Conference Paper

EEIRA: An Energy Efficient Interference and Route Aware Protocol for Underwater WSNs

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Abstract

In this paper, an energy efficient, interference and route aware (EEIRA) protocol is proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). The protocol combines the direct and relay forwarding mechanisms in transmitting the packets from source to destination. The relaying process involves selection of the best relay from a set of relay nodes. A relay node having the least distance from source to destination and the minimum number of neighbor nodes qualifies the criterion of the best relay. The direct transmission is used when the best relay is not within the transmission range of the source node. From top to bottom, the network is divided into three different zones, destination, relay and source zone, respectively. The relay zone has the greatest area to have maximum choices of selecting the best relay from the relay nodes residing in it. Nodes in all the three regions can sense the attribute and send the data to the sink. The destination nodes send data directly to sink. The relay nodes send the packets to the sink either directly or through the relaying process. The source nodes in the bottom send the data to sink via the best relay node or directly. Based on simulation results, the proposed protocol outperforms the depth based routing (DBR) scheme in terms of energy efficiency by selecting the best relay, reducing number of hops and following the shortest path to reduce channel losses.

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... Hence the optimal energy consumption design is the key issue due to limited energy supply of underwater relay nodes in practice. Much work has been done on how to design the optimal routing for this special application in underwater environments, including the traditional routing protocols [5]- [15] and the artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm-based routing protocols [16]- [23]. In general, for a given source-destination pair in multi-hop UASNs, the optimal routing protocol will always be the one with the lowest energy consumption, which is usually composed of the same relay nodes for each transmission task. ...
... Based on the DBR, Mohammadi et al. in [10] proposed the Fuzzy DBR (FDBR) which selects forwarding nodes based on the number of hops, depth, and energy information, improving the energy efficiency and reducing the end-to-end delay. There are also many similar routing protocols, such as the VARP [11], GEDAR [12], iIA-EEDBR [13], EECOR [14], EEIRA [15], and so on. Similarly, the underwater acoustic routing design based on cooperative communication, such as CoDBR [42], Co-UWSN [43], SPARCO [44], RBCMIC [45], S-DCC [4], etc., also mostly considers end-to-end delay, network lifetime, and energy consumption. ...
... When the distance d ij between node i and node j is determined, the propagation attenuation U (d ij ) can be calculated by Eqs. (6) to (9), and then the transmitting power P can be calculated by [4] P = P 0 · U d ij (15) where P 0 is the lowest power level at which the packet can be successfully decoded (error-free) by the receiver node on path (i, j). Assume the maximum importance rating of data N rank is 5, the number of ants N ant is 3, and the number of iteration N iter is 32. ...
Article
Full-text available
For a given source-destination pair in multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs), an optimal route is the one with the lowest energy consumptions that usually consists of the same relay nodes even under different transmission tasks. However, this will lead to the unbalanced payload of the relay nodes in the multi-hop UASNs and accelerate the loss of the working ability for the entire system. In this paper, we propose a node payload balanced ant colony optimal cooperative routing (PB-ACR) protocol for multi-hop UASNs, through combining the ant colony algorithm and cooperative transmission. The proposed PB-ACR protocol is a relay node energy consumption balanced scheme, which considers both data priority and residual energy of each relay node, aiming to reduce the occurrence of energy holes and thereby prolong the lifetime of the entire UASNs. We compare the proposed PB-ACR protocol with the existing ant colony algorithm routing (ACAR) protocol to verify its performances in multi-hop UASNs, in terms of network throughput, energy consumption, and algorithm complexity. The simulation results show that the proposed PB-ACR protocol can effectively balance the energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes and hence prolong the network lifetime.
... The Energy Efficient Interference and Route Aware Protocol combines direct and relay forwarding mechanism to transmit the DPSN from source node to sink node [14]. The Energy Efficient And Balanced Energy Consumption Cluster-Based Routing Protocol (EBECRP) improves the stability period and network lifetime. ...
... Sensor nodes are deployed randomly in 3D environment. The depth distances for different regions are shown in Table 1 [14]. All the nodes in the N/w are energy constrained except sink. ...
... An energy efficient, interference and route aware protocol (EEDBR) [10] reduces the number of transmitting nodes and prolongs the existence and utilization of the network. ...
Article
In this paper, a trade-off between the energy consumption and network lifetime is considered. This paper proposes an optimal routing protocol called Energy Dynamic Adaptive Routing (EDAR) protocol. The DAR protocol maintains a tradeoff between the reliability or packet delivery ratio (PDR) of sensor nodes and Bit Error Ratio (BER) using optimal dynamic adaptive routing approach. The proposed approach operates on three different phases, namely, initialization, dynamic routing and transmission. During initial phase, all the nodes in the UWSN share location and residual energy information among all the nodes in the network. During dynamic routing phase, an optimal Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) based route selection is exploited to select the neighbor and successor nodes. This facilitates the successive routing to transmit the packets from one node to another. Here, the cost function with directed acyclic graph is utilized for better transmission of packets. The experimental results show that proposed method encounters the issues raised in conventional protocol and improves the reliability of packets with higher BER.
... Apart from this, there are several energy efficient algorithm that operates on routing algorithm. This includes energy efficient depth-based routing and depth-based routing (Mahmood et al., 2014), dynamic sink mobility equipped depth-based routing , scalable and efficient data gathering routing protocol (Ilyas et al., 2015), ARCUN (Ahmed et al., 2015), the error control and adjustment method (Han et al., 2018), an energy efficient chain-based routing protocol (Rani et al., 2017), the slotted CSMA-based reinforcement learning approach (Jin and Huang, 2013), a fault-resilient localisation scheme (Das and Thampi, 2017), a proactive opportunistic forwarding mechanism (Liu et al., 2017), cross-layer protocol stack development (Dhongdi et al., 2017), multi-hop mechanisms , data aggregation protocols (Goyal et al., 2017), a topology control algorithm for signal irregularity (Liu et al., 2015), constrained surface-level gateway placement (Li et al., 2010), highly selective and fitness protocols (Zenia et al., 2016), forward error correction (Domingo and Vuran, 2012), maximum coverage algorithms (Akkaya and Newell, 2009), a diagonal and vertical routing protocol (Ali et al., 2014), a connected dominating set (Senel et al., 2015), energy efficiency distributed time synchronisation algorithms (Li et al., 2013), level-based adaptive geo-routing (Du et al., 2014), adaptive reliable transport (Cai et al., 2013b), integer linear programming (Ibrahim et al., 2013), the node architecture low-cost realisation method (Lu et al., 2008) and vector-based forwarding-network coding (Cai et al., 2013a) and an energy efficient, interference and route aware protocol (Khan et al., 2016) which forwards the data to its neighbouring node to increase the network lifetime. All of the above methods provide data reliability, energy efficiency and secured routing in underwater sensor networks. ...
... Apart from this, there are several energy efficient algorithm that operates on routing algorithm. This includes energy efficient depth-based routing and depth-based routing (Mahmood et al., 2014), dynamic sink mobility equipped depth-based routing , scalable and efficient data gathering routing protocol (Ilyas et al., 2015), ARCUN (Ahmed et al., 2015), the error control and adjustment method (Han et al., 2018), an energy efficient chain-based routing protocol (Rani et al., 2017), the slotted CSMA-based reinforcement learning approach (Jin and Huang, 2013), a fault-resilient localisation scheme (Das and Thampi, 2017), a proactive opportunistic forwarding mechanism (Liu et al., 2017), cross-layer protocol stack development (Dhongdi et al., 2017), multi-hop mechanisms , data aggregation protocols (Goyal et al., 2017), a topology control algorithm for signal irregularity (Liu et al., 2015), constrained surface-level gateway placement (Li et al., 2010), highly selective and fitness protocols (Zenia et al., 2016), forward error correction (Domingo and Vuran, 2012), maximum coverage algorithms (Akkaya and Newell, 2009), a diagonal and vertical routing protocol (Ali et al., 2014), a connected dominating set (Senel et al., 2015), energy efficiency distributed time synchronisation algorithms (Li et al., 2013), level-based adaptive geo-routing (Du et al., 2014), adaptive reliable transport (Cai et al., 2013b), integer linear programming (Ibrahim et al., 2013), the node architecture low-cost realisation method (Lu et al., 2008) and vector-based forwarding-network coding (Cai et al., 2013a) and an energy efficient, interference and route aware protocol (Khan et al., 2016) which forwards the data to its neighbouring node to increase the network lifetime. All of the above methods provide data reliability, energy efficiency and secured routing in underwater sensor networks. ...
... To address interference during packet forwarding, an energy-efficient interference-and route-aware (EEIRA) protocol is proposed in [59]. The protocol selects forwarder nodes based on the lowest depth and the least number of neighbors of the forwarder nodes. ...
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Introduction. Acoustical Oceanography. Propagation I. Observations and Physical Models. Propagation II. Mathematical Models (Part One). Propagation II. Mathematical Models (Part Two). Noise I. Observations and Physical Models. Noise II. Mathematical Models. Reverberation I. Observations and Physical Models. Reverberation II. Observations and Physical Models. Sonar Performance Models. Model Evaluation. Simulation.
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Lifetime Prolonging Algorithm for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network
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