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Antioxidant Activities and Antimicrobial Effects of Extracts from Auricularia auricula-judae

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Abstract

This study investigated the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of various solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate, and ethanol) for extraction of Auricularia auricula-judae. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by determining total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and 2,2'-azino- bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) cation radical scavenging activity. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were not significantly different among the extracts, whereas DPPH radical scavenging activity and ABTS cation radical scavenging activity were significantly higher in ethanol and acetone extracts. DPPH radical scavenging activities of ethanol and acetone extracts showed high values (58.7% and 46.7%, respectively). The antimicrobial properties of these extracts were determined against six bacterial pathogens (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae) by the disc diffusion method. The acetone extracts showed antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria, and all extracts showed the highest antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis. © 2016, Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All Rights Reserved.

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... This revealed a significant difference between acetone, EtAC extract and EtOH extract. Such results were similar to the TPC of Lentinus edodes reported by Han et al. [1,2] , while the contents were less than that of Auricularia auricula-judae reported by Yu et al [18] . It has been reported by Oh et al. [16] that the order of polyphenol contents extracted from P. eryngii according to each solvent was in the order of water > 50% EtOH> 99% EtOH, and that the amount of polyphenol, an antioxidant substance, differs depending on the polarity of the solvent. ...
... However, in contrast to such results, this study has revealed the lowest amount of polyphenol in EtOH extract and has demonstrated that acetone and EtAC are the most appropriate solvents for polyphenol extraction. The amount of polyphenol in L. edodes from the order of greatest to the least has been reported as acetone extract >EtOH extract >EtAC extract by Yu et al. [18], while the amount in A. auricula-judae has been reported as EtOH extract > acetone extract >EtAC extract by Han et al [1,2] . The solubility of polyphenol differs according to the location of hydroxyl group, the size of the molecule and the length of the hydrocarbon chain, and is also greatly affected by the type of solvent used in the extraction, the time of extraction and temperature; it is generally known that polyphenol is well dissolved in diverse solvents such as acetone, EtAC, EtOH, and methanol [19] . ...
... Han has reported that in the case of Ramaria botrytis, the DPPH activity was in the order of methanol >EtOH> acetone >EtAC, and in the case of L. edodes, the order was EtAC> acetone >EtOH [10,2] . Additionally, Han et al. has reported that the EtOH extract demonstrated a relatively highest radical scavenging activity in A. auricula-judae [18] . Therefore, the order of solvents appropriate for measurement of DPPH activity of P. eryngii was identical to that of L. edodes, and the radical scavenging activity was the highest in EtAC in comparison to that of other solvents, suggesting that biologically active substances with low polarity commonly affect the antioxidant activity. ...
Article
Background/Objectives: To evaluate antibacterial and antioxidant activities using Pleurotuseryngii extracts. Method/Statistical analysis: TPC, TFC, DPPH,and ABTS activities were examined for antioxidant effects. In order to determine the antimicrobial activity, we also studied these extracts using six multi-resistant bacteria through paper disc diffusion. Findings: The content of total polyphenols ranged from 1.67 mg GAE/g extract in acetone extract to 1.31 mg GAE/g extract in EtOH extract. The content of total flavonoid varied from 7.77 mg CE/g extract in EtAC extract to 0.61 mg CE/g extract in EtOH extract. At the result of DPPH activities of all extracts were higher than the ascorbic acid solution. DPPH activity of EtAC extract was the highest value at 81.0%. In addition, the highest ABTS activity was observed in EtOH extract at 88.4%. DPPH activity showed a stronger correlation with TPC and TFC. EtOHextract and acetone extract showed antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms. The EtOH extracts were the most effective against Enterobacter cloacae, and the most significant acetone extracts were the most effective for Escherichia coli. Improvements/Applications: Based on this study, Pleurotuseryngiican be a good candidate for natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. © 2018, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
... This revealed a significant difference between acetone, EtAC extract and EtOH extract. Such results were similar to the TPC of Lentinus edodes reported by Han et al. [1,2] , while the contents were less than that of Auricularia auricula-judae reported by Yu et al [18] . It has been reported by Oh et al. [16] that the order of polyphenol contents extracted from P. eryngii according to each solvent was in the order of water > 50% EtOH> 99% EtOH, and that the amount of polyphenol, an antioxidant substance, differs depending on the polarity of the solvent. ...
... However, in contrast to such results, this study has revealed the lowest amount of polyphenol in EtOH extract and has demonstrated that acetone and EtAC are the most appropriate solvents for polyphenol extraction. The amount of polyphenol in L. edodes from the order of greatest to the least has been reported as acetone extract >EtOH extract >EtAC extract by Yu et al. [18], while the amount in A. auricula-judae has been reported as EtOH extract > acetone extract >EtAC extract by Han et al [1,2] . The solubility of polyphenol differs according to the location of hydroxyl group, the size of the molecule and the length of the hydrocarbon chain, and is also greatly affected by the type of solvent used in the extraction, the time of extraction and temperature; it is generally known that polyphenol is well dissolved in diverse solvents such as acetone, EtAC, EtOH, and methanol [19] . ...
... Han has reported that in the case of Ramaria botrytis, the DPPH activity was in the order of methanol >EtOH> acetone >EtAC, and in the case of L. edodes, the order was EtAC> acetone >EtOH [10,2] . Additionally, Han et al. has reported that the EtOH extract demonstrated a relatively highest radical scavenging activity in A. auricula-judae [18] . Therefore, the order of solvents appropriate for measurement of DPPH activity of P. eryngii was identical to that of L. edodes, and the radical scavenging activity was the highest in EtAC in comparison to that of other solvents, suggesting that biologically active substances with low polarity commonly affect the antioxidant activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Objectives: To evaluate antibacterial and antioxidant activities using Pleurotus eryngii extracts. Method/Statistical analysis: TPC, TFC, DPPH,and ABTS activities were examined for antioxidant effects. In order to determine the antimicrobial activity, we also studied these extracts using six multi-resistant bacteria through paper disc diffusion. Findings: The content of total polyphenols ranged from 1.67 mg GAE/g extract in acetone extract to 1.31 mg GAE/g extract in EtOH extract. The content of total flavonoid varied from 7.77 mg CE/g extract in EtAC extract to 0.61 mg CE/g extract in EtOH extract. At the result of DPPH activities of all extracts were higher than the ascorbic acid solution. DPPH activity of EtAC extract was the highest value at 81.0%. In addition, the highest ABTS activity was observed in EtOH extract at 88.4%. DPPH activity showed a stronger correlation with TPC and TFC. EtOH extract and acetone extract showed antimicrobial activity against six microorganisms. The EtOH extracts were the most effective against Enterobacter cloacae, and the most significant acetone extracts were the most effective for Escherichia coli. Improvements/Applications: Based on this study, Pleurotus eryngii can be a good candidate for natural antioxidants and antimicrobials. © 2018, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
... A number of articles have been published till date describing antimicrobial effect of A. auricula-judae with special emphasis on its organic fraction. Yu and Oh (2016) isolated three fractions from the mushroom using various solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate, and ethanol) and their bioactivity was investigated using disc diffusion method. The acetone extract consisting polyphenol in the highest concentration showed the best effect against all the tested pathogens, namely Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. ...
Chapter
Auricularia is an important genus among jelly fungi growing on woods of deciduous trees and shrubs globally. The fruiting bodies are translucent, brown to white in color, possess unique morphology of ear shape and jelly-like consistency gifting them various colloquial names like “ear mushroom” or “jelly mushroom.” Most of the species are edible; however, consumption of few members, namely Auricularia auricula-judae (Bull.) Quél. and Auricularia polytricha (Mont.) Sacc. is predominant especially in Asia. Consequently, they are the first mushroom to be cultivated and now rank fourth in worldwide production. The easy domestication process thus magnified popularity of ear mushrooms, particularly in recent times, which has a positive effect on edible fungus market demanding an updated summary. In this backdrop, the present exhaustive review aims to explore species specific ethnic importance, wide range of cultivation techniques replacing traditional method, detailed proximate composition, and evidence based multifunctional therapeutic effects. However, the study identifies some less explored areas such as estimation of farming practices on nutraceuticals quality, purification of bioactive component, and exploration of mechanism of action in vivo. For that, a strategic partnership among taxonomists, biochemists, pharmacists, farmers, and food experts is highly required to promote Auricularia-based natural products.
... Agaricus arvensis β-Carotene, ascorbic acid, lycopene, phenolic compounds [195,196] Agaricus bisporus Pyrogallol L-ergothioneine, αand β-glucans Catechin, gallic acid, rutin, caffeic acid [197][198][199] Agaricus blazei Benzoic acid, myricetin, quercetin, pyrogallol αand β-Glucans [200][201][202] Agaricus romagnesii Phenolic compounds, β-carotene [203,204] Agaricus silvaticus Phenolic compounds, β-carotene [205,206] Agaricus silvicola β-Carotene, ascorbic acid, lycopene, phenolic compounds [207,208] Agrocybe cylindracea α-Tocopherol, β-tocopherol [65] Amanita rubescens Phenolics compounds, flavonoids [209,210] Armillaria mellea Antioxidant components, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds [211][212][213] Armillaria ostoyae Phenolic compounds [214] Auricularia auricula-judae Polysaccharides, phenolic compounds [215][216][217] Auriculariapolytricha Phenolic compounds [218,219] Boletus badius β-Carotene, α-tocopherol, phenolic compounds, flavonoids [220,221] Boletus edulis β-Carotene, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, tocopherols [222,223] Calocybe gambosa Phenolic compounds, flavonoids [224] Cantharellus cibarius Phenolic compounds, flavonoids [225][226][227] Cantharellus clavatus Phenolic compounds [228] Chlorophyllum rhacodes Phenolic compounds [229,230] Clavaria vermicularis Flavonoids, ascorbic acid [231,232] Clitocybe alexandri Tocopherols, phenolic compounds [233,234] Clitocybe geotropa Phenolic compounds [235,236] Coprinopsis atramentaria β-Glucans [237,238] Coprinus comatus β-Carotene, ascorbic acid, lycopene, phenolic compounds [239] Coriolus versicolor Gallic, p-coumaric, protocatechin, caffeic, and vanillc acids [240][241][242] Cortinarius glaucopus Tocopherols, phenolic compounds [204] Craterellus cornucopioides Phenolic compounds, flavonoids [243][244][245][246] Fistulina hepatica Tocopherols, phenolic compounds [247,248] Flammulina velutipes Gallic acid, pyrogallol, homogentisic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, caffeic acid [249,250] Ganoderma applanatum Gallic, p-coumaric, protocatechin, caffeic, and vanillc acids [251,252] Ganoderma lucidum Quercetin, kaempferol, Triterpenoids, polysaccharides [253][254][255] ...
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Mushrooms have remained an eternal part of traditional cuisines due to their beneficial health potential and have long been recognized as a folk medicine for their broad spectrum of nutraceuticals, as well as therapeutic and prophylactic uses. Nowadays, they have been extensively investigated to explain the chemical nature and mechanisms of action of their biomedicine and nutraceuticals capacity. Mushrooms belong to the astounding dominion of Fungi and are known as a macrofungus. Significant health benefits of mushrooms, including antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, wound healing, anticancer, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, detoxification, hepatoprotective cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemia, and anti-diabetic effects, etc., have been reported around the globe and have attracted significant interests of its further exploration in commercial sectors. They can function as functional foods, help in the treatment and therapeutic interventions of sub-optimal health states, and prevent some consequences of life-threatening diseases. Mushrooms mainly contained low and high molecular weight polysaccharides, fatty acids, lectins, and glucans responsible for their therapeutic action. Due to the large varieties of mushrooms present, it becomes challenging to identify chemical components present in them and their beneficial action. This article highlights such therapeutic activities with their active ingredients for mushrooms.
... Main components of this cultivated mushroom are ash (3.6%), protein (12.5%), fat (1.7%), total carbohydrate (66.1%), and another components like water-soluble polysaccharide, cellulose, chitin, pectin, amino acid, and mineral element contents (Kadnikova, Costa, Kalenik, Guruleva, & Yanguo, 2015). It has been shown that the mushroom has antitumor activity (Ma, Wang, Zhang, Zhang, & Ding, 2010) and regulates blood pressure (Acharya, Samui, Rai, Dutta, & Acharya, 2004), hypocholesterolemic activity, hypolipidemia activity, enhancing immunity, lowering blood glucose, anti-aging (Zhang, Wang, Zhang, & Wang, 2011), antiviral activity (Nguyen et al., 2012), anticoagulant activity (Yoon et al., 2003), anti-inflammatory activity (Damte, Reza, Lee, Jo, & Park, 2011), and antimicrobial activity (Yu & Oh, 2016). As far, we know there is no study concerning prebiotic and antioxidant activity of this mushroom in yogurt. ...
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The effect of Auricularia auricula aqueous extract (AAE) on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus La‐5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb‐12, and on chemical and sensory properties of yogurt was investigated during 28 days of storage at 4°C. The use of 0.05% of AAE improved the survival of L. acidophilus La‐5 and B. bifidum Bb‐12 about 0.35 and 0.58 log CFU/g, respectively. However, AAE in 0.1% concentration enhanced the survival of L. acidophilus La‐5 and B. bifidum Bb‐12 about 0.43 and 0.51 log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, 0.1% concentration of AAE drastically increased antioxidant activity and total phenolic content to 115.30 mg BHT eq./kg and 1,057.6 mg Gallic acid/kg after 28 days, respectively. Addition of AAE to the yogurt significantly decreased sensorial acceptance while increased syneresis compared to the control group (p < .05). In conclusion, the results of this study showed that addition of AAE improved probiotic protection and functional properties of the yogurt recommending its application in symbiotic yogurt. The use of Auricularia auricula extract in probiotic yogurt improved the viability of probiotics and increased the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.
... Numerous studies have examined the bioactivities of A. auricula-judae in the prevention of osteoporosis [16] and cardiovascular diseases [17] . Recently, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of A. auricula-judae [18] were reported. The present study aimed to verify the roles of A. auricula-judae as a natural product with antimicrobial potential for oral diseases by investigating the antimicrobial activities of various solvent extracts of A. auricula-judae against oral bacteria causing dental caries and periodontal diseases. ...
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Background/Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial potential of acetone, ethanol and ethyl EA of A. auricula-judaeagainst the growth of nine oral bacteria that cause dental caries and periodontal diseases. Method/Statistical analysis: The extracts of A. auricula-judae showed the antimicrobial activity against the tested oral bacteria. EA extract showed more antimicrobial activity than acetone and ethanol extracts. The highest antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract from A.auricula-judae was obtained against A. viscosus, which resulted in an inhibition zone of 11.68 to 14.40 mm. This extract exhibited MIC values ranging from 0.23 to 3.75 mg/ml. Findings: The present study aimed to verify the roles of A. auricula-judae as a natural product with antimicrobial potential for oral diseases by investigating the antimicrobial activities of various solvent extracts of A. auricula-judaeagainst oral bacteria causing dental caries and periodontal diseases. The ethyl acetate extracts from A. auricula-judae showed the antimicrobial activity against nine oral bacteria better than different solvent. The present study aimed to verify the roles of A. auricular-judaeas natural product with antimicrobial potential for oral diseases by investigating the antimicrobial activities of various solvent extracts of A. auricular-judae against oral bacteria causing dental caries and periodontal diseases. Improvements/Applications: This Auricularia auricula-judae may be considered as an effective natural source of antimicrobial agent for the prevention of oral pathogens. © 2018, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development. All rights reserved.
... Turkmen investigated an effect of various solvents about phenolic contents extracted from black tea, and 80% acetone showed the highest contents 22 . In addition, Yu reported that when Auriculariaauricular-judae is extracted by several solvents, there was no significant difference in phenolic contents 23 . As a result, in case of Ramaria botrytis, a content difference of phenolic compounds can be accurately confirmed depending on solvents used in extraction, and when acetone and ethyl acetate are used as solvent rather than methanol and ethanol extracts, phenolic compound contents are much higher. ...
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Background/Objectives: To investigate the antibacterial as well as antioxidant activity of Ramariabotrytis. Methods/Statistical analysis: The antibacterial activities of the solvent extractions (acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol) of R. botrytis were determined against Gram-(+)/Gram-(-) bacteria by disc diffusion method. The antioxidant activities were also checked by measuring free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS). Findings: All solvent extracts showed an inhibitary effect against E. coli, and especially the ethyl acetate extracts showed higher antibacterial activities against Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, methanol extracts were effective in DPPH and ABTS activities. The negative correlations were observed between radical scavenging activities of extracts with TPC and TFC. The TPC and TFC were the highest at acetone and ethyl acetate extracts. Improvements/Applications: Ramaria botrytis showed antioxidant and antibacterial activities and so they can be widely used in naturally health food combinations.
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Antioxidant properties and antioxidant compound contents in different parts of 14 commercial mushrooms were evaluated. Methanolic extracts from the entire mushroom, the pileus and the stipe, separately, were screened for their DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities. Total ubiquinones (Coenzyme Qs; CoQs), total phenolic, and flavonoid contents were determined, in order to assess the extract's antioxidant activity. The portion of the mushroom selected had an effect on the results, with pileus methanolic extract exhibiting the greatest antioxidant effect (p<0.05). The analyzed mushrooms contained powerful antioxidants such as phenols (144.5~ 536.6 mg of gallic acid equivalents, mg GAE/100 g of dried weight, dw), flavonoids (3.7~31.2 mg of quercetin equivalents, mg QE/100 g dw) and ubiquinones (65.6~485.1 μg/100 g dw). Content of CoQ9 and CoQ10 in the 14 commercial mushrooms varied from 23.1 to 256.2 μg/100 g and from 16.1 to 238.3 μg/100 g, respectively. Phellinus linteusshowed the highest antioxidant activity among all species due to the contribution of antioxidants such as phenols (530.5 mg GAE/100 g dw) and ubiquinones (308.8 ug/100 g dw). A positive linear correlation was demonstrated between free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic (R2=0.79) and ubiquinone (R2=0.59) contents in the pileus of mushrooms (p<0.05). Our data indicate that commercial mushrooms have potential as dietary sources of CoQs and phenolic antioxidants.
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the antimutagenic effects of methyl alcohol extracts from Auricularia auricula and Gyrophora esculenta on the SOS response induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), mitomycin C (MMC) and 3-amino-1,4- dimethyl-5H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indol (Trp-P-1) in E. coli PQ37/plasmid pKM101. In the mutagenic test on test strain, both methyl alcohol extracts did not show mutagenic activity. In the antimutagenic test, each sample strongly inhibited the mutagenecity induced by 4NQO, MNNG, MMC and Trp-P-1. Methyl alcohol extracts from Auricularia auricula and Gyrophora esculenta showed inhibitory effects of 52% and 59% against 4NQO, 49% and 58% against MNNG, 53% and 64% against MMC, and 61% and 64% against Trp-P-1, respectively. Gyrophora esculenta extracts on the antimutagenicity showed relatively higher inhibitory effects than that of Auricularia auricula.
Article
We collected wild mushroom, Sarcodon aspratus from Deogyu Mt. of Muju, Jeollabuk-do and physiological functionalities of its water extract were investigated. The water extracts from S. aspratus showed the highest antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of 74.3% and also showed high anti-gout xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity (59.6%). However, tyrosinase inhibitory activity was very low (17.3%), and antioxidant activity and SOD-likely activity were not detected. The ACE inhibitory activity of S. aspratus fruiting body was the highest when powder of the fruiting body was shaked at for 24 h by distilled water. Furthermore, the XOD inhibitory activity was also the highest by extraction at for 24 h with water.
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate the total polyphenol and antioxidant activities of radish buds (Raphanus sativus L.) based on sprouting periods and extraction solvents in order to present basic data that are needed for using the radish buds as functional food material. The antioxidant activities were assessed by using various antioxidant models (DPPH, TBARS, Rancimat method, POV). The total polyphenol contents according to the extraction solvents were 84.11 and 296.51 mg/g, and the ethanol extract on day 4 of showed the highest value as 296.51 mg/g. As for DPPH radical-scavenging activity, on the day 4 of sprouting, water extracts indicated the highest scavenging activity by 86.67%, and the acetone extracts indicated a rather low scavenging activity as 77.23%. As for TBARS measurement of the radish bud extracts on day 4 of sprouting the extract of 70% ethanol was highest (71.48%). On day 8 of sprouting the TBARS value was increased and the methanol extract was highest (78.99%). As for the oxidative induction period on day 4 of sprouting in Rancimat measurement, the methanol extract was highest (6.07 hours) on day 4 and the antioxidant index was 1.16. On day 12 of sprouting, the general oxidative induction period tended to be reduced to 5.25 to 5.91 hours. In the peroxide value measurement on day 4 of sprouting and beginning of the storage, the extracts showed no difference between 3.02 meq/kg oil and 4.12 meq/kg oil, and on the day 60 of storage, the water extract (43.83 meq/kg oil) and the methanol extract (45.42 meq/kg oil) were lowest with higher antioxidant effect. In conclusion, the radish bud extract with higher total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities may serve as functional material for food additives, such as natural antioxidants and food preserving agents.
Article
This study analyzed the functional components and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and pomegranate husk, endocarp and seed extracts by comparing Korean and Iranian pomegranates. Korean pomegranate husk (KPH) had the highest total polyphenol content among the pomegranate extracts, and total phytoestrogen content was highest in Korean pomegranate endocarp (KPE). Iranian pomegranate endocarp (IPE) and Iranian pomegranate husk (IPH) showed the highest flavonoid levels. Overall, Korean pomegranate had more functional components than those in Iranian pomegranate. KPE had the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase like-activity among all of the extracts, and KPH had the highest nitrite scavenging activity. IPE showed the highest superoxide anion scavenging activity. The ABTS assay also indicated that IPH had the highest antioxidant activities. This study also showed that the more total polyphenols, flavonols, and phytoestrogens the pomegranate contained, the higher antioxidant activities. A positive correlation was observed between total polyphenol, flavonol and phytoestrogen levels and antioxidant activities. Korean pomegranates contained more functional components and had higher antioxidant activity than those of Iranian pomegranates. Additionally, pomegranate endocarp and seed extracts were better than pomegranate juice in terms of functional components and antioxidant activity. These results suggest that pomegranate husk, endocarp and seed extracts as well as pomegranate juice may have value as natural antioxidants with their high quality functional components and antioxidant activity.
Article
This study investigated the physiological effects of three species of Auricularia known as Auricularia polytricha (JNM21001), Auricularia auricula-judae black (JNM21002), and Auricularia auricula-judae brown (JNM21012). In the ORAC assay, Auricularia spp. showed antioxidant activities in the order of JNM21001>JNM21012>JNM21002. All Auricularia spp. strongly inhibited the action of -amyloglucosidase up to 60%. In order to further test in vivo anti-obesity effects, high fat diet induced ICR obese mice fed a diet containing 20% fat were used. All Auricularia spp. supplementation during high fat diet feeding significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal fat pads weight, and lowered the food efficiency ratio compared to the high fat control (HFC) group. In particular, the group fed with JNM21012 had a lower average daily body weight gain of 0.45 g/day, demonstrating similar levels to the normal diet fed group. The group fed with JNM21012 significantly reduced lowered serum triglycerides (42%), total cholesterol (81%), and LDL-cholesterol level (66%) compared with the HFC group.
Article
To investigate antitumor components of Korean higher fungi, the carpophores of Schizophyllum commune and Auricularia auricula-judae collected in Kyeong Buk Province were extracted with hot water or 0.1N-NaOH solution. The concentrated extracts were precipitated by addition of ethanol, and the precipitates were purified by dialyzing through visking tube and polysaccharide fractions were obtained. They were found to show antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 implanted in mice. Especially, the inhibition ratio of the extract of Auricularia adicula-judae was 90.8% in the doses of 100mg/kg/day for the period of ten days. The tumor in five of the eight mice was completely regressed. The components of these aqueous extracts were found to be polysaccharide and protein. The hydrolysis of the respective polysaccharide yielded four monosaccharides. After hydrolysis of the protein fraction, 15 amino acids were identified in the respective fraction of S. commune and A. auricula-judae.
Article
A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
Article
A fraction of a 0.05 M NaOH solution-soluble polysaccharide, termed AAFRC, was obtained from Auricularia polytricha by protease-assisted aqueous extraction followed by precipitation with ethanol and purification with gel filtration chromatography. Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a TSK-G5000PWXL column and gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-400HR indicated that AAFRC is homogenous with an average molecular weight (Mw) of about 1.20 × 106 Da. The structure of AAFRC was revealed by chemical methods including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that AAFRC is a glucan consisting 1,3-β-glucan, 1,4-α-glucan, and 1,3-α-glucan backbone with a single 1→)-α-d-glucopyranosyl side-branching unit on every six residues, on average, along the main chain. The growth of transplantable Sarcoma-180 (S180) in mice was also significantly inhibited by AAFRC compared with the model controls (P < 0.01), with the inhibitory rate being 43.61%.
Article
Aim and methods: Although the antimicrobial activity of extracts from several mushroom species has been reported, studies with the individual compounds present in that extracts are scarce. Herein, the antimicrobial activity of different phenolic compounds identified and quantified in mushroom species from all over the world was evaluated. Furthermore, a structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis and molecular docking studies were performed, in order to provide insights into the mechanism of action of potential antimicrobial drugs for resistant micro-organisms. Results: 2,4-Dihydroxybenzoic and protocatechuic acids were the phenolic compounds with higher activity against the majority of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, phenolic compounds inhibited more MRSA than methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA was inhibited by 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic (MICs = 0.5 mg ml(-1) ) and p-coumaric (MIC = 1 mg ml(-1) ) acids, while these compounds at the same concentrations had no inhibitory effects against methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus. Conclusions: The presence of carboxylic acid (COOH), two hydroxyl (OH) groups in para and ortho positions of the benzene ring and also a methoxyl (OCH3 ) group in the meta position seems to be important for anti-MRSA activity. Significance and impact of the study: Phenolic compounds could be used as antimicrobial agents, namely against some micro-organisms resistant to commercial antibiotics.
Article
METHODS for measuring antioxidants and appraising antioxidant activity appear to be of two general types. If the chemical nature of the antioxidant is known, one may strive for a test specific for the compound or group of interest; for example, the nitroprusside test for sulphydryl groups. Alternatively one may observe the inhibition of some natural oxidative process such as the β-oxidation of fats, as a function of the added antioxidant.
Article
Phenolics from grapes and wines can play a role against oxidation and development of atherosclerosis. Levels of phenolics, major catechins [(+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, procyanidin dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4], phenolic acids (gallic acid and caffeic acid), caftaric acid, malvidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-glucoside were quantified by HPLC with UV detection for 54 French varietal commercial wines taken from southern France to study the antioxidant capacity and the daily dietary intake of these compounds for the French population. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained with red wines and ranged from 12.8 mmol/L (Grenache) to 25.2 mmol/L (Pinot Noir). For white wines, Chardonnay enriched in phenolics by special wine-making was found to have an antioxidant capacity of 13.8 mmol/L, comparable to red wine values. For red wines classified by vintages (1996−1999) antioxidant capacities were 20 mmol/L and then decreased to 13.4 mmol/L for vintages 1995−1991. Sweet white wines have 1.7 times more antioxidant capacity (3.2 mmol/L) than dry white wines (1.91 mmol/L). On the basis of a still significant French wine consumption of 180 mL/day/person, the current daily intake of catechins (monomers and dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4) averaged 5 (dry white wine), 4.36 (sweet white wines), 7.70 (rosé wines), 31.98 (red wines), and 66.94 (dry white wine enriched in phenolic) mg/day/resident for the French population. Red wine, and particularly Pinot Noir, Egiodola, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot varieties, or Chardonnay enriched in phenolics during wine-making for white varieties contribute to a very significant catechin dietary intake. Keywords: Wine; phenolics; antioxidant capacity; levels; varieties; vintages
Article
There is considerable interest in utilization of natural pigment as food colorants, particularly from raw materials in adequate supply, such as wine grape pomace. The rate and degree of extraction of anthocyanins from grape pomace depends upon a number of factors; this research concerned two: solvent (ethanol, methanol, water), and acid (HCl, citric, tartaric, formic, acetic, propionic). Methanol was the best extractant being 20% more effective than ethanol and 73% more effective than water. HCl was most effective with ethanol, but is also very corrosive. Of the organic acids, citric was most effective with methanol and acetic acid with water.
Article
The antiradical activities of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). In its radical form. DPPH* has an absorption band at 515 nm which dissappears upon reduction by an antiradical compound. Twenty compounds were reacted with the DPPH* and shown to follow one of three possible reaction kinetic types. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and isoeugenol reacted quickly with the DPPH* reaching a steady state immediately. Rosmarinic acid and δ-tocopherol reacted a little slower and reached a steady state within 30 min. The remaining compounds reacted more progressively with the DPPH* reaching a steady state from 1 to 6 h. Caffeic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid showed the highest antiradical activities with a stoichiometry of 4 to 6 reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Vanillin, phenol, γ-resorcylic acid and vanillic acid were found to be poor antiradical compounds. The stoichiometry for the other 13 phenolic compounds varied from one to three reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results.
Article
Flavonoids are natural products widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom and currently consumed in large amounts in the daily diet. Flavonoids are capable of modulating the activity of enzymes and affect the behaviour of many cell systems, suggesting that the compounds may possess significant antihepatotoxic, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antiosteoporotic and even antitumor activities. This review summarizes available data on these beneficial effects of flavonoids.
Article
Auricularia auricula-judae is currently grown in Malaysia. In the present study, the methanolic extracts from fruit bodies (fresh, oven-dried, and freeze-dried) and mycelium of A. auricula-judae were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The total phenolic content in the extracts were also measured. The extract of freeze-dried fruit bodies of A. auricula-judae had potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity with a 50% effective concentration of 2.87 mg/mL, whereas the FRAP value of A. auricula-judae mycelium was 5.22 micromol of FeSO(4).7H(2)O equivalents/g of mycelium sample. Further, a positive correlation (R(2) = 0.7668) between FRAP level of A. auricula-judae extracts and the total phenolic contents was observed. Thus the method of processing of fresh fruit bodies had an effect on the antioxidant potential of A. auricula-judae.
Article
Antitumor activities of two (1 goes to 3)-beta-D-glucans, isolated from the fruiting body of Auricularia auricula-judae ("kikurage", an edible mushroom), and other branched polysaccharides containing a backbone chain of (1 goes to 2)-alpha-D-glucosidic or (1 goes to 3)-alpha-D-mannosidic linkage [and their corresponding (1 goes to 3)-D-glycans, derived by mild, Smith degradation] were compared. Among these polysaccharides, a water-soluble, branched (1 goes to 3)-beta-D-glucan (glucan I) of A. auricula-judae exhibited potent, inhibitory activity against implanted Sarcoma 180 solid tumor in mice. The alkali-insoluble, branched (1 goes to 3)-beta-D-glucan (glucan II), a major constituent of the fruiting body, showed essentially no inhibitory activity. When the latter glucan, having numerous branches attached, was modified by controlled, periodate oxidation, borohydride reduction, and mild, acid hydrolysis, the resulting, water-soluble, regraded glucan, having covalently linked polyhydroxy groups attached at O-6 of the (1 goes to 3)-linked D-glucosyl residues, exhibited potent antitumor activity. Further investigations using the glucan-polyalcohol indicated that the attachment of the polyhydroxy groups to the (1 goes to 3)-beta-D-glucan backbone may enhance the antitumor potency of the glucan. On the other hand, partial introduction of carboxymethyl groups into glucan II (d.s., 0.47--0.86), which altered the insolubility property, failed to enhance the antitumor activity. The interrelation between the antitumor activity and the structure of the branched (1 goes to 3)-beta-D-glucan is discussed, on the basis of methylation and 13C-n.m.r. studies of the periodate-modified glucans.
Article
A method for the screening of antioxidant activity is reported as a decolorization assay applicable to both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, including flavonoids, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, and plasma antioxidants. The pre-formed radical monocation of 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS*+) is generated by oxidation of ABTS with potassium persulfate and is reduced in the presence of such hydrogen-donating antioxidants. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account when determining the antioxidant activity. This assay clearly improves the original TEAC assay (the ferryl myoglobin/ABTS assay) for the determination of antioxidant activity in a number of ways. First, the chemistry involves the direct generation of the ABTS radical monocation with no involvement of an intermediary radical. Second, it is a decolorization assay; thus the radical cation is pre-formed prior to addition of antioxidant test systems, rather than the generation of the radical taking place continually in the presence of the antioxidant. Hence the results obtained with the improved system may not always be directly comparable with those obtained using the original TEAC assay. Third, it is applicable to both aqueous and lipophilic systems.
Article
Procyanidins present in grape seeds are known to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-allergic activities, prevent skin aging, scavenge oxygen free radicals and inhibit UV radiation-induced peroxidation activity. Since most of these events are associated with the tumor promotion stage of carcinogenesis, these studies suggest that grape seed polyphenols and the procyanidins present therein could be anticarcinogenic and/or anti-tumor-promoting agents. Therefore, we assessed the anti-tumor-promoting effect of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from grape seeds (GSP) employing the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-promoted SENCAR mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis protocol as a model system. Following tumor initiation with DMBA, topical application of GSP at doses of 0.5 and 1.5 mg/mouse/application to the dorsal initiated mouse skin resulted in a highly significant inhibition of TPA tumor promotion. The observed anti-tumor-promoting effects of GSP were dose dependent and were evident in terms of a reduction in tumor incidence (35 and 60% inhibition), tumor multiplicity (61 and 83% inhibition) and tumor volume (67 and 87% inhibition) at both 0.5 and 1.5 mg GSP, respectively. Based on these results, we directed our efforts to separate and identify the individual polyphenols present in GSP and assess their antioxidant activity in terms of inhibition of epidermal lipid peroxidation. Employing HPLC followed by comparison with authentic standards for retention times in HPLC profiles, physiochemical properties and spectral analysis, nine individual polyphenols were identified as catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins B1-B5 and C1 and procyanidin B5-3'-gallate. Five of these individual polyphenols with evident structural differences, namely catechin, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B5, procyanidin C1 and procyanidin B5-3'-gallate, were assessed for antioxidant activity. All of them significantly inhibited epidermal lipid peroxidation, albeit to different levels. A structure-activity relationship study showed that with an increase in the degree of polymerization in polyphenol structure, the inhibitory potential towards lipid peroxidation increased. In addition, the position of linkage between inter-flavan units also influences lipid peroxidation activity; procyanidin isomers with a 4-6 linkage showed stronger inhibitory activity than isomers with a 4-8 linkage. A sharp increase in the inhibition of epidermal lipid peroxidation was also evident when a gallate group was linked at the 3'-hydroxy position of a procyanidin dimer. Procyanidin B5-3'-gallate showed the most potent antioxidant activity with an IC(50) of 20 microM in an epidermal lipid peroxidation assay. Taken together, for the first time these results show that grape seed polyphenols possess high anti-tumor-promoting activity due to the strong antioxidant effect of procyanidins present therein. In summary, grape seed polyphenols in general, and procyanidin B5-3'-gallate in particular, should be studied in more detail to be developed as cancer chemopreventive and/or anticarcinogenic agents.
Article
Blueberries and cranberries were analyzed for procyanidins using normal-phase HPLC/MS. Monomers, identified as (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, and a series of oligomers were detected in blueberries, and MS data confirmed that the oligomers consisted of (epi)catechin units that were exclusively singly linked (B-type). The procyanidin "fingerprints" were similar for Tifblue and Rubel but higher than that for lowbush blueberries. In whole cranberries, (-)-epicatechin was present, along with a complex series of oligomers. Both A-type (contained only one double linkage per oligomer) and B-type oligomers were present. Two commercial cranberry juices exhibited similar procyanidin profiles, except that one contained increased quantities. There were processing effects on the procyanidin content of cranberry extract and juices when compared to those of the unprocessed fruits. Monomer, dimers, and A-type trimers were the primary procyanidins, with only trace levels of the B-type trimers and A-type tetramers and with an absence of the higher oligomers in cranberry extract and juices.
Article
We investigated the immunopotentiating activities of boiled water-soluble extracts from desiccated Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM). Effect of ABM extract on antibody production was investigated by method of hemolytic plaque-forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antigen. ABM extracts significantly (p<0.01) increased the number of PFC in spleen with intraperitoneal administration at doses of 25 mg/kg as compared with control group. The populations of Mac-1- or CD25-positive cells significantly (p<0.01, p<0.001) increased, but in CD19-positive cells, there were no differences in ABM-treated mice as compared with control mice. The expressions of IL-6 and IL-1beta mRNA were augmented by ABM extract in both peritoneal macrophages and spleen cells. These results suggested that ABM extract might be an effective stimulator for T cell and macrophage to IL-1beta and IL-6 release, resulting in augmentation of antibody production against SRBC antigen.
Article
Specialty sorghums, their brans, and baked and extruded products were analyzed for antioxidant activity using three methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). All sorghum samples were also analyzed for phenolic contents. Both ABTS and DPPH correlated highly with ORAC (R(2) = 0.99 and 0.97, respectively, n = 18). Phenol contents of the sorghums correlated highly with their antioxidant activity measured by the three methods (R(2) >or= 0.96). The ABTS and DPPH methods, which are more cost effective and simpler, were demonstrated to have similar predictive power as ORAC on sorghum antioxidant activity. There is a need to standardize these methods to allow for data comparisons across laboratories.
Article
Male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups in a 2 x 3 factorial design and fed diets containing different levels of Tremella fuciformis Berk (TFB) dietary fiber (0, 5, or 10%) and 1 g of cholesterol/100 g of diet with or without 0.7% Nebacitin for 4 weeks. TFB contained 6.2% soluble dietary fiber and 57.3% insoluble dietary fiber. The results showed that the serum LDL-cholesterol, hepatic total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in the rats fed diets with TFB content with or without Nebacitin. However, the serum total cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by Nebacitin. In feces, the presence of TFB (T5, T10, AT5, and AT10) in the diet significantly increased the total neutral steroids and bile acid excretions and undigested fiber concentrations as compared to T0 or AT0. In the small intestine, the Nebacitin diets increased the weights of both cecum and colon-rectum contents and lowered short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations of serum and cecal contents more than no Nebacitin diets did. It was suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of TFB dietary fiber may be mediated by the increase in fecal neutral steroids and total bile acids excretion and the increase in SCFA productions. The TFB edible mushroom dietary supplement altered the intestinal physiology of the rats.
Article
The objective of this study was to investigate how 6 commonly used solvent systems affected the yields of phenolic substances and the antioxidant capacity of extracts from 8 major classes of food legumes. Several antioxidant-related phytochemical compositions, namely, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), and condensed tannins content (CTC), were investigated. In addition, antioxidant activities were tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The results showed that the 50% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TPC for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. Acidic 70% acetone (+0.5% acetic acid) extracts exhibited the highest TPC, TFC, and FRAP values for black bean, lentil, black soybean, and red kidney bean. The 80% acetone extracts exhibited the highest TFC, CTC, and DPPH-free radical scavenging activity for yellow pea, green pea, chickpea, and yellow soybean. The 70% ethanol extracts exhibited the greatest ORAC value for all selected legumes. These results indicated that solvents with different polarity had significant effects on total phenolic contents, extracted components, and antioxidant activities. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of legume extracts were observed. The information is of interest to the nutraceutical food/ingredient industries since legumes are a rich source of antioxidants.
The inducer of the synthesis of nerve growth factor from lion's mane (Hericium erinaceus)
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Kawagishi H, Furukawa S, Zhuang C, Yunoki R. 2002. The inducer of the synthesis of nerve growth factor from lion's mane (Hericium erinaceus). Explore 11: 46-51.
Effect of Tremella fuciformis Berk on anti-stress activities during long-term and short-term in mice
  • M S Ko
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Ko MS, Lee SJ, Kang SM. 2009. Effect of Tremella fuciformis Berk on anti-stress activities during long-term and short-term in mice. KSBB J 24: 131-139.
Physico-chemical properties of Gugija (Lycii fructus) extracts
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Shon HK, Lee YS, Park YH, Kim MJ, Lee KA. 2008. Physico-chemical properties of Gugija (Lycii fructus) extracts. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 24: 905-911.
Antimicrobial activity of extract from Smilax china
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Song JH, Kim HS, Kim YG, Son BG, Choi YW, Kang JS. 1999. Antimicrobial activity of extract from Smilax china. J Agri Tech Dev Inst 3: 163-168.
Antioxidant activity and inhibitive effects on human leukemia cells of edible mushrooms extracts
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Kim HJ, Bae JT, Lee JW, Hwang Bo MH, Im HG, Lee IS. 2005. Antioxidant activity and inhibitive effects on human leukemia cells of edible mushrooms extracts. Korean J Food Preserv 12: 80-85.
Determinations of ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol in mushrooms
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Lee J, Ahn RM, Choi HS. 1997. Determinations of ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol in mushrooms. Korean J Soc Food Sci 13: 173-178.
Comparative study on nutritional contents of Auricularia spp
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Kim T, Jo S, Kim M, Yu Y, Jang M, Park K. 2012. Comparative study on nutritional contents of Auricularia spp. J Mushroom Science and Production 10: 29-36.