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Real World Effectiveness of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir in 4365 Treatment-Naïve Genotype 1 Hepatitis C Infected Patients

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Unlabelled: Real-world effectiveness data are needed to inform hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment decisions. The uptake of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) regimens across health care settings has been rapid, but variations often occur in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess sustained virologic response (SVR) of LDV/SOF±ribavirin (RBV) in routine medical practice. This observational, intent-to-treat cohort was comprised of 4,365 genotype 1, treatment-naive, HCV-infected veterans treated with LDV/SOF±RBV. SVR rates were 91.3% (3,191/3,495) for LDV/SOF and 92.0% (527/573) for LDV/SOF+RBV (P = 0.65). African American race (odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.90, P = 0.004) and FIB-4 >3.25 (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.71, P < 0.001) were independently associated with decreased likelihood of SVR; age, sex, body mass index, decompensated liver disease, diabetes, genotype 1 subtype, and regimen did not predict SVR. In models limited to those who completed 12 weeks of treatment, African American race was no longer a significant predictor of SVR but FIB-4 >3.25 (odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.50, P < 0.001) remained. Among those without cirrhosis (defined by FIB-4 ≤3.25) and with baseline HCV RNA<6,000,000 IU/mL, SVR rates were 93.2% (1,020/1,094) for those who completed 8 weeks of therapy and 96.6% (875/906) for those who completed 12 weeks of therapy (P = 0.001). Conclusions: In this real-world cohort, SVR rates with LDV/SOF±RBV nearly matched the rates reported in clinical trials and were consistently high across all subgroups; those without cirrhosis but with HCV RNA<6,000,000 IU/mL were less likely to achieve SVR with 8 weeks compared to 12 weeks of therapy, although the numeric difference in SVR rates was small. (Hepatology 2016;64:405-414).
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Real-World Effectiveness of Ledipasvir/
Sofosbuvir in 4,365 Treatment-Naive,
Genotype 1 Hepatitis C-Infected Patients
Lisa I. Backus, Pamela S. Belperio, Troy A. Shahoumian, Timothy P. Loomis, and Larry A. Mole
Real-world effectiveness data are needed to inform hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment decisions. The uptake of ledi-
pasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) regimens across health care settings has been rapid, but variations often occur in clinical
practice. The aim of this study was to assess sustained virologic response (SVR) of LDV/SOF6ribavirin (RBV) in rou-
tine medical practice. This observational, intent-to-treat cohort was comprised of 4,365 genotype 1, treatment-naive,
HCV-infected veterans treated with LDV/SOF6RBV. SVR rates were 91.3% (3,191/3,495) for LDV/SOF and 92.0%
(527/573) for LDV/SOF1RBV (P50.65). African American race (odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.90,
P50.004) and FIB-4 >3.25 (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.71, P<0.001) were independently associ-
ated with decreased likelihood of SVR; age, sex, body mass index, decompensated liver disease, diabetes, genotype 1
subtype, and regimen did not predict SVR. In models limited to those who completed 12 weeks of treatment, African
American race was no longer a significant predictor of SVR but FIB-4 >3.25 (odds ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval
0.24-0.50, P<0.001) remained. Among those without cirrhosis (defined by FIB-4 3.25) and with baseline HCV
RNA<6,000,000 IU/mL, SVR rates were 93.2% (1,020/1,094) for those who completed 8 weeks of therapy and 96.6%
(875/906) for those who completed 12 weeks of therapy (P50.001). Conclusions: In this real-world cohort, SVR rates
with LDV/SOF6RBV nearly matched the rates reported in clinical trials and were consistently high across all sub-
groups; those without cirrhosis but with HCV RNA<6,000,000 IU/mL were less likely to achieve SVR with 8 weeks
compared to 12 weeks of therapy, although the numeric difference in SVR rates was small.(H
EPATOLOGY 2016;64:405-
414)
Antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus
(HCV) infection continues to rapidly evolve.
Sustained virologic response (SVR) rates
reported in clinical trials with the newest regimens are
consistently above 90% for most HCV-infected patient
populations. The promise of such results in clinical tri-
als has created similarly high expectations among both
providers and patients. However, studies examining
real-world effectiveness with interferon-based HCV
regimens and, more recently, sofosbuvir plus simepre-
vir regimens revealed differences in outcomes com-
pared to clinical trials.
(1-7)
These differences may
reflect the wide heterogeneity in clinical practice where
patient characteristics, care coordination, and manage-
ment are not uniform. Only when prescribed to a
broader population do these variances become appa-
rent. Understanding the effectiveness of antiviral regi-
mens in real-world settings is essential to provide
practical information to better inform HCV treatment
decisions.
The use of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for
varying treatment durations has been extensively eval-
uated in clinical trials of treatment-naive, genotype 1
HCV-infected individuals. The phase 3 ION-1 clinical
Abbreviations: APRI, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index; BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; EOT, end of treatment;
FDA, US Food and Drug Administration; HCV, hepatitis C virus; IL, interleukin; LDV/SOF, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir; OR, odds ratio; RBV, ribavirin;
SVR, sustained virologic response; VA, Department of Veterans Affairs.
Received December 24, 2015; accepted April 20, 2016.
Additional Supporting Information may be found at onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.28625/suppinfo.
Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com.
DOI 10.1002/hep.28625
Potential conflict of interest: Nothing to report.
405
HEPATOLOGY, VOL. 64, NO. 2, 2016
A
HE STU
DYOFLIVERD I S E ASES
T
ME
RIC
A
N
A
SSOCI
ATIO
NFOR
trial comparing 12-week and 24-week regimens resulted
in SVR rates of 97%-100% in all treatment arms includ-
ing subgroups defined by race, genotype subtype, and
presence of cirrhosis.
(8)
The high SVRs observed in this
study led to the exploration of shortening treatment
duration even further. In ION-3, LDV/SOF 6riba-
virin (RBV) regimens of 8 and 12 weeks’ duration were
compared in treatment-naive, HCV genotype
1-infected patients without cirrhosis.
(9)
While SVR
rates were high in all treatment arms (93%-95%),
relapse rates were higher in the 8-week treatment arms
(5%) compared to the 12-week arms (1%). Post hoc anal-
ysis of baseline predictors revealed higher relapse rates
only in patients receiving the 8-week regimen with a
baseline HCV RNA above 6 million IU/mL. Based on
data from this trial, current US Food and Drug Admin-
istration (FDA) labeling indicates that an 8-week regi-
men of LDV/SOF can be considered in patients who
are treatment-naive without cirrhosis and have a base-
line HCV RNA below 6,000,000 IU/mL. Though the
generalizability of this approach may be viewed as lim-
ited, it is being widely used in clinical practice.
HCV disproportionately affects the veteran popula-
tion, and this population is often underrepresented in
clinical trials, largely due to complicating comorbid-
ities.
(10)
Thus, evaluating the effectiveness of HCV
antiviral regimens remains a priority for the Depart-
ment of Veterans Affairs (VA).
(11)
With the rapid
uptake of LDV/SOF regimens across health care set-
tings and variations that often occur in clinical practice,
we examined real-world outcomes in the diverse
HCV-infected veteran population receiving this regi-
men. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of LDV/
SOF6RBV in treatment-naıve, genotype 1 HCV-
infected veterans treated in routine medical practice.
Materials and Methods
This was an observational intent-to-treat cohort
analysis of HCV-infected veterans receiving LDV/
SOF6RBV from the VA. Data for this study were
obtained from the VA’s Clinical Case Registry for
HCV, an extract of the VA electronic medical record
that contains demographics, laboratory results, phar-
macy information, and International Classification of
Diseases diagnosis codes from inpatient hospitaliza-
tions, outpatient visits, and problem lists of HCV-
infected veterans seen at all VA medical facilities.
(12)
Eligible subjects included all treatment-naive, geno-
type 1 HCV-infected veterans from any VA facility
nationwide who initiated VA-prescribed LDV/SOF6
RBV with a recommended duration of 8 or 12 weeks
between November 1, 2014, and March 31, 2015, and
stopped treatment by July 14, 2015. The choice of reg-
imen and timing of follow-up visits and laboratory
testing were at the discretion of the provider as patients
were treated in routine practice. Patients were excluded
if they changed regimens (n 58), had baseline HCV
RNA 1000 IU/mL (n 582), had undergone liver
transplantation (n 5113), or had received more than
91 days of LDV/SOF6RBV (n 5266).
TREATMENT OUTCOME
SVR was defined as an undetectable HCV RNA on
all HCV RNA tests after the end of treatment (EOT)
including at least one test 10 weeks or more after the
EOT. This 10-week time point was chosen to account
for variability of clinic visits and timing of lab draws in
clinical practice. Patients were categorized as not
achieving SVR if they had a detectable HCV RNA
after the EOT, had no viral load testing after the
EOT, and had a detectable HCV RNA on their last
HCV viral load test while on treatment or died while
on treatment or within 10 weeks of the EOT. Patients
with undetectable HCV RNA on their last HCV viral
load test, either on treatment or after the EOT, but no
test 10 weeks of more after the EOT were excluded
from the SVR analysis. The EOT was calculated as
the last day covered by prescriptions of LDV/SOF
using the dates the medication was dispensed and the
ARTICLE INFORMATION:
From the Department of Veterans Affairs, Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA.
ADDRESS CORRESPONDENCE AND REPRINT REQUESTS TO:
Lisa I. Backus, M.D., Ph.D.
Patient Care Services/Population Health Services
Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System
Palo Alto, CA 94304
E-mail: Lisa.Backus@va.gov
Tel: 11-650-849-0365
BACKUS ET AL. HEPATOLOGY, August 2016
406
number of days of supply. HCV RNA was categorized
as detectable or undetectable based on the locally
reported HCV RNA result of which 98% used assays
with a lower limit of detection of 7 IU/mL or less.
Patients were followed from the initiation of LDV/
SOF6RBV through February 29, 2016, allowing for
more than 32 weeks of follow-up after the EOT for all
patients in the cohort.
CONTROL VARIABLES
Demographic and other baseline variables were deter-
mined at the time of treatment initiation and included
age, sex, race/ethnicity, history of decompensated liver
disease (defined as esophageal variceal hemorrhage,
hepatic coma, hepatorenal syndrome, or spontaneous
bacterial peritonitis), diabetes, human immunodefi-
ciency virus coinfection, and HCV genotype 1 subtype.
Baseline values for height and weight, which were used
to calculate body mass index (BMI), and laboratory tests
for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase,
platelets, and baseline HCV RNA were defined as the
value within 1 year before and closest to the treatment
start date. A FIB-4 score >3.25 or an aspartate
aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) score
>2 at the start of treatment using baseline laboratory
values was used as a marker of advanced liver disease.
(13-
15)
Patients with FIB-4 3.25 or APRI 2 were con-
sidered to not have cirrhosis.
The percentage of patients on treatment was calcu-
lated from the cumulative days’ supply of all LDV/
SOF prescriptions starting with the first prescription
for LDV/SOF through the last day of treatment cov-
ered by LDV/SOF. In the VA, LDV/SOF prescrip-
tions are frequently filled for quantities less than 28
days, particularly for the first 1 or 2 months of treat-
ment. Patients were considered to have completed 8
and 12 weeks of LDV/SOF6RBV if they had received
between 49-63 and 77-91 days’ worth of medication,
respectively.
On-treatment HCV RNA at 4 weeks was deter-
mined using the locally reported result closest to and
within 2 weeks prior to and 2 weeks after the specified
time point. HCV RNA results at 4 weeks were catego-
rized as undetectable, detectable <15 IU/mL, and
detectable 15 IU/mL.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Univariate comparisons used the Pearson chi-squared
test with Yates’ continuity correction for categorical var-
iables and analysis of variance for continuous variables.
Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed
to model SVR. Variables included in the multivariate
regression were selected a priori based on variables that
had been previously shown to impact SVR or were of
clinical interest. Models included age, sex, race/ethnic-
ity, history of decompensated liver disease, diabetes,
genotype 1 subtype, regimen, and FIB-4. A set of mod-
els with the above baseline variables was constructed
with patients who completed 12 weeks of treatment.
These models were rerun also including HCV RNA at
4 weeks. In addition, a set of models with the baseline
variables was constructed with only patients who com-
pleted 8 or 12 weeks of LDV/SOF and then further
restricted to those patients who met the criteria for not
having cirrhosis based on FIB-4 3.25 and baseline
HCV RNA <6,000,000 IU/mL.
For all comparisons, P<0.01 was considered statis-
tically significant. All analyses were performed using
R, version 3.1 (R Foundation for Statistical Comput-
ing, Vienna, Austria).
The protocol was approved by the Stanford Univer-
sity Institutional Review Board and the VA Palo Alto
Health Care System Research and Development
Committee.
Results
In total, 4,834 treatment-naive patients with HCV
genotype 1 initiated LDV/SOF6RBV at 124 VA
facilities. After applying exclusion criteria, 4,365
remained. The mean age for the cohort overall was
61.3 years, 96.1% were male, 36.6% were African
American, 3.3% had a history of decompensated liver
disease, 34.2% had a BMI 30 kg/m
2
, 30.5% had dia-
betes, and 29.2% had FIB-4 >3.25.
Baseline characteristics for the cohort by regimen
appear in Table 1. For the cohort, 86.3% (n 53,763)
received LDV/SOF and 13.7% (n 5602) received
LDV/SOF1RBV. Patients who received LDV/
SOF1RBV were more likely to have markers of
advanced liver disease including lower mean platelet
count, higher mean APRI score, APRI >2, higher
mean FIB-4 score, FIB-4 >3.25, and a history of
decompensated liver disease.
Among patients who received LDV/SOF, 3.6%
(n 5134) discontinued treatment before 8 weeks,
37.0% (n 51,392) received 8 weeks, 1.7% (n 565)
discontinued treatment between 8 and 12 weeks,
and 57.7% (n 52,172) received 12 weeks. In total,
HEPATOLOGY, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2016 BACKUS ET AL.
407
94.7% completed either an 8-week or a 12-week
course. Among people who received LDV/
SOF1RBV, 90.0% (n 5542) completed 12 weeks
of treatment.
SVR results were available for 4,068 patients,
including 12 patients who died while on treatment or
shortly after who were categorized as no SVR. Patients
whose last HCV RNA was undetectable but occurred
while still on treatment (n 586) or less than 10 weeks
after the EOT (n 5211) were excluded from the SVR
analysis. Patients with an undetectable HCV RNA
obtained 10 or 11 weeks after the EOT were included
in the SVR analysis for reasons described previously
(n 5197). In additional support for categorizing these
individuals as achieving SVR, 98 other patients in this
cohort had undetectable HCV RNA test results in
week 10 or 11 with subsequent HCV RNA testing at
12 weeks or later. All 98 patients remained undetect-
able on the later HCV RNA testing, further validating
the acceptance of testing at 10 weeks or later as a prac-
tical accommodation for the realities of clinical practice
while providing an accurate assessment of virologic
response that would be seen if testing were conducted
strictly at 12 weeks.
Overall SVR rates were similar for LDV/SOF and
LDV/SOF1RBV (91.3% versus 92.0% respectively, P
50.65) (Table 2). For patients who received LDV/
SOF, SVR rates were significantly lower in African
Americans compared to Caucasians, patients with
APRI >2, and patients with FIB-4 >3.25 but for no
other baseline characteristics examined. Significantly
lower SVR rates were observed in those receiving
LDV/SOF who had a 4-week on-treatment detectable
HCV RNA 15 IU/mL compared to those who were
TABLE 1. Baseline Characteristics and 4 Week On-Treatment Response
of Treatment-Naive Genotype1 Patients Receiving LDV/SOF-Based Regimens
LDV/SOF
(n 53,763)
LDV/SOF1RBV
(n 5602)
P
*
Age (years) 61.1 66.7 (25.3-90.8) 62.1 65.2 (37.0-86.2)
Sex, male 95.9% 97.2%
Race/ethnicity <0.001
African American 37.9% 28.1%
Caucasian 50.8% 57.1%
Hispanic 4.3% 6.8%
Other/multiple 7.0% 8.0%
Decompensated liver disease 2.1% 10.3% <0.001
Diabetes 29.6% 36.2% 0.001
HIV coinfected 5.4% 3.5%
BMI (kg/m
2
) 28.4 65.1 (15.8-65.2) 29.5 65.4 (17.9-60.1) <0.001
BMI (kg/m
2
)<0.001
<25 25.2% 20.1%
25-29 41.8% 38.0%
30 33.0% 41.9%
ALT (U/L) 72.3 656.6 (8-659) 83.4 656.9 (16-445) <0.001
AST (U/L) 61.2 643 (6-614) 80.2 649.7 (11-427) <0.001
Platelets (K/lL) 193.8 668.7 (6-661) 148.2 670.7 (22-759) <0.001
APRI 1.0 61.2 (0.1-20.4) 1.9 61.8 (0.1-11.5) <0.001
APRI >2 12.0% 31.3% <0.001
FIB-4 2.9 62.7 (0.1-51.4) 5.1 64.4 (0.6-34.7) <0.001
FIB-4 >3.25 24.8% 56.7% <0.001
HCV RNA (log IU/mL) 6.2 60.7 (3.1-7.9) 6.2 60.7 (3.9-7.8)
HCV RNA <6,000,000 IU/mL 83.2% 83.9%
HCV subtype 1b 24.0% 21.1%
IL28B polymorphism n 5462 n 569
CC 25.8% 14.5%
CT 50.2% 56.5%
TT 24.0% 29.0%
4-week HCV RNA n 53265 n 5557
Undetectable 76.4% 75.6%
Detectable <15 IU/mL 9.1% 8.4%
Detectable 15 IU/mL 14.6% 16.0%
Continuous variables reported as mean 6standard deviation (range). Categorical variables reported as percentage.
*Pvalues listed if <0.01 between LDV/SOF and LDV/SOF1RBV.
Abbreviations: ALT, alanine amino transferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus.
BACKUS ET AL. HEPATOLOGY, August 2016
408
undetectable by week 4. For patients who received
LDV/SOF1RBV, SVR rates were numerically lower
in those with high FIB-4 or APRI scores; but these
differences were not statistically significant. SVR rates
were also significantly lower in those receiving LDV/
SOF1RBV who had a 4-week on-treatment detecta-
ble HCV RNA 15 IU/mL compared to those who
were undetectable by week 4.
Among patients who completed a full 12 weeks of
treatment, SVR rates did not differ between LDV/
SOF and LDV/SOF1RBV (94.3% [1,924/2,040]
versus 94.2% [485/515], respectively; P51.00).
Among patients who completed a full 12 weeks of
LDV/SOF, SVR rates remained significantly lower in
those with APRI >2, FIB-4 >3.25, and 4-week on-
treatment HCV RNA 15 IU/mL compared to those
TABLE 2. SVR Rates by Regimen for Genotype 1, Treatment-Naive Patients Receiving LDV/SOF-Based Regimens
LDV/SOF
(n 53,495)
P
*
LDV/SOF1RBV
(n 5573)
P
*
Overall SVR 91.3% (3,191/3,495) 92.0% (527/573)
Age (years)
<55 93.8% (361/385) 95.1% (39/41)
55-64 90.3% (1,918/2,124) 90.7% (323/356)
65 92.5% (912/986) 93.8% (165/176)
Sex
Male 91.1% (3,052/3,349) 92.1% (512/556)
Female 95.2% (139/146) 88.2% (15/17)
Race/ethnicity
African American 89.8% (1,185/1,320) 0.003 93.2% (151/162)
Caucasian 92.8% (1,657/1,785) 92.0% (298/324)
Hispanic 88.2% (134/152) 90.0% (36/40)
Other/multiple 90.3% (215/238) 89.4% (42/47)
Decompensated liver disease
No 91.3% (3,125/3,421) 92.6% (476/514)
Yes 89.2% (66/74) 86.4% (51/59)
Diabetes
No 91.3% (2,236/2,448) 93.7% (344/367)
Yes 91.2% (955/1,047) 88.8% (183/206)
HIV coinfection
No 91.3% (3,013/3,300) 92.1% (510/554)
Yes 91.3% (178/195) 89.5% (17/19)
BMI (kg/m
2
)
<25 89.8% (791/881) 93.3% (111/119)
25-29 92.8% (1,356/1,461) 93.0% (200/215)
30 90.5% (1,044/1,153) 90.4% (216/239)
APRI
2 92.0% (2,814/3,059) <0.001 93.6% (368/393)
>2 86.7% (372/429) 88.2% (157/178)
FIB-4
3.25 92.6% (2,407/2,599) <0.001 94.4% (234/248)
>3.25 87.6% (779/889) 90.1% (291/323)
HCV RNA (log IU/mL)
<6,000,000 IU/mL 91.4% (2,657/2,908) 91.9% (440/479)
6,000,000 IU/mL 91.0% (534/587) 92.6% (87/94)
HCV subtype
1a
90.9% (2,402/2,642) 91.6% (414/452)
1b 92.5% (789/853) 93.4% (113/121)
IL28B polymorphism n 5441 n 565
CC 92.2% (107/116) 90.0% (9/10)
CT 91.8% (202/220) 94.4% (34/36)
TT 93.3% (98/105) 89.5% (17/19)
4-week HCV RNA n 53,036 n 5532
Undetectable 95.3% (2,204/2,312) NS 95.3% (384/403) NS
Detectable <15 IU/mL 93.2% (260/279) <0.001 88.6% (39/44) <0.001
Detectable 15 IU/mL 84.8% (393/445) 88.2% (75/85)
*Pvalues only listed if <0.01 between categories of each baseline variable for the same regimen.
Subtype 1a includes 1a, mixed 1a/1b, and 1 with subtype unspecified.
Abbreviations: HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; NS, not significant.
]
]
]
]
]]
]
HEPATOLOGY, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2016 BACKUS ET AL.
409
with undetectable 4-week HCV RNA (Supporting
Table S1).
In multivariate analysis, significant independent pre-
dictors of SVR were African American race compared
to Caucasian (odds ratio [OR] 0.70, 95% confidence
interval [CI] 0.54-0.90, P50.004) and FIB-4 >3.25
compared to FIB-4 3.25 (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43-
0.71, P<0.001) (Table 3). Age, sex, BMI, diabetes,
history of decompensated liver disease, genotype 1 sub-
type, and regimen did not predict SVR. When
restricted to those patients who completed 12 weeks of
treatment, only FIB-4 >3.25 remained a significant
predictor of decreased odds of SVR (OR 0.35, 95% CI
0.24-0.50, P<0.001). In both models the substitution
of APRI with a cut point of 2 in place of FIB-4 pro-
duced similar ORs (data not shown).
Four-week on-treatment HCV RNA was an inde-
pendent predictor of SVR when included as a variable
in the models (Supporting Table S2). Having a detect-
able HCV RNA 15 IU/mL was associated with
reduced odds of SVR compared to undetectable in the
full model (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.29-0.56, P<0.001)
and in the model limited to those who completed 12
weeks of treatment (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.25-0.58, P<
0.001).
With regard to treatment duration, as noted above,
among patients who received LDV/SOF, 37.0% (n 5
1392) received 8 weeks and 57.7% (n 52172) received
12 weeks. Of the 1,392 receiving 8 weeks, 86.9% (n 5
1209) met FDA criteria of a baseline HCV RNA
<6,000,000 IU/mL when “without cirrhosis” was
defined as FIB-4 3.25 and 92.7% (n 51291) met
FDA criteria when “without cirrhosis” was defined as
APRI 2. Of the 2,172 patients who received 12
weeks of LDV/SOF, 45.0% (n 5977) also met the
FDA criteria for 8 weeks of treatment using the FIB-4
definition of “without cirrhosis” and 58.4% (n 51268)
met the FDA criteria using the APRI definition of
“without cirrhosis.”
The overall SVR rate in those who completed 8
weeks of LDV/SOF treatment was 92.1% compared
to 94.3% in those who completed 12 weeks of treat-
ment (Table 4). Among patients in the subgroups who
met the FDA criteria, SVR rates were statistically
lower for those who received 8 weeks of LDV/SOF
than for those who received 12 weeks of LDV/SOF,
regardless of whether “without cirrhosis” was defined
by APRI 2 or FIB-4 3.25. The numeric difference
in SVR between those receiving 8 or 12 weeks was
2.8% and 3.4% when “without cirrhosis” was defined
by APRI 2 or FIB-4 3.25, respectively. SVR rates
for other baseline characteristics in patients who com-
pleted 8 or 12 weeks of LDV/SOF treatment are avail-
able in Supporting Table S1.
In multivariate analysis of patients who completed 8
or 12 weeks of LDV/SOF, significant independent
predictors of SVR were African American race (OR
0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.90, P50.008), FIB-4 >3.25
(OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.32-0.62, P<0.001), and 8-week
treatment duration compared to 12-week treatment
duration (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.76, P<0.001)
(Table 5). In models limited to patients with baseline
HCV RNA <6,000,000 IU/mL and FIB-4 3.25,
only 8-week treatment duration remained a significant
TABLE 3. ORs for SVR in Multivariable Model for Treatment-Naive
Genotype 1 Patients Treated With LDV/SOF-Based Regimens
OR (95% CI)
(n 54,059)
Completed 12 weeks
OR (95% CI)
(n 52,533)
Age <55 years (ref. 55-64) 1.43 (0.95-2.24) 1.31 (0.69-2.75)
Age 65 years (ref. 55-64) 1.39 (1.07-1.82) 1.31 (0.89-1.96)
Female (ref. male) 1.83 (0.94-4.12) 2.72 (0.83-16.8)
African American (ref. Caucasian) 0.70 (0.54-0.90)* 0.85 (0.57-1.26)
Hispanic (ref. Caucasian) 0.62 (0.39-1.03) 0.77 (0.38-1.71)
Other/multiple (ref. Caucasian) 0.73 (0.48-1.16) 0.50 (0.29-0.91)
BMI <25 kg/m
2
(ref. BMI 25-29 kg/m
2
) 0.71 (0.53-0.96) 0.86 (0.54-1.38)
BMI 30 kg/m
2
(ref. BMI 25-29 kg/m
2
) 0.73 (0.55-0.95) 0.68 (0.45-1.00)
Diabetes 0.97 (0.76-1.25) 0.93 (0.65-1.35)
FIB-4 >3.25 (ref. FIB-4 3.25) 0.56 (0.43-0.71)
0.35 (0.24-0.50)
History of decompensated liver disease (ref. no) 0.88 (0.51-1.59) 0.89 (0.47-1.84)
Subtype 1b 1.26 (0.96-1.68) 1.13 (0.75-1.77)
LDV/SOF1RBV (ref. LDV/SOF) 1.34 (0.96-1.91) 1.31 (0.86-2.06)
*P<0.01.
P<0.001.
Abbreviation: ref., reference.
BACKUS ET AL. HEPATOLOGY, August 2016
410
predictor of reduced odds of SVR (OR 0.47, 95% CI
0.30-0.72, P<0.001). Similar results were obtained in
models limited to patients with baseline HCV RNA
<6,000,000 IU/mL and APRI 2 (data not shown).
Discussion
In this real-world cohort of treatment-naive, geno-
type 1 HCV-infected veterans treated with LDV/
SOF-based therapy at any VA facility nationwide, we
observed SVR rates over 90%, nearly matching the
rates reported in clinical trials.
(8,9)
The response rates
were consistently high across all subgroups evaluated,
regardless of regimen or duration, and ranged from
86% to 97%. Use of RBV did not appear to offer gen-
eral benefit and was associated with higher early dis-
continuation rates, although overall more veterans were
able to successfully complete treatment with LDV/
SOF-based regimens compared to regimens previously
evaluated.
(1,5)
Shorter, 8-week, regimens of LDV/SOF
were widely used in patients with baseline HCV RNA
below 6,000,000 IU/mL without cirrhosis; however,
SVR rates were significantly lower in those treated
with 8 weeks compared to 12 weeks.
The large differences between real-world effective-
ness and clinical trial efficacy previously observed have
now been almost eliminated with the use of potent all-
oral regimens, which are well-tolerated and easily
administered for shorter durations. The remaining
small decrement in effectiveness in this real-world
cohort may be explained by differences in patient pop-
ulations as our cohort consisted of mostly older male
patients with generally higher BMI, a greater propor-
tion of African Americans, and more prevalent evi-
dence of advanced liver disease. Furthermore, there are
persistent variations in practice patterns, patient moti-
vation, provider knowledge, provider resources, and
ancillary services in routine medical practice compared
to highly structured, highly resourced clinical trials.
Reported virologic response rates to other direct-
acting antiviral and prior interferon-based regimens
showed wide variability in clinical practice, particularly
TABLE 4. SVR Rates by Regimen for Genotype 1 Treatment-Naive Patients Who Completed 8 or 12 Weeks of LDV/SOF
LDV/SOF 8 weeks LDV/SOF 12 weeks
P
*
Overall SVR 92.1% (1,169/1,269) 94.3% (1,924/2,040)
HCV RNA <6,000,000 IU/mL 92.7% (1,138/1,227) 94.1% (1,431/1,520)
APRI 2 92.1% (1,124/1,220) 95.5% (1,603/1,679) <0.001
FIB-4 3.25 92.5% (1,043/1,128) 96.3% (1,285/1,335) <0.001
HCV RNA <6,000,000 IU/mL and APRI 2 92.8% (1,095/1,180) 95.6% (1,139/1,191) 0.004
HCV RNA <6,000,000 IU/mL and FIB-4 3.25 93.2% (1,020/1,094) 96.6% (875/906) 0.001
*Pvalues listed if <0.01 between 8 weeks and 12 weeks.
TABLE 5. ORs for SVR in Multivariable Model for Genotype 1 Treatment-Naive Patients
Who Completed 8 or 12 Weeks of LDV/SOF
OR (95% CI)
(n 53,303)
Baseline FIB-4 £3.25 and
HCV <6,000,000 IU/mL
OR (95% CI) (n 51,989)
Age <55 years (ref. 55-64) 1.27 (0.77-2.19) 1.38 (0.71-2.92)
Age 65 years (ref. 55-64) 1.25 (0.90-1.75) 1.22 (0.76-2.00)
Female (ref. male) 3.22 (1.19-13.3)
African American (ref. Caucasian) 0.66 (0.48-0.90)* 0.75 (0.48-1.17)
Hispanic (ref. Caucasian) 0.67 (0.36-1.37) 0.60 (0.26-1.63)
Other/multiple (ref. Caucasian) 0.59 (0.36-1.03) 1.12 (0.50-3.00)
BMI <25 kg/m
2
(ref. BMI 25-29 kg/m
2
) 0.79 (0.55-1.14) 0.79 (0.48-1.34)
BMI 30 kg/m
2
(ref. BMI 25-29 kg/m
2
) 0.73 (0.52-1.01) 0.78 (0.49-1.26)
Diabetes 1.01 (0.74-1.40) 0.74 (0.47-1.18)
FIB-4>3.25 (ref. FIB-43.25) 0.45 (0.32-0.62)
†§
History of decompensated liver disease (ref. no) 0.91 (0.40-2.42)
§
Subtype 1b 1.32 (0.94-1.90) 1.28 (0.80-2.10)
8 weeks (ref. 12 weeks) 0.56 (0.41-0.76)
0.47 (0.30-0.72)
*P<0.01.
P<0.001.
Female not included as a variable because of small numbers of females.
§
FIB-4 and history of decompensated liver disease not included in the model as patients had to have FIB-4 3.25 to be included.
HEPATOLOGY, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2016 BACKUS ET AL.
411
in patients with specific baseline characteristics includ-
ing African American race, genotype subtype 1a,
interleukin-28B (IL28B) non-CC subtype, and high
baseline HCV RNA.
(16-20)
A strength of the current
study is the large number of patients evaluated, which
allows for the detection of differences in subgroups that
might not otherwise be identified in smaller studies or
clinical trials. Nearly 1,500 African Americans were
evaluated in this cohort study, and our results indicate
that response rates may still be reduced in African
Americans compared to Caucasians. African American
race was a predictor of reduced likelihood of SVR in
multivariate models of the overall cohort but not in
models of those patients completing a full treatment
course, suggesting that perhaps tolerability or adherence
may be a contributing factor, though we did not specifi-
cally evaluate this. While in general RBV did not offer
any benefit overall in achieving SVR, there is an indica-
tion that its use in African Americans may improve
SVR rates as evidenced by the 89.8% SVR rate in those
who did not receive RBV and the 93.2% SVR in those
that did. Furthermore, treating for 12 weeks may also
overcome this difference as SVR rates in African Amer-
icans completing 12 weeks of LDV/SOF therapy were
higher than in those completing 8 weeks (94.0% versus
89.8%) and were similar to SVR rates achieved in Cau-
casians (12 weeks 95.2%, 8 weeks 93.9%). This finding
of lower SVR rates in African Americans receiving an
8-week treatment course of LDV/SOF is consistent
with results from the ION clinical trials, which showed
higher relapse rates among black patients receiving 8
weeks of treatment compared with those receiving 12
and 24 weeks of treatment.
(16)
The largest difference
between blacks and nonblacks occurred in those who
received 8 weeks of LDV/SOF therapy with baseline
HCV RNA 6,000,000 (83% versus 92%). This aligns
with our findings of those completing 8 or 12 weeks of
LDV/SOF treatment in which African American race
predicted decreased odds of achieving SVR overall but
no longer predicted decreased odds of SVR when lim-
ited to those who did not have cirrhosis with baseline
HCV RNA <6,000,000.
Clinical trials suggested that an 8-week treatment
course of LDV/SOF could be used in patients with
specific baseline characteristics, namely treatment-
naive patients without cirrhosis and with a pretreat-
ment HCV RNA <6,000,000 IU/mL; and these
criteria are included in FDA labeling.
(8,9,21)
The use of
an 8-week treatment course, however, is not recom-
mended in the American Association for the Study of
Liver Diseases/Infectious Diseases Society of America
hepatitis C guidance due to the higher relapse rate.
(22)
Our analysis highlights the complexity of the treatment
duration decision. SVR rates were statistically lower
with 8 weeks of treatment compared to 12 weeks of
treatment, and patients had approximately 53%
reduced odds of achieving SVR in multivariable mod-
els with 8 weeks of treatment compared to 12 weeks.
The absolute numeric SVR difference, however, was
small at only 3.4%; and SVR rates were debatably high
with either duration. From a patient perspective, the
benefit of even marginally increased SVR rates may
outweigh the inconvenience of an additional 4 weeks
of treatment. From a payer perspective, however, the
calculus is likely more complex and depends not only
on the initial drug cost but also on variables regarding
the cost and success rate of retreatment. In our cohort,
for example, we identified 977 patients out of a total of
2,303 patients with low baseline HCV RNA and FIB-
43.25 who met criteria for 8 weeks of treatment but
nevertheless completed 12 weeks of treatment. Had
these patients who qualified for an 8-week regimen
actually received 8 weeks rather than 12 weeks, over
$11 million in initial drug costs could have been
avoided; but this would be offset to an unknown
degree by the approximately 3%-4% of patients failing
to achieve SVR who received the shorter course. These
patients would require retreatment at a higher cost to
the patients and the health care system in terms of not
only drug cost but also treatment duration, potential
for toxicity and drug resistance, and overall health care
resources. Given current resource constraints, the high
cost of LDV/SOF, and emerging data regarding
retreatment options, additional study will be needed to
assess whether from a health care system perspective it
may be more cost-effective to treat all patients who
qualify for an 8-week course with an 8-week course
and retreat the small proportion who may fail.
In clinical trials, the stage of liver disease is often
determined by biopsy or, more recently, transient elas-
tography. In clinical practice, however, practitioners
may conclude that a patient does not have cirrhosis
based on biopsy, transient elastography, FIB-4, APRI,
imaging, or platelet count depending on the available
resources and information. This variability means that
guidance recommending specific treatment for those
“without cirrhosis” may be applied in heterogeneous
ways. In the VA, few patients undergo liver biopsy and
transient elastography is not yet widely available, nor
are such results captured in standardized data fields in
the electronic medical record. Thus, in our analysis
advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis was assessed using
BACKUS ET AL. HEPATOLOGY, August 2016
412
laboratory markers which are commonly used in clini-
cal practice.
(9,10,22)
In multivariate models, the pres-
ence of advanced liver disease as assessed by these
simple laboratory tests independently predicted
reduced odds of achieving SVR by nearly half. In the
resource-restrained environment surrounding HCV,
our study suggests that simple calculations of FIB-4 or
APRI from inexpensive laboratory tests can be useful
in discussions with patients regarding the likelihood of
treatment success. These same inexpensive, readily
available laboratory markers can be used in a wide vari-
ety of settings to determine whether a patient might
meet criteria for shortened 8-week treatment.
In this analysis, 4-week viral kinetics predicted SVR
with a greater effect in those who received LDV/SOF.
Significant reductions of 10.5% and 7.1% in SVR rates
were observed in patients receiving LDV/SOF and
LDV/SOF1RBV, respectively, who had a detectable
4-week HCV RNA 15 IU/mL compared to those
with undetectable 4-week HCV RNA. In patients
who completed 12-week courses of LDV/SOV there
remained a significant 6.4% reduction in SVR rates
between those with detectable 4-week HCV RNA
15 IU/mL and those with undetectable 4-week
HCV. For those who completed 12 weeks of LDV/
SOF1RBV the difference in SVR rates was no longer
statistically significant. In multivariable analysis, hav-
ing a HCV RNA 15 IU/mL after 4 weeks of treat-
ment was associated with a 60% reduced odds of
achieving SVR for the cohort and a 62% reduced odds
of achieving SVR for those who completed 12 weeks
of treatment. The VA guidance recommends obtaining
4-week HCV RNA testing, thus providing a large
sample size to evaluate this variable which has not gen-
erally been assessed in prior LDV/SOF studies. The
clinical implications of this finding on treatment deci-
sions, such as potentially adding RBV or extending
treatment duration based on 4-week on-treatment
HCV RNA, warrant further study.
While this study includes a large cohort of diverse
patients treated in clinical practice, there are limitations.
Due to the nature of the electronic data, we could not
determine the original intended duration of treatment.
It is possible that some patients who received 12 weeks
of treatment were originally planned to receive 8 weeks
and vice versa. In addition, specific reasons for early dis-
continuation (i.e., adverse events or poor tolerability)
could not be determined. Treatment duration and early
treatment discontinuation rates were determined based
on the cumulative dispensed days’ supply. This may
overestimate the treatment duration as patients may
have discontinued treatment even with medication in
their possession. In the VA, many prescriptions are
filled for small quantities (e.g., 7-14 days at a time),
which would limit the extent of the overestimation. Few
patients underwent IL28B testing, and no patients
underwent resistant associated variant testing; thus, we
were unable to assess the impact of these factors. From
the univariate analysis, IL28B did not appear to have an
impact on SVR rates. Approximately 6.8% (297/4,365)
of the cohort lacked definitive laboratory data to deter-
mine SVR status and may represent a potential source
of bias, although all were undetectable on their most
recent HCV RNA occurring while still on treatment or
less than 10 weeks after the EOT. If all of these patients
in fact had SVR, the maximum overall SVR rate for
LDV/SOF would be 91.9% and that for LDV/
SOF1RBV would be 92.4%, similar to the reported
SVR rates of 91.3% and 92.0%, respectively. With this
scenario significant predictors of SVR do not change
and the ORs in multivariate models are not substantially
altered (data not shown).
In conclusion, in this large real-world cohort,
treatment-naive, genotype 1 HCV-infected veterans
treated with LDV/SOF-based therapy achieved high
SVR rates, comparable to clinical trials, which were
consistently high across all subgroups evaluated. SVR
rates in patients without cirrhosis and with low base-
line HCV RNA treated for 8 weeks were significantly
lower than those achieved with 12 weeks of treatment,
although the numeric difference was small. The real-
world experience from large cohorts is essential to pro-
vide practical information to better inform and refine
HCV management strategies.
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The epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Australia has been primarily driven by injecting drug use. HCV incidence was high in the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in early- to mid-2000s, initially related to reduced heroin supply [1]. Ongoing HCV incidence of several 1000 infections/year over the last decade has been despite high-coverage harm-reduction services for people who inject drugs (PWID) [2].
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Background Previous literature has illustrated a wide range of primary medication nonadherence (PMN) rates due to inconsistent calculation methods and parameters, but the impact of parameter specifications on PMN rates has not been assessed. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of lookback window (LBW), duplicate window (DW), and fill window (FW) specifications on PMN rates in patients prescribed specialty self-administered oncology medications. Methods This was a single-center, retrospective cohort analysis. Patients receiving a new electronic specialty oncology prescription January-December 2018 were included; excluded if re-routed to an external pharmacy within 2 days, fell within a DW, or cancelled within a FW. Twenty-four methods were used to calculate PMN based on combinations of the following parameters: (i) absence of prior specialty self-administered oncology medication fill within LBW (90, 180 days); (ii) absence of a duplicate prescription within DW (2, 7, 30 days); and (iii) sold status within FW (14, 30, 60, 90 days). For each method, PMN was calculated as the number of unsold prescriptions within the FW divided by all eligible prescriptions. Results We evaluated 4,482 prescriptions, resulting in PMN ranging from 16% to 23%. Patients were commonly male (53%) and white (83%), with a median age of 64 years (interquartile range, IQR, 54, 72). Increasing the LBW from 90 to 180 days resulted in exclusion of 72 (2%) prescriptions and minimally impacted PMN rates. Most duplicate prescriptions (87%) occurred within two days of original prescription and PMN rates were minimally affected by DW. Most fulfilled prescriptions were filled within FW 30 days, 98% with a method of LBW 180, DW 2, and FW 30. Adjusting the FW consistently impacted PMN rates. Conclusions Because various PMN definitions can significantly impact results, a thorough explanation of all parameter specifications should be reported in research using PMN.
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Background and aims: The aim of this study was to assess the real-life effectiveness and safety of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) in patients with cirrhosis and history of hepatic decompensation compared to those with compensated cirrhosis. Method: Data of patients treated with DAAs and included in the EpiTer-2 database (N=10,152) were collected retrospectively. The primary endpoint was sustained viral response (SVR) at 12 weeks posttreatment. Patients were also evaluated in terms of liver-related adverse events and treatment modification/discontinuation. Results: The overall SVR rate was 91.4% in the intent to treat (ITT) analysis and 95.2% in the per-protocol (PP) analysis (p<0.001). Patients with decompensated cirrhosis had lower SVR rates compared to those with compensated cirrhosis in ITT analysis (86.4% vs 92.0%, p<0.001), while not in PP analysis (92.9% vs 95.5%, p>0.05). Adverse events (AE) occurred 45.6% and 29.3% of patients with decompensated and compensated cirrhosis (p<0.001). Patients with decompensated cirrhosis were at higher risk of death (5.4% vs. 0.9%; p<0.0001) or liver decompensation (21.5% vs. 1.3%; p<0.0001). Treatment with protease inhibitors was not associated with hepatic decompensation (p=0.3). Only 82.6% of patients with decompensated cirrhosis completed DAA treatment (vs 92.8% in compensated cirrhotics; p<0.0001). Conclusion: Despite higher frequency of AE and treatment modifications, once completed, DAAs yield comparable results for patients with decompensated and compensated cirrhosis. High rate of serious adverse events in patients with advanced liver disease treated with PI may not be related to the detrimental effect of the medications, but rather to the disease itself.
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Introduction Studies of the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV mono and co-infections on the risk of cancer, particularly extra-hepatic cancer, have been limited and inconsistent in their findings. Methods In the British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort, we assessed the risk of colorectal, liver, and pancreatic cancers in association with HCV, HBV and HIV infection status. Using Fine and Gray adjusted proportional subdistribution hazards models, we assessed the impact of infection status on each cancer, accounting for competing mortality risk. Cancer occurrence was ascertained from the BC Cancer Registry. Results Among 658,697 individuals tested for the occurrence of all three infections, 1407 colorectal, 1294 liver, and 489 pancreatic cancers were identified. Compared to uninfected individuals, the risk of colorectal cancer was significantly elevated among those with HCV (Hazard ration [HR] 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.55–3.51), HBV (HR 2.47; 95% CI 1.85–3.28), and HIV mono-infection (HR 2.30; 95% CI 1.47–3.59), and HCV/HIV co-infection. The risk of liver cancer was significantly elevated among HCV and HBV mono-infected and all co-infected individuals. The risk of pancreatic cancer was significantly elevated among individuals with HCV (HR 2.79; 95% CI 2.01–3.70) and HIV mono-infection (HR 2.82; 95% CI 1.39–5.71), and HCV/HBV co-infection. Discussion/Conclusion Compared to uninfected individuals, the risk of colorectal, pancreatic and liver cancers was elevated among those with HCV, HBV and/or HIV infection. These findings highlight the need for targeted cancer prevention and diligent clinical monitoring for hepatic and extrahepatic cancers in infected populations.
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Background The growing epidemic of opioid use disorder (OUD) and associated injection drug use has resulted in a surge of new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Approximately half of the people with HCV infection are unaware of their HCV status. Improving HCV awareness and increasing screening among people with OUD are critical. Addiction-Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) is an evidence-based, smartphone-delivered relapse prevention system that has been implemented among people with OUD who are receiving medications for addiction treatment (MAT) to improve long-term recovery. Objective We incorporated HCV-related content and functionality into A-CHESS to characterize the HCV care continuum among people in early remission and receiving MAT for OUD and to determine whether incorporating such content and functionality into A-CHESS increases HCV testing. Methods HCV intervention content, including dissemination of educational information, private messages tailored to individuals’ stage of HCV care, and a public discussion forum, was implemented into the A-CHESS platform. Between April 2016 and April 2020, 416 participants with OUD were enrolled in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to receive MAT alone (control arm) or MAT+A-CHESS (experimental arm). Quarterly telephone interviews were conducted from baseline to month 24 to assess risk behaviors and HCV testing history. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess whether participants who used A-CHESS were tested for HCV (either antibody [Ab] or RNA testing) at a higher rate than those in the control arm. To assess the effect of A-CHESS on subsets of participants at the highest risk for HCV, additional analyses were performed to examine the effect of the intervention among participants who injected drugs and shared injection equipment. Results Overall, 44.2% (184/416) of the study participants were HCV Ab positive, 30.3% (126/416) were HCV Ab negative, and 25.5% (106/416) were considered untested at baseline. At month 24, there was no overall difference in HCV testing uptake between the intervention and control participants. However, among the subset of 109 participants who engaged in injection drug use, there was a slight trend toward increased HCV testing uptake among those who used A-CHESS (89% vs 85%; hazard ratio: 1.34; 95% CI 0.87-2.05; P=.18), and a stronger trend was observed when focusing on the subset of 32 participants who reported sharing injection equipment (87% vs 56%; hazard ratio: 2.92; 95% CI 0.959-8.86; P=.06). Conclusions Incorporating HCV prevention and care information into A-CHESS may increase the uptake of HCV testing while preventing opioid relapse when implemented among populations who engage in high-risk behaviors such as sharing contaminated injection equipment. However, more studies that are powered to detect differences in HCV testing among high-risk groups are needed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02712034; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02712034 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) RR2-10.2196/12620
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Unlabelled: Black patients chronically infected with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) have historically had lower rates of response to interferon-based treatment than patients of other races. In the phase 3 ION program, the single-tablet regimen of the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir and NS5B nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir was shown to be safe and highly effective in the general population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in black patients using data from the three open-label ION clinical trials, which evaluated the safety and efficacy of 8, 12, and 24 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin for the treatment of treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients with genotype 1 HCV, including those with compensated cirrhosis. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy (SVR12). For our analysis, rates of SVR12, treatment-emergent adverse events, and graded laboratory abnormalities were analyzed in black versus non-black patients. Of the 1949 patients evaluated, 308 (16%) were black. On average, black patients were older, had higher body mass index, were more likely to be IL28B non-CC, and had a lower serum alanine aminotransferase at baseline than non-black patients. Overall, 95% of black and 97% of non-black patients achieved SVR12. The rate of relapse was 3% in black patients as compared with 2% in non-black patients. The most common adverse events included fatigue, headache, nausea, and insomnia. The majority of adverse events occurred more frequently in the ribavirin-containing arms of the studies. No differences were observed in overall safety by race. Conclusion: A once-daily dosage of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was similarly effective in black and non-black patients with genotype 1 HCV infection. The addition of ribavirin did not appear to increase SVR12 but was associated with higher rates of adverse events.
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Background & aims: The interferon-free regimen of simeprevir plus sofosbuvir was recommended by professional guidelines for certain patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection based on the findings of a phase 2 trial. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this regimen in clinical practice settings in North America. Methods: We collected demographic, clinical, and virologic data, as well as reports of adverse outcomes, from sequential participants in HCV-TARGET-a prospective, observational cohort study of patients undergoing HCV treatment in routine clinical care settings. From January through October 2014, 836 patients with HCV genotype 1 infection began 12 weeks of treatment with simeprevir plus sofosbuvir (treatment duration of up to 16 weeks); 169 of these patients received ribavirin. Most patients were male (61%), Caucasian (76%), or black (13%); 59% had cirrhosis. Most had failed prior treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin without (46%) or with telaprevir or boceprevir (12%). The primary outcome was sustained virologic response (SVR), defined as level of HCV RNA below quantification at least 64 days after the end of treatment (beginning of week 12 after treatment-a 2 week window). Logistic regression models with inverse probability weights were constructed to adjust for baseline covariates and potential selection bias. Results: The overall rate of SVR rate was 84% (675/802 patients, 95% CI: 81-87%). Model-adjusted estimates indicate patients with cirrhosis, prior decompensation, and previous protease inhibitor treatments were less likely to achieve an SVR. The addition of ribavirin had no detectable effects on SVR. The most common adverse events were fatigue, headache, nausea, rash, and insomnia. Serious adverse events and treatment discontinuation occurred in only 5% and 3% of participants, respectively. Conclusions: In a large, prospective observational cohort study, a 12 week regimen of simeprevir plus sofosbuvir was associated with high rates of SVR and infrequent treatment discontinuation. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01474811.
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Background: The introduction of the first direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), telaprevir and boceprevir, marked a unique event in which 2 disease-changing therapies received FDA approval at the same time. Comparative safety and effectiveness data in real-world populations upon which to make formulary decisions did not exist. Objective: To describe the implementation, measurement, and outcomes of an enduring population-based approach of surveillance of medication management for HCV. Methods: The foundation of the population approach to HCV medication management used by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) relied upon a basic framework of (a) providing data for effective regional and local management, (b) education and training, (c) real-time oversight and feedback from a higher organization level, and (d) prompt outcome sharing. These population-based processes spanned across the continuum of the direct-acting antiviral oversight process. We used the VA's HCV Clinical Case Registry-which includes pharmacy, laboratory, and diagnosis information for all HCV-infected veterans from all VA facilities-to assess DAA treatment eligibility, DAA uptake and timing, appropriate use of DAAs including HCV RNA monitoring and medication possession ratios (MPR), nonconcordance with guidance for adjunct erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) use, hematologic adverse effects, discontinuation rates, and early and sustained virologic responses. Training impact was assessed via survey and change in pharmacist scope of practice. Results: One year after FDA approval, DAAs had been prescribed at 120 of 130 VA facilities. Over 680 VA providers participated in live educational training programs including 380 pharmacists, and pharmacists with a scope of practice for HCV increased from 59 to 110 pharmacists (86%). HCV RNA futility testing improved such that only 1%-3% of veterans did not have appropriate testing compared with 15%-17% 6 months earlier. By facility, the median proportion of veterans with MPR ≥ 0.95 remained 80% for those prescribed boceprevir; for telaprevir, the median proportion was 75% and improved to 80% 6 months later. Nonconcordance with VA medication guidance was as follows: receipt of an ESA without dose reducing ribavirin, 30% boceprevir, 45% telaprevir; ESA initiated with a hemoglobin greater than 10 g/dL, 42% boceprevir, 25% telaprevir; receipt of GCSF with absolute neutrophil count above the criteria threshold, 84%. Conclusions: This clinically focused, comprehensive, population-based medication management approach affected real-time change in health services, practice, and outcomes evidenced by widespread and rapid DAA uptake, improved HCV RNA monitoring, attention to adherence, and more appropriate management of DAA-related anemia. Timely outcome sharing provided decision makers and clinicians evidence to support current HCV practices.
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Background: In phase 2 studies, treatment with the all-oral combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir resulted in high rates of sustained virologic response among previously untreated patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Methods: We conducted a phase 3, open-label study involving previously untreated patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive ledipasvir and sofosbuvir in a fixed-dose combination tablet once daily for 12 weeks, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 12 weeks, ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for 24 weeks, or ledipasvir-sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for 24 weeks. The primary end point was a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy. Results: Of the 865 patients who underwent randomization and were treated, 16% had cirrhosis, 12% were black, and 67% had HCV genotype 1a infection. The rates of sustained virologic response were 99% (95% confidence interval [CI], 96 to 100) in the group that received 12 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir; 97% (95% CI, 94 to 99) in the group that received 12 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir plus ribavirin; 98% (95% CI, 95 to 99) in the group that received 24 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir; and 99% (95% CI, 97 to 100) in the group that received 24 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir plus ribavirin. No patient in either 12-week group discontinued ledipasvir-sofosbuvir owing to an adverse event. The most common adverse events were fatigue, headache, insomnia, and nausea. Conclusions: Once-daily ledipasvir-sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks was highly effective in previously untreated patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. (Funded by Gilead Sciences; ION-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01701401.).
Article
Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and cirrhosis are in critical need of treatment that is both effective and tolerable. The combination of simeprevir (SMV), a protease inhibitor, and sofosbuvir (SOF), a polymerase inhibitor, without peginterferon and/or ribavirin (PEGINF/RBV) has been shown to achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) exceeding 90% in patients with HCV genotype 1 with prior nonresponse and/or cirrhosis. The present report describes the efficacy of SMV and SOF in patients with cirrhosis, prior or current hepatic decompensation, and other contraindications to PEGINF/RBV. A total of 120 consecutive patients with cirrhosis and contraindications to PEGINF/RBV were treated with SMV and SOF for 12 weeks. The primary end point was SVR at 12 weeks after the completion of treatment. The mean age of the cohort was 60 years; 63% were male, 48% were Caucasian, 44% were African American, 69% were of genotype 1A, 49% were treatment naïve, 96% were interleukin-28B non-CC, 33% were of Child class B or C, and 25% had prior hepatic decompensation. The SVR by intention-to-treat was 81% with a relapse rate of 14%. The SVR by per-protocol analysis was 87% with a relapse rate of 13%. The only baseline factor associated with SVR by multifactor analysis was Child class. SVR in patients with Child class A, B, and C was 87, 77, and 67%, respectively. Eleven percent of the patients developed severe adverse events, which included sepsis (two), variceal bleeding (two), hepatocellular carcinoma (two), and hyperbilirubinemia (eight). One of the patients with sepsis died. Two patients developed relapse more than 12 weeks after stopping SMV and SOF. The combination of SMV and SOF achieves high rates of SVR in patients with advanced cirrhosis but is lower with worsening Child class.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 28 July 2015; doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.218.
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Real-world effectiveness data are needed to inform hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment decisions. To assess sustained virological response (SVR) of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens in routine medical practice. Observational, intent-to-treat cohort analysis of genotype 1 and 2 HCV-infected veterans initiating SOF-based regimens with recommended treatment duration of 12 weeks. Four thousand and twenty-six veterans with genotype 1 (N = 3203) and genotype 2 (N = 823) comprise the cohort. SVR rates for genotype 1 were 66.8% for SOF + peginterferon + ribavirin (RBV), 75.3% for SOF + simeprevir (SIM), 74.1% for SOF + SIM + RBV and for genotype 2 were 79.0% for SOF + RBV. Genotype 1 patients were less likely to achieve SVR with BMI ≥30 (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49-0.84, P < 0.001), a history of decompensated liver disease (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.71, P < 0.001), treatment experience (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.48-0.71, P < 0.001), APRI >2 (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.36-0.55, P < 0.001) and with SOF + PEG + RBV compared with SOF + SIM (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.40-0.62, P < 0.001). Age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes and genotype subtype did not predict SVR. Odds of achieving SVR with SOF + SIM + RBV did not differ compared with SOF + SIM (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.75-1.44, P = 0.86). Genotype 2 patients were less likely to achieve SVR with prior treatment experience (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.88, P = 0.009) and APRI >2 (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.25-0.62, P < 0.001). In this real-world cohort, SVR rates were lower than in clinical trials. Genotype 1 and 2 HCV-infected patients with advanced liver disease by APRI >2 or FIB-4 > 3.25 were significantly less likely to achieve SVR. For genotype 1, a SOF + SIM ± RBV regimen was associated with a higher likelihood of SVR. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Article
BackgroundHCV-TARGET is a longitudinal observational study of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients treated with direct-acting anti-viral agents (DAAs) in a US consortium of 90 academic and community medical centres.AimTo assess utilisation of response-guided therapy (RGT) and sustained virological response (SVR) of a large cohort of patients.Methods Patients received peginterferon (PEG-IFN), ribavirin and either telaprevir or boceprevir. Demographical, clinical and virological data were collected during treatment and follow-up. RGT and treatment futility stopping rules was assessed at key time points.ResultsOf 2084 patients, 38% had cirrhosis and 56% had received prior treatment for HCV. SVR rates were 31% (95% CI: 24–40) and 50% (95% CI: 44–56) in boceprevir patients with and without cirrhosis, respectively. SVR rates were 46% (95% CI: 42–50) and 60% (95% CI: 57–64) in telaprevir patients with and without cirrhosis, respectively. Early clearance of virus, IL28B genotype, platelet counts and diabetes were identified as predictors of SVR among boceprevir patients, while early clearance of virus, IL28B, cirrhosis, HCV subtype, age, haemoglobin, bilirubin and albumin levels were identified as predictors of SVR for telaprevir patients.Conclusions In academic and community centres, triple therapy including boceprevir or telaprevir led to SVR rates somewhat lower than those noted in large phase 3 clinical trials. Response rates were consistently higher among patients without cirrhosis compared to those with cirrhosis regardless of DAA used and prior treatment response. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01474811.
Article
Background & Aims Safety profiles of boceprevir and telaprevir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C as administered in academic and community centers across the United States were evaluated. Methods In 90 medical centers, patients with chronic HCV received pegylated interferon, ribavirin, and either telaprevir or boceprevir per local standard of care. Demographic, adverse event, clinical, and virological data were collected during treatment and follow-up. Results A total of 2,084 patients (97% HCV genotype 1) received at least one dose of a protease inhibitor. At baseline, 38% of patients had cirrhosis, and 56% had received at least one prior treatment for hepatitis C. Serious adverse events occurred in 11-13% of patients receiving protease inhibitor therapy. Overall, 66% of patients experienced anemia, leading to frequent ribavirin dose reductions (42%) and erythropoietin use (37%); 11% received blood transfusion. More than 90% of patients had adverse events that led to a prescription treatment or dosage change, and 39% of patients discontinued treatment early, most commonly because of adverse events (18%) or lack of efficacy (16%). Hepatic decompensation events occurred in 3% of all patients. Age, female gender, cirrhosis, HCV genotype 1 subtype, creatinine clearance, platelet levels, albumin levels and hemoglobin levels were independent predictors of anemia. Five deaths occurred. Overall, 52% of all patients achieved sustained virologic response. Conclusions In academic and community centers, where chronic hepatitis C patients commonly have advanced liver disease, triple therapy was associated with high rate of adverse events and involved frequent treatment modifications and adverse event management.
Article
Background In 2011, the FDA approved telaprevir (TVR) and boceprevir (BOC) for use with pegylated interferon and ribavirin to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. We aimed to evaluate the real-world application, tolerability, and effectiveness of TVR- and BOC-based HCV treatment in a large integrated care setting. Methods We utilized Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program (KPNC) electronic databases and medical records to study the experience of all KPNC patients who initiated TVR or BOC from June 2011 to March 2012. Results Compared with the pool of 5,194 treatment-eligible patients, the 352 treatment initiators were more likely to be cirrhotic (24 vs. 10 %, p