The burden of malnutrition presents itself in multiple, complex, and connected ways. Malnutrition does not always imply hunger or famine and is manifest in many forms, ranging from hunger to obesity. Core factors leading to malnutrition include excessive intakes, insufficient food consumption, and inadequate utilization of nutrients provided by foods ingested. Undernutrition is a term that comprises stunting, underweight, wasting, and deficiency in essential vitamins and minerals (also called micronutrients). As such, it is the category of malnutrition that represents nutrient deficits. The other form of malnutrition is associated with excessive energy and nutrient intakes (which may also be accompanied by micronutrient deficiencies or suboptimal intakes), leading to obesity and other diet-related noncommunicable diseases. This article focuses on undernutrition and the challenges countries face in dealing with both undernutrition and overnutrition, in essence, the dilemma of overlapping and coexisting forms of malnutrition.