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The comparative study of attitudes toward entrepreneurial intention between ASEAN and Europe: An analysis using GEM data

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Abstract

This paper uses data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) to investigate the difference of attitudes towards entrepreneurial intention (EI). EI is generally assumed to be the single most relevant predictor of entrepreneurial behavior. The aim of this paper is to examine a range of attitudes effect on individual's intent to start a new venture. A cross-cultural comparison between Asia and Europe is used to further investigate the possible differences between potential entrepreneurs from these distinct national contexts. The empirical analysis includes a GEM data set of 10 countries (n = 10,306) which was collected in 2013. Logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of individual's attitudes on EI. Independent variables include individual's perceived capabilities, the ability to recognize business opportunities, entrepreneurial network, risk perceptions as well as a range of socio-cultural attitudes. Moreover, a cross-cultural comparison of the model is conducted including six ASEAN countries (Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam and Thailand) and four European countries (Spain, Sweden, Germany, and the United Kingdom). The findings support the relationship between individual's attitudes and their entrepreneurial intention. Individual's capability, opportunity recognition, networks and a range of socio cultural perceptions all influence EI significantly. The impact of media atention on entrepreneurship and was found to influence EI in ASEAN, but not in Europe. On the one hand, Fear of failure was found to influence EI in Europe, but not in ASEAN. The paper empirically tests attitudes toward Entrepreneurial Intention between ASEAN and Europe. Interestingly, fear of failure was found to have no significant effect in ASEAN, and the impact of media attention on entrepreneurship and was found to influence EI in Europe. Moreover, the resistance of ASEAN entrepreneurs to the otherwise high rates of fear of failure and high impact of media attention are proposed as independent variables to explain the relatively high rates of entrepreneurial activity in ASEAN as reported by GEM. The paper utilizes a sample of 10,306 individuals in 10 countries. A range of attitudes was found to significantly influence entrepreneurial intention. Many of these perceptions, such as the impact of media attention on entrepreneurship can be manipulated by government policy. The paper also suggests strategies by which Asian economies can benefit from their apparent high impact of media attention on entrepreneurship.

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... The odds ratio for this variable is 2.739 which mean those individuals who feel that they have required skill, knowledge, competences, and expertise are more than 2.5 times more likely to start their own business. This finding is also in congruence with previous research examining the influence of knowledge, skill, and entrepreneurial ability on entrepreneurial propensity (Ahmad, Xavier, & Abu Bakar, 2014;Fernández, Liñán, & Santos, 2009;Guzmán-Alfonso & Guzmán-Cuevas, 2012;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura & Tristan, 2011;Noguera, Alvarez, & Urbano, 2013;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Tsai, Chang, & Peng, 2016;Vidal-suñé & López-Panisello, 2013;Wennberg, Pathak, & Autio, 2013) . ...
... In fact, according to the results, this is the variable analyzed that has the strongest effect on the dependent variable, since its odds ratio is 2.729, indicating that opportunity identification increases the likelihood of new start-up more than 2.5 times than the rest of the individuals. This result also coincides with the results of work examining the same relationship (Ahmad et al., 2014;Bux & Honglin, 2016;Fernández et al., 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura & Tristan, 2011;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat -rodríguez et al., 2012;Tsai et al., 2016;Vidal-suñé & López-Panisello, 2013). It was proposed in hypothesis 3 that networking increases the entrepreneurial propensity. ...
... According to the result, the odds ratio for knowing other entrepreneurs is 1.499 which indicates that the networking with the existing entrepreneur increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention almost 1.5 times, while the odds ratio for being a business angel is 2.799 which indicates that being a business angel increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention by almost three times. These results also confirm the previous findings in the entrepreneurship and IC literature (Ahmad et al., 2014;Bux & Honglin, 2016;Fernández et al., 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Mancilla & Amoros, 2015;Matricano, 2016;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Ramos-rodríguez et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Although the intellectual capital (IC) has already received much attention from the researchers in the field of innovation performance, there is still a paucity in measuring the role of IC in venture creation. The present study is an attempt to examine the influence of IC on start-ups. Methodology: In this study, a large data set of 3413 respondents from India has been used. The data has been provided by the largest entrepreneurship research project GEM. A logistic regression technique has been applied to measure the influence of IC on entrepreneurial intentions. Findings: It has been found that the components of intellectual capital, i.e., knowledge and skills, entrepreneurial opportunities, knowing other entrepreneurs, business angel, and educational level have a positive and significant impact on the entrepreneurial intentions. Contribution: To the best of our knowledge, it is among the initial studies, which have examined the relationship between intellectual capital and entrepreneurial intentions. Only a few studies have already been done in developing countries like India by using a large data set.
... In fact, according to the results, this is the variable analysed that has the strongest effect on the dependent variable, with odds ratio is 2.694 indicating that structural capital (opportunity identification) increases the likelihood of new start-up more than 2.5 times than the rest of the individuals. This result also coincides with the results of work examining the same relationship (Ahmad et al., 2014;Fernández Serrano et al., 2010;Honjo, 2015;Issue et al., 2016;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura and Tristan, 2011;Pathak and Laplume, 2015;Puriwat and Tripopsakul, 2015;Ramos-Rodríguez et al., 2012;Tsai et al., 2016;Vidal-Suñé and López-Panisello, 2013). In hypothesis 2, it was proposed that human capital (knowledge, skills, competences and expertise) positively affect the venture creation intention. ...
... It means those individuals who feel they have the required skills, knowledge; competences and expertise are more than two times more likely to start their own business. This finding is also in congruence with previous research examining the influence of knowledge, skill and entrepreneurial ability on entrepreneurial propensity (Ahmad et al., 2014;Fernández Serrano et al., 2010;Guzmán-Alfonso and Guzmán-Cuevas, 2012;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura and Tristan, 2011;Noguera et al., 2013;Pathak and Laplume, 2015;Puriwat and Tripopsakul, 2015;Tsai et al., 2016;Vidal-Suñé and López-Panisello, 2013;Wennberg et al., 2013). It was proposed in hypothesis 3 that relational capital (knowing existing entrepreneurs) increases the entrepreneurial propensity. ...
... According to the result, the odds ratio for this relation capital is 1.469 which indicates that the relational capital (networking with the existing entrepreneur) increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention almost 1.5 times. This results also confirm the previous findings in the entrepreneurship and intellectual capital literature (Ahmad et al., 2014;Fernández Serrano et al., 2010;Honjo, 2015;Issue et al., 2016;Liñán et al., 2011;Mancilla and Amoros, 2015;Matricano, 2016;Pathak and Laplume, 2015;Puriwat and Tripopsakul, 2015;Ramos-Rodríguez et al., 2012). ...
... It indicates that opportunity identification increases the likelihood of new start-up by more than 2.5 times than the rest of the individuals. This result also coincides with the results of other studies examining the same relationship (Ahmad et al. 2014;Fernández et al. 2009;Honjo 2015;Issue et al. 2016;Liñán et al. 2011;Matricano 2016;Nishimura and Tristan 2011;Pathak and Laplume 2015;Puriwat and Tripopsakul 2015;Ramos-rodríguez et al. 2012;Tsai et al. 2016;Vidal-suñé and López-Panisello 2013). ...
... The odds ratio for networking is 1.431 which indicates that the relations with the existing entrepreneur increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur by 1.5 times. This result also coincides with the previous findings in the entrepreneurship and intellectual capital literature (Arafat et al. 2018;Ahmad et al. 2014;Fernández et al. 2009;Honjo 2015;Issue et al. 2016;Liñán et al. 2011;Mancilla and Amoros 2015;Matricano 2016;Pathak and Laplume 2015;Puriwat and Tripopsakul 2015;Ramos-rodríguez et al. 2012). ...
... Liñán et al. 2011;Matricano 2016;Nishimura and Tristan 2011;Noguera et al. 2013;Pathak and Laplume 2015;Puriwat and Tripopsakul 2015;Tsai et al. 2016;Vidal-suñé and López-Panisello 2013;Wennberg et al. 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Although the intellectual capital (IC) has already received much attention from the researchers in the field of innovation performance, there is still a paucity in the measuring of the role of IC in venture creation. The present study is an attempt to examine the influence of IC on start-ups. Methodology: In this study, a large data set of 3360 respondents from India provided by the largest entrepreneurship research project GEM has been used. A logistic regression technique has been applied to measure the influence of IC on the entrepreneurial intentions. Findings: It has been found that the components of intellectual capital, i.e., knowledge and skills, entrepreneurial opportunities, and the network, has a positive and significant impact on the entrepreneurial intentions. Contribution: To the best of our knowledge, it is among the initial studies, which have examined the relationship between intellectual capital and entrepreneurial intentions. Only a few studies have already been done in developing countries like India by using a large data set.
... Previous research has suggested that the cultural context can shape entrepreneurial attitudes (Puriwat and Tripopsakul, 2015). An entrepreneurial culture can positively influence the intention to become an entrepreneur, the likelihood of starting a new company and the economic success of new endogenous companies (Del Giudice et al., 2017). ...
... Universities should be on their side to implement strategies that foster entrepreneurship; thus, students will perceive them as part of the entrepreneurial culture of higher education institutions. This situation is similar to the explanation of the positive HESWBL ▪ HESWBL-07-2020-0169_proof ▪ 6 August 2021 ▪ 6:50 pm HESWBL relationship between entrepreneurial culture and the attitude to become entrepreneurs; indeed, according to Puriwat and Tripopsakul (2015), entrepreneurial attitudes can be shaped by the cultural context. In this sense, if university students perceive a culture that promotes entrepreneurship in their societies, they are going to be more open to entrepreneurship, increasing their attitude to become entrepreneurs. ...
... Other authors have also emphasised the role of culture and its influence on the attitude towards entrepreneurship (Puriwat and Tripopsakul, 2015;Fritsch and Wyrwich, 2017;Al-Lawati et al., 2020). Hayton and Cacciotti (2013) examined the effect of culture on entrepreneurship and found a significant influence on both entrepreneurs and nonentrepreneurs. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to verify some relationships between entrepreneurial attitude, university environment, entrepreneurial culture and entrepreneurial training, which can be used to promote entrepreneurship among university students. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 3,005 questionnaires answered by students from ten universities in Colombia was gathered and partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used for the analysis. Findings The results show that the more a student perceives an entrepreneurial culture and the more training he or she receives, the more entrepreneurial attitude he or she will have. Also, it was found that entrepreneurial culture has a positive effect on university environment, and the latter has a positive effect on entrepreneurial training. Research limitations/implications The main limitation of this study was that only ten Colombian universities were sampled; therefore, general inferences cannot be made. Additionally, the variables investigated here may have not accurately measured the full scale of the entrepreneurship programmes in such universities or the way the culture of these institutions had a direct impact on students. Projects such as the Global University Entrepreneurial Spirit Students' Survey (GUESSS), which measure variables related to entrepreneurship at the university level, enable universities to shape their policies around this important topic. This study indicates that universities should offer training in entrepreneurial, problem-solving and communication skills to produce entrepreneurs who can better face current challenges. Originality/value Other studies have discussed entrepreneurial culture, but they usually deal with university environment, entrepreneurial training and entrepreneurial attitudes separately. This study integrates all these factors and measures the level of interaction between them.
... The odds ratio for this variable is 2.739 which mean those individuals who feel that they have required skill, knowledge, competences, and expertise are more than 2.5 times more likely to start their own business. This finding is also in congruence with previous research examining the influence of knowledge, skill, and entrepreneurial ability on entrepreneurial propensity (Ahmad, Xavier, & Abu Bakar, 2014;Fernández, Liñán, & Santos, 2009;Guzmán-Alfonso & Guzmán-Cuevas, 2012;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura & Tristan, 2011;Noguera, Alvarez, & Urbano, 2013;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Tsai, Chang, & Peng, 2016;Vidal-suñé & López-Panisello, 2013;Wennberg, Pathak, & Autio, 2013) . ...
... In fact, according to the results, this is the variable analyzed that has the strongest effect on the dependent variable, since its odds ratio is 2.729, indicating that opportunity identification increases the likelihood of new start-up more than 2.5 times than the rest of the individuals. This result also coincides with the results of work examining the same relationship (Ahmad et al., 2014;Bux & Honglin, 2016;Fernández et al., 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura & Tristan, 2011;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat -rodríguez et al., 2012;Tsai et al., 2016;Vidal-suñé & López-Panisello, 2013). It was proposed in hypothesis 3 that networking increases the entrepreneurial propensity. ...
... According to the result, the odds ratio for knowing other entrepreneurs is 1.499 which indicates that the networking with the existing entrepreneur increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention almost 1.5 times, while the odds ratio for being a business angel is 2.799 which indicates that being a business angel increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention by almost three times. These results also confirm the previous findings in the entrepreneurship and IC literature (Ahmad et al., 2014;Bux & Honglin, 2016;Fernández et al., 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Mancilla & Amoros, 2015;Matricano, 2016;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Ramos-rodríguez et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Although the intellectual capital (IC) has already received much attention from the researchers in the field of innovation performance, there is still a paucity in measuring the role of IC in venture creation. The present study is an attempt to examine the influence of IC on start-ups. Methodology In this study, a large data set of 3413 respondents from India has been used. The data has been provided by the largest entrepreneurship research project GEM. A logistic regression technique has been applied to measure the influence of IC on entrepreneurial intentions. Findings It has been found that the components of intellectual capital, i.e., knowledge and skills, entrepreneurial opportunities, knowing other entrepreneurs, business angel, and educational level have a positive and significant impact on the entrepreneurial intentions. Contribution To the best of our knowledge, it is among the initial studies, which have examined the relationship between intellectual capital and entrepreneurial intentions. Only a few studies have already been done in developing countries like India by using a large data set.
... The odds ratio for this variable is 2.739 which mean those individuals who feel that they have required skill, knowledge, competences, and expertise are more than 2.5 times more likely to start their own business. This finding is also in congruence with previous research examining the influence of knowledge, skill, and entrepreneurial ability on entrepreneurial propensity (Ahmad, Xavier, & Abu Bakar, 2014;Fernández, Liñán, & Santos, 2009;Guzmán-Alfonso & Guzmán-Cuevas, 2012;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura & Tristan, 2011;Noguera, Alvarez, & Urbano, 2013;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Tsai, Chang, & Peng, 2016;Vidal-suñé & López-Panisello, 2013;Wennberg, Pathak, & Autio, 2013) . ...
... In fact, according to the results, this is the variable analyzed that has the strongest effect on the dependent variable, since its odds ratio is 2.729, indicating that opportunity identification increases the likelihood of new start-up more than 2.5 times than the rest of the individuals. This result also coincides with the results of work examining the same relationship (Ahmad et al., 2014;Bux & Honglin, 2016;Fernández et al., 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura & Tristan, 2011;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat -rodríguez et al., 2012;Tsai et al., 2016;Vidal-suñé & López-Panisello, 2013). It was proposed in hypothesis 3 that networking increases the entrepreneurial propensity. ...
... According to the result, the odds ratio for knowing other entrepreneurs is 1.499 which indicates that the networking with the existing entrepreneur increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention almost 1.5 times, while the odds ratio for being a business angel is 2.799 which indicates that being a business angel increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention by almost three times. These results also confirm the previous findings in the entrepreneurship and IC literature (Ahmad et al., 2014;Bux & Honglin, 2016;Fernández et al., 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Mancilla & Amoros, 2015;Matricano, 2016;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Ramos-rodríguez et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Although the intellectual capital (IC) has already received much attention from the researchers in the field of innovation performance, there is still a paucity in measuring the role of IC in venture creation. The present study is an attempt to examine the influence of IC on start-ups. Methodology: In this study, a large data set of 3413 respondents from India has been used. The data has been provided by the largest entrepreneurship research project GEM. A logistic regression technique has been applied to measure the influence of IC on entrepreneurial intentions. Findings: It has been found that the components of intellectual capital, i.e., knowledge and skills, entrepreneurial opportunities, knowing other entrepreneurs, business angel, and educational level have a positive and significant impact on the entrepreneurial intentions. Contribution: To the best of our knowledge, it is among the initial studies, which have examined the relationship between intellectual capital and entrepreneurial intentions. Only a few studies have already been done in developing countries like India by using a large data set.
... In fact, according to the results, this is the variable analysed that has the strongest effect on the dependent variable, with odds ratio is 2.694 indicating that structural capital (opportunity identification) increases the likelihood of new start-up more than 2.5 times than the rest of the individuals. This result also coincides with the results of work examining the same relationship (Ahmad et al., 2014;Fernández Serrano et al., 2010;Honjo, 2015;Issue et al., 2016;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura and Tristan, 2011;Pathak and Laplume, 2015;Puriwat and Tripopsakul, 2015;Ramos-Rodríguez et al., 2012;Tsai et al., 2016;Vidal-Suñé and López-Panisello, 2013). In hypothesis 2, it was proposed that human capital (knowledge, skills, competences and expertise) positively affect the venture creation intention. ...
... It means those individuals who feel they have the required skills, knowledge; competences and expertise are more than two times more likely to start their own business. This finding is also in congruence with previous research examining the influence of knowledge, skill and entrepreneurial ability on entrepreneurial propensity (Ahmad et al., 2014;Fernández Serrano et al., 2010;Guzmán-Alfonso and Guzmán-Cuevas, 2012;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura and Tristan, 2011;Noguera et al., 2013;Pathak and Laplume, 2015;Puriwat and Tripopsakul, 2015;Tsai et al., 2016;Vidal-Suñé and López-Panisello, 2013;Wennberg et al., 2013). It was proposed in hypothesis 3 that relational capital (knowing existing entrepreneurs) increases the entrepreneurial propensity. ...
... According to the result, the odds ratio for this relation capital is 1.469 which indicates that the relational capital (networking with the existing entrepreneur) increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention almost 1.5 times. This results also confirm the previous findings in the entrepreneurship and intellectual capital literature (Ahmad et al., 2014;Fernández Serrano et al., 2010;Honjo, 2015;Issue et al., 2016;Liñán et al., 2011;Mancilla and Amoros, 2015;Matricano, 2016;Pathak and Laplume, 2015;Puriwat and Tripopsakul, 2015;Ramos-Rodríguez et al., 2012). ...
Intellectual capital is defined as the knowledge that can be converted into value. Intellectual capital has received a considerable attention from in the field of innovation performance. Still, there is a paucity of research which identifies the role of intellectual capital in creating ventures. This research is an attempt to examine the influence of intellectual capital on start-ups. A large data set of responses from 3360 respondents from India has been provided by the largest entrepreneurship research project Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has been used. A logistic regression technique is employed to measure the influence of intellectual capital on entrepreneurial intentions. The results show that all the components of intellectual capital, human capital, structural capital and relational capital have a positive and significant impact on entrepreneurial intentions. The study suggests that policies should be proposed to develop human capital, structural capital and facilitate interaction between existing and potential entrepreneurs so that new venture creation can be fostered. This research falls among the initial studies investigating the relationship between intellectual capital and entrepreneurial intentions. The review of literature reveals that very few studies based on large data set are conducted in developing countries like India.
... The odds ratio for this variable is 2.739 which mean those individuals who feel that they have required skill, knowledge, competences, and expertise are more than 2.5 times more likely to start their own business. This finding is also in congruence with previous research examining the influence of knowledge, skill, and entrepreneurial ability on entrepreneurial propensity (Ahmad, Xavier, & Abu Bakar, 2014;Fernández, Liñán, & Santos, 2009;Guzmán-Alfonso & Guzmán-Cuevas, 2012;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura & Tristan, 2011;Noguera, Alvarez, & Urbano, 2013;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Tsai, Chang, & Peng, 2016;Vidal-suñé & López-Panisello, 2013;Wennberg, Pathak, & Autio, 2013) . ...
... In fact, according to the results, this is the variable analyzed that has the strongest effect on the dependent variable, since its odds ratio is 2.729, indicating that opportunity identification increases the likelihood of new start-up more than 2.5 times than the rest of the individuals. This result also coincides with the results of work examining the same relationship (Ahmad et al., 2014;Bux & Honglin, 2016;Fernández et al., 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura & Tristan, 2011;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat -rodríguez et al., 2012;Tsai et al., 2016;Vidal-suñé & López-Panisello, 2013). It was proposed in hypothesis 3 that networking increases the entrepreneurial propensity. ...
... According to the result, the odds ratio for knowing other entrepreneurs is 1.499 which indicates that the networking with the existing entrepreneur increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention almost 1.5 times, while the odds ratio for being a business angel is 2.799 which indicates that being a business angel increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention by almost three times. These results also confirm the previous findings in the entrepreneurship and IC literature (Ahmad et al., 2014;Bux & Honglin, 2016;Fernández et al., 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Mancilla & Amoros, 2015;Matricano, 2016;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Ramos-rodríguez et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Although the intellectual capital (IC) has already received much attention from the researchers in the field of innovation performance, there is still a paucity in measuring the role of IC in venture creation. The present study is an attempt to examine the influence of IC on start-ups. Methodology: In this study, a large data set of 3413 respondents from India has been used. The data has been provided by the largest entrepreneurship research project GEM. A logistic regression technique has been applied to measure the influence of IC on entrepreneurial intentions. Findings: It has been found that the components of intellectual capital, i.e., knowledge and skills, entrepreneurial opportunities, knowing other entrepreneurs, business angel, and educational level have a positive and significant impact on the entrepreneurial intentions. Contribution: To the best of our knowledge, it is among the initial studies, which have examined the relationship between intellectual capital and entrepreneurial intentions. Only a few studies have already been done in developing countries like India by using a large data set. Keywords: Intellectual capital, Entrepreneurial intention, Entrepreneurial opportunities, Knowledge & Skills, Network and educational, Global entrepreneurship monitor, Logistic regression, India
... The odds ratio for this variable is 2.739 which mean those individuals who feel that they have required skill, knowledge, competences, and expertise are more than 2.5 times more likely to start their own business. This finding is also in congruence with previous research examining the influence of knowledge, skill, and entrepreneurial ability on entrepreneurial propensity (Ahmad, Xavier, & Abu Bakar, 2014;Fernández, Liñán, & Santos, 2009;Guzmán-Alfonso & Guzmán-Cuevas, 2012;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Matricano, 2016;Nishimura & Tristan, 2011;Noguera, Alvarez, & Urbano, 2013;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Tsai, Chang, & Peng, 2016;Vidal-suñé & López-Panisello, 2013;Wennberg, Pathak, & Autio, 2013) . ...
... According to the result, the odds ratio for knowing other entrepreneurs is 1.499 which indicates that the networking with the existing entrepreneur increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention almost 1.5 times, while the odds ratio for being a business angel is 2.799 which indicates that being a business angel increases the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur or entrepreneurial intention by almost three times. These results also confirm the previous findings in the entrepreneurship and IC literature (Ahmad et al., 2014;Bux & Honglin, 2016;Fernández et al., 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011;Mancilla & Amoros, 2015;Matricano, 2016;Pathak & Laplume, 2015;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Ramos-rodríguez et al., 2012). ...
... This finding is in line with (Ahmad & Xavier, 2012;Fernández, Liñán, & Santos, 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011). Other studies, i.e., Mancilla and Amorós (2015); Matricano (2016); Pathak, Laplume, and Xavier-Oliveira (2015); Puriwat and Tripopsakul (2015); Ramos-Rodríguez et al. (2012) are also in line with the findings of the study. ...
... (2011);Pathak et al. (2015);Puriwat and Tripopsakul (2015);Ramos-Rodríguez et al. (2012);Vidal- Suñé and López-Panisello (2013).The third hypothesis investigated the effect of knowledge and skills on entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial intention in Saudi Arabia, and it is also proved significant with (p < 0.01). The findings reported that those individuals with a higher level of knowledge and skills might have the possibility of becoming entrepreneurs by two times more than other people without knowledge and skills. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated the effect of intellectual capital on entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial intention in Saudi Arabia. It employed the 2016 General Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data gathered by the General Adult Population Survey (APS) from 4053 respondents in Saudi Arabia and analyzed it using binominal logistic regression. The study revealed that networking (relationship with entrepreneurs), opportunities recognition, knowledge, and skills positively impact entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial intention. Owning and managing an enterprise surprisingly did not affect the respondents' entrepreneurial intention. Furthermore, age reported a significant negative connection with entrepreneurial intention, and gender showed no effect. Finally, the education categories all revealed a negative impact on entrepreneurial intention except for some secondary classes. The study adds contribution in the context of intellectual capital and entrepreneurial intention. It also provides policymakers and other stakeholders directions on the importance of intellectual capital in effecting entrepreneurial intention. The study is limited to Saudi Arabia's context only, and it includes merely a few items selected for measuring intellectual capital and entrepreneurship, which may hamper its generality. Future studies may focus on other contexts with moderators and mediator variables.
... This finding is in line with (Ahmad & Xavier, 2012;Fernández, Liñán, & Santos, 2009;Honjo, 2015;Liñán et al., 2011). Other studies, i.e., Mancilla and Amorós (2015); Matricano (2016); Pathak, Laplume, and Xavier-Oliveira (2015); Puriwat and Tripopsakul (2015); Ramos-Rodríguez et al. (2012) are also in line with the findings of the study. ...
... (2011);Pathak et al. (2015);Puriwat and Tripopsakul (2015);Ramos-Rodríguez et al. (2012);Vidal- Suñé and López-Panisello (2013).The third hypothesis investigated the effect of knowledge and skills on entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial intention in Saudi Arabia, and it is also proved significant with (p < 0.01). The findings reported that those individuals with a higher level of knowledge and skills might have the possibility of becoming entrepreneurs by two times more than other people without knowledge and skills. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated the effect of intellectual capital on entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial intention in Saudi Arabia. It employed the 2016 General Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data gathered by the General Adult Population Survey (APS) from 4053 respondents in Saudi Arabia and analyzed it using binominal logistic regression. The study revealed that networking (relationship with entrepreneurs), opportunities recognition, knowledge, and skills positively impact entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial intention. Owning and managing an enterprise surprisingly did not affect the respondents' entrepreneurial intention. Furthermore, age reported a significant negative connection with entrepreneurial intention, and gender showed no effect. Finally, the education categories all revealed a negative impact on entrepreneurial intention except for some secondary classes. The study adds contribution in the context of intellectual capital and entrepreneurial intention. It also provides policymakers and other stakeholders directions on the importance of intellectual capital in effecting entrepreneurial intention. The study is limited to Saudi Arabia's context only, and it includes merely a few items selected for measuring intellectual capital and entrepreneurship, which may hamper its generality. Future studies may focus on other contexts with moderators and mediator variables.
... H1 projects that opportunity perception enhances entrepreneurial intentions. The marginal effect of this variable is positively significant (p < 0.05); hence, it has been accepted (Puriwat and Tripopsakul, 2015;Pathak and Laplume, 2015). The odds ratio is 4.835, which indicates that those women who see excellent opportunities in starting a business have four times more chances to become an entrepreneur than other women. ...
Article
Though the importance of women entrepreneurship has already been acknowledged all over the world yet in India the level of venture creation is significantly lower than that of males. It is true that researches conducted in western developed countries cannot be applied to developing countries, particularly, studies related to female entrepreneurship. In this study, researchers investigate the role of various factors affecting women entrepreneurship in India. For this reason, they have integrated the intellectual capital and cognitive framework to explain venture creation phenomenon.This research conducted on the interviews of 1765 Indian females, which had been extracted from GEM. Logistic regression has applied for analyzing the influence of entrepreneurial cognition and intellectual capital on the entrepreneurial intentions of Indian women.It has been found that the among all the proxy measures of intellectual capital only owning & managing a firm has a positively significant effect while perception of opportunities and perception of social legitimacy both are significantly related with the entrepreneurial intentions. The contribution of this research to the existing literature is two dimensional. Firstly, it has highlighted the significance of entrepreneurial cognition and intellectual capital in developing the entrepreneurial propensity among Indian women. Secondly it suggested some remedial measures to the Indian government for developing certain factors which are highly significant for entrepreneurial intentions.
... The intention is a direct antecedent of the real behavior, and the stronger the intention for the behavior, the greater the success of the behavior prediction or the actual behavior. Krueger (1993), Kolvereid and Isaksen (2006), and Puriwat and Tripopsakul (2015) claimed that intention is the single best predictor of most planned behaviors, including entrepreneurial behavior. ...
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In line with further investigation into the issue of the entrepreneurial attitude, this study extends the work by Faghih et al. (2019) to introduce a new concept named Entrepreneurial Attitude Entropy. The way that this study follows to achieve this objective is based on Shannon’s entropy appraisal method. Considering the nature of the entropy method, which refers to the rate of the chaos and irregularity, this study would be able to rank the GEM member countries in terms of Entrepreneurial Attitude Entropy. The main finding of this study, foremost, was the strong quadratic equation estimated between Entrepreneurial Attitude Entropy and Human Development Index (HDI) which fully conforms to some theories like “planned behavior.”
... In addition, many scholars also argued that opportunity recognition was positively and significantly associated with entrepreneurial intention. The findings supported the relationship between individual's ability to recognize business opportunity and their entrepreneurial intention (Garg, Matshediso, & Garg, 2011;Kolvereid & Isaksen, 2006;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Wu, 2009). This showed that individuals would have a high entrepreneurial intention when they were good at recognizing the opportunities for business. ...
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Social entrepreneurs are examined as individuals who have the abilities and capabilities to provide a solution for the present societal problems and serve a platform to overcome those problems in the future. By identifying the students’ social entrepreneurship intention will provide a new insight towards Malaysia’s social enterprise sector because nowadays Malaysia lacks involvement and participation of the students in this sector and they can be the most suitable candidates for future Malaysia’s social entrepreneurs. Illustrating from the entrepreneurial event model by Shapero and Sokol (1982), the study aims to examine the social entrepreneurship intention among students or graduates in Malaysian public universities. This study proposed a conceptual model on the formation of social entrepreneurship intention which is differed from the existing social entrepreneurship intention studies because apart from perceived desirability and perceived feasibility, it also introduces opportunity recognition as a new antecedent of social entrepreneurship intention. Besides, cultural factors are introduced as a potential moderator in this study. This study is hopefully can shed light on the existing literature of social entrepreneurship, specifically the social entrepreneurship intention studies in the Malaysian context and from students’ perspective.
... H1 projects that opportunity perception enhances entrepreneurial intentions. The marginal effect of this variable is positively significant (p < 0.05); hence, it has been accepted (Puriwat and Tripopsakul, 2015;Pathak and Laplume, 2015). The odds ratio is 4.835, which indicates that those women who see excellent opportunities in starting a business have four times more chances to become an entrepreneur than other women. ...
... Fear of failure has been defined as the perceived risk of experiencing failure when engaging in entrepreneurship . It has been found to be negatively associated with the intention to start a business (Fernández et al., 2009;Puriwat & Tripopsakul, 2015;Ramos-Rodríguez et al., 2012). Thus individuals with higher level of fear failure are less likely to start their own business. ...
Conference Paper
In this paper, the authors have tried to explore the factors affecting the decision to start a new business among Indians by using a sample of 2700 interviews of GEM 2012 APS Data. Factors related to demographic, perceptual, and intellectual and social capital have been used as independent variables and Intentional Entrepreneur has been used as the dependent variable. Logistic Regression Model has been employed to measure the influence of independent variables on the dependent variables. Findings showed that gender, perceived opportunities, self-efficacy (confidence in one’s own ability, knowledge and skills) knowing entrepreneurs, financing or having financed another business as a business angel are the determining factors of new business start up. Policy implications of the findings have been discussed. Keywords: Start-up, Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurial Intention, Self-efficacy, India
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Intellectual capital is defined as the knowledge that can be converted into value. Intellectual capital has received a considerable attention in the field of innovation performance. Only a few researches have been conducted so far to identify the role of intellectual capital in creating ventures. This research is an attempt to examine the influence of intellectual capital on start-ups. A large data set of responses of 3360 respondents from India has been provided by the largest entrepreneurship research project. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor has been used. The logistic regression technique is employed to measure the influence of intellectual capital on entrepreneurial intentions. The study suggests that policies should be proposed to develop human capital, structural capital and facilitate interaction between existing and potential entrepreneurs so that new venture creation can be fostered. This research falls among the initial studies investigating the relationship between intellectual capital and entrepreneurial intentions. The review of literature reveals that very few studies based on large data set are conducted in developing countries like India.
Chapter
The main purpose of this study is to introduce three new indexes. In order to investigate the attitude and the capacity of communities, the entrepreneurial attitude index and the entrepreneurship capacity index were theoretically generated. This study proposed a non-linear regression approach to discussing the relationship between these indexes. The allometric relationship, as the nonlinear and well-fitted model, demonstrated that the variations of the entrepreneurship capacity index are entrepreneurial attitude index by about 56%. Finally, the entrepreneurship attitude dispersion index, as the third index of this research, was extracted from the difference between the entrepreneurship capacity index and the entrepreneurial attitude index. By using the entrepreneurship attitude dispersion index and statistical methods, a ranking list of countries was developed, proving that entrepreneurial attitude dispersion index is able to improve the economic categorization of countries.
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