Conference Paper

SMIC: Sink Mobility with Incremental Cooperative Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

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Abstract

The acoustic environment suffers from a number of impairments which effect transmitted data reliability and integrity leads toward low-quality routing. Integral part of cooperative routing is reliable data delivery with trade-off energy consumption is high, because of multiple transmissions. In order to overcome this problem and getting advantage of cooperation routing, we proposed a scheme Sink Mobility with Incremental Cooperative Routing (SMIC) which involves Mobile Sinks to reduce energy consumption and achieve reliable data transfer. In this paper, selection parameter for relay and destination node is node's depth, residual energy and link quality (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) to achieve quality routing. Energy efficiency is achieved by optimized mobility pattern of Mobile Sinks (MSs) and using Amplify and Forward (AF) incremental cooperative routing which helps in efficient utilization of resources by using them, when needed. The proposed work is validated via simulations which show the relatively improved performance of our proposed protocol in terms of the selected performance metrics.

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... The cooperative routing is a proficient way to enhance network lifetime in such a harsh environment [21], [22]. This routing scheme is suitable for improving energy efficiency and minimizing delay as compared to other routing approaches such as multi-hop approach [23]. The selection criteria of relay and destination nodes depend on parameters like residual energy, link quality and depth of sensor nodes. ...
... For this purpose, depth-based routing is suggested for maintaining reliability and throughput [24]. Some cooperative routing schemes use mobile sinks to improve the packet delivery ratio [23], [25]; however, it increases the network cost. Whereas, utilizing the courier nodes can be a better option to reduce this cost. ...
... In [23], a technique named SMIC was proposed. It includes some moving sinks within the regions in order to maximize reliability as well as to reduce energy consumption. ...
Article
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Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) serve as a proficient source to monitor aquatic environment. However, data communications and information routing within these systems offer many challenges. To ensure sufficient network lifetime, energy efficiency in routing protocols serve as a major concern in UWSNs. This paper presents an energy competent cooperative routing scheme known as Region Based Courier-nodes Mobility with Incremental Cooperative (RBCMIC) routing. The proposed scheme uses broadcast nature of wireless nodes and performs an incremental cooperative routing. A rigorous evaluation and verification of the proposed scheme with current state-of-the-art yield improved energy efficiency, resulting in extended network lifetime. The results show that an overall improvement of 20% is witnessed in energy usage, whereas a notable 89% improvement is achieved in end-to-end delay in comparison to DEADS protocol.
... Therefore, packets transfer reliability is compromised. Several routing schemes exist in the literature that incorporate reliability in packets transfer through cooperative routing [16][17][18][19]. In this type of routing, at least one relay sends a copy of the signal it receives from the sender to the destination. ...
... However, for long network operation time, the performance is compromised in energy consumption. Another cooperative protocol known as SMIC is presented in [16]. In this protocol, each source selects the relay as per depth, link condition, and residual energy. ...
Article
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Owing to the harsh and unpredictable behavior of the sea channel, network protocols that combat the undesirable and challenging properties of the channel are of critical significance. Protocols addressing such challenges exist in literature. However, these protocols consume an excessive amount of energy due to redundant packets transmission or have computational complexity by being dependent on the geographical positions of nodes. To address these challenges, this article designs two protocols for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). The first protocol, depth and noise-aware routing (DNAR), incorporates the extent of link noise in combination with the depth of a node to decide the next information forwarding candidate. However, it sends data over a single link and is, therefore, vulnerable to the harshness of the channel. Therefore, routing in a cooperative fashion is added to it that makes another scheme called cooperative DNAR (Co-DNAR), which uses source-relay-destination triplets in information advancement. This reduces the probability of information corruption that would otherwise be sent over a single source-destination link. Simulations-backed results reveal the superior performance of the proposed schemes over some competitive schemes in consumed energy, packet advancement to destination, and network stability.
... The mobile sinks (MSs) try to reach every node to collect data from it directly to gain better throughput with less resources, which overcomes the concerned challenges of the multi-hop algorithms. In the existing algorithms with sink mobility and cooperation in [27,28], the MSs do not cover all the network and still require multi-hop routing. Furthermore, data forwarding in a cooperative manner leads to an increase in the energy cost of the network. ...
... Sajid et al. proposed a cooperative algorithm with sink mobility for UA-WSNs in [28]. Two sinks move linearly in the middle of the network and gather the information and data from the nodes. ...
Article
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An efficient algorithm for the persistence operation of data routing is crucial due to the uniqueness and challenges of the aqueous medium of the underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UA-WSNs). The existing multi-hop algorithms have a high energy cost, data loss, and less stability due to many forwarders for a single-packet delivery. In order to tackle these constraints and limitations, two algorithms using sink mobility and cooperative technique for UA-WSNs are devised. The first one is sink mobility for reliable and persistence operation (SiM-RPO) in UA-WSNs, and the second is the enhanced version of the SiM-RPO named CoSiM-RPO, which utilizes the cooperative technique for better exchanging of the information and minimizes data loss probability. To cover all of the network through mobile sinks (MSs), the division of the network into small portions is accomplished. The path pattern is determined for MSs in a manner to receive data even from a single node in the network. The MSs pick the data directly from the nodes and check them for the errors. When erroneous data are received at the MS, then the relay cooperates to receive correct data. The proposed algorithm boosts the network lifespan, throughput, delay, and stability more than the existing counterpart schemes.
... In [24] authors proposed Sink Mobility with Incremental Cooperative routing protocol for UWSNs (SMIC), this scheme utilize movement of sinks in order to efficiently cover monitored sensed area. Mobility of sinks is governed according to the network density. ...
Article
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Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) are ad-hoc networks which are deployed at rivers, seas and oceans to explore and monitor the phenomena such as pollution control, seismic activities and petroleum mining etc. The sensor nodes of UWSNs have limited charging capabilities. UWSNs networks are generally operated under two deployment mechanisms i.e localization and non-localization based. However, in both the mechanisms, balanced energy utilization is a challenging issue. Inefficient usage of energy significantly affects stability period, packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, path loss and throughput of a network. To efficiently utilize and harvest energy, this paper present a novel scheme called EH-ARCUN (Energy Harvesting Analytical approach towards Reliability with Cooperation for UWSNs) based on cooperation with energy harvesting. The scheme employs Amplify-and-Forward (AF) technique at relay nodes for data forwarding and Fixed Combining Ratio (FCR) technique at destination node to select accurate signal. The proposed technique selects relay nodes among its neighbor nodes based on harvested energy level. Most cooperation-based UWSN routing techniques do not exhibit energy harvesting mechanism at the relay nodes. EH-ARCUN deploys piezoelectric energy harvesting at relay nodes to improve the working capabilities of sensors in UWSNs. The proposed scheme is an extension of our previously implemented routing scheme called ARCUN for UWSNs. Performance of the proposed scheme is compared with ARCUN and RACE (Reliability and Adaptive Cooperation for efficient Underwater sensor Networks) schemes in term of stability period, packet delivery ratio, network throughput and path loss. Extensive simulation results show that EH-ARCUN performs better than both previous schemes in terms of the considered parameters.
... The authors proposed a cooperative scheme in [21] for reliability and saving the nodes' energy. The cooperation is held among the DSN and the RLN. ...
Article
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Underwater deployed sensors nodes are energy-constrained. Therefore, energy efficiency becomes crucial in underwater wireless sensor networks (U-WSNs). The adverse channel corrupts the packets and challenges their reliability. To handle these challenges, two routing schemes are introduced in this paper. They are effective energy and reliable delivery (EERD) and cooperative effective energy and reliable delivery (CoEERD). In EERD, the packets follow single-path routing and the best forwarder node is selected using a weight function such that packets are transferred via the reliable paths with low energy usage. Packet transfer via a single route in EERD has, however, compromised reliability as the undersea links bear harshness and unpredictability. Therefore, the CoEERD scheme adds cooperative routing to EERD, in which a relay node is introduced between a source-destination pair. The destination requests the relay when the packets it gets from the source are corrupted beyond a threshold value. Selection of weight function is unique and considers many factors to ensure low energy usage with reliability while considering nodes for data transfer. This also helps in selecting a single relay node rather than many relays in the conventional cooperative routing model. Based on simulation results, the EERD and CoEERD protocols have improved performance in energy usage, reliable packet transfer and delay.
... The authors in [20] propose a new method called sink mobility with incremental cooperative routing protocol (SMIC). In this routing technique, the selection of a forwarder node is based on its depth, residual energy, and link status. ...
Chapter
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Recently, the underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have been proposed for exploration of the underwater resources and to obtain information about the aquatic environment. The noise in UWSNs challenges the successful transmission of packets from a sender to a receiver. There are many protocols in literature that address noise reduction/avoidance during underwater communication. However, they require localization information of each sensor nodes that itself is a challenging issue. In this paper, the minimum channel noise is considered and the depth and noise aware routing (DNAR) protocol is proposed to send the packets reliably from a sender node to a surface sink. In the DNAR protocol, more energy is assigned to the sensor nodes that have depth level greater than or equal to150 m. Therefore, the sensor nodes that are close to the sink node have more capability of transmission and will not die quickly. Also, the proposed protocol selects the forwarder candidate that has the lowest depth and the minimum channel noise at the receiver. As compared to some existing schemes, the proposed scheme requires no geographical information of the nodes for data routing. The DNAR protocol is validated by Matlab simulations and compared it with the DBR scheme. The simulation results show that the DNAR has better results in-terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR), total energy consumption and the network lifetime than the existing scheme.
... The sink mobility with incremental cooperative (SMIC) routing protocol considers the amplify and forward cooperative routing strategy to send packets from a source to a destination [28]. The relay is selected based on its residual energy, depth and quality of the link. ...
Article
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Recent research in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has gained the attention of researchers in academia and industry for a number of applications. They include disaster and earthquake prediction, water quality and environment monitoring, leakage and mine detection, military surveillance and underwater navigation. However, the aquatic medium is associated with a number of limitations and challenges: long multipath delay, high interference and noise, harsh environment, low bandwidth and limited battery life of the sensor nodes. These challenges demand research techniques and strategies to be overcome in an efficient and effective fashion. The design of routing protocols for UWSNs is one of the promising solutions to cope with these challenges. This paper presents a survey of the routing protocols for UWSNs. For the ease of description, the addressed routing protocols are classified into two groups: localization-based and localization-free protocols. These groups are further subdivided according to the problems they address or the major parameters they consider during routing. Unlike the existing surveys, this survey considers only the latest and state-of-the-art routing protocols. In addition, every protocol is described in terms of its routing strategy and the problem it addresses and solves. The merit(s) of each protocol is (are) highlighted along with the cost. A description of the protocols in this fashion has a number of advantages for researchers, as compared to the existing surveys. Firstly, the description of the routing strategy of each protocol makes its routing operation easily understandable. Secondly, the demerit(s) of a protocol provides (provide) insight into overcoming its flaw(s) in future investigation. This, in turn, leads to the foundation of new protocols that are more intelligent, robust and efficient with respect to the desired parameters. Thirdly, a protocol can be selected for the appropriate application based on its described merit(s). Finally, open challenges and research directions are presented for future investigation.
... A technique using sink mobility with incremental cooperative routing is proposed in [21]. The residual energy, depth and the path condition are taken into account by a source node to choose a relay node. ...
Article
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Cooperative routing mitigates the adverse channel effects in the harsh underwater environment and ensures reliable delivery of packets from the bottom to the surface of water. Cooperative routing is analogous to sparse recovery in that faded copies of data packets are processed by the destination node to extract the desired information. However, it usually requires information about the two or three position coordinates of the nodes. It also requires the synchronization of the source, relay, and destination nodes. These features make the cooperative routing a challenging task as sensor nodes move with water currents. Moreover, the data packets are simply discarded if the acceptable threshold is not met at the destination. This threatens the reliable delivery of data to the final destination. To cope with these challenges, this paper proposes a cooperative energy-efficient optimal relay selection protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks. Unlike the existing routing protocols involving cooperation, the proposed scheme combines location and depth of the sensor nodes to select the destination nodes. Combination of these two parameters does not involve knowing the position coordinates of the nodes and results in selection of the destination nodes closest to the water surface. As a result, data packets are less affected by the channel properties. In addition, a source node chooses a relay node and a destination node. Data packets are sent to the destination node by the relay node as soon as the relay node receives them. This eliminates the need for synchronization among the source, relay, and destination nodes. Moreover, the destination node acknowledges the source node about the successful reception or retransmission of the data packets. This overcomes the packets drop. Based on simulation results, the proposed scheme is superior in delivering packets to the final destination than some existing techniques.
... DEADS increases the propagation delay and packet error rate. SMIC [31] makes efficient use of limited resources through controlling retransmission packet and link quality. SMIC achieves lower energy consumption, higher throughput and PDR. ...
Article
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Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) is facing a great challenge in designing a routing protocol with longer network lifetime and higher packet delivery rate(PDR) under the complex underwater environment. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware and void-avoidable routing protocol (EAVARP). EAVARP includes layering phase and data collection phase. During the layering phase, concentric shells are built around sink node, and sensor nodes are distributed on different shells. Sink node performs hierarchical tasks periodically to ensure the validity and real-time of the topology. It makes EAVARP apply to dynamic network environment. During the data collection phase, data packets are forwarded based on different concentric shells through opportunistic directional forwarding strategy (ODFS), even if there are voids. The ODFS takes into account the remaining energy and data transmission of nodes in the same shell, and avoids cyclic transmission, flooding, and voids. The verification and analysis of simulation results show that the effectiveness of our proposed EAVARP in terms of selecting performance matrics in comparison to existing routing protocols.
Chapter
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have gained importance as well as diverted attention of many researchers, domain experts to a great extent in recent past. The devices used for UWSN deployment are resource-constrained like storage issue, low processing speed, as well are vulnerable to a wide class of security threats and malicious attacks, which affect reliable communication. For reliable data delivery, a system should include packet delivery ratio, battery life, delays incurred, and energy consumption, etc. Numerous reliability models for underwater networks have been designed to incorporate the parameters and performance metrics in optimized manner. The chapter deals with focusing on such models and their efficiency in terms of battery life, packet loss, error handling mechanism, and network delays. Further, it is also explained how and why the error-controlled schemes should be designed and implemented in order to incorporate reliable data delivery in limited resources-constraints of UWSN along with the consideration of efficiency and performance concerns.
Chapter
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