and applicants' attributes were examined as moderators of the backlash effect, the negative evaluation of agentic women for violating prescriptions of feminine niceness (Rudman, 1998). Rutgers University students made hiring decisions for a masculine or “feminized” managerial job. Applicants were presented as either agentic or androgynous. Replicating Rudman and Glick (1999), a feminized job description promoted hiring discrimination against an agentic female because she was perceived as insufficiently nice. Unique to the present research, this perception was related to participants' possession of an implicit (but not explicit) agency-communality stereotype. By contrast, androgynous female applicants were not discriminated against. The findings suggest that the prescription for female niceness is an implicit belief that penalizes women unless they temper their agency with niceness.
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Women experience social and economic penalties (i.e., backlash) for self-promotion, a behavior that violates female gender stereotypes yet is necessary for professional success. However, it is unknown whether and how the threat of backlash interferes with women's ability to self-promote. The present research examined the effects of fear of backlash and self-regulatory mode on women's self-promotion success by testing the backlash avoidance model (BAM), a model designed to account for disruptions in women's self-promotion. Two studies employing U.S. undergraduate samples examined self-promotion both in a live interview and written context. Results supported the BAM's predictions that self-promoting women's fear of backlash inhibits activation of a goal-focused, locomotive regulatory mode, which subsequently interferes with self-promotion success. This process was not evident for self-promoting men (Study 1) or peer-promoting women (Study 2), groups who demonstrated reliably more promotion success than self-promoting women. The influence of women's endorsement of communal stereotypes and their perceived entitlement were also investigated. Implications for women's self-promotion, gender stereotyping, and workplace parity are discussed.
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Three studies documented the gender stereotypes of emotions and the relationship between gender stereotypes and the interpretation of emotionally expressive behavior. Participants believed women experienced and expressed the majority of the 19 emotions studied (e.g., sadness, fear, sympathy) more often than men. Exceptions included anger and pride, which were thought to be experienced and expressed more often by men. In Study 2, participants interpreted photographs of adults’ambiguous anger/sadness facial expressions in a stereotype-consistent manner, such that women were rated as sadder and less angry than men. Even unambiguous anger poses by women were rated as a mixture of anger and sadness. Study 3 revealed that when expectant parents interpreted an infant's ambiguous anger/sadness expression presented on videotape only high-stereotyped men interpreted the expression in a stereotype-consistent manner. Discussion focuses on the role of gender stereotypes in adults’interpretations of emotional expressions and the implications for social relations and the socialization of emotion.
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In the early 1970s Schein identified managerial sex typing as a major psychological barrier to the advancement of women in the United States. The globalization of management brings to the forefront the need to examine the relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics in the international arena. A review of the replications of the Schein research in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, China, and Japan provides the basis for a global look at the “think manager–think male” phenomenon. Implications of the outcomes, especially among males, for women's progress in management worldwide are discussed.
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The influence of the physical intensity of emotional facial expressions on perceived intensity and emotion category decoding accuracy was assessed for expressions of anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness. The facial expressions of two men and two women posing each of the four emotions were used as stimuli. Six different levels of intensity of expression were created for each pose using a graphics morphing program. Twelve men and 12 women rated each of the 96 stimuli for perceived intensity of the underlying emotion and for the qualitative nature of the emotion expressed. The results revealed that perceived intensity varied linearly with the manipulated physical intensity of the expression. Emotion category decoding accuracy varied largely linearly with the manipulated physical intensity of the expression for expressions of anger, disgust, and sadness. For the happiness expressions only, the findings were consistent with a categorical judgment process. Sex of encoder produced significant effects for both dependent measures. These effects remained even after possible gender differences in encoding were controlled for, suggesting a perceptual bias on the part of the decoders.
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A leader's emotional display is proposed to affect his or her audience. In this study, observing a male or female leader express negative emotion was proposed to influence the observer's affective state and assessment of the leader's effectiveness. In a laboratory study, a leader's specific negative emotional tone impacted the affective state of participants in the study. Negative emotional display had a significant and negative main effect on participant assessment of leader effectiveness compared to a more neutral emotional display. Further, a significant interaction between leader gender and emotion was found. Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings when expressing either sadness or anger. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Conference Paper
Stereotypes about gender and emotional expression tend to be imprecise and misleading. They fail to acknowledge situational, individual, and cultural variations in males' and females' emotional expressiveness. They also tend to generalize across emotional intensity and frequency, as well as across different modalities of emotional expression, e.g. verbal vs, behavioral modalities. Moreover they tend to exaggerate the extent of gender differences in emotional expression. I argue that when gender differences in emotional expression do occur they can be traced to social processes such as dissimilar gender roles, status and power imbalances, and differing socialization histories of males and females. These processes may predispose some males and females to express emotions differently in some cultures and in some contexts. To support this argument, I present data from two studies, one showing that the amount of time fathers spend with their children relates to the gender stereotypic nature of their children's emotional expressiveness; and the other showing that gender differences in emotional expressiveness are culturally specific in a sample of Asian international, Asian-American, and European-American college students. Finally I note the potentially destructive limitations imposed by stereotypes on males' and females' interpersonal functioning as well as on their mental and physical health.
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We empirically test Shields' (1987; Geer & Shields, 1996) proposal that women face a double-bind with respect to emotional expression, such that both expressiveness and emotional control in women are negatively evaluated. Participants assessed the appropriateness and the degree of overreaction of behaviors described in a series of scenarios. These scenarios depicted over-and underreactions to happy, sad, and angry scenarios in either interpersonal or achievement contexts by either male or female targets. Women's over-and underreactions to happy and sad events were judged as less appropriate than men's, whereas men's over-and underreactions to angry events were judged as less appropriate than women's. Furthermore, women's overreactions were judged as more of an overreaction, and underreactions judged as more of an underreaction, compared to men's reactions for sad scenarios. Men's overreactions were judged as more of an overreaction, and underreaction judged as more of an underreaction, compared to women's reactions for angry scenarios. This suggests that stereotypes of emotionality may underlie the appropriateness judgments. Implications of the double-bind for both women and men are discussed.
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The present research investigated the notion that passionate restraint or "manly emotion" is a relevant emotion norm not only for men but also for women in modern Western society (MacArthur & Shields, 2015). For this, 2 studies were conducted to assess whether restraint in emotional reactivity is perceived as a sign of both emotional and general competence. Restraint was induced by delaying the onset of the emotional reaction to a purported emotion elicitor. The results show that men were indeed rated as both more emotionally competent and more intelligent in general when they showed restraint, confirming the notion that such restraint fits a positively valued Western ideal of emotional reactivity. For women, however, the opposite pattern emerged in that they were perceived as more emotionally competent and intelligent when they reacted immediately than when restraint was induced. Thus, manly emotions were good for men only. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Three vignette studies examined stereotypes of the emotions associated with high- and low-status group members. In Study 1a, participants believed that in negative situations, high-status people feel more angry than sad or guilty and that low-status people feel more sad and guilty than angry. Study 1b showed that in response to positive outcomes, high-status people are expected to feel more pride and low-status people are expected to feel more appreciation. Study 2 showed that people also infer status from emotions: Angry and proud people are thought of as high status, whereas sad, guilty, and appreciative people are considered low status. The authors argue that these emotion stereotypes are due to differences in the inferred abilities of people in high and low positions. These perceptions lead to expectations about agency appraisals and emotions related to agency appraisals. In Study 3, the authors found support for this process by manipulating perceptions of skill and finding the same differences in emotion expectations.
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This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectations they produce about both what women are like (descriptive) and how they should behave (prescriptive) can result in devaluation of their performance, denial of credit to them for their successes, or their penalization for being competent. The processes giving rise to these outcomes are explored, and the procedures that are likely to encourage them are identified. Because of gender bias and the way in which it influences evaluations in work settings, it is argued that being competent does not ensure that a woman will advance to the same organizational level as an equivalently performing man.
Chapter
Stereotypes may function as standards against which we judge individual members of stereotyped groups. This is the basic premise of the shifting standards model (Biernat, Manis, & Nelson, 1991), from which a complex set of predictions is derived: Members of negatively stereotyped groups may be judged, communicated about, and treated more or less positively than members of contrasting social groups, depending on the judgment or decision at hand. The chapter reviews research documenting a “signature” shifting standards effect, whereby judgments of targets on common-rule scales assimilate to stereotypes but show null or contrastive effects in subjective language. This idea is elaborated in the context of communication, whereby members of negatively stereotyped groups may be described relatively favorably in subjective language (because of lower standards), at the same time that both “interpreters” and communicators leave the communicative exchange with stereotype-consistent views. Standards themselves may also have different implications—either leniency or stringency for members of negatively stereotyped groups—depending on whether they reference minimum expectations or confirmatory requirements. Despite the apparent positivity that results when targets are evaluated against low standards, the use of shifting standards may contribute to the maintenance of stereotypes over time and to confusion and inconsistency in the feedback targets receive. The chapter concludes with a consideration of the role of motivation in moderating shifting standards effects, and possible means of reducing the tendency to shift standards.
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The white male norm hypothesis (Zárate & Smith, 1990) posits that White men's race and gender go overlooked as a result of their prototypical social statuses. In contrast, the intersectional invisibility hypothesis (Purdie-Vaughns & Eibach, 2008) posits that people with membership in multiple subordinate social groups experience social invisibility as a result of their non-prototypical social statuses. The present research reconciles these contradictory theories and provides empirical support for the core assumption of the intersectional invisibility hypothesis-that intersectional targets are non-prototypical within their race and gender ingroups. In a speeded categorization task, participants were slower to associate Black women versus Black men with the category "Black" and slower to associate Black women versus White women with the category "woman." We discuss the implications of this work for social categorical theory development and future intersectionality research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
People have a fundamental motive to view their social system as just, fair, and good and will engage in a number of strategies to rationalize the status quo (Jost & Banaji, 1994). We propose that one way in which individuals may "justify the system" is through endorsement of essentialist explanations, which attribute group differences to deep, essential causes. We suggest that system-justifying motives lead to greater endorsement of essentialist explanations because those explanations portray group differences as immutable. Study 1 employed an established system threat manipulation. We found that activating system-justifying motives increases both male and female participants' endorsement of essentialist explanations for gender differences and that this effect is mediated by beliefs in immutability. In Study 2, we used a goal contagion manipulation and found that both male and female participants primed with a system-justifying goal are significantly more likely to agree with essentialist explanations for gender differences. Study 3 demonstrated that providing an opportunity to explicitly reject a system threat (an alternative means of satisfying the goal to defend the system) attenuates system threat effects on endorsement of essentialist explanations, further suggesting that this process is motivated. Finally, Studies 4a and 4b dissociated the type of cause (biological vs. social) from whether group differences are portrayed as mutable versus immutable and found that system threat increases endorsement of immutable explanations, independent of the type of cause. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This article presents a four-category framework to characterize the contents of prescriptive gender stereotypes. The framework distinguishes between prescriptions and proscriptions that are intensified by virtue of one's gender, and those that are relaxed by virtue of one's gender. Two studies examined the utility of this framework for characterizing prescriptive gender stereotypes in American society (Study 1) and in the highly masculine context of Princeton University (Study 2). The results demonstrated the persistence of traditional gender prescriptions in both contexts, but also revealed distinct areas of societal vigilance and leeway for each gender. In addition, they showed that women are seen more positively, relative to societal standards, than are men. We consider the implications of this framework for research on reactions to gender stereotype deviants and sex discrimination.
Article
Dynamic stereotypes characterize social groups that are thought to have changed from the attributes they manifested in the past and even to continue to change in the future. According to social role theory’s assumption that the role behavior of group members shapes their stereotype, groups should have dynamic stereotypes to the extent that their typical social roles are perceived to change over time. Applied to men and women, this theory makes two predictions about perceived change: (a) perceivers should think that sex differences are eroding because of increasing similarity of the roles of men and women and (b) the female stereotype should be particularly dynamic because of greater change in the roles of women than of men. This theory was tested and confirmed in five experiments that examined perceptions of the roles and the personality, cognitive, and physical attributes of men and women of the past, present, and future.
Article
Although past research has noted the importance of both power and gender for understanding volubility—the total amount of time spent talking—in organizations, to date, identifying the unique contributions of power and gender to volubility has been somewhat elusive. Using both naturalistic data sets and experiments, the present studies indicate that while power has a strong, positive effect on volubility for men, no such effect exists for women. Study 1 uses archival data to examine the relationship between the relative power of United States senators and their talking behavior on the Senate floor. Results indicate a strong positive relationship between power and volubility for male senators, but a non-significant relationship for female senators. Study 2 replicates this effect in an experimental setting by priming the concept of power and shows that though men primed with power talk more, women show no effect of power on volubility. Mediation analyses indicate that this difference is explained by women’s concern that being highly voluble will result in negative consequences (i.e., backlash). Study 3 shows that powerful women are in fact correct in assuming that they will incur backlash as a result of talking more than others—an effect that is observed among both male and female perceivers. Implications for the literatures on volubility, power, and previous studies of backlash are discussed.
Article
This study investigated whether positive emotion is differentially prescribed for men and women in self-and other-oriented contexts. Subjects read a scene in which the main character either did or did not express positive emotion toward either the self or another person. After imagining themselves as the main character, subjects rated on a rewards/costs scale how others would respond to them if they had behaved as depicted. Females expected more rewards/fewer costs when positive emotion was expressed toward another person than when it was not, whereas expected rewards/costs did not differ when females expressed and did not express self-directed positive emotion. Males expected more rewards/fewer costs when positive emotion was expressed than when it was not expressed in both self-and other-oriented contexts. Findings indicate that norms for expression of positive emotion are gender differentiated in that women are particularly required to express positive emotion toward others.
Article
In a study assessing the nature of folk theories about the causes of sex and race differences and correlates of these theories, 464 undergraduates completed questionnaires concerning (a) causes of sex and race differences (e.g., socialization, opportunities, and biological factors), (b) the ease of eliminating differences, (c) perceptions of variability within and between the sexes, (d) intolerance of ambiguity, and (e) values concerning research on sex differences. Folk theories are similar for sex and race: Both social and biological factors are believed to cause differences, but social factors are considered more influential. Folk theories related to how the sexes were perceived. The more biology was believed to cause sex differences, the more the sexes were seen to differ. Folk theories were weakly correlated with intolerance of ambiguity. Students' values indicated that they believe it is important to detect and report sex differences even if errors occur because nonexistent sex differences are falsely reported.
Article
Acriticalexaminationofresearchontherelationshipbetweenstereotypingandworkplace discrimination must meet three requirements.Thefirstrequirementisanunderstanding of the theory that guides this research. The second requirement is anunbiased review of relevant research. The third requirement is comprehension of the ways thatdifferenttypesofresearchareinformative about behavior in organizations. Landy (2008) meets none of these requirements. He misstates the consensual social scientific theory about the relation between stereotyping and discrimination, presents onlya selective portion of the relevant research, and misconstrues the basis for generalizing researchfindingstoorganizations.Asaresult, Landy misrepresents the evidence for stereotype-based workplace discrimination. For brevity, we consider only sex discrimination. Also, consistent with Landy’s emphasis, we address the consequences of stereotypes that describe women and men as opposed to stereotypes that prescribe normatively acceptable behavior for them and thus sanction behavior deviating from gender norms (see Eagly & Karau, 2002; Heilman, 2001).
Article
This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectations they produce about both what women are like (descriptive) and how they should behave (prescriptive) can result in devaluation of their performance, denial of credit to them for their successes, or their penalization for being competent. The processes giving rise to these outcomes are explored, and the procedures that are likely to encourage them are identified. Because of gender bias and the way in which it influences evaluations in work settings, it is argued that being competent does not ensure that a woman will advance to the same organizational level as an equivalently performing man.
Article
This study examined the content of adults' stereotypes about sex differences in both the experience and the expression of emotions and investigated how these beliefs vary with the age of the target person. Four hundred college students (200 men and 200 women) judged the frequency with which they believed males or females in one of five age groups (infants, preschoolers, elementary schoolers, adolescents, and adults) typically feel and express 25 different emotions. It was found that adults' gender-emotion stereotypes held for both basic and nonbasic emotions and appear to be based on a deficit model of male emotional expressiveness (i.e., a belief that males do not express the emotions they feel). Moreover, these beliefs about sex differences in emotionality refer primarily to adolescents and adults. It was concluded that gender-emotion stereotypes are complex and that there may be an age-of-target bias in the evaluation of others' emotions.
Article
Agentic female leaders risk social and economic penalties for behaving counter-stereotypically (i.e., backlash; Rudman, 1998), but what motivates prejudice against female leaders? The status incongruity hypothesis (SIH) proposes that agentic women are penalized for status violations because doing so defends the gender hierarchy. Consistent with this view, Study 1 found that women are proscribed from dominant, high status displays (which are reserved for leaders and men); Studies 2–3 revealed that prejudice against agentic fe-male leaders was mediated by a dominance penalty; and in Study 3, participants' gender system-justifying beliefs moderated backlash effects. Study 4 found that backlash was exacerbated when perceivers were primed with a system threat. Study 5 showed that only female leaders who threatened the status quo suf-fered sabotage. In concert, support for the SIH suggests that backlash functions to preserve male dominance by reinforcing a double standard for power and control.
Article
Examined whether traditional stereotypic discrepancies in the characterizations of women and men persist when they are depicted as managers. Ss consisted of 224 male managers (aged 24–63 yrs) that completed an attribute inventory describing either men or women in general, men or women managers, or men or women successful managers. Scales tapping traditional work-relevant sex stereotypes were created by combining subsets of inventory items. Although, characterizations of women on male stereotyped attributes were more favorable when they were depicted as managers than when depicted in general terms, women managers were characterized more negatively than were men managers. Only when designated as successful managers did the majority of discrepant characterizations on stereotypically male attributes abate. When depicted as successful managers, women were characterized more negatively in interpersonal attributes and more negatively than men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Although the concept of justification has played a significant role in many social psychological theories, its presence in recent examinations of stereotyping has been minimal. We describe and evaluate previous notions of stereotyping as ego-justification and group-justification and propose an additional account, that of system-justification, which refers to psychological processes contributing to the preservation of existing social arrangements even at the expense of personal and group interest. It is argued that the notion of system-justification is necessary to account for previously unexplained phenomena, most notably the participation by disadvantaged individuals and groups in negative stereotypes of themselves, and the consensual nature of stereotypic beliefs despite differences in social relations within and between social groups. We offer a selective review of existing research that demonstrates the role of stereotypes in the production of false consciousness and develop the implications of a system-justification approach. [T]he rationalizing and justifying function of a stereotype exceeds its function as a reflector of group attributes—G. W. Allport (1958, p. 192).
Article
Stereotypes about gender and emotional expression tend to be imprecise and misleading. They fail to acknowledge situational, individual, and cultural variations in males' and females' emotional expressiveness. They also tend to generalize across emotional intensity and frequency, as well as across different modalities of emotional expression, e.g. verbal vs. behavioral modalities. Moreover, they tend to exaggerate the extent of gender differences in emotional expression. I argue that when gender differences in emotional expression do occur, they can be traced to social processes such as dissimilar gender roles, status and power imbalances, and differing socialization histories of males and females. These processes may predispose some males and females to express emotions differently in some cultures and in some contexts. To support this argument, I present data from two studies, one showing that the amount of time fathers spend with their children relates to the gender stereotypic nature of their children's emotional expressiveness; and the other showing that gender differences in emotional expressiveness are culturally specific in a sample of Asian international, Asian-American, and European-American college students. Finally, I note the potentially destructive limitations imposed by stereotypes on males' and females' interpersonal functioning as well as on their mental and physical health.
Article
A leader's emotional display is proposed to affect his or her audience. In this study, observing a male or female leader express negative emotion was proposed to influence the observer's affective state and assessment of the leader's effectiveness. In a laboratory study, a leader's specific negative emotional tone impacted the affective state of participants in the study. Negative emotional display had a significant and negative main effect on participant assessment of leader effectiveness compared to a more neutral emotional display. Further, a significant interaction between leader gender and emotion was found. Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings when expressing either sadness or anger. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.