ArticlePDF Available

Effervescent tablets: a safe and practical delivery system for drug administration

  • Koru Hospitals Ankara


Effervescence is defined as the evolution of gas bubbles from a liquid as a result of a chemical reaction. For medicinal use, effervescent tablets have specific characteristics that allow rapid adsorption of the intended drug. In this manner, a medication can be absorbed easily and effectively if it dissolves easily in water and is present at a sufficient dose. Common acids utilized for effervescent reactions are citric, malic, tartaric, adipic and fumaric acids. Citric acid is most commonly used for this application, which also adds a citrus-like taste to the products. Tartaric, adipic and fumaric acids are usually used in small amounts, due to their low water solubility. Effervescent tablets are used to simplify the handling of doses, provide optimal compatibility, promote superior and rapid absorption, increase a patient's liquid intake and circumvent the difficulty of swallow- ing large pills. This review defines effervescent tablets in terms of the technology and describes the advantages and disadvantages.
Effervescent tablets: a safe and
practical delivery system for drug administration
Ka¤an ‹pci1, Tu¤ba Öktemer2, Leman Birdane3, Niyazi Alt›ntoprak4, Nuray Bayar Muluk5, Desiderio Passali6,
Andrey Lopatin7, Luisa Bellussi6, Ranko Mladina8, Ruby Pawankar9, Cemal Cingi10
1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ankara Koru Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Polatl› Can Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yunus Emre State Hospital, Eskiflehir, Turkey
4Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Tuzla State Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
5Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, K›r›kkale University, K›r›kkale, Turkey
6Department for Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Siena University, Siena, Italy
7ENT Department, State Policlinic No1, Business Administration of the President of Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia
8ENT Department, University Hospital Rebro-KBC Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
9Division of Allergy, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
10Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Eskiflehir Osmangazi University, Eskiflehir, Turkey
Medications such as pills are the forms generally used,
whereas they have some disadvantages. Slow absorption is
the important disadvantage as the onset of action gets pro-
longed. In liquid forms of the medication, the delay is avoid-
ed. Many drugs do not have enough stability levels in the
suspension form. Gastric residence also affects drug delivery
Correspondence: Ka¤an ‹pci, MD. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Ankara Koru Hospital,
Ankara, Turkey.
Received: January 4, 2016; Accepted: March 22, 2016
©2016 Continuous Education and Scientific Research Association (CESRA)
Online available at:
QR code:
Özet: Efervesan tabletler: ‹laç kullan›m› için güvenli ve
pratik bir uygulama sistemi
Efervesans, bir s›v› içinde oluflan kimyasal reaksiyon sonucu, çözünme
ve gaz kabarc›klar›n›n oluflmas› olarak tarif edilmektedir. T›bbi kulla-
n›mda efervesan tabletler, verilen ilac›n h›zl› emilimini sa¤lamaya yöne-
lik bir özellik tafl›maktad›r. Verilen ilaç, e¤er su içinde yeterli dozda ve
kolayca çözünürse daha h›zl› ve etkin flekilde emilim sa¤lanacakt›r. Kö-
pürme reaksiyonu için genellikle sitrik, malik, tartarik, adipik veya fu-
marik asitler kullan›lmaktad›r. En s›k tercih edilen, ürüne hafif bir li-
mon aromas› da veren sitrik asittir. Tartarik, adipik ve fumarik asitler,
suda çözünürlükleri daha düflük oldu¤u için daha az miktarlarda kulla-
n›l›rlar. Uygun ilaç dozu al›m›n›n sa¤lanmas›, ilaca uyumun kolaylaflt›-
r›lmas›, h›zl› ve daha iyi emilim, hastan›n s›v› al›m›n›n art›r›lmas› ve bü-
yük tabletlerin yutulma zorlu¤unun ortadan kald›r›lmas› için efervesan
tabletler kullan›lmaktad›r. Bu derlemede, teknolojik aç›dan efervesan
tabletler de¤erlendirilmifl, avantaj ve dezavantajlar› tan›mlanm›flt›r.
Anahtar sözcükler: Efervesan, tablet, avantaj, dezavantaj.
Effervescence is defined as the evolution of gas bubbles from a liquid as a
result of a chemical reaction. For medicinal use, effervescent tablets have
specific characteristics that allow rapid adsorption of the intended drug.
In this manner, a medication can be absorbed easily and effectively if it
dissolves easily in water and is present at a sufficient dose. Common acids
utilized for effervescent reactions are citric, malic, tartaric, adipic and
fumaric acids. Citric acid is most commonly used for this application,
which also adds a citrus-like taste to the products. Tartaric, adipic and
fumaric acids are usually used in small amounts, due to their low water
solubility. Effervescent tablets are used to simplify the handling of doses,
provide optimal compatibility, promote superior and rapid absorption,
increase a patient’s liquid intake and circumvent the difficulty of swallow-
ing large pills. This review defines effervescent tablets in terms of the
technology and describes the advantages and disadvantages.
Keywords: Effervescent, tablet, advantages, disadvantages.
ENT Updates 2016;6(1):46–50
Volume 6|Issue 1|April 2016
Effervescent tablets: a safe and practical delivery system for drug administration
which is predicted before. Gastro-retentive preparations are
created to manage gastric residence. Another form of the
drugs is effervescent tablets.[1] Effervescent mixtures and
powders, and compound effervescent powders including
saline cathartics are also used.[2]
In effervescent technology, gas bubbles occur from the
liquid after chemical reaction. Alkali metal bicarbonates
and acids (mainly citric or tartaric) are used to make effer-
vescence. The reaction occurs after adding water.[3–5] The
main issue is acid-base reaction. The basic component is
sodium bicarbonate and acidic component is citric acid.[5]
Effervescent tablets have specific characteristics that
allow rapid adsorption of the drug. The drug can be
absorbed easily when it displays adequate dissolution in
water and is present at a sufficient dose.[6] Potassium citrate
has these characteristics. In case of kidney stones contain-
ing urate and calcium, Potassium citrate is used which is
helpful to decrease the prevalence of the stones.[7] Patients
with kidney stones should take too much water to use
effervescent easily. Potassium citrate powders are given
with packages and the dose is measured. Therefore, a
study has been aimed to design and formulate potassium
citrate effervescent tablets. They decrease calcium oxalate
and urate stones.[8]
Definition of Effervescent Tablets
The chemical reaction occurs in effervescent tablets. It is
related to acid-base reaction. At the end, carbon dioxide is
released. Tartaric, malic, fumaric, citric and adipic acids
are utilized. Due to the citrus-like taste, citric acid is usu-
ally preferred for effervescents. Malic acid is expensive,
whereas it adds smoother taste. The low water-soluble
agents are fumaric, malic and tartaric acids. So, they can be
consumed in small amounts.[9]
In effervescent technology, when organic acid and
bicarbonate get together in the water, carbon dioxide is
released. The solving process is seen in 17–20°C water.
They may be easily carried and used. Their taste is pleas-
ing. The foam of them helps to kill the local bacteria. In
traditional Chinese Medicine, similar techniques and
materials are used to prepare similar medicine.[10]
After the reaction of effervescent tablets, simultaneous
carbon dioxide is produced. Their contents are com-
pressed mixture of acids and sodium bicarbonate.[11] They
rapidly dissolve in the water. When the patients have
problem with capsule or tablet swallowing, these agents
can be used easily.[12,13] These tablets are also absorbed
faster.[14] The main acid used is citric acid. The other acids
of adipic, tartaric, malic and fumaric are also used. Alkali
sources are Potassium carbonate and bicarbonate, and
sodium carbonate and bicarbonate. When considering low
cost, high solubility and intensity of reaction, sodium car-
bonate is preferred.[15] Excipients, water-soluble lubricants
and colors, flavorings and sweeteners are also added.[15]
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used as binder in effer-
vescent. Its form is as dry powder or wet forms of aqueous
or hydroalcoholic solutions. Mannitol and PEG 6000 are
other effective binders.[15,16] When using tablet press
machine, relative humidity should be low (25%) and
temperature should be at room temperature (25°C).[5] To
obtain excellent flowability, production is made by direct
compression method. Size of the particles should be equal.
In granules, particle size should be small.[13,17] To achieve
agglomeration of the particles, monohydrate citric acid is
released in the fusion method (at 54°C). Using a nonreac-
tive solution, such as ethanol or isopropanol, granulation
is achieved. 0.1–0.5% water is enough for active solu-
tion.[15] The control of effervescent tablets is performed by
conventional similar tablets. The control parameters are
weight, hardness, pH, solution time and friability.[8,15]
Potassium citrate is soluble in water, but insoluble in
alcohol.[7] It is used in metabolic acidosis and replaces sodi-
um bicarbonate. It can also be used in urinary tract infec-
tions as an alkalizing agent. It decreases the formation of
kidney stone induced by calcium oxalate and urate.[18–21]
Therefore, oral supplements with potassium citrate pre-
vent hyperkalaemia, because it can be absorbed from gas-
trointestinal tract highly.[8,21]
Effervescent tablet solution was compared with stan-
dard tablets in 242 patients. The formulations contained
1000 mg acetaminophen. The patients had moderate or
severe pain due to the dental surgery. Both of them were
evaluated in terms of pain intensity and relief. They were
both effective compared to placebo. Onset of analgesia
was 20 min in effervescent tablet and 45 min in standard
tablet. Median pain relief time was 15 min faster in the
effervescent tablet.[22]
Recently, effervescent antibiotics have been launched
on the market. Consumption of the drug as a half glass of
liquid seems easier than swallowing a large tablet.
Particularly in patients with a sore throat or swallowing
disorder, this delivery method improves the quality of life
with easier and faster uptake of the drug. Furthermore,
effervescent tablets have storage advantages for keeping
the drug dry, stable and safe compared with syrup or sus-
pension forms.
ENT Updates
‹pci K et al.
Effervescent Tablet Technology
The technology of the effervescent tablets was based on
chemical reaction. Acid neutralize a carbonate salt. At the
end, carbon dioxide gas is released which produce the
fizzing.[23] To initiate the reaction, water is important. If
there is no water in the medium, acid or carbonate cannot
dissociate and the reaction cannot be initiated. After the
reaction begins, more water is generated. Effervescent
tablets should be produced in optimum environment and
packaged carefully. Therefore, stability is created. During
the production, anhydrous raw materials are used. They
should be kept in dry environment. Relative humidity
ratio must be less than 10%. In effervescent tablets, the
source of carbon dioxide is carbonate. Sodium carbonate
and bicarbonate are the commonly used carbonate salts.[23]
In sodium carbonate, CO2percentage is lower than
bicarbonate. In bicarbonate, CO2proportion is higher
than soda ash. Its’ reaction time is more quickly and it is
less stable. In most of the products, both carbonate and
bicarbonate are used in 50/50 ratio. Reaction time and sta-
bility are acceptable in this form. In effervescent products,
magnesium and potassium carbonate are also used. Acids
are the other and important part in effervescent which
react with carbonates.[23] Citric acid is a trivalent and has
good neutralizing effect. Fumaric acid is a divalent and
more effective than citric acid. Fumaric acid reacts slowly
and less soluble than citric acid. Stability of the fumaric
acid is more than citric acid. The other acids are malic acid
and adipic acid.[23] The weight ratio of the acid and total
carbonate is 1:1 for ideal for effervescents. When this ratio
is 1:10, the system will be highly soluble and reactive.
Essential oils and fragrances are included as 0.5–3% in
effervescent. The oil should not contain glycol solvents
which can cause instability.[23]
Dyes or lake pigments can be added to produce colored
solutions or products. Color stability is also important.
They should be chosen as anhydrous material. Dried
flower bud, herbs, chamomile extract maybe used for this
purpose. The percentage may be lower than 1–2%.
Another 0.1–2% of the effervescent should be consisted of
vitamin E, squalene, almond oil and cosmetic esters.
Foamers are surfactants. PEG-30 castor oil, laureth 4,
polysorbate 80 or 85 are emulsifiers.[23]
Polymers are added as 0.2–4 percentage. PEG or
polyquaternium are usually used. For solid effervescent
tablets, binders are used as 10–20% (maltodextrin, lactose
and sorbitol). The materials that help flowing are calcium
silica, talc, fumed silica or cornstarch.[23] Production is
completed with exact ratios of different materials.[3]
During production, hydroscopic materials are used to
absorb moisture. Moisture may cause effervesvent reac-
tion. The production is performed in closed systems and
ended by split valve technology. To achieve high level
safety, low moisture should be present in ventilated air.[3]
Granulation and drying
The tablets are produced as equal weight and homoge-
neous. They compressed in high-speed rotary presses. Wet
granulation is avoided, because it may initiate reaction.[3]
Roller compaction and direct compression are used for dry-
ing.[2] Ventilation of the machines is also controlled.[3]
Wet granulation
The wet granulation is performed by two steps. Initial step
is done by alkaline or acid components, subsequently dry
blending is performed.[2] A high shear granulator is used
for drying.[2] These methods need running time and clean-
ing processes. This is a critical step and homogeneity of
the tablets is obtained with this method.[3]
Organic solvents
Effervescent reaction is not started in inorganic solvents.
These agents are used as a granulation fluid. In this method,
evaporation occurs at lower heat. Drying is obtained at
lower temperatures. The fluid bed is necessary because of
created organic gas and non-condensable process.[3]
Water is used as a granulation fluid. It is used in very small
amount, because water may initiate pre-effervescent reac-
tion. In this reaction, carbon dioxide is released. Drying
process of the production reduces the water amount. A
high shear granulator is used for this purpose. In larger
bath sizes, the drying time takes longer.[3] For drying,
microwave technology or batches (small or medium) are
used. In larger batches, the process takes more time.[3]
Fluid bed spray granulation
In this process, simultaneous granulation and drying are per-
formed. Low moisture levels are obtained and the risk of
pre-effervescent reaction is limited to minimum. For more
granulation fluid, it is necessary to have high shear process.[3]
After granulation, lubricant should be added to the tablets.
To improve flowing, magnesium stearate is used. It pre-
vents tablets from sticking. When magnesium stearate is
used, a film will be present on the water after dissolving of
Volume 6|Issue 1|April 2016
Effervescent tablets: a safe and practical delivery system for drug administration
the tablets. L-leucine plus polyethylene glycol mixture are
also used for this purpose.[4,5]
Tablet compression
Moisture ratio is different in effervescent tablets and normal
tablets. It is <0.3% and 2%, respectively. Effervescent
tablets are commonly larger than normal tablets; and they
may be easily broken or damaged. For the packaging, these
details are very important to keep in mind. Dwell time
should be increased to solve this problem.[3]
During filling, powder pressure is obtained by rotary
valves. When lubricant is absent, the tablets can stick the
walls. Lubricants may be solid or liquid.[3] During press pro-
cedure, surface materials are forced to be pressed into the
tablets and moisture, absorbed from the air, is decreased.[3]
Blister packs and tube arrangements used
for packaging
Packing materials have a relatively stable shelf life.
Aluminum is used instead of polymer blister materials.
Because its water permeability is lower. In a package, ten
or more tablets are placed. Environment should have low
humidity, because humidity may destroy the tablets.
Drying agents such as silica gel is incorporated into the
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Effervescent Tablets
Oral forms are more preferred way of medication. In this
form, slow absorption maybe the most important disad-
vantages. When taking the liquid form, the lower dosages
can be used. Stability of active pharmaceutical ingredients
is lower in liquid form. As effervescent tablets are dis-
solved in water just before administration, it provides
advantage for the stability of these medications.[9]
Taking big tablets of capsules is difficult for the
patients. Effervescent technology provides an alternative
to them. Dissolving and break-down of standard tablets
also takes additional time in the stomach. In effervescents,
ingredients are distributed in the solution and they are not
localized in certain point.[9] They can be taken in liquids
and promotes patients to take more liquid. Absorption is
improved and usage is easy in effervescent tablets.[9]
Advantages of effervescent tablets:[3] Improved taste,
faster absorption, presentable fizzy tablets.
Disadvantages of effervescent tablets: Larger tablets,
complex production process, delicate packaging process.
Fundamentals of effervescent: There are organic
acid and alkali metal carbonate salts.[3]
Why Effervescent Tablets Are Used?
The doses can be taken easily. The ingredients (carbonate
and acid) serve as buffer for the stomach with optimum
pH. The absorption occurs at 15 min.[24] Effervescent
tablets are uncoated tablets.[6,25,26] They are susceptible to
the stomach.[25,27] They may be taken in liquid form. If
patients have swallowing difficulty, they can take these
medications easily. It is well-tolerated in the stomach.
After effervescent reaction, CO2is produced and it
increases the penetration of active substances into the
paracellar spaces.[28,29]
Lubricants are used to prevent adhesion of the tablets.
Sucrose is added as hydroscopic material and cause to
increase the tablet bulk. Aspartame and sucralose are the
other sweeteners.[1,30] Aspirin is the most commonly used
effervescent tablet.[6,31]
Effervescent tablets are used for:
Rapid and enhanced absorption: It is dissolved in
liquid and the ingredients are absorbed quickly.
Conventional tablets are dissolved slowly and absorp-
tion is reduced.[24]
Optimal compatibility: The effervescent tablet con-
tains a balanced ratio of acids and carbonates forming
a buffer. It has optimal compatibility with the stom-
Increase in liquid intake: Effervescent tablets provide
both the medicinal value intended and additional liquid
intake. In diarrhea and high temperature in summer,
intake of effervescent table with water contributes to
daily liquid intake.[24]
Advantages in case of swallowing problems:
Effervescent tablets present an alternative for these
Simple handling and measuring into exact doses:
Effervescent tablets are dissolved quickly and the
patients can obtain exact doses.[24]
Preparation of this paper including design and planning
was supported by Continuous Education and Scientific
Research Association (CESRA), Turkey.
Conflict of Interest: No conflicts declared.
ENT Updates
‹pci K et al.
1. Rajlakshmi G, Vamsi C, Balchandar R, Damodharan N.
Formulation and evaluation of effervescent tablets of diclofenac
potassium. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and
Biomedical Research 2011;2;237–43.
2. Mohrle R. Effervescent tablets. In: Liberman HA, Lachman L.
Schwartz JB, editors. pharmaceutical dosage form–tablets. Vol. I.
First Indian reprint. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc.; 2005.
p. 285–92.
3. Stahl H. Effervescent dosage manufacturing. Pharmaceutical
Technology Europe 2003;15:25–8.
4. Swarbrick J, Boylon JC. Encyclopedia of pharmaceutical technolo-
gy. Vol. 1. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc.; 2002. p. 1037–49.
5. Tekade BW, Jadhao UT, Thakre VM, Bhortake LR.
Formulation and evaluation of diclofenac sodium effervescent
tablet. Innovations in Pharmaceuticals and Pharmacotherapy
6. Prabhakar CH, Krishna KB. A review on effervescent tablet.
International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2011;3:704–12.
7. Sweetman SC. Martindle: the complete drug reference. 35th ed.
London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2007.
8. Aslani A, Fattahi F. Formulation, characterization and physico-
chemical evaluation of potassium citrate effervescent tablets. Adv
Pharm Bull 2013;3:217–25.
9. Pham JH. Understanding effervescent tableting technology
[cited 2015 Nov 29]. Available from:.http://www.naturalprod-
10. Tian XF, Bian BL. Development of effervescent tablet of
Chinese traditional medicine and its technology study. [Article
in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2004;29:624–7.
11. Lachman L, Liberman HA, Kanig JL. The theory and practice of
industrial pharmacy. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger; 1986.
12. Allen LV, Popovich NG, Ansel HC. Ansel’s pharmaceutical
dosage forms and drug delivery systems. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.
13. Swarbrick J, Boylan JC. Encyclopedia of pharmaceutical tech-
nology. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2002.
14. Altomare E, Vendemiale G, Benvenuti C, Andreatta P.
Bioavailability of a new effervescent tablet of ibuprofen in healthy
volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1997;52:505–6.
15. Monrle R. Effervescent tablet. In: Liberman HA, Lachman I,
Schwartz J, editors. Pharmaceutical dosage form: tablets. 2nd ed.
New York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc; 1980.
16. Callahan JC, Cleary GW, Elefant M, Kaplan G, Kensler T,
Nash RA. Equilibrium moisture content of pharmaceutical
excipients. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 1982;8:355–69.
17. Saleh SI, Boymond C, Stamm A. Preparation of direct compress-
ible effervescent components: spray-dried sodium bicarbonate.
Int J Pharm 1988;45:19–26.
18. Tekin A, Tekgul S, Atsu N, Bakkaloglu M, Kendi S. Oral potas-
sium citrate treatment for idiopathic hypocitruria in children
with calcium urolithiasis. J Urol 2002;168:2572–4.
19. Pak CY, Sakhaee K, Fuller C. Successful management of uric acid
nephrolithiasis with potassium citrate. Kidney Int 1986;30:422–8.
20. Pak CY, Peterson RD, Poindexter J. Prevention of spinal bone loss
by potassium citrate in cases of calcium urolithiasis. J Urol 2002;
21. McEvoy GK. AHFS drug information. Bethesda, MD: American
Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2005.
22. Møller PL, Nørholt SE, Ganry HE, et al. Time to onset of anal-
gesia and analgesic efficacy of effervescent acetaminophen 1000
mg compared to tablet acetaminophen 1000 mg in postoperative
dental pain: a single-dose, double-blind, randomised, placebo-
controlled study. J Clin Pharmacol 2000;4:370–8.
23. Effervescent technology primer [cited 2015 Nov 29]. Available from:
24. Effervescent benefits [cited 2015 Nov 29]. Available from:
25. Palanisamy P, Abhishekh R, Yoganand Kumar D. Formulation
and evaluation of effervescent tablets of aceclofenac.
International Research Journal of Pharmacy 2011;2:185–90.
26. Srinath KR, Pooja Chowdary CP, Palanisamy P, et al. Formulation
and evaluation of effervescent tablets of paracetamol. International
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development 2011;3:76–
27. Lee RE. Effervescent tablets 2010 [cited 2015 Nov 29]. Available from:
28. Wadhwani AR, Prabhu NB, Nadkarni MA, Amin PD. Consumer
friendly mucolytic formulations. Indian J Pharm Sci 2004;7:506–7.
29. Bandeline FJ. Granulation. In: Liberman HA, Lachman L,
Schwartz JB, editors. Pharmaceutical dosage forms: tablets. New
York, NY: Marcel Dekker Inc; 1989. p. 287–92.
30. Bhusan SY, Sambhaji SP, Anant RP, Kakasaheb RM. New drug
delivery system for elderly. Indian Drugs 2000;37:312–8.
31. Aslani A, Jahangiri H. Formulation, characterization and physic-
ochemical evaluation of ranitidine effervescent tablets. Adv
Pharm Bull 2013;3:315–22.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-
NC-ND3.0) Licence ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduc-
tion in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Please cite this article as: ‹pci K, Öktemer T, Birdane L, Alt›ntoprak N, Bayar Muluk N, Passali D, Lopatin A, Bellussi L, Mladina R, Pawankar R, Cingi C.
Effervescent tablets: a safe and practical delivery system for drug administration. ENT Updates 2016;6(1):46–50.
... This issue might be resolved by turning SHPN pills into effervescent tablets that disintegrate quickly as well as dissolve easily in water [2]. Thus, patients can readily take these drugs even if they have trouble swallowing [10]. Moreover, SHPN extract was prepared by the freeze-drying process, so it easily dissolved in water when the effervescent reaction occurred. ...
... The amount of carbon dioxide in bicarbonate is higher than that of sodium carbonate. Its reaction time is quicker and less stable [10]. However, this work selected sodium bicarbonate as the basic salt due to rapid tablet disintegration being required. ...
... The effervescent reaction may result from moisture. Hydrophobic materials are utilized during manufacture to absorb moisture [10]. Fumed silica is used to enhance the flow characteristics of dry powders because of their small particle size and large specific surface area. ...
Semha–Pinas (SHPN) is a Thai traditional herbal formula used as an expectorant. Its traditional dosage form is pills, which are dispersed in water before use. The development of this recipe to effervescent tablets could enhance patient convenience with shortened the time needed to disintegrate the active ingredients. This work aimed to develop SHPN extract effervescent tablets based on process and formulation optimization using the Box–Behnken design. Four levels of three independent variables, including a compressional force, a quantity of effervescent base, and a quantity of fumed silica, were screened using the one factor at a time method. Three levels of each independent variable were included in the Box–Behnken design, including 1000 − 2000 psi, 46 − 52%, and 1.67 − 3.33%, respectively. Four responses were monitored, including tablet thickness, hardness, disintegration time, and friability. In terms of design space, the results showed that the tablet hardness was not less than 5 kP, disintegration time was not more than 5 min, and friability was not more than 1% found when 2000 psi compressional force was used. The optimal parameters were a compressional force of 2000 psi, effervescent base of 50%, and fumed silica of 2.5%. This formulation had a tablet weight of 598.86 ± 0.05 mg, a diameter of 12.68 ± 0.01 mm, a thickness of 3.67 ± 0.01 mm, a hardness of 5.57 ± 0.22 kP, a disintegration time of 1.68 ± 0.04 min, and friability of 0.43 ± 0.02%. In conclusion, this work succeeded in developing SHPN extract effervescent tablets with desired properties that were easy to use. Furthermore, the time needed to disintegrate the active ingredients was decreased when compared with the traditional dosage form due to being easily dissolved in water.Graphical Abstract
... 21,22 It is perfectly compatible with the stomach, while the gas bubble byproduct from the reaction (carbon dioxide) boosts the penetration of active ingredients into the paracellular space. 23,24 Effervescent granules can be processed either dry melting, or wet. The dry granulation method maintains active ingredients with relatively moisture-sensitive, poor flow, and compressibility properties. ...
... 33 A product with inconsistent granule sizes and shapes results in undesired flow rates; in granules, particles should be small, round, and uniform. 23 Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a binder in the wet granulation method and a stabilizer for amorphous drugs in a solid-dispersion system. Its typical concentration is 0.5%-5% w/w. ...
Full-text available
Introduction: Red beetroots (Beta vulgaris L.) are a natural ingredient rich in nutrients and provide various notable health benefits. In dentistry, red beetroots have the potential to act as a plaque-disclosing agent. Previous studies showed that red beetroot preparation in gelform is more effective compared to chewable tablets, but has significant drawbacks in taste. Effervescent granules have the potential to conceal the unpleasant taste of beetroot substances. This study aims to determine the ideal formula and evaluate the physical properties and stability of effervescent granules made from red beetroot extract. Methods: This was an experimental design study with descriptive analysis. The maceration method was used to extract the red beetroot constituents. Fresh fruits were collected, air-dried, and macerated with 96% ethanol twice. The filtrates were then concentrated. The wet granulation method was used to formulate effervescent granules. The samples were grouped into formula 1 (F1), formula 2 (F2), and formula 3 (F3) using 1%, 3%, and 4% red beetroot extract, respectively. All sample groups were analyzed for physical stability, namely: organoleptic, flowability, density, dissolving time, and pH tests. Results: All samples surpassed the sensory evaluation for physical properties. Formula 1 (1%) and formula 2 (3%) models passed all the physical stability tests. Meanwhile, the 4% formula (F3) failed two physical tests. F1 (1%) samples also showed lighter brown color for its lower beetroot extract concentration, indicating under-qualification as dental plaque staining materials. Therefore, 3% concentration (F2) has the best formulation regarding physical properties and stability. Conclusion: Formulas F1 and F2 have the best physical properties and stability by passing all the tests, while Formula 3 failed the organoleptic and flow rate tests.KEYWORDSformulation, physical stability, Beta vulgaris L, effervescent granules
... Selain itu, sumber asam dan basa yang digunakan sedapat mungkin dalam bentuk anhidrat untuk mengurangi jumlah molekul air dalam sediaan serta diproses secara terpisah. Hal-hal tersebut dilakukan untuk mencegah terjadinya reaksi efervesen selama proses pembuatan serta menjaga stabilitas sediaan efervesen [22]. Pada Tabel 1 ditunjukkan penggunaan kombinasi sumber asam menjadi formulasi yang paling banyak digunakan karena dapat memberikan keuntungan [20]. ...
... Sedangkan penggunaan tunggal asam tartrat akan menghasilkan campuran yang lengket dan sukar digranulasi [23]. Jenis sumber asam lainnya yang dapat digunakan dalam sediaan efervesen adalah asam malat dan asam fumarat [22]. Pada Tabel 1 juga dijelaskan natrium bikarbonat lebih banyak digunakan sebagai sumber basa. ...
Besarnya pengaruh radikal bebas terhadap kesehatan manusia membuat masyarakat saat ini banyak mengkonsumsi buah dan sayur serta bahan alam lain tinggi antioksidan. Untuk mendapat dan mengefisiensikan manfaat antioksidan dari herbal dibutuhkan adanya suatu teknologi yang tepat salah satunya dibuat dalam sediaan efervesen. Sediaan efervesen memiliki beberapa keunggulan yaitu memiliki rasa yang enak, mudah dikonsumsi dan diabsorbsi cepat oleh tubuh. Review ini akan memberikan informasi mengenai formulasi dan evaluasi sediaan efervesen dari berbagai herbal sebagai antioksidan. Pencarian jurnal dilakukan secara online melalui situs pencarian jurnal yang terakreditasi. Sebanyak 17 jurnal dari 121 jurnal pencarian awal memenuhi kriteria inklusi. Kombinasi asam sitrat dan asam tartrat serta natrium bikarbonat dengan metode granulasi basah menjadi formulasi yang paling banyak digunakan. Evaluasi waktu larut, pH, dan kadar air sediaan menjadi indikator kualitas sediaan efervesen. Metode DPPH menjadi pilihan yang paling banyak digunakan untuk menguji aktivitas antioksidan dalams sediaan. Sediaan efervesen dapat menjadi bentuk penghantar antioksidan dari berbagai herbal.
... Some geriatric patients have difficulty in swallowing solid forms such as tablets and capsules. Solid dosage forms of such preparations may be formulated as granules in sachets to be reconstituted into solution for their use when required [11]. Under proper storage conditions, it is expected that the granular dosage form will have an improved shelf life and longer lasting effect of the active ingredients. ...
Full-text available
The purpose of the current study was to develop stable effervescent-tablets without controlling area relative-humidity; temperature and no requirement of special packaging. Current 3 2 factorial-design experimental studies were conducted in the Research Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, Hamdard University. Duration of study is from December-2021 to November-2022. Various paracetamol based effervescent formulations (F1-F9) were prepared with different molar-ratio of citric-acid anhydrous and sodium-bicarbonate as independent variables. Design-Expert ® software was used to graphically express the influence of each factor. By novel approach; tablets were compressed at ambient temperature and relative-humidity; acid components were kept on one-side and basic ingredients on another side; both sides were separated by an inert-layer. Tablets were kept at accelerated humidity and temperature in normal packing for six months; after six months, F6 formulation was found acceptable based on effervescence-time (120 sec), pH-value (5.5) and other quality criterion. Parameters of assay, effervescence-time, pH-value and carbon-dioxide content were found within the set-limit. Hence; novel approach for developing effervescent formulation by separating acid components at one-side and basic ingredients on another side of tablet through inert-layer is workable under room temperature and humidity. It is expected that commercial production of tablets by this technique may reduce cost of effervescent products and no requirement for special packaging.
Full-text available
Background: Effervescent floating tablets are used oral dosage form, to enhance the patient compliance, drug bioavailability and to increase the absorption rate. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), widely used as a preventive agent against urinary tract infections, also suggested for Type II diabetes, myalgic encephalomyelitis, scurvy, and as a diuretic pill for being rich in nutrients and anti-oxidant properties. Objectives: The aim of the study is to formulate and evaluate the effervescent tablets of Cranberry and Vitamin C. Methodology: As per defined criteria of US FDA, effervescent tablet as per composition is formulated by citric acid and sodium bicarbonate and intended to dissolve in water before administration. Active substance and excipient compatibility studies were done by UV and FTIR, resulted absence of any interaction. Pre-formulation studies including Bulk density, tapped density, angle of repose, Hausner's ratio, Carr's index and water content. Results: Formulations were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, pH of solution, drug dissolution time, content uniformity as defined specification of U.S.P and BP. Stability and storage condition studies were also monitored with average results of 96% drug assay and dissolution. All the results showed excellent formulation of tablet and flow properties of granules. Conclusion: Further studies required to approach targeted and spontaneous release of active as optimized effervescent maybe helpful in delivery of actives and enhancing patient compliance.
Full-text available
Flavoured functional effervescent powders are becoming increasingly popular by consumers due to their health benefits and easy dissolution. In present study, orange flavoured effervescent powders having functional properties were prepared. Orange oil (O) was blended with different essential oils (EOs) having high antioxidant activity. The orange oil and the O-EOs blends were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and evaluation of radical scavenging activity. Combinations of two water soluble β-cyclodextrine polymers, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrine (2-HP-β-CD) and epihydrin-β-cyclodextrin (EPI-β-CD) were prepared at different molar ratios (3: 1 and 1: 3, F1 and F2, respectively). The O-EOs blends that showed the highest antioxidant activities and best odour qualities were encapsulated with F1 and F2, separately. The orange flavoured inclusion complexes were prepared by freeze drying method. The particle sizes of the inclusion complex powders were in the nanoscale. Characterization of the inclusion complexes nanoparticles were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared microscopy (FT-IR). The results confirmed the successful formation of the inclusion complexes. However, inclusion complex of O-EOs blend with F1 (O-F1C-IC) showed the smallest particle size (113.9 ± 15.9 nm), the more negative zeta potential (-27.1 ± 1.27 mV), the highest encapsulation efficiency (95.51%) and best odour quality. Therefore, it was mixed with an effervescent powder having high acceptable characteristics. The orange flavoured effervescent powder showed superior flowability.
Near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy are analytical methods which are used increasingly for qualitative and quantitative at- or in-line measurements in the pharmaceutical industry. With the published quality guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), these technologies are becoming popular, especially for ensuring high product quality and process monitoring. After a development of multivariate methods in this study, the best models were selected based on various quality parameters and the applicability of these in the routine process was presented. Calcination is a partial conversion to sodium carbonate, which increases compressibility and stability of effervescent tablets. Fluid bed granulation and drying oven processing were available as calcination technologies in this study. To determine the decomposition level spectroscopically, an analytical method was required. For this purpose, two standard methods (hydrochloric acid titration and a thermogravimetric analysis method) were compared. Thermogravimetric analysis was chosen due to a better determination of separately weighed binary mixtures of sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate. Changes of water content, powder density and particle size showed influences on spectra and chemometric models. This impact was consistently avoided or reduced by reproducible sample handling and by using pre-processing operations. With a well understood standard method available, the main part of this study deals with diverse model developments of NIR and Raman data. The Raman technology was found to be superior to the NIR to determine the decomposition level of sodium hydrogen carbonate. The NIR demonstrated a low robustness and routine capability, higher number of factors, and poorer Root Mean Square Errors.
Full-text available
Background: Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic, which is used as an antimicrobial drug. This study was designed to formulate amoxicillin effervescent tablets, aimed at improved patient compliance and increased drug stability. Materials and Methods: In this study, nine effervescent tablet formulations were prepared from amoxicillin trihydrate. The effervescent base was comprised of various amounts of citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. Powders and granules were evaluated for their particle size, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, Hausner's ratio and angle of repose. The effervescent tablets were then prepared from powders and granules of acceptable quality by direct compression and fusion methods. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, friability, pH of solution, carbon dioxide (CO2) content, hardness, effervescence time, thickness, assay, content uniformity, water content and equilibrium moisture content. Results: The results indicated better flowability of granules prepared by fusion method as compared with the direct compression. The percent weight variations of tablets were within the acceptable limit of 0.5%. The friability was less than 1% in all formulations. The solution pH of tablets prepared by direct compression and fusion methods ranged from 4.55 to 5.74 and 4.74-5.84, respectively. The CO2 amounts generated by of fusion method tablets were smaller as compared to the direct compression method. The hardness of tablets was 40.66-56 for direct compression method and 60.6-74.6 for fusion method. The tablets produced by the fusion method had a larger thickness and lower water content than tablets produced by direct compression method. Conclusion: Tablets prepared by the fusion method exhibited superior pre- and post-compression characteristics as compared to tablets prepared by direct compression method.
Full-text available
Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and formulation of potassium citrate effervescent tablet for reduction of calcium oxalate and urate kidney stones in patients suffering from kidney stones. Methods: In this study, 13 formulations were prepared from potassium citrate and effervescent base in different concentration. The flowability of powders and granules was studied. Then effervescent tablets were prepared by direct compression, fusion and wet granulation methods. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, pH, content uniformity. To amend taste of formulations, different flavoring agents were used and then panel test was done by using Latin Square method by 30 volunteers. Results: Formulations obtained from direct compression and fusion methods had good flow but low hardness. Wet granulation improves flowability and other physicochemical properties such as acceptable hardness, effervescence time ≤3 minutes, pH<6, friability < 1%, water percentage < 0.5% and accurate content uniformity. In panel test, both of combination flavors; (orange - lemon) and (strawberry - raspberry) had good acceptability. Conclusion: The prepared tablets by wet granulation method using PVP solution had more tablet hardness. It is a reproducible process and suitable to produce granules that are compressed into effervescent tablets due to larger agglomerates.
Effervescent tablets are an interesting pharmaceutical dosage form, offering some unique advantages when compared with simple tablets. However, the manufacturing process involves some critical steps that need to be addressed carefully during formulation and factory design.
In the present study, the design of an oral effervescent tablet of diclofenac potassium was carried out. Six different formulations were prepared using different diluents, carbonates by wet granulation and direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for various pre compression characteristics (like angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, cars index and hausner's ratio) and post compression characteristics (like weight variation, hardness friability ,drug content, disintegration, CO 2 content, effervescent time, particle size and in vitro dissolution studies). The dissolution test was carried out in SIF without enzymes, 0.1N HCl and pH 4.8 acetate buffer. Among all the formulations, its F3 formulations were better in all the terms of precompression and post compression parameters. In F3 formulations, F3A (by direct compression) and F3B (by wet granulation method) were there. F3B (composed of active dextrates (Emdex), citricacid, tartaric acid, effersoda and arginine) had given good pre formulation and post compression studies as F3A. Even the drug release in the medium SIF pH6.8 without enzymes was 99.2% when compared to F3A (98.7%) and marketed tablet (98%).It had all the qualities of a good effervescent tablet, based on this F3B formulation was selected as the best formulation, and it was charged for stability studies. It had given better release profile in all the mediums when compared to marketed conventional tablet (SUPANAC). A better therapeutic objective can be obtained by formulating effervescent tablet of diclofenac potassium that may help in obviating the demerits of slow release and slow absorption, gastrointestinal side effects of normal tablets.
Editorial Reviews Product Description Now complete in 17 volumes, the Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology presents authoritative and contemporary articles on all aspects of drug development, dosage forms, manufacturing, and regulation;enabling the specialist and novice alike to keep abreast of developments in this rapidly evolving and highly competitive field. A dependable reference tool and a solid investment for years to come--maintaining currency through its supplements (Volume 18/Supplement 1 due to be published in the Fall, 1998)! The Encyclopedia contains interdisciplinary contributions in a wide array of subjects, including Drugs decomposition metabolism pharmaceutical incompatibilities pharmacokinetics physicochemical properties preformulation stability Drug Delivery Systems and Devices;Development and Manufacture analysis and controls bioavailability use of computerization formulation and processing alternatives national and international registration packaging patents process validation scale-up safety and efficacy stability standards Post-Production and Practical Considerations governmental/industrial/professional organizations legal aspects national and international agencies patent life of drugs patient compliance …and much, much more! Special Discount Offer New Subscribers ... save $415.00 off the subscription price of $3315.00! Purchase the entire 17-volume set for $2900.00 (only $171.00 per volume) offer expires 3/31/98 Missing volumes? For a limited time, complete your set at the special price of $171.00 per volume. offer expires 3/31/98 --This text refers to an alternate Hardcover edition.
Abstract The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was determined for thirty pharmaceutical excipients. These data are to be included in the forth-coming publication of the Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients. This work was undertaken as a collaborative effort under the sponsorship of the Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The results of this study are being reported herein prior to publication of the Handbook. The experimental procedure for determining equilibrium moisture content is included along with a method for classifying the hygroscopic property of solids.
The aim of this work was to benefit from the advantageous technique of tablet manufacture by direct compression for the easy preparation of stable effervescent tablets. In order to overcome the bad flowability and low compressibility of sodium bicarbonate, a common carbon dioxide source in effervescent tablet formulation, a spray-drying technique was applied. The adjustment to achieve different conditions when operating the spray-dryer was described. Some additives such as polyvinylpyrrolidone and silicon oil were found to be essential to obtain direct compressible spray-dried sodium bicarbonate. The prepared spray-dried sodium bicarbonate showed good compression characteristics and excellent compressibility without being transformed into sodium carbonate.