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A CLINICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF TILA TAILA PADABHYANGA ON EYE STRAIN

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Joshi Nitesh R. & Ujwale Ramesh S. / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(2), Mar - Apr 2016
29
Research Article
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A CLINICAL STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF TILA TAILA PADABHYANGA ON EYE STRAIN
Joshi Nitesh R. 1 , Ujwale Ramesh S. 2
1Assistant Professor, Department of Swasthavritta and Yoga, Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Malwadi,
Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2Associate Professor, Department of Swasthavritta and Yoga, Sumatibhai Shah Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Malwadi,
Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Received on: 14/01/16 Revised on: 19/02/16 Accepted on: 09/03/16
*Corresponding author
E-mail: nitesh539@gmail.com
DOI: 10.7897/2277-4343.07250
ABSTRACT
Due to changed lifestyle we are giving more strain to our eyes. For serving this, Ayurveda emphasized on Padabhyanga. The Acharyas have told that
Padabhyanga helps to improve our vision. In further context they have mentioned a link between Pada and Netra as two poles of our body. This study
had tried to explore the role of Padabhyanga in Dincharya and the effect of Tila Taila Padabhyanga in Eye Strain. A total of 60 diagnosed patients of
eye strain were registered and randomly divided into two groups. In Group A, daily Tila Taila Padabhyanga and 500 mg Yashtimadhu choorna
capsule with lukewarm water at night was given while in Group B only 500 mg Yashtimadhu choorna capsule with lukewarm water at night was
given for 60 days. Assessment of efficacy in symptoms weakness and heaviness of eyes was done at 15 days interval. t test and χ2 test were applied.
Results showed that in Group A 70% showed improvement in weakness while in Group B 33.33% improved. Improvement in heaviness was observed
in 33.33% Group A while 23.33% Group B patients. There was highly significant (p ˂ 0.01 unpaired t test, p ˂ 0.001 χ2 test) improvement in
weakness of eyes in Group A but there was no significant difference between two therapies (p ˂ 0.2 unpaired t test, p 0.5 χ2 test) in heaviness of
eyes. Thus regular practicing Tila Taila Padabhyanga is very beneficial for reducing Eye Strain. The Nityabhyasa of Padabhyanga may prevent its
symptoms.
Keywords: Padabhyanga, Foot Massage, Eye Strain, Tila Taila.
INTRODUCTION
Ayurveda is not just for helping sick people to become well, it is
all about maintaining health and keeping the body in the best
possible correlation1. Eye is a special sense organ with which we
are able to enjoy this beautiful nature. It is a source of direct
knowledge and also 90% of what we learn about the world
around us comes through the eyes, as per our National policy
One of the basic human rights is the right to sight.2 We are
giving more and more strain to our eyes through pollution,
computer radiation, some occupations like night shifts and so
many. Due to these factors we are suffering from many eye
problems like Eye Strain, congestion, refractive error, etc. While
referring old Samhitas, we came across a special Upakrama
(procedure) under Dinacharya (daily regime) i.e. Padabhyanga
(foot massage). In benefits of Padabhyanga, the Acharyas have
told that it helps to improve our vision3-8. In further context they
have mentioned a link between Pada (foot) and Netra (Eye).
Pada and Netra are like two poles of our body. And still drug
instilled from one pole i.e. Pada can reach to other pole i.e.
Netra9, 10. The feet are the most overworked parts of the body.
They bear the full burden of our weight day after day. We often
enclose them in restrictive gear such as socks and sneakers or
stockings and high heels. At the end of a long day, our feet
deserve a little special treatment for the many ways they have
been good to us. Foot massage is the best way to relax your
mind and muscles and revive your feet.
Eye Strain (sometimes called as Asthenopia) means weakness or
heaviness of eyes due to over work or improper work11. The
likely mechanism is that poor viewing conditions cause
contraction of the orbital portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle
which causes eye lid squint in an attempt to improve vision.
This has been shown to result in secondary reduction in eye lid
blink, thereby resulting in weakness or heaviness of eyes12.
Though Eye Strain is the disease of 21st century, Ayurvedic
treatment described in Dincharya of ancient texts can definitely
be tried on this condition13. Since main symptoms of Eye Strain
show Vata vitiation; Padabhyanga with Tila Taila (sesame oil)
can be helpful in it. Tila Taila is a well-known ancient medicine
and it is also the most superior for Snehan (oleation) and Vata
(air) vitiation14-19. So, this clinical research had tried to explore
the effect of Tila Taila Padabhyanga in Eye Strain.
Aims and objectives
To study the role of Padabhyanga as an Upakrama in
Dincharya.
To study the effect of Tila Taila Padabhyanga in Eye Strain.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Tila Taila and Yashtimadhu Choorna 20, 21
(Glyceriza glabra Linn).
Besides teaching Padabhyanga to the patients, pamphlets of
important instructions and diagrammatic presentation of
Padabhyanga were given with them. Padabhyanga procedure
was taught for first day. Then patients were advised to do the
same for period of two months.
Standard Operative Procedure (S.O.P.) Before application
of Tila Taila patients were asked to clean both feet with
lukewarm water, dried well and then asked to massage both
Joshi Nitesh R. & Ujwale Ramesh S. / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(2), Mar - Apr 2016
30
planter surfaces of feet with Tila Taila by clean hands. Dose 5
ml Tila Taila was used for both feet daily, but allowed to use
more according to individual absorption requirement. Time of
administration Padabhyanga was suggested at night for at least
10 minutes for each foot with the steps - a) Stroking, b) Ankle
Rotation, c) Pivoting, d) Kneading, e) Finger walking, f) Pulling
and Squeezing, g) Sliding and h) Arch press.
For the present study Prospective, Open labeled, Randomized
(Lottery Method), Single centric, controlled trial was designed
to screen the effect of Padabhyanga in Eye Strain. Ethical
clearance from the IEC was taken before initiating the clinical
study. Written Informed consent was taken from each patient
before starting the therapy.
Inclusion Criteria
Patients suffering from Eye Strain since one month due to
computer work, watching television, constant reading,
walking bare feet, constant standing, constant traveling on
two wheeler and keeping awake at night.22, 23
Age Between 18 to 40 years.
Sex Subjects of any sex were selected.
Exclusion Criteria 24
Those who were suffering from aggravation of Kapha.
Those who had (just) undergone Shodhana (purification
therapies) like Vamana (emesis), Virechana (purgation),
Basti (enema), Raktamokshana (blood letting) and Nasya
(nasal medication).
Those who were suffering from Ajirna (indigestion).
Age Below 18 years and above 40 years.
Patients suffering from severe eye complaints like cataract,
glaucoma, Pterygium, diabetic retinopathy, etc.
Any other major illness which causes ophthalmic
complications such as diabetes, hypertension, etc.
Patients had undergone any eye surgery.
Withdrawal criteria
The patient who wished to discontinue and not ready for
further participation was discontinued.
The patient who loose follow up for two consecutive visits
was treated as discontinue.
The withdrawal patients were replaced by having fulfilling
criteria of inclusion and followed up thereafter.
Dose Variation Study
Yashtimadhu is classified in the group of Vamanopag25
(adjuvant in emetic therapy) drugs. So dose variation study was
conducted for determination of suitable dose and it was 500 mg
daily.
SAMPLE SIZE: 60 patients were selected for the clinical
study. Two groups were prepared among them.
GROUPING
Table 1: Trial groups
Group
Treatment
Anupana
Kala (Time)
A (Study Group)
i. Tila Taila Padabhyanga daily
ii. Yashtimadhu choorna 500 mg one capsule daily
---
Lukewarm water
At night
B (Control Group)
i. Yashtimadhu choorna 500 mg one capsule daily
Lukewarm water
At night
Assessment of efficacy
Efficacy of the therapy was assessed on the basis of reduced
severity of Eye Strain. Clinical improvement of Eye Strain was
based on individual symptoms.
1) Ex. = Excellent i.e. 3 grade reduction in severity score against
initial score.
2) G. = Good i.e. 2 grade reduction in severity score against
initial score.
3) En. = Encouraging i.e. 1 grade reduction in severity score
against initial score.
4) CS = Clinically Stable i.e. severity score remain same as
initial score.
5) CD = Clinically Deteriorated i.e. increase in severity score
against initial score.
Parameters of assessment
Clinical
i) Gradation for Eye Strain was done on the basis of Visual
Analogue Scale. The VAS score was the distance from no
strain to the patients mark. VAS was recorded before and after
practicing Padabhyanga and during the follow up.
ii) Eye Strain was graded by using 5- point Likert Scale as
follows
Table 2: Grading of Eye Strain using 5- point Li kert Scale
0
Never
1
Rarely
2
Sometimes
3
Often
4
Always
Eye Strain grade scale number was recorded before and after
practicing Padabhyanga and during the follow up.
When Eye Strain was present, it was quoted according to
frequency as 1, 2, 3 or 4 and when absent, quoted as 0.
Paired t test and unpaired t test at 5% significant limit was
applied to the observations and result was analyzed statistically.
Follow up Follow up was recorded after every 15 days for a
period of two months.
Joshi Nitesh R. & Ujwale Ramesh S. / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(2), Mar - Apr 2016
31
OBSERVATIONS
Table 3: Hetu wise distribution of patients
Hetu (causes)26-28
No. of patients (%)
Total
Group A
Group B
Cases
Percentage
Computer use
2 (3.33%)
2 (3.33%)
4
6.67
Computer use, Two wheeler riding.
7 (11.67%)
7 (11.67%)
14
23.33
Two wheeler riding
1 (1.67%)
2 (3.33%)
3
5.00
Constant Reading, Night Awaking
8 (13.33%)
9 (15.00%)
17
28.33
Computer use, Constant Reading,
Night Awaking
1 (1.67%)
0 (0.00%)
1
1.67
Two wheeler riding, TV watching,
Night Awaking
1 (1.67%)
0 (0.00%)
1
1.67
TV watching, Night Awaking
3 (5.00%)
3 (5.00%)
6
10.00
Constant Reading, Constant
Standing
2 (3.33%)
0 (0.00%)
2
3.33
Computer use, TV watching
1 (1.67%)
0 (0.00%)
1
1.67
Night Awaking
2 (3.33%)
2 (3.33%)
4
6.67
Constant Reading, Constant
Standing, Two wheeler riding
1 (1.67%)
0 (0.00%)
1
1.67
Two wheeler riding, TV watching
1 (1.67%)
1 (1.67%)
2
3.33
Constant Reading, Constant
Standing, TV watching
0 (0.00%)
1 (1.67%)
1
1.67
Computer use, Night Awaking
0 (0.00%)
3 (5.00%)
3
5.00
Total
30
30
60
100.00
By statistical analysis χ2 cal = 0.093, p > 0.05 (χ2 tab = 5.99). So
observations in both groups are at baseline level.
This table shows that the higher number of patients were found
having combination of Hetu Constant Reading and Night
Awaking 17 (i.e. 28.33%) and in decreasing number from Hetu
Computer use-Two wheeler riding 14 (i.e. 23.33%), TV
watching, -Night Awaking 6 (i.e. 10.00%), Computer use and
Night Awaking 4 (i.e. 6.67%) for each group. Constant Reading-
Constant Standing and Two wheeler riding-TV watching 2 (i.e.
3.33%) and one patient having Hetu Computer Use-Constant
Reading-Night Awaking, Two wheeler riding-TV watching-
Night Awaking, Computer use-TV watching, and Constant
Reading-Constant Standing-Two wheeler riding from each
group (i.e. 1.67%).
Table 4: The response of therapy for the individual group after trial
Variable
Group
Ex
G
En
CS
CD
Total
Weakness
A
3 (10%)
4 (13.33%)
14 (46.67%)
9 (30%)
0 (0.00%)
30 (100%)
B
0 (0.00%)
1 (3.33%)
9 (30.00%)
20 (66.67%)
0 (0.00%)
30 (100%)
Heaviness
A
0 (0.00%)
1 (3.33%)
9 (30.00%)
20 (66.67%)
0 (0.00%)
30 (100%)
B
0 (0.00%)
1 (3.33%)
6 (20.00%)
23 (76.67%)
0 (0.00%)
30 (100%)
Ex = Excellent, G = Good, En = Encouraging, CS = Cinically Stable, CD = Clinically Deteriorated
Weakness
Group A It was observed that 70% patients showed
improvement and 30% remained clinically stable.
Group B - 33.33% patients showed improvement and 66.67%
remained clinically stable.
Heaviness
Group A 33.33% patients showed improvement and 66.67%
remained clinically stable.
Group B 23.33% patients showed improvement and 76.67%
remained clinically stable.
Statisitcal Analysis
For statistical analysis paired t test, unpaired t test and Chi-
square test were used.
Table 5: Effect of therap y on Weakness of eyes
Follow up (Visit)
Mean of experimental g roup (A)
Mean of control group (B)
0
4.65
5.06
1
4.49
5.00
2
4.28
4.94
3
3.98
4.88
4
3.66
4.83
Difference in B.T and A.T
0.99
0.23
Table 6: Effect of therap y on Heaviness of eyes
Follow up (Visit)
Mean of experimental g roup (A)
Mean of control group (B)
0
2.51
3.06
1
2.47
3.00
2
2.37
2.96
3
2.34
2.98
4
2.28
2.95
Difference in B.T and A.T
0.23
0.11
Joshi Nitesh R. & Ujwale Ramesh S. / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(2), Mar - Apr 2016
32
RESULTS
Table 7: Statistical Analysis of Group A results
Variable
Grading on
Mean
Variance
SD
SE
T stat
P Value
Significance
Weakness
VAS
BT
4.6467
2.5640
1.6012
0.2923
3.745
0.001
Highly
Significant
AT
3.6600
2.7666
1.6633
0.3037
LK
BT
3.0667
0.6851
0.8277
0.1511
6.100
0.001
Highly
Significant
AT
2.0333
1.0678
1.0334
0.1887
Heaviness
VAS
BT
2.5133
2.1633
1.4708
0.2685
2.856
0.01
Highly
Significant
AT
2.2867
2.0260
1.4234
0.2599
LK
BT
1.8333
1.2471
1.1167
0.2039
3.340
0.01
Highly
Significant
AT
1.5000
1.2241
1.1064
0.2020
Statistical significance level (α) = 0.05
Table 8: Statistical Analysis of Group B results
Variable
Grading on
Mean
Variance
SD
SE
T stat
P Value
Significance
Weakness
VAS
BT
5.0633
2.2424
1.4975
0.2734
2.447
0.05
Significant
AT
4.8333
2.8216
1.6798
0.3067
LK
BT
3.0333
0.7230
0.8503
0.1552
3.612
0.01
Highly
Significant
AT
2.6667
1.1264
1.0613
0.1938
Heaviness
VAS
BT
3.0633
3.1445
1.7733
0.3238
2.007
0.10
Not
Significant
AT
2.9500
3.1095
1.7634
0.3219
LK
BT
2.0000
1.5172
1.2318
0.2249
2.804
0.01
Highly
Significant
AT
1.7333
1.3057
1.1427
0.2086
Statistical significance level (α) = 0.05
Table 9: Statistical Analysis of Group A and G roup B results
Variable
Grading on
Mean
Variance
SD
SE
T stat
P Value
Significance
Weakness
VAS
Gr.
A
0.9867
2.0819
1.4429
0.2634
2.705
0.01
Highly
Significant
Gr.
B
0.2300
0.2649
0.5147
0.0940
LK
Gr.
A
1.0333
0.8609
0.9279
0.1694
3.376
0.01
Highly
Significant
Gr.
B
0.3667
0.3092
0.5561
0.1015
Heaviness
VAS
Gr.
A
0.2267
0.1889
0.4346
0.0794
1.164
0.2
Not
Significant
Gr.
B
0.1133
0.0957
0.3093
0.0565
LK
Gr.
A
0.3333
0.2989
0.5467
0.0998
0.484
0.6
Not
Significant
Gr.
B
0.2667
0.2713
0.5208
0.0951
Statistical significance level (α) = 0.05
Table 10: Individual sy mptom of individual group before and after trial
Variable
Grading
On
Group
Chi sq.
Value
DF
Contingency
Coefficient
P Value
Significance
Weakness
LK
Gr. A
17.160
3
0.472
0.001
Highly Significant
Gr. B
5.696
3
0.294
0.5
Not Significant
Heaviness
LK
Gr. A
4.517
4
0.265
0.5
Not Significant
Gr. B
3.163
4
0.224
> 0.5
Not Significant
VAS = Visual Analogue Scale, LK = 5-Point Likert Scale
Statistical significance level (α) = 0.05
DISCUSSION
Ayurveda aims towards giving priority for maintenance of
health followed disease cure. For this purpose, Dincharya plays
an important role. Padabhyanga is an Upakrama which balances
both the facts i.e. guidelines given by Ayurveda and priorities of
fast life.
Samprapti Bhanga (Probable mode of action)
It is clear from Ayurvedic literature that Padabhyanga acts on
both Sthanik Doshas (local sign and symptoms) and also on
Sarvadehik Doshas (remote sign and symptoms or organ). Pada
and Netra are like two poles of our body. And still drug instilled
from one pole i.e. Pada can reach to other pole i.e. Netra through
Siras (vessels). These Siras, which are very minute, can be seen
only by Yogachakshus and Gyanchakshus (extraordinary visual
sense) but not by the ordinary eyes. Vagbhata in the references
did not promise anything more than beneficial to the eyes.29 The
Sira means Strotas (channels)30 and these two Strotas
(Mamsavaha or Snayuvaha)31 from Pada go to eyes. These Siras
may be the two Nadis, Gandhari (which connects left great toe
to left eye) and Pusha (which connects right great toe to right
eye) described in Yoga Shastra.32 Tila Taila applied for massage
get absorbed percutaneously through the skin comparatively
Joshi Nitesh R. & Ujwale Ramesh S. / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(2), Mar - Apr 2016
33
easily because it is in lipid form33. Thus this absorbed Taila
through these Strotas, acting by its Snigdha (unctuous) and
Ushna (hot in potency) properties pacifies Vata Dosha in the
eyes aggravated by Atiyoga (over use) or Mitthyayoga
(improper use) of Netra (i.e. Eye Strain).
Anatomically there exist no such vessels but can consider the
Siras as neurovascular bundles because sole of foot has very rich
nerve anastomosis. Stimulation of this neurovascular bundle
benefits the body as a whole and eyes especially by nourishing
eye muscles and reduces the Eye Strain. According to
Samanyvishesha Siddhanta (co-inherence and distinction
principle) 34, by pedal inunction ectodermal tissues of skin were
nourished thereby nourishing its other derivatives in eye and
improved the functions of the eye and reduced Eye Strain.35
Also Ayurveda explain the same thing about the development of
organs that Pada and Netra both have its origin from Vaikarik
(modifying or modified source of creation) and Rajas Ahamkara
(passionate source of creation)36, also both develop at same
month in intrauterine life37. Thus by therapy on Pada we can
have its effects on Netra because of their same origin. In pedal
inunction the absorbed Taila, through Rasa (serum) in the skin
and blood in the Siras gives nourishment to the eyes and reduces
its weakness i. e. Eye Strain.38
According to Physiology, by Padabhyanga the somatic sensory
area in the cortex may get stimulation and as both feet and eyes
are in the same area i. e. area II of cortex, its stimulant effect
may go to the eyes and may act by improving the function of
eyes and reducing the Eye Strain.39 Also by Padabhyanga there
might be nourishing or stimulation effect on eyes through the
interpretative (association) areas of feet and eyes, as both meets
at Wernickes area and improving the function of eyes and
reducing the Eye Strain.40
Decrease in Eye Strain by Padabhyanga might be due to reflex
action.41 According to the Spiritual energy massage, the points
at the outer rim of the big toes are massaged to achieve the
harmony of the Aghnya Chakra (or Inner Eye Chakra).42
According to the Acupuncture or Acupressure techniques, UB
62 Shenmai point, UB 67 Zhiyin point, K1 Yangquan point and
GB 43 Xiaxi point situated at the sole of foot have indication for
eye aliments and by practicing Padabhyanga through these
points Eye Strain might have reduced.43 Similarly Ayurveda
believes the therapy by means of which we can have effects on
distant area or organ.44
The piezoelectricity derived from pressure of Abhyanga
increases the conductivity of nerves and also due to increased
amino acids in blood, parallely it increases the neuron
transmitter serotonin which helps to inhance pleasing effects on
eyes.45
While going through Ayurvedic literature for Sneha Dravya
(oily preparation) it was found that Tila Taila is having superior
qualities and it is the best for Abhyanga.46 Also Eye Strain is the
disease of Vata aggravation and Tila Taila is the best for Vata
Shamana (mitigation).47 The control drug Yashtimadhu was
selected for Eye Strain, because by its properties Yashtimadhu
acts as Chakshushya (pleasing to the eyes) 48, 49.
For Padabhyanga Tila Taila was used in a dose of 5 ml for each
foot but relaxation for more doses was given according to
individual absorption demand. For both the groups Yashtimadhu
was used in a dose of 500 mg, one capsule at night.
Yashtimadhu capsules were used to maintain exact dose
administration and for patient convenience.
In old classics of Ayurveda Padabhyanga is mentioned in
Dincharya before Snana (Bath), but in present study time of
application of Padabhyanga was selected at night because the
purpose of the study was to screen the effect of Padabhyanga in
Eye Strain which was an Urdhwajatrugata (above collar bone)
disease and for Urdhwajatrugata disease, Swapnakala (night) is
the best time for drug administration.50 Also here patient
convenience was taken into consideration.
As per the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the patients showing
signs and symptoms of Eye Strain were included for study. The
patients who suffer from Eye Strain due to computer use,
constant reading, watching TV, constant traveling on two
wheelers, and keeping awake at night were selected, because in
these patients Eye Strain develops due to overuse or improper
use of eyes. Also patients walking bare feet and constant
standing were selected, because harassment of Pada is one of the
causes of Netra Vikara (diseases). 51
Age group 18-40 years was selected for study, because the onset
of disease is at an average of 18 years of age due to many
factors such as study, job, or two wheeler riding, etc., also
patients aged more than 40 years generally have chance to
develop presbyopia (ophthalmic health deteriorate due to age
factor). Either sex was included because Eye Strain has no such
prevalence about sex.
In age wise distribution maximum number of patients were
found in age group 26-30 yrs. i.e. 31 cases (51.67%). It indicates
prominent effect of fast lifestyle on youngsters. Excessive use of
computer, two wheeler riding, night awaking, constant reading,
watching television are causing Eye Strain in young age. In
occupation wise distribution the higher incidence of patients was
found in group of engineers i.e. in 20 cases (i.e. 33.33%). While
in students it was 18 (i.e. 30%), this is again because of the fact
that these persons make overuse or improper use of eyes and
Sthanik (local) Vata Dosha gets aggravated in them. In Prakriti
(constitution) wise distribution, the higher incidence of patients
was found from Vatapradhana Prakriti i.e. Vata-Pitta (bile) 19
(31.66%) and Vata-Kapha (phlegm) 18 (30.00%), Vata plays an
important role in Eye Strain; hence these patients suffer from
Eye Strain in more numbers. This indicates that constant reading
with night awaking and more computer use with two wheeler
riding are the main Pradhnyaparadhaja (intellectual insult) Hetu
causing Eye Strain and finally it points towards the
Nidanparivarjana (avoiding the cause) and importance of
adopting proper Dincharya.
By statistical analysis, it was proved that, symptoms Weakness
and Heaviness were improved in group A. Results were highly
significant in group A with Visual Analogue Scale and 5-Point
Likert Scale. In group B both Weakness and Heaviness were
improved, result was highly significant with Likert Scale values.
But with Visual Analogue Scale values for weakness result was
just significant and for Heaviness it was not significant. This
difference of result in group B occurs because Visual Analogue
Scale measures the severity of symptoms and Likert Scale
measures the frequency of the symptoms, means in group B the
frequency of symptoms reduced but not the severity as
compared to group A.
When unpaired t test was applied for above symptoms, it was
highly significant for symptom Weakness which indicates that
the trial therapy was more effective in Weakness than control
therapy. It ascertained that the significant result obtained was
due to extra effect of Padabhyanga.
Unpaired t test was insignificant for Heaviness indicates that
the trial therapy and the control therapy, both are equally
effective in Heaviness of eyes.
In experimental group 21 patients having symptom Weakness
were cured, and 9 patients were not cured. In control group 10
patients having symptom Weakness were cured, and 20 patients
were not cured. By applying χ2 test to this, result was highly
significant.
In experimental group 10 patients having symptom Heaviness
were cured, and 20 patients were not cured. In control group 7
patients having symptom Heaviness were cured, and 23 patients
Joshi Nitesh R. & Ujwale Ramesh S. / Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 7(2), Mar - Apr 2016
34
were not cured. By applying χ2 test to this, result was not
significant.
Finally summarizing that, the combination of Tila Taila
Padabhyanga and Yashtimadhu choorna is more effective than
only Yashtimadhu choorna for Weakness of eyes. And it is
equally effective for Heaviness of eyes.
Thus the significant effect obtained was due to additional effect
of Padabhyanga on Eye Strain.
The parameter of efficacy was Weakness of eyes and trial
therapy shows good results in this symptom than control
therapy. Also χ2 test to this symptom comes significant. Hence
the trial therapy Tila Taila Padabhyanga was effective and its
role in Eye Strain proved.
CONCLUSION
Padabhyanga is an important Upakrama mentioned in
Dincharya. It is the quickest, simplest, most pleasurable and
inexpensive way to make someone healthier and happier.
Regular practicing Tila Taila Padabhyanga is very beneficial for
reducing Eye Strain. Overuse or improper use of eyes was the
common causative factor for Eye Strain among all the patients.
The Nityabhyasa (daily practice) of Padabhyanga prior to onset
of Eye strain may prevent or postpone its symptoms.
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Cite this article as:
Joshi Nitesh R., Ujwale Ramesh S. A clinical study of the effect
of Tila taila padabhyanga on eye strain. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda
Pharm. Mar - Apr 2016;7(2):29-35 http://dx.doi.org/
10.7897/2277-4343.07250
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
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... 82 Eleven trials did not report the study location. 53,54,57,58,63,67,75,76,78,79,83 Most RCTs (n ¼ 35) used a parallel arm design, 19,20,23e25,48e51,54e71,74,75,77,79e82,84 and 10 studies used a crossover design. 22,52,53,72,73,76,78,83,85,86 In total, 4497 participants were recruited across the included 45 RCTs; individual study sample sizes ranged from 10 to 522 participants. ...
... Ten of 45 studies included in this review did not report, 25,51,56,57,60,68,83 or only partially reported, 50,73,75 the age of the included participants. Some of the outcome measures we analyzed may be impacted by age (for example, CFF and amplitude of accommodation), and so a limitation of our evaluation is that differences in outcomes between studies could be the result of unreported differences between the ages of the cohorts studied, rather than a difference in the effectiveness of the interventions per se. ...
Full-text available
Article
Topic To evaluate the efficacy and safety of interventions for treating eye strain related to computer use relative to placebo or no treatment. Clinical relevance Computer use is pervasive and often associated with eye strain, referred to as “computer vision syndrome” (CVS). Currently, there are no clinical guidelines to help practitioners provide evidence-based advice about CVS treatments, many of which are directly marketed to patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis will help inform best practice for eye care providers. Methods Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified in Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and trial registries, searched from inception to November 23, 2021. Eligible studies were appraised for risk of bias, and synthesized. The certainty of the body of evidence was judged using GRADE. Standardized mean differences (SMD) were used when differently scaled measures were combined. Results Forty-five RCTs, involving 4497 participants, were included. Multifocal lenses did not improve visual fatigue scores compared to single-vision lenses (three RCTs, SMD: 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.14 to 0.37; p=0.38). Visual fatigue symptoms were not reduced by blue-blocking spectacles (three RCTs), with evidence judged to be of low certainty. Relative to placebo, oral berry extract supplementation for 4 to 12 weeks did not improve visual fatigue (seven RCTs, SMD: -0.27; 95%CI -0.70 to 0.16; p=0.22), and dry eye symptoms (four RCTs, SMD: -0.10; 95%CI -0.54 to 0.33; p=0.65). Likewise, berry extract supplementation had no effect on critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFF) or accommodative amplitude. Oral omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for 45 days to 3 months improved dry eye symptoms (two RCTs, mean difference, MD: -3.36 units out of 18; 95%CI -3.63 to -3.10; p<0.00001) relative to placebo. Oral carotenoid supplementation improved CFF (two RCTs, MD: 1.55 Hz; 95%CI 0.42 to 2.67; p=0.007) relative to placebo, although the clinical significance of this finding is unclear. Conclusions We found no high certainty evidence supporting the use of any of the therapies analyzed. There was low certainty evidence that oral omega-3 supplementation reduces dry eye symptoms in symptomatic computer users.
... Padabhyanga: application of oil over soles always bestows sleep comfort and maintains vision. In a clinical study of the effect of Tilataila Padabhyanga on eye strain of 60 patients for 15 days, observed 70% improvement in weakness of eye and 33.33% showed improvement in heaviness of eye [15] 10) ...
Article
In today’s era of globalization, prevention plays an important role in the field of health science. Excess us-age of gadgets like use of computers, ipads and smart phones is leading to over functioning of eyes. Eyes are the windows to the mind. among the five sense organs Ayurveda gives prime importance to eyes. Now-a-days changed work expectations requiring prolonged working hours in front of computers, nutritional deficiency, pollution, stress, indiscriminate use of topical ocular drugs and increased incidence of allergic disorders, etc. lead to eye diseases. Suffering from ocular disorders with uncorrected refractive error in children result into adverse effect on quality of life and significantly affect their vision, education and psy-chosocial development. Working in artificial light either dim light or bright light is another culprit for dete-rioration of ocular health so emphasis should be laid on the prevention of these, as eyes are the most im-portant and sensitive of five sense organs in human body. Ayurveda is one of the greatest gifts to mankind. In Ayurveda, selected classical daily regimes like Netraprakshalana (eye wash), Anjana (collyrium), Snana(bath), Padabhyanga (foot massage with oil), Nasya (nasal application of drugs), wholesome and unwholesome dietetics are promoted as high-end measures for the maintenance of eye-health. Various Netravyayamas (eye exercises), Yogasanas, Pranayamas, Neti and Trataka are said to be beneficial for the same cause. The main aim of this review is to promote and spread the awareness about maintenance of oc-ular health and prevention from the earlier causation of ocular diseases.
Article
Eyestrain, or asthenopia, can be categorized into 2 types: an internal type consisting of sensations of strain and ache felt inside the eye and caused by stress of the accommodative and convergence mechanisms; and an external type consisting of sensations of dryness and irritation on the front of the eye and caused by compromised conditions in the viewing environment. The symptom sensations of the external type mimic those expected due to dry eyes. The likely mechanism is that poor viewing conditions cause contraction of the orbital portion of the orbicularis oculi muscle which causes eye lid squint in an attempt to improve vision. This has been shown to result in secondary reduction in eye lid blink, thereby resulting in dry eye conditions. Electromyography is a sensitive measure of contraction of the orbicularis and has potential to be an objective measure of eyestrain.
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