Column experiments were carried out to investigate effects of total dissolved solids (TDS) (30 g/L and 100 g/L), vadose zone lithology (fine sand and silt clay) and depth of groundwater table (0.5 m, 1.0 m and 3.0 m) on distribution of soil salt accumulation under condition of high salinity phreatic water evaporation in arid areas. Samples were taken seven times from different depths of column for soil salt analysis. The results indicate that under condition of high salinity phreatic water evaporation, the less depth the groundwater table is, the larger soil salinity at the same depth will be. Salinity in soil profile with vadose zone lithology of silt clay is higher than that of fine sand when other conditions are fixed. In addition, soil salinity of phreatic water with TDS of 30 g/L is higher than that with TDS of 100 g/L in the upper layer of silt clay column due to the membrane effect of tenacious soil and filling effect of crystal salt in soil pore, and lower in the lower part of the column. Depth of salt accumulation in silt clay profile tends to shift down with the increase of phreatic water TDS due to the change of capillary water gravity and soil structure as a result of higher TDS.