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This research is about knowledge management in academics and organizational business practices of Pakistan. Research proceedings revealed that knowledge management is emerging as new concept and is getting grounds in Pakistani environment. Article reviews the knowledge management literature in and about Pakistan. An overview of knowledge management initiatives and attempts in any form were focus of this research. Knowledge management related information was collected by literature search through websites, research journal archives, and library catalogues. This research is of practical use for researchers and organizational management who are involved in knowledge management research and practices.
University of Nebraska - Lincoln
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Fall 12-5-2015
Research on knowledge management in Pakistan:
A literature review
Syed Rahmatullah Shah 4355910
Khalid Mahmood Dr.
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Shah, Syed Rahmatullah 4355910 and Mahmood, Khalid Dr., "Research on knowledge management in Pakistan: A literature review"
(2015). $$)"%"#)!$&"'$! Paper 1346.
Research on knowledge management in Pakistan: A literature review
Syed Rahmatullah Shah
PhD scholar,
Swedish School of Library and Information Science,
Högskolan i Borås, Borås, Sweden
Dr. Khalid Mahmood
Head, Information, Learning & Research Commons (ILRC),
Deanship of Library Affairs,
University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
This research is about knowledge management in academics and organizational business
practices of Pakistan. Research proceedings revealed that knowledge management is emerging as
new concept and is getting grounds in Pakistani environment. Article reviews the knowledge
management literature in and about Pakistan. An overview of knowledge management initiatives
and attempts in any form were focus of this research. Knowledge management related
information was collected by literature search through websites, research journal archives, and
library catalogues. This research is of practical use for researchers and organizational
management who are involved in knowledge management research and practices.
Keywords: Knowledge management, knowledge, knowledge research.
Knowledge management has identified as the most valuable resource of organizations in
recent age. Despite, unavailability of unanimous definition, knowledge has made knowledge
management a complex phenomenon (Ahmed, Lim, and Loh; 2002). In broader perspective,
knowledge is familiarity, awareness, know-how, skills, and expertise that has embodied in
humans with experience and/or has embedded in organizations in the form of practices,
procedures, and processes. So, knowledge management is comprised of strategies and practices
that are used in organizations for identification, creation, storage, sharing, and application of
human and organizational knowledge (Fuller; 2002). Knowledge management attempts have
core focus on organizational objectives of high profitability, improved performance, competitive
advantage, and innovation.
This research serves some direct and indirect objectives. On one side, it strengthens
theoretical perspectives of knowledge management research in Pakistan and on other side, it
presents actual situation for knowledge management in and about Pakistan. This study also
highlights major contributions for knowledge management in and about Pakistan. It also attracts
attention of researchers for better understanding of knowledge management and onward
theoretical contributions. Similarly, for organizational administration this research serves the
purpose of creating awareness about knowledge management for better productivity. This study
fits in the knowledge management literature on global perspective as representative to the geo-
political circumstances of Pakistan.
This study was aimed to identify various facets of knowledge management that encircled
both theoretical and practical perspectives of knowledge management with special reference to
Pakistan. Research studies were included in this research that were conducted in Pakistan and
abroad but were about the actual position of knowledge management in Pakistan. Main focus
was on core subject of KM in Pakistan, so researchers from abroad were also included in this
study. In addition to literary contributions, knowledge management initiatives were also focused
in this study.
Information collection was through internet resources like Google, WorldCat,, LISTA, IEEE Xplore, five year archives of well known knowledge management
journals, and catalogues of some libraries in Pakistan. Three keywords knowledge,
management, and Pakistan, were used for searching on websites. Google results delimited to first
twenty five (25) pages. LISTA search on aforesaid keywords presented one hundred eighty two
(182) records as a whole with few relevant to the study. IEEE Xplore digital library search sorted
sixty one (61) items with titles having any from the keywords of knowledge, management, and
Pakistan. Similarly, five year archives of ten knowledge management journals, and library
catalogues of five universities were browsed for literature for this study. These proceedings
provided information about research articles, books, websites, persons involved in knowledge
management, and course contents of some universities that teach knowledge management as a
Literature Review
Psychological aspects:
Some researchers discussed human psychological aspects for knowledge management on
the parameters of behavioral theories. Mahmood and et al (2011) concentrated on tacit
knowledge sharing intentions. Sample of their study was 209 IT professionals affiliated with
seventy (70) IT registered companies working in five (5) major cities of Pakistan. Similarly,
Tayyab, Finegan, and Walker (2004) presented biases and limitations of human mind in their
research about tacit knowledge management. Their research was based on literature on cognitive
psychology. In the same way, Ajmal, Helo and Kekale (2010) enlisted some psychological
factors that directly influence on participation in knowledge management initiatives. In addition,
Ahmad, Kausar, and Paul (2006) projected the view of cognition and culture to go hand in hand
for knowledge-based development of organizations.
Theoretical perspectives:
Theoretical perspectives of knowledge management were under discussion of some
researchers. Mikulecky and Saeed (2009) focused on importance of knowledge management for
academic sector of Pakistan in their study. Iftikhar and et al (2011) checked seven knowledge
management capabilities in two hundred and fifty (250) SMEs of Pakistan. They emphasized on
application of knowledge management capabilities in small and medium sized enterprises.
Similarly, Ahmad, Hasan, & Ashraf (2010) encircled five dimensions of learning environment
that are, culture, learning styles, resources, methodology, and environment. They also elaborated
challenges of globalization and diversity that directly effect knowledge of students in practical
field. Syed-ul-Haque and Irfan (2010) explained all segments of knowledge management process
creation, gathering, capturing, accessing, and use of knowledge. They described all these
processes in the form of knowledge management life cycle. In the same way, Schcher, Kashif.,
and Aslam (2010) highlighted various factors that are required for better performance of
knowledge management initiatives in corporate sector of Pakistan. Furthermore, Waheed,
Arshad and Kashif (2011) described effects of knowledge management practices on
organizational performance, Rukhsana and Suleman (2002) explained economic bases of
knowledge, Khusro and Sobiah (2008) presented factors affecting the knowledge management
initiatives in their focus on tacit knowledge. Additionally, Iftikhar and Shakeel (2010) illustrated
personal knowledge abilities for knowledge management, and Anwar and Ba (2010) described
the role of information management for the preservation of indigenous knowledge in
Cultural aspects:
Culture has enhanced influence on knowledge management attempts. So, few researchers
considered it as the major area of their studies. Cultural aspects of knowledge management in
academic sector of Pakistan came to discussion by Fakhar and et al (2011). They selected two
hundred (200) employees for their research that were affiliated with various public sector
organizations in capital city Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Similarly, Ahmad, Hasan, & Ashraf
(2010) discussed role of culture for learning environment that contribute for knowledge
management in academic environment. In corporate sector, Ajmal, Helo and Kekale (2010), and
Ahmad, Kausar, and Paul (2006) emphasized on the role that culture play for knowledge
management initiatives. On manufacturing side, Kalyar, Shahzad, Rafi, & Kalyar (2011)
discussed culture and self-leadership in their study of 227 manufacturing firms in Pakistan.
Saeed and et al (2010) discussed cultural attributes and their involvement in knowledge
management. In research details, they collected data from 813 corporate sector employees on
various managerial positions. Kanu (2005) discussed tensions and problems of knowledge
transfer in South Asian perspectives with more emphases on Pakistan. Waheed, Arshad and
Kashif (2011) emphasized on culture for improved performance in organizations. Similarly,
factors related to inter department coordination in addition to the cultural perspectives of trust,
and acceptance among decision makers came to discussion by Zainab, Mai, and Akram (2011).
Ahmad, Kausar, and Paul (2007) introduced the concept of social democratization for e-learning
in cross-cultural perspectives in their research. In another research, they described interactive
social structures for knowledge management.
KM tools and models:
Different strategies, models, tools, and techniques for knowledge management were
introduced by some researchers. Fehmida and Ali (2004) designed a mapping model that
described functioning of tacit and explicit knowledge, and their links in medical practices.
Similarly, Bilal and Shuaib (2009) presented comparison of three knowledge management tools
on the basis of search criteria. On the same lines, Naveed and Kathawala (2004) developed
knowledge city model that was based on latest futuristic technologies. Further, they described its
usage to cater the needs of education, socio-cultural, business, and public sector. In academic
sector, Mahwish, Abdul, Gufran, and Shahid (2012) illustrated course management system
(CMS) as a tool for knowledge management. This tool serves dual purpose of electronic learning
and knowledge management in an integrated system. Another researcher, Saba (2012) designed a
conceptual model for knowledge sharing on the basis of her qualitative research on existing tools
and models. In public sector of Pakistan, Iram (2010) checked adequacy of various existing
models of knowledge management for public sector organizations and derived Knowledge
Groups model. Similarly, Eram and Arshad (2005) derived a knowledge management model for
public sector universities of Pakistan. On other sides, Waheed, Arshad and Kashif (2011)
presented conceptual framework model of process, intellectual capital, culture, and strategy
(PICS) for knowledge management. In the same way, Fehmida, Abidi, and Ali (2005) described
tacit-explicit knowledge morphing system for healthcare and clinical practices.
Knowledge flow:
Khaleel (2004) presented theoretical review of technological knowledge flow in
multinational national firms. He discussed technological knowledge flow in four UK-based firms
in his study. Mahwish, Abdul, Gufran, and Shahid (2012) described knowledge flow and its
utilization in an integrated system of electronic learning and knowledge management. They
quoted practical example of Allama Iqbal Open University knowledge flow system. Halai and
Manzoor (2011) described the importance of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in teaching
and knowledge flow to students in schools. Eram and Arshad (2005) thoroughly discussed the
information flow in the information system. They discussed information and knowledge flow in
the form of knowledge in public sector universities of Pakistan. Syed-ul-Haque and Irfan (2010)
described knowledge flow as a part of knowledge management life cycle. Waheed, Arshad and
Kashif (2011) emphasized on knowledge management environment for better outcome. Ahmad,
Kausar, and Paul (2007) described social interaction patterns for knowledge flow in different
contexts of culture and boundaries.
Knowledge management challenges:
Khalique, Isa, & Jamal, (2011) discussed knowledge economy for SMEs in Pakistan. It
was literature based study in which they focused on intellectual capital for SMEs. Ajmal, Helo
and Kekale (2010), in their empirical study, pointed out various barriers and enablers for
knowledge management initiatives. Abuzar and Asim (2009) illustrated knowledge management
processes, strategies, levels and challenges in organization. Zainab, Mai, and Akram (2011)
described financial challenges faced by organizations to rationalize knowledge management in
organizations. Ahmad, Kausar, and Paul (2007) illustrated challenges faced in cross-cultural
perspectives in e-learning for creation, codification, and retrieval of knowledge. Fehmida, Abidi,
and Ali (2005) described design and functionality of knowledge management system in hewalth
sector. Khusro and Sobiah (2008) described factors that influence knowledge management
initiatives in Pakistan.
Impacts of Information Technology usage:
Ramzan (2004) discussed correlations between level of knowledge and librarians’
attitudes toward IT usage. He collected responses from two hundred forty four (244) librarians
working throughout Pakistan. Abuzar and Asim (2009) discussed trends and issues due to the
emergence of internet and ICTs. Zainab, Mai, and Akram (2011) focused on technology related
issues involved in knowledge management. Ahmad, Kausar, and Paul (2007) described
knowledge creation, codification, and retrieval in e-learning.
Education of knowledge management:
Knowledge management has emerged as course in some universities of Pakistan. It’s of
three credit hour course at department of management science in Virtual University (VU) of
Pakistan. Knowledge management is part of elective course of management in BBA honors and
MBA programs in business administration curriculum (HEC, 2005). Similarly, it is elective
course of Library and Information Science in four years graduation and two years masters
program in Library and Information Science (HEC, 2009).
Knowledge management research in Pakistan supports Gu (2004) conclusion who
indicated that most of the research in knowledge management is from developed part of the
world. Research on knowledge management in developed countries is considerably low.
Knowledge management research literature in and about Pakistan is primarily from academics
and, so far, could not be rooted enough in practice. As in North America where knowledge
management research is mostly sponsored having direct impact on business. It is highly
pragmatic and measurement-focused rather than more concerned about theoretical and
fundamental perspectives (Rivard and Smith; 2007).
Research pattern on knowledge management in Pakistan and China has some similarities
where knowledge management research is in exploratory stages, theoretical explanations with
some achievements in developmental phases, suggestions for practical implications, and need of
collaborations between academia and research sides (Zhong, Wu, and Zhao; 2013). The
situation in case of Malaysia is quite different from other countries in Asia. Knowledge
management research in academia and practical knowledge management initiatives go side by
side in case of Malaysia. Most of the organizations in services and corporate sector have formal
knowledge management initiatives (Rahman, 2004). It was observed in due course of literature
review that knowledge management research and publications are mostly from the eastern part of
the world in comparison to the west.
Knowledge management is new and growing discipline in Pakistan. It has gained
attention of researchers and is strengthening from recent past. Some research studies generally
described philosophy and theory of knowledge management. Few researches covered cultural
aspects and various segments of cultural phenomenon with reference to knowledge and its
management. Similarly some studies are about tools, models, knowledge management
challenges, and impacts of information technology on management of knowledge. As,
knowledge management is getting roots in geo-political circumstances of Pakistan. Major trends
of knowledge management were observed in corporate and education sectors of Pakistan. As
knowledge management is gaining roots in Pakistan, that’s why, there are many gaps in its
theoretical and practical implications. Many research studies were conducted for academic
purpose rather than for the fulfillment of industrial requirements. Therefore, gaps between theory
and practice are understood. In addition, there are various attempts in routine business that are of
knowledge management but in routine business they are not entitled as knowledge management
initiative. Similarly, fewer studies were about knowledge sharing and knowledge flow in
organizations while other segments of knowledge management identification, creation, storage,
and application of knowledge were not found in knowledge management literature in and about
Pakistan. No doubt, knowledge management is emerging discipline in Pakistan. Therefore, there
is a lot to do for due acceptance of knowledge management and its various segments in Pakistan.
Generally, knowledge management is directly linked with organizational objectives of high
productivity, innovation, and greater outputs. Therefore, its ignorance has no substitute for any
nation in the so called emerging knowledge society. In the nutshell, it is recommended that
industry and academics should join hands to go side by side for proper grooming of knowledge
management in Pakistan.
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... Learning to organise and preserve papers internally as well as using knowledge management to disseminate inter-discipline information will help. It was discovered in a research by Shah and Mahmood (2015) that knowledge management is a relatively young topic in Pakistan, both within and outside of academia and the workplace. It was determined that the knowledge management strategies used by Pakistani institutions were conceptually and practically flawed through the study of journals published internationally and nationally as well as proceedings from conferences. ...
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Knowledge management is defined as the process of developing, validating, presenting, sharing, and implementing knowledge. Knowledge management (KM) is a strategy for aiding organisations in identifying, choosing, organising, and disseminating the knowledge and skills necessary for tasks including strategic planning, dynamic learning, problem solving, and decision making. Educational institutions played a significant role in the development, management, and dissemination of information and knowledge among higher education institutions. The study's objectives were to learn about (1) faculty perspectives of existing knowledge management approaches, (2) the advantages of knowledge management practises, and (3) the current hurdles to adopting knowledge management practises effectively inPakistani universities. Participants in the study were all PhD supervisors who had been approved by all public and private institutions in Pakistan. During the interview process, researcher spoke with a total of 15 PhD supervisors. As a basis for qualitative data analysis, grounded theory was employed. Research revealed that Pakistani institutions have a poor understanding of knowledge management. However, despite the fact that universities in Pakistan were well aware of the benefits of knowledge management methods, they did not make any attempts to adopt them. Knowledge management approaches in Pakistan are afflicted by difficulties related to perspectives and ICTs due to a dearth of frameworks, coordination points, and budgetary concerns in the country's institutions. The findings indicated that knowledge management approaches are required in Pakistani universities. It was concluded in this research that knowledge management practices have not been completely included into the planned agendas of most institutions Knowledge management strategies, plans, and policy guidelines are recommended by the study for universities to create
... Rajeev Ronanki Furthermore, Waheed, Arshad and Kashif (2011) described effects of knowledge management practices on organizational performance, Anwar and Ba (2010) described the role of information management for the preservation of indigenous knowledge in organizations. [16,17,18] .The ultimate goal of the enterprises [19,20] is to improve their profits. Naga Muneiah, J. (2019) 1 . ...
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... However, there are issues of failure or sluggishness of KMS implementation, adoption and usage in oil and gas industry (Gardiner 2014;Grant 2016;Mughal & Ahmad 2016). Several review studies on the KMS were reported in literature (e.g., Shah &Mahmood 2015). However, in the context of oil and gas industry, while many studies on KMS were carried out, a systematic review study on KMS has yet to be undertaken. ...
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Knowledge management is the deliberate and systematic coordination of an organization's people, technology, processes, and organizational structure in order to add value through reuse and innovation. Knowledge management is acting as an important tool for the organizations to improve productivity, to get better return on investment and generate competitive advantage. As we mentioned above Knowledge management depends upon the technology, people and processes. This paper will explain the trend of studies based on KM and ICT through literature review. As we know there is rapid and constant change in information and communication technology and current business models must meet the changing business environment in order to survive. So, there is a need to understand the trend of studies which explain how knowledge management affected by the Information and communication technology. So this paper will provide a deep insight of the review of literature that how ICT structures are influencing the knowledge management practices of various industries.
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Nowadays, the number of papers on the topic of Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management System is still widely discussed. The study of Knowledge Management System (KMS) issues are based on Systematic Literature Review (SLR). It aims to analyze the state of the art, identify current popular issues on KMS, and offer directions for future research agenda. The methodology used in this paper is based on the systematic literature review to collect, synthesize and analyze numerous papers on a variety of topics that are closely related to knowledge management system issues that published in the last two decades. Based on fifty-four papers reviewed from six electronic databases, the result of this paper obtained fourteen current issues on knowledge management system. Moreover, the top three popular issues consist of the development of capabilities and features of KMS, Big Data issues on KMS, and adoption to new technology issue for KMS respectively. The conclusion of this study emphasized the big data phenomenon as the most contemporary topic for the future research area besides the growing of required KMS capabilities and features development.
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Knowledge is information and understanding gained through experience, some of this professional knowledge of an employee is recorded and documented among the organization’s files and databases (explicit knowledge), professional experience, know how, know why are held back in the minds of employees (tacit knowledge). This tacit knowledge when appropriately shared can become vital source of quality products/ services and innovation. Knowledge sharing is hampered when individuals are not motivated enough to come forward and share their professional experiences, to obtain high quality of knowledge sharing one needs to understand the motivations (intentions) behind it. Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) helps us comprehend them. It states that intentions are function of person’s attitude and subjective norms which collectively help form intentions. Data regarding the knowledge sharing intentions of 209 Information Technology (I.T) professionals from more than 70 I.T companies registered with PSEB located in 5 major cities of Pakistan was obtained. Using Structured Equation Modeling (SEM) technique, the TRA model showed a good fit with the researched data. The I.T professionals show their intent towards sharing tacit knowledge and this intent is mostly influenced by the subjective norms towards sharing knowledge and less by their personal attitude.
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Knowledge management is a growing concept in Pakistan. Especially information about the antecedents and effects of knowledge management strategies and processes is not sufficiently available in general and particularly relating to public sector of Pakistan. Therefore, this research was conducted to highlight the role of organizational culture in determining the knowledge management practices of employees. Furthermore, the influence of knowledge management practices has also been investigated with the help of questionnaire survey from different organizations working under public sector in the twincities of Pakistan. In total 200 questionnaires were floated by applying non-probability convenience sampling method. Most of the survey was self-administered therefore, 161 questionnaires were received back giving 81% response rate. Results showed the significantly high relationship between organizational culture and knowledge management practices. Knowledge management strategies were also found highly related with perceived organizational performance. Implications are discussed thereupon.
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Creativity and innovation are two important factors that organizations adopt to make themselves successful or to adapt change. The area of creativity and innovation has been attracting the attention of managers and entrepreneurs since last decade. This area is still unexplored in Pakistan and needs research efforts to develop better understanding on both individual and firm level creativity and innovation. This is an empirical study analyzing the effects of self-leadership, knowledge management (KM) and organizational culture on creativity. Data were collected from 227 manufacturing organizations in Pakistan. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Results indicated that creativity is predicted outcome of self-leadership and knowledge management (KM). Moreover, self-leadership fully mediated the effect of culture on creativity.
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This is the era of knowledge and we are digging out information in the thirst of knowledge. In this growing knowledge society efficient technological tools must be used for the better management of knowledge. The Electronic Learning is the platform which provides the facility of interaction among knowledge holders and seekers. The knowledge conversion process is used to integrate the EL environment with the KM. The integration of EL and KM utilizing the Course Management System is proposed in this paper for the effective utilization of knowledge shared among individuals in online portals. Use of MOODLE as a CMS in EL portal implemented in Allama Iqbal Open University is explained showing the practical practice of KM and EL integration. The practical relationship among KM and EL can be analyzed and used for the effective utilization of knowledge.
The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge management, how the knowledge is shared between the members of organization and to identify the different dimension of KM. This paper is qualitative in nature and author has conducted in-depth review of previous researches to formulate a conceptual framework that can help achieving the purpose of this study. Author has revealed from the discussion that in the fast revolutionized business world of today, development of KM has become the foundation of organizations. The complexity of development has been improved by expansion in the amount of knowledge available to organizations. Future research should contain of high degree of study to analytically examine the successful project knowledge management in different types of plans, companies and commences. Keywords: knowledge Management, innovation, Project Km, knowledge outsourcing, information technology and knowledge sharing.
Knowledge management has been the general concern of the academic community, library knowledge management is one of its important applications. Take journal articles at China National Knowledge Infrastructure and books published in China from 1999 to 2012 as data sources. Applying bibliometrics and content analysis, the authors try to statistics relevant literature on Chinese library knowledge management and make a detailed analysis: the study on library knowledge management in China experienced three stages. The 1,658 authors in total publish these 1,558 articles on LKM which come from 810 institutions and so on. On the basis of that, it summarizes the achievements and disadvantages to offer some proposal to the research of library knowledge management in China.
Discusses characteristics and significance of indigenous knowledge; reviews the process of capturing and preserving IK; analyses the existing information management literature on IK; examines the role of information management in IK in light of reported experience, especially in Africa and Australia; proposes that information management discipline review its curricula to accommodate areas needed, and work for the development of tools and techniques for IK management.