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A New System for the Family Magnoliaceae

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A new system for the family Magnoliaceae is proposed on the basis of the latest data on DNA and the observations of morphological characters especially in living plants. In the new system, a total of 2 subfamilies, 2 tribes and 15 genera are recognized, of which two genera are described as new. A key to the subdivision of the family and 52 new combinations are presented.
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055
A New System for the Family Magnoliaceae
SIMA Yong-Kang1,2, and LU Shu-Gang1*
1 Introduction
As it is well known, the family Magnoliaceae is one of the most primitive taxa in angiosperms (Wu
et al
. 2003). Southeastern
Asia is very rich in species, but the greatest concentration of species and highest diversity occur in southern and southwestern
China (Law 1984; Liu
et al
. 1995; Sima
et al
. 2001). Magnoliaceous plants are of great values in botanical studies; theoretically,
they as the classic representative of primitive taxa are the key materials for the research of the origin and evolution of
angiosperms, and for the reconstruction of the natural system of angiosperms; practically, they are the main components of
evergreen broad-leaved forests and deciduous broad-leaved forests from tropical to temperate zones as well as famous trees for
ornamental, timber, medicinal and perfume (Sima
et al
. 2001).
The taxonomic studies on the family Magnoliaceae (
sensu stricto
) has a long history; since the early part of 18th century
many systems of the family have been published, of which, Dandy’s system was followed by most later authours for about
half a century and Law’s system is very popular in China, but none of the systems at generic level were generally accepted.
Not only the genus number but also the conception of the genera are quite different in different systems (de Candolle, 1817;
Benthan & Hooker, 1862; Baillon, 1866; Engler & Gilg, 1924; Dandy, 1927, 1964; Law, 1984; Nooteboom, 1985, 1993, 2000;
Liu, 2000; Figlar & Nooteboom, 2004; Sima, 2005; Xia et al., 2008; Sima & Lu, 2009). All present studies reveal that the
generic delimitation and classication of the family Magnoliaceae are controversial, and further researches to reconstruct a more
objective and natural system and solve evolutionary and phylogenetic problems in Magnoliaceae are necessary.
Based on the data on DNA (Chase
et al
. 1993; Jin
et al
. 1999; Azuma
et al
. 1999, 2001, 2004; Shi
et al
. 2000; Kim
et al
.
2001; Wang
et al
. 2006; Nie
et al
. 2008) and the observations of morphological characters especially in living plants (Fig. 1–2)
(Tiffney 1977; Zhang
et al
. 1996; Li 1997; Figlar 2000; Xu
et al
. 2000; Sima
et al
. 2001; Xu & Wu 2002; Gong
et al
. 2003;
Li & Conran 2003), the present authors proposed a new system for the family Magnoliaceae. In the new system, a total of 2
1. Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China; 2. Yunnan Academy of Forestry; Yunnan Laboratory for
Conservation of Rare, Endangered & Endemic Forest Plants, State Forestry Administration; Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory
for Cultivation And Exploitation of Forest Plants, Kunming 650204, China.
( *Author for correspondence. E-mail: shuganglu@163.com)
Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on the Family Magnoliaceae pp.055071 Huazhong Univ. Sci. Tech. Press
Abstract:
A new system for the family Magnoliaceae is proposed on the basis of the latest data on DNA and the
observations of morphological characters especially in living plants. In the new system, a total of 2 subfamilies, 2 tribes
and 15 genera are recognized, of which two genera are described as new. A key to the subdivision of the family and 52
new combinations are presented.
Key words: Magnoliaceae;
Paramagnolia
;
Metamagnolia
; New genus; New combination
056
subfamilies, 2 tribes and 15 genera are recognized, of which two genera are described as new. Of course, it is a start to table
a hypothesis on Magnoliaceae system. In the future, this system will be tested to determine whether the hypothesis is correct
or incorrect with rening the knowledge of phylogenetic relationships in Magnoliaceae. It is believed that the day to solve the
evolutionary and phylogenetic problems in Magnoliaceae is coming soon.
2 Taxonomical System
2.1 Morphological charaters
On the basis of taxonomic theories and evolutionary principles, the following morphological charaters are selected for
taxonomy and their evolutionary tendency is presented.
1. Plants pubescent → glabrous;
2. Branching sympodial → monopodial;
3. Branches produced by syllepsis → by prolepsis;
4. Leaves evergreen → deciduous;
5. Young leaf blades in bud conduplicate → open;
6. Young leaves in bud erect → pendant;
7. Leaves on the branch arranged spirally → distichously;
8. Leaves at the base cuneate to rounded → cordate to auriculate;
9. Leaf blades unlobed → lobed;
10. Leaf margin thin and not sclerophyllous → thick and sclerophyllous;
11. Stipules adnate to → free from the petiole;
12. The type of leaf stomatal apparatus paracytic → anomocytic;
13. Mixed bud scales or bracts foliaceous → spathaceous;
14. Axillary buds in the mixed bud sprouted → never sprouted;
15. Floral branches by mixed bud after owering or fruiting shed partly → completely;
16. Flowers bisexual → androdioecious → unisexual monoecious → unisexual dioecious;
17. Pseudophyllaries foliaceous → spathaceous;
18. Tepals less than 9 → 9 to more;
19. Big parasepals present → absent;
20. Tepals coloured only on the abaxial surface → on both surfaces;
21. Stamens caducous → persistent;
22. Anthers dehiscent introrsely (→ sublatrorsely to latrorsely) →extrorsely
23. Anther connective appendages shorter → longer than the anther cells;
24. Gynoecium sessile → stipitate;
25. Gynoecium in diameter 8 mm to more → less than 8 mm;
26. Mature carpels not samariod →samariod;
27. Fruits not spicate → spicate;
28. Mature carpels on torus sparse → dense → concrescent;
29. Mature carpels not follicular →follicular;
30. Mature carpels with a dorsal suture groove → without a dorsal suture groove;
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31. Maturecarpelswithoutadorsalsutureridge→withadorsalsutureridge;
32. Maturecarpelsdehiscingalongthedorsaland/orventralsuture→circumscissile→indehiscent;
33. Maturecarpelsnotfalling→fallingofffromfruitaxis;
34. Maturefruitaxesnotsplit→split;
35. Placentationmarginal→apical;
36. Ovules2tomore→2ineachcarpel;
37. Testaefreefrom→adnatetotheendocarp;
38. Themorphologicalcharaterofchalazalregiononendotestaofseedbelongstotheporetype→thetubetype.
2.2 Taxonomical system
I. Magnoliaceae subfam. Magnolioideae
i.Tribe Magnolieae
1.
Manglietia
Blume
2.
Lirianthe
Spach
3.
Magnolia
L.
4.
Dugandiodendron
Lozano-Contreras
5.
Talauma
Juss.
6.
Houpoëa
N.H.XiaetC.Y.Wu
7.
Oyama
(Nakai)N.H.XiaetC.Y.Wu
8.
Kmeria
(Pierre)Dandy
9.
Pachylarnax
Dandy
10.
Paramagnolia
SimaetS.G.Lu
11.
Metamagnolia
SimaetS.G.Lu
ii. Tribe Michelieae Y.W.Law
12.
Aromadendron
Blume
13.
Yulania
Spach
14.
Michelia
L.
II. Magnoliaceae subfam. Liriodendroideae(Nurk.)Y.W.Law
15.
Liriodendron
L.
2.3 Key to the subfamilies, tribes and genera of Magnoliaceae
1(28)Leafbladesunlobedorrarely2-lobedattheapex;anthersdehiscentintrorselyorsublatrorselytolatrorsely;placentation
marginal;maturecarpelsnotsamaroid,dehiscent;testaeeshy,freefromtheendocarp(I.Subfam.Magnolioideae).
2(23)Fruitsovoid,ellipsoidorglobose;maturecarpelswith adorsalsuturegrooveor ridge,notfollicularevenif not
concrescent;branchesproducedonlybysyllepsisorrarelybyprollepsis;stamenscaducousorrarelypersistent(i.Tribe
Magnolieae).
3(20)Leavescuneatetoroundedorrarelysubcordateatthebase,andarrangedspirallyordistichouslyonthebranch,evergreenor
deciduous.
4(19)Plantswithmoreorlesstrichomes;youngleafbladesconduplicateinbud.
5(18)Plantswithbisexualowersorrarelywithbisexualandunisexualowers;tepals9or9tomore,theowerswithlessthan
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9 tepals can be never seen.
6 (9) Ovules unconstant, 2 to more in each carpel.
7 (8) Pseudophyllaries foliaceous or rarely spathaceous and caducous; all mixed buds with spathaceous scales and foliaceous
scales (normal leaves); leaf margin thin and not sclerophyllous ………….....………….………...……………1.
Manglietia
8 (7) Pseudophyllaries spathaceous and caducous or rarely foliaceous; most mixed buds only with spathaceous scales or without
foliaceous scales (normal leaves); leaf margin thick and sclerophyllous …………….....……..……….......…… 2.
Lirianthe
9 (6) Ovules constant, 2 in each carpel.
10 (15) Plants evergreen.
11 (14) All mixed buds with spathaceous scales and foliaceous scales (normal leaves); pseudophyllaries foliaceous, persistent.
12 (13) Anther connective appendages not elongated, triangular or semicircular…....…..................................……… 3.
Magnolia
13 (12) Anther connective appendages elongated, bristlelike ……………….....................................……… 4.
Dugandiodendron
14 (11) Most mixed buds only with spathaceous scales or without foliaceous scales (normal leaves); pseudophyllaries
spathaceous, caducous ………………………………………........................................................................… 5.
Talauma
15 (10) Plants deciduous.
16 (17) Branches produced only by syllepsis; leaves arranged spirally on the branch; peduncles and pedicles robust, erect;
stamens caducous …………………………........................................................................……...........……… 6.
Houpoëa
17 (16) Branches produced by prollepsis or rarely by prollepsis and syllepsis; leaves arranged distichously on the branch;
peduncles and pedicles slender, pendent; stamens persistent……………………........................................…… 7.
Oyama
18 (5) Plants only with unisexual owers; tepals 2 to 13, the owers with less than 9 tepals can be seen ........…… 8.
Kmeria
19 (4) Plants entirely glabrous; young leaf blades open in bud ……………………...........................................9.
Pachylarnax
20 (3) Leaves cordate to auriculate at the base, and arranged spirally on the branch, deciduous.
21 (22) Plants entirely glabrous; tepals coloured only on the abaxial surface, not blotched at the base of adaxial surface
.……………..………………………….…………..............................................................................… 10.
Paramagnolia
22 (21) Plants with more or less trichomes; tepals coloured on both surfaces, blotched at the base of adaxial surface
……………………………………………………................................................................................. 11.
Metamagnolia
23 (2) Fruits cylindrical, ovoid or globose; mature carpels without a dorsal suture groove or ridge, follicular when not
concrescent; branches produced only by prollepsis or rarely by prollepsis and syllepsis; stamens persistent (ii. Tribe
Michelieae Y. W. Law).
24 (27) All axillary buds or some upper axillary buds in mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the parts, from owers or fruits
to pseudophyllaries, of the oral branches into which mixed buds formed shed after owering or fruiting; branching
sympodial and monopodial.
25 (26) Plants evergreen; peduncles slender, more than 2.5 cm long; Anthers dehiscent introrsely …...........…12.
Aromadendron
26 (25) Plants deciduous; peduncles shorter, less than 2.0 cm long; Anthers dehiscent sublatrorsely to latrorsely.............13.
Yulania
27 (24) All axillary buds in mixed bud undeveloped and not sprouted, or the basal axillary bud in mixed bud developed, sprouted
and formed into a scorpioid cyme of 2 to 4 oral branches; all of the oral branches into which mixed buds formed shed
after owering or fruiting; branching only monopodial …………………...........……………………....…… 14.
Michelia
28 (1) Leaf blades 4- to 10-lobed; anthers dehiscent extrorsely; placentation apical; mature carpels samaroid, indehiscent; testae
thin and dry, adnate to the endocarp (II. subfam. Liriodendroideae (Nurk.) Y. W. Law) ……........…...… 15.
Liriodendron
059
Fig. 2 The positions of floral branches of Magnoliaceae: A.
Michelia lacei
W. W. Smith (terminal); B.
Yulania liliiflora
(Desr.) D. L. Fu
(terminal); C.
Michelia yunnanensis
Franch. ex Finet et Gagnep. (axillary); D.
Michelia macclurei
Dandy (axillary, 2-branched).
Fig. 1 A ower of Magnoliaceae: A. Internode; B. pseudophyllary (foliaceous scale or leaf); C. peduncle;D. bract (spathaceous); E. pedicle;
F. receptacle; G. tepals; H. stamens; I. carpels.
060
3 Taxonomic Treatment
I. Magnoliaceae subfam. Magnolioideae
i. Tribe Magnolieae
1.
Manglietia
Blume, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunsten 9: 149. 1823. =
Magnolia
sect.
Manglietia
(Blume) Baill., Adansonia
7: 66. 1866. – Type:
Manglietia glauca
Blume
Paramanglietia
Hu et W. C. Cheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1 (3–4): 255. 1951. – Type:
Paramangietia aromatica
(Dandy)
Hu et W. C. Cheng =
Manglietia aromatica
Dandy
Sinomanglietia
Z. X. Yu, Acta Agric. Univ. Jiangxiensis 16 (2): 202. 1994. – Type:
Sinomanglietia glauca
Z. X. Yu et Q.
Y. Zheng =
Manglietia decidua
Q. Y. Zheng
Description. Trees, evergreen, or rarely semievergreen or deciduous, hairy or glabrescent. Branching sympodial and
monopodial; branches produced by only syllepsis. Leaves conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged spirally, rarely
fascicled and pseudowhorled on the shoot; leaf blades unlobed, cuneate to rounded at the base. Stipules adnate to the petiole.
All axillary buds or some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the parts, from owers or fruits
to pseudophyllaries, of the oral branches into which mixed buds formed shed after owering or fruiting. Flowers terminal,
solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary, foliaceous, persistent or rarely spathaceous, caducous. Bracts solitary, spathaceous,
caducous. Peduncles robust or slender. Pedicles present or absent, visible or invisible. Tepals 9 to 18, 3-merous or 4-merous,
subequal, coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens caducous; anthers dehiscent introrsely, anther connective appendages
shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium sessile. Fruits apocarpous to syncarpous; mature carpels with or rarely without a dorsal
suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/or ventral suture. Placentation marginal; ovules 2 to more in each carpel. Testae
free from the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to the pore type.
About 40 species distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia.
2.
Lirianthe
Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég., Phan. 7: 485. 1839. =
Magnolia
sect.
Lirianthe
(Spach) Dandy in Roy. Hort. Soc.,
Camellias and Magnolias, Conf. Rep.: 68. 1950. Type:
Lirianthe grandiora
(Roxb.) Spach
Lirianthe pterocarpa
(Roxb.)
Sima et S. G. Lu
Magnolia
sect.
Gwillimia
DC., Syst. Nat. 1: 455, 548. 1817. – Type:
Magnolia pumila
Andr. –
Lirianthe coco
(Lour.) N. H.
Xia et C. Y. Wu
Blumia
Nees ex Blume, Verh. Batav. Genootsch. Kunst. 9: 147. 1823, nom. rejec., non
Blumea
DC. (1833), nom. cons. =
Magnolia
sect.
Blumia
(Nees ex Blume) Baill., Adansonia 7: 2. 1866. – Type:
Blumia candollei
(Blume) Nees
Lirianthe
liliifera
(L.) Sima et S. G. Lu
Talauma
sect.
Blumiana
Blume, Fl. Javae 19-20: 32. 1829. =
Magnolia
subsect.
Blumiana
(Blume) Figlar et Noot., Blumea 49
(1): 90. 2004. – Type:
Talauma candollei
Blume –
Lirianthe liliifera
(L.) Sima et S. G. Lu
Description. Trees or shrubs, evergreen, hairy or glabrescent. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by
only syllepsis. Leaves conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged spirally on the shoot; leaf blades unlobed, cuneate
to rounded at the base. Stipules adnate to the petiole. All axillary buds or some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud developed
and sprouted; only the parts, from owers or fruits to leaves or the rst developed axillary buds, of the oral branches into which
mixed buds formed shed after owering or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary, spathaceous,
061
caducous or rarely foliaceous, persistent. Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles robust or slender. Pedicles absent
or present, invisible or rarely visible. Tepals 9 or 9 to 10, 3-merous, subequal, coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens
caducous; anthers dehiscent introrsely, anther connective appendages shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium sessile. Fruits
apocarpous or synocarpous; mature carpels not samariod, with or without a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing circumscissile, or
along the dorsal and/or ventral suture. Placentation marginal; ovules 2 or 2 to more in each carpel. Testae free from the endocarp.
The morphological charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to the pore type.
About 20 species distributed in tropic and subtropical SE Asia.
Taxonomic combinations:
Lirianthe clemensiorum
(Dandy) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia clemensiorum
Dandy, J. Bot. 68: 207. 1930.
Lirianthe gigantifolia
(Miq.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Talauma gigantifolia
Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 1 (2): 15. 1858.
Lirianthe lasia
(Noot.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia lasia
Noot., Blumea 32 (2): 377. 1987.
Lirianthe liliifera
var.
angatensis
(Blanco) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia angatensis
Blanco, Fl. Filip.: 859.
1837. =
Magnolia liliifera
var.
angatensis
(Blanco) Govaerts, World Checklist Bibliogr. Magnoliaceae: 71. 1996.
Lirianthe liliifera
var.
beccarii
(Ridl.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Talauma beccarii
Ridl., Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew
1912: 381. 1912. =
Magnolia liliifera
var.
beccarii
(Ridl.) Govaerts, World Checklist Bibliogr. Magnoliaceae: 71. 1996.
Lirianthe liliifera
var.
obovata
(Korth.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Talauma obovata
Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (2):
89. 1851. =
Magnolia liliifera
var.
obovata
(Korth.) Govaerts, World Checklist Bibliogr. Magnoliaceae: 71. 1996.
Lirianthe liliifera
var.
singapurensis
(Ridl.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Talauma singapurensis
Ridl., Bull. Misc.
Inform. Kew 1914: 323. 1914. =
Magnolia liliifera
var.
singapurensis
(Ridl.) Govaerts, World Checklist Bibliogr. Magnoliaceae:
71. 1996
Lirianthe mariusjacobsia
(Noot.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia mariusjacobsia
Noot., Blumea 32 (2): 381.
1987.
Lirianthe nana
(Dandy) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia nana
Dandy, J. Bot. 68: 207. 1930.
Lirianthe persuaveolens
(Dandy) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia persuaveolens
Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew
1928: 186. 1928.
Lirianthe persuaveolens
var.
pubescens
(Noot.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia persuaveolens
var.
pubescens
Noot., Blumea 32 (2): 379. 1987.
Lirianthe persuaveolens
subsp.
rigida
(Noot.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia persuaveolens
subsp.
rigida
Noot.,
Blumea 32 (2): 379. 1987.
Lirianthe poilanei
(Dandy ex Gagnep.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia poilanei
Dandy ex Gagnep. in P. H.
Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine, Suppl. 1: 40. 1938.
Lirianthe pulgarensis
(Elmer) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Talauma pulgarensis
Elmer, Lea. Philipp. Bot. 5: 1809.
1913.
Lirianthe sarawakensis
(A. Agostini) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Talauma sarawakensis
A. Agostini, Atti Reale Accad.
Fisiocrit. Siena, X, 1: 190. 1926.
Lirianthe villosa
(Miq.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Talauma villosa
Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. Eerste Bijv.: 366. 1861.
3.
Magnolia
L., Sp. Pl.: 535. 1753. – Type:
Magnolia virginiana
L.
Description. Trees, evergreen or semievergreen, hairy. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by only
syllepsis. Leaves conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged spirally on the shoot, or spirally on the terminal shoot
and distichously on the axillary shoot; leaf blades unlobed, cuneate to rounded at the base. Stipules adnate to or free from the
062
petiole. All axillary buds or some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the parts, from owers
or fruits to pseudophyllaries, of the floral branches into which mixed buds formed shed after flowering or fruiting. Flowers
terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary, foliaceous, persistent. Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles
robust. Pedicles present or absent, visible or invisible. Tepals 9 to 12, 3-merous, subequal, coloured only on the abaxial surface.
Stamens caducous; anthers dehiscent introrsely, anther connective appendages shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium sessile.
Fruits apocarpous; mature carpels with a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/or ventral suture. Placentation
marginal; ovules 2 in each carpel. Testae free from the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal region on endotesta of
seed belonging to the tube type.
Sixteen species distributed in southeast North America and Central America.
4.
Dugandiodendron
Lozano-Contreras, Caldasia 11 (53): 33. 1975. =
Magnolia
subsect.
Dugandiodendron
(Lozano-
Contreras) Figlar et Noot., Blumea 49 (1): 90. 2004. – Type:
Dugandiodendron mahechae
Lozano-Contreras
Magnolia
subsect.
Cubenses
Imkhan., Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 28: 60. 1991. – Type:
Magnolia cubensis
Urb. =
Dugandiodendron cubense
(Urb.) Sima et S. G. Lu
Magnolia
sect.
Splendentes
Dandy ex A. Vázquez, Brittonia 46: 4. 1994. =
Magnolia
subsect.
Splendentes
(Dandy ex A.
Vázquez) Figlar et Noot., Blumea 49 (1): 91. 2004. – Type:
Magnolia splendens
Urb. =
Dugandiodendron spendens
(Urb.) Sima
et S. G. Lu
Description. Trees, evergreen, hairy. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by only syllepsis. Leaves
conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged spirally on the shoot; leaf blades unlobed, cuneate to rounded at the base.
Stipules free from the petiole. All axillary buds or some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only
the parts, from owers or fruits to pseudophyllaries, of the oral branches into which mixed buds formed shed after owering
or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary, foliaceous, persistent. Bracts solitary, spathaceous,
caducous. Peduncles robust or slender. Pedicles present or absent, visible or invisible. Tepals 9 to 15, 3-merous, subequal,
coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens caducous; anthers dehiscent introrsely, anther connective appendages longer than
the anther cells, embedded to the gynoecium. Gynoecium sessile. Fruits apocarpous to synocarpous; mature carpels with or
without a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing circumscissile, or along the dorsal and/or ventral suture. Placentation marginal; ovules
2 in each carpel. Testae free from the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to
the tube type.
About 25 species distributed in tropic Central and South America.
Taxonomic combinations:
Dugandiodendron cacuminoides
(Bisse) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia cacuminoides
Bisse, Repert. Spec. Nov.
Regni Veg. 85 (9-10): 587. 1974.
Dugandiodendron cristalense
(Bisse) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia cristalensis
Bisse, Repert. Spec. Nov.
Regni Veg. 85 (9-10): 588. 1974.
Dugandiodendron cubense
(Urb.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia cubensis
Urb., Symb. Antill. 1 (2): 307. 1899.
Dugandiodendron cubense
subsp.
cacuminicolum
(Bisse) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia cacuminicola
Bisse,
Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 85 (9-10): 587. 1974. =
Magnolia cubensis
subsp.
cacuminicola
(Bisse) G. Klotz, Wiss. Zeitschr.
Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena, Math.-Naturwiss. Reihe 29 (4): 464. 1980.
Dugandiodendron domingense
(Urb.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia domingensis
Urb., Repert. Spec. Nov.
Regni Veg. 13: 447. 1914.
Dugandiodendron ekmanii
(Urb.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia ekmanii
Urb., Ark. Bot. 23A (11): 12. 1931.
063
Dugandiodendron emarginatum
(Urb. et Ekman) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia emarginata
Urb. et Ekman,
Ark. Bot. 23A (11): 11. 1931.
Dugandiodendron hamori
(R. A. Howard) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia hamori
R. A. Howard, Bull. Torrey
Bot. Club 75: 351. 1948.
Dugandiodendron pallescens
(Urb. et Ekman) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia pallescens
Urb. et Ekman, Ark.
Bot. 23A (11): 10. 1931.
Dugandiodendron portoricense
(Bello) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia portoricensis
Bello, Anales Soc. Esp.
Hist. Nat. 10: 233. 1880.
Dugandiodendron splendens
(Urb.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia splendens
Urb., Symb. Antill. 1 (2): 306.
1899.
5.
Talauma
Juss., Gen. Pl.: 281. 1789. =
Magnolia
sect.
Talauma
Baill., Adansonia 7: 3, 66. 1866. =
Magnolia
subgen.
Talauma
(Juss.) Pierre, Fl. Forest. Cochinch.: sub. t. 1. 1880. – Type:
Talauma plumieri
(Sw.) DC. –
Talauma dodecapetala
(Lam.)
Urb.
Svenhedinia
Urb., Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 24: 3. 1927. =
Talauma
sect.
Svenhedinia
(Urb.) Imkhan., Novosti Sist.
Vyssh. Rast. 29: 74. 1993. – Type:
Svenhedinia minor
(Urb.) Urb. =
Talauma minor
Urb.
Description. Trees, evergreen, hairy. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by only syllepsis. Leaves
conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged spirally on the shoot; leaf blades unlobed, cuneate to rounded at the base.
Stipules adnate to the petiole. All axillary buds or some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the
parts, from owers or fruits to leaves or the rst developed axillary buds, of the oral branches into which mixed buds formed
shed after owering or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary, spathaceous, caducous or rarely
foliaceous, persistent. Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles robust or slender. Pedicles present or absent, visible
or invisible. Tepals 9 to 15, 3-merous, subequal, coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens caducous; anthers dehiscent
introrsely, anther connective appendages shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium sessile. Fruits synocarpous; mature carpels
with or without a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing circumscissile. Placentation marginal; ovules 2 in each carpel. Testae free from
the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to the tube type.
About 30 species distributed in tropic southeast-central North America and Central and South America.
6.
Houpoëa
N. H. Xia et C. Y. Wu, Fl. China 7: 64. 2008. =
Magnolia
sect.
Rytidospermum
Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. Phan. 7:
474. 1839. – Type:
Magnolia umbrella
Desr. –
Houpoëa tripetala
(L.) Sima et S. G. Lu
Description. Trees, deciduous, hairy. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by only syllepsis. Leaves
conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged spirally, often fascicled and pseudowhorled on the shoot; leaf blades
unlobed or rarely 2-lobed at the apex, cuneate to rounded or rarely subcordate at the base. Stipules adnate to the petiole. All
axillary buds or some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the parts, from flowers or fruits
to pseudophyllaries, of the oral branches into which mixed buds formed shed after owering or fruiting. Flowers terminal,
solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary, foliaceous, persistent. Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles robust.
Pedicles present, visible. Tepals 9 to 17, 3- to 5-merous, subequal, coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens caducous;
anthers dehiscent introrsely, anther connective appendages shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium sessile. Fruits apocarpous;
mature carpels with a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/or ventral suture. Placentation marginal; ovules 2 in
each carpel. Testae free from the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to the
pore type.
064
Four species distributed in temperate eastern North America and temperate E and SE Asia.
Taxonomic combinations:
Houpoëa tripetala
(L.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia virginiana
L. var.
tripetala
L., Sp. Pl.: 536. 1753.
=
Magnolia tripetala
(L.) L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10: 1082. 1759.
7.
Oyama
(Nakai) N. H. Xia et C. Y. Wu, Fl. China 7: 66. 2008. =
Magnolia
sect.
Oyama
Nakai, Fl. Sylv. Koreana 20: 117.
1933. – Type:
Magnolia parviora
Siebold et Zucc. –
Oyama sieboldii
(K. Koch) N. H. Xia et C. Y. Wu
=
Magnolia
sect.
Cophantera
Dandy, Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 159: sub. t. 9467. 1936. – Type:
Magnolia sieboldii
K. Koch =
Oyama
sieboldii
(K. Koch) N. H. Xia et C. Y. Wu
Description. Trees or sbrubs, deciduous, hairy. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by prolepsis.
Leaves conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged distichously on the shoot; leaf blades unlobed, cuneate to rounded
at the base. Stipules adnate to the petiole. All axillary buds or some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud developed and
sprouted; only the parts, from owers or fruits to pseudophyllaries, of the oral branches into which mixed buds formed shed
after owering or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary, foliaceous, persistent. Bracts solitary,
spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles slender. Pedicles present or rarely absent, visible or invisible. Tepals 9 to 10, 3-merous,
subequal, coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens persistent; anthers dehiscent introrsely, anther connective appendages
absent or shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium sessile or rarely stipitate. Fruits apocarpous; mature carpels without a dorsal
suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/or ventral suture. Placentation marginal; ovules 2 in each carpel. Testae free from
the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to the pore type.
Three species distributed in E and SE Asia.
8.
Kmeria
(Pierre) Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1927: 262. 1927. =
Magnolia
subgen.
Kmeria
Pierre, Fl. Forest.
Cochinch.: sub. t. 1. 1880. =
Magnolia
sect.
Kmeria
(Pierre) Figlar et Noot., Blumea 49 (1): 91. 2004. Type:
Magnolia
duperreana
Pierre =
Kmeria duperreana
(Pierre) Dandy
Woonyoungia
Y. W. Law, Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 17 (4): 354. 1997. – Type:
Woonyoungia septentrionalis
(Dandy) Y. W. Law
=
Kmeria septentrionalis
Dandy
Description. Trees, evergreen, hairy or glabrescent. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by only
syllepsis. Leaves conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged spirally on the shoot, or spirally on the terminal shoot and
distichously on the axillary shoot; leaf blades unlobed, cuneate at the base. Stipules adnate to the petiole. All axillary buds or
some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the parts, from owers or fruits to pseudophyllaries,
of the floral branches into which mixed buds formed shed after flowering or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, unisexual
monoecious or dioecious. Pseudophyllaries solitary, foliaceous, persistent or rarely spathaceous, caducous. Bracts solitary,
spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles slender. Pedicles present or absent, invisible. Tepals 2 to 17, 2- to 5-merous, subequal,
coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens caducous; anthers dehiscent introrsely or sublatrorsely to latrorsely, anther
connective appendages shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium sessile. Fruits apocarpous or synocarpous; mature carpels
without a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/or ventral suture. Placentation marginal; ovules 2 in each carpel.
Testae free from the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to the tube type.
Three species distributed in subtropical SE Asia.
9.
Pachylarnax
Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1927: 260. 1927. – Type:
Pachylarnax praecalva
Dandy
Magnolia
sect.
Gynopodium
Dandy, Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 165: t. 16. 1948. =
Magnolia
subgen.
Gynopodium
(Dandy) Figlar et
065
Noot., Blumea 49 (1): 94. 2004. – Type:
Magnolia nitida
W. W. Sm. =
Pachylarnax nitida
(W. W. Sm.) Sima et S. G. Lu
Parakmeria
Hu et W. C. Cheng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1 (1): 1. 1951. – Type:
Parakmeria omeiensis
W. C. Cheng =
Pachylarnax
omeiensis
(W. C. Cheng) Sima et S. G. Lu
Micheliopsis
H. Keng, Quart. J. Taiwan Mus. 8: 207. 1955. – Type:
Micheliopsis kachirachirai
(Kaneh. et Yamam.) H. Keng =
Pachylarnax kachirachirai
(Kaneh. et Yamam.) Sima et S. G. Lu
Manglietiastrum
Y. W. Law, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 17 (4): 72. 1979. =
Magnolia
sect.
Manglietiastrum
(Y. W. Law) Noot.,
Blumea 31 (1): 91. 1985. =
Manglietia
sect.
Manglietiastrum
(Y. W. Law) Noot., Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80 (4): 1051. 1993. –
Type:
Manglietiastrum sinicum
Y. W. Law =
Pachylarnax sinica
(Y. W. Law) N. H. Xia et C. Y. Wu
Description. Trees, evergreen, glabrous. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by only syllepsis.
Leaves open, erect in the bud when young, arranged spirally on the shoot, or spirally on the terminal shoot and distichously
on the axillary shoot; leaf blades unlobed, cuneate to rounded at the base. Stipules free from the petiole. All axillary buds or
some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the parts, from owers or fruits to pseudophyllaries,
of the oral branches into which mixed buds formed shed after owering or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual or
androdioecious. Pseudophyllaries solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles robust.
Pedicles present or absent, visible or invisible. Tepals 9 to 11, 3-merous, subequal, coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens
caducous; anthers dehiscent introrsely, anther connective appendages shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium stipitate or
sessile. Fruits apocarpous to synocarpous; mature carpels with or without a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/
or ventral suture. Placentation marginal; ovules 2 or 2 to 8 in each carpel. Testae free from the endocarp. The morphological
charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to the tube type or rarely to the pore type.
Seven species distributed in tropical and subtropical SE Asia.
10.
Paramagnolia
Sima et S. G. Lu, gen. nov. – Type:
Paramagnolia fraseri
(Walter) Sima et S. G. Lu
=
Magnolia
sect.
Auriculatae
Figlar et Noot., Blumea 49 (1): 92. 2004 [‘
Auriculata
’]. Type:
Magnolia
fraseri
Walter =
Paramagnolia fraseri
(Walter) Sima et S. G. Lu
Diagnosis. Folia decidua, glabra, pseudoverticillata, basi auriculata. Tepala non nisi subtus colorata.
Description. Trees, deciduous, glabrous. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by only syllepsis.
Leaves conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged spirally, often fascicled and pseudowhorled on the shoot; leaf blades
unlobed, auriculate at the base. Stipules adnate to the petiole. All axillary buds or some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud
developed and sprouted; only the parts, from owers or fruits to pseudophyllaries, of the oral branches into which mixed buds
formed shed after owering or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary, foliaceous, persistent.
Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles robust. Pedicles present, visible. Tepals 9, 3-merous, subequal, coloured
only on the abaxial surface. Stamens caducous; anthers dehiscent introrsely, anther connective appendages shorter than the
anther cells. Gynoecium sessile. Fruits apocarpous; mature carpels with a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/
or ventral suture. Placentation marginal; ovules 2 in each carpel. Testae free from the endocarp. The morphological charater of
chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to the pore type.
One species and one variety distributed in SE North America.
Taxonomic combinations:
Paramagnolia fraseri
(Walter) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia fraseri
Walter, Fl. Carol.: 159. 1788.
Paramagnolia fraseri
var.
pyramidata
(Bartram) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia pyramidata
Bartram, Travels
Carolina: 408. 1791. =
Magnolia fraseri
var.
pyramidata
(Bartram) Torr. et A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 1: 43. 1838.
066
11.
Metamagnolia
Sima et S. G. Lu, gen. nov. – Type:
Metamagnolia macrophylla
(Michx.) Sima et S. G. Lu
=
Magnolia
sect.
Macrophyllae
Figlar et Noot., Blumea 49 (1): 92. 2004 [‘
Macrophylla
’]. – Type:
Magnolia macrophylla
Michx.
=
Metamagnolia macrophylla
(Michx.) Sima et S. G. Lu
Diagnosis. Folia decidua, pubescentia, pseudoverticillata, basi auriculata vel cordata. Tepala utrinque colorata.
Description. Trees, deciduous, pubescent. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by only syllepsis.
Leaves conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged spirally, often fascicled and pseudowhorled on the shoot; leaf
blades unlobed, deeply cordate to auriculate at the base. Stipules adnate to the petiole. All axillary buds or some upper axillary
buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the parts, from owers or fruits to pseudophyllaries, of the oral branches
into which mixed buds formed shed after owering or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary,
foliaceous, persistent. Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles robust. Pedicles present, visible. Tepals 9, 3-merous,
subequal, coloured on both surfaces, blotched at the base of adaxial surface. Stamens caducous; anthers dehiscent introrsely,
anther connective appendages shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium sessile. Fruits apocarpous; mature carpels with a dorsal
suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/or ventral suture. Placentation marginal; ovules 2 in each carpel. Testae free from
the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to the tube type.
Two species and one subspecies distributed in SE North America.
Taxonomic combinations:
Metamagnolia macrophylla
(Michx.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia macrophylla
Michx., Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1:
327. 1803.
Metamagnolia macrophylla
subsp.
ashei
(Weath.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia ashei
Weath., Rhodora 28: 35.
1926. =
Magnolia macrophylla
subsp.
ashei
(Weath.) Spongberg, J. Arnold Arbor. 57: 268. 1976.
Metamagnolia dealbata
(Zucc.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia dealbata
Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl.
Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 2: 373. 1836.
ii. Tribe Michelieae Y. W. Law
12.
Aromadendron
Blume, Bijdr.: 10. 1825. =
Talauma
sect.
Aromadendron
Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4: 70.
1868. =
Magnolia
sect.
Aromadendron
(Blume) Noot., Blumea 31 (1): 89. 1985. =
Magnolia
subsect.
Aromadendron
(Blume)
Figlar et Noot., Blumea 49 (1): 94. 2004. – Type:
Aromadendron elegans
Blume
Alcimandra
Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1927: 260. 1927. =
Magnolia
sect.
Alcimandra
(Dandy) Noot., Blumea 31 (1):
88. 1985. – Type:
Alcimandra cathcartii
(J. D. Hook. et Thomson) Dandy =
Aromadendron cathcartii
(J. D. Hook. et Thomson)
Sima et S. G. Lu
Magnolia
sect.
Maingola
Dandy, Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 165: t. 16. 1948. =
Magnolia
subsect.
Maingola
(Dandy) Figlar et Noot.,
Blumea 49 (1): 93. 2004. – Type:
Magnolia maingayi
King =
Aromadendron maingayi
(King) Sima et S. G. Lu
Description. Trees, evergreen, hairy or glabrescent. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by prolepsis,
or rarely by prolepsis and syllepsis. Leaves conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged distichously on the shoot, or
spirally on the terminal shoot and distichously on the axillary shoot; leaf blades unlobed, cuneate to rounded at the base. Stipules
free from the petiole. All axillary buds or some upper axillary buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the parts,
from owers or fruits to pseudophyllaries, of the oral branches into which mixed buds formed shed after owering or fruiting.
Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary, foliaceous, persistent. Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous.
Peduncles short or slender. Pedicles absent or rarely present, invisible or visible. Tepals 9 or 9 to 45, 3- to 5-merous, subequal,
coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens persistent; anthers dehiscent introrsely, anther connective appendages absent,
067
or shorter to longer than the anther cells, not embedded to the gynoecium. Gynoecium sessile or stipitate. Fruits apocarpous to
synocarpous; mature carpels without a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/or ventral suture, or circumscissile.
Placentation marginal; ovules 2 or 2 to 9 in each carpel. Testae free from the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal
region on endotesta of seed belonging to the pore type or the tube type.
Thirteen species distributed in tropical and subtropical SE Asia.
Taxonomic combinations:
Aromadendron annamense
(Dandy) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia annamensis
Dandy, J. Bot. 68: 209. 1930.
Aromadendron ashtonii
(Dandy ex Noot.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia ashtonii
Dandy ex. Noot., Blumea 32
(2): 363. 1987.
Aromadendron bintuluense
(A. Agostini) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Talauma bintuluensis
A. Agostini, Atti Reale
Accad. Fisiocrit. Siena, X, 1: 187. 1926.
Aromadendron borneense
(Noot.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia borneensis
Noot., Blumea 32 (2): 366. 1987.
Aromadendron carsonii
(Dandy ex Noot.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia carsonii
Dandy ex Noot., Blumea 32
(2): 348. 1987.
Aromadendron carsonii
var.
drymifolium
(Noot.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia carsonii
var.
drymifolia
Noot.,
Blumea 32 (2): 351. 1987.
Aromadendron carsonii
var.
phaulantum
(Noot.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia phaulanta
Dandy ex Noot.,
Blumea 32 (2): 359. 1987. =
Magnolia carsonii
var.
phaulanta
(Dandy ex Noot.) S. Kim et Noot., Blumea 47 (2): 332. 2002.
Aromadendron griffithii
(J. D. Hook. et Thomson) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Michelia griffithii
J. D. Hook. et
Thomson in J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. Ind. 1: 41. 1872.
Aromadendron gustavii
(King) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia gustavii
King, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 3
(2): 209. 1891.
Aromadendron macklottii
(Korth.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Manglietia macklottii
Korth., Ned. Kruidk. Arch. 2 (2):
97. 1851.
Aromadendron macklottii
var.
beccarianum
(A. Agostini) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Michelia beccariana
A.
Agostini, Atti Reale Accad. Fisiocrit. Siena, X, 1: 184. 1926. =
Magnolia macklottii
var.
beccariana
(A. Agostini) Noot., Blumea
32 (2): 348. 1987.
Aromadendron pahangense
(Noot.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia pahangensis
Noot., Blumea 32 (2): 367.
1987.
Aromadendron pealianum
(King) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Magnolia pealiana
King, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta)
3 (2): 210. 1891.
13.
Yulania
Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég., Phan. 7: 462. 1839, nom. cons. propos. =
Magnolia
subgen.
Yulania
(Spach)
Reichenbach, Der Deutsch. Bot. 1: 192. 1841. – Type:
Yulania conspicua
(Salisb.) Spach –
Yulania denudata
(Desr.) D. L. Fu
=
Lassonia
Buc’hoz, Pl. Nouv. Découv.: t. 19. 1779, nom. rejec. propos. Type:
Lassonia heptapeta
Buc’hoz, nom. rejec. –
Yulania denudata
(Desr.) D. L. Fu
Tulipastrum
Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég., Phan. 7: 461. 1839. =
Magnolia
sect.
Tulipastrum
(Spach) Dandy in Roy. Hort. Soc.,
Camellias and Magnolias, Conf. Rep.: 74. 1950. =
Yulania
sect.
Tulipastrum
(Spach) D. L. Fu, J. Wuhan Bot. Res. 19 (3): 198.
2001. =
Magnolia
subsect.
Tulipastrum
(Spach) Figlar et Noot., Blumea 49 (1): 92. 2004. – Type:
Tulipastrum americanum
Spach –
Yulania acuminata
(L.) D. L. Fu
Buergeria
Siebold et Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4: 186. 1845. =
Magnolia
sect.
Buergeria
(Siebold
068
et Zucc.) Dandy in Roy. Hort. Soc., Camellias and Magnolias, Conf. Rep.: 73. 1950. =
Yulania
sect.
Buergeria
(Siebold et Zucc.)
D. L. Fu, J. Wuhan Bot. Res. 19 (3): 198. 2001. – Type:
Buergeria stellata
Siebold et Zucc. =
Yulania stellata
(Siebold et Zucc.)
Sima et S. G. Lu
Magnolia
subgen.
Pleurochasma
Dandy, J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 75: 161. 1950. – Type:
Magnolia campbellii
J. D. Hook. et
Thomson =
Yulania campbellii
(J. D. Hook. et Thomson) D. L. Fu
Magnolia
sect.
Axilliora
B. C. Ding et T. B. Chao, Acta Agric. Univ. Henan. 19 (4): 360. 1985. =
Yulania
sect.
Axilliora
(B.
C. Ding et T. B. Chao) D. L. Fu, J. Wuhan Bot. Res. 19 (3): 198. 2001. – Type:
Magnolia axilliora
(T. B. Chao, T. X. Zhang et J.
T. Gao) T. B. Chao –
Yulania biondii
(Pamp.) D. L. Fu
Magnolia
sect.
Trimorphaflora
B. C. Ding et T. B. Chao, Acta Agric. Univ. Henan. 19 (4): 359. 1985. – Type:
Magnolia
henanensis
B. C. Ding et T. B. Chao –
Yulania biondii
(Pamp.) D. L. Fu
Magnolia
sect. ×
Zhushayulania
W. B. Sun et T. B. Chao, J. Centr. South Forest. Univ. 19 (2): 27. 1999. =
Yulania
sect. ×
Zhushayulania
(W. B. Sun et T. B. Chao) D. L. Fu, J. Wuhan Bot. Res. 19 (3): 198. 2001. – Type:
Magnolia
×
soulangeana
Soul.-
Bod. =
Yulania
×
soulangeana
(Soul.-Bod.) D. L. Fu
Description. Trees or shrubs, deciduous, hairy. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced by prolepsis.
Leaves conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged distichously on the shoot; leaf blades unlobed or rarely 2-lobed
at the apex, cuneate to rounded or rarely subcordate at the base. Stipules adnate to the petiole. All axillary buds or some upper
axillary buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the parts, from owers or fruits to pseudophyllaries, of the oral
branches into which mixed buds formed shed after owering or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries
solitary, spathaceous or foliaceous, caducous or rarely persistent. Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles short.
Pedicles absent or rarely present, invisible or visible. Tepals 9 to 38, 3- to 5-merous, subequal, or unequal, ones in outmost
whorl smaller than 1/2 of ones in other inner whorls, coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens persistent; anthers dehiscent
sublatrorsely to latrorsely, anther connective appendages shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium sessile. Fruits apocarpous to
synocarpous; mature carpels without a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/or ventral suture, or circumscissile.
Placentation marginal; ovules 2 or 2 to 3 in each carpel. Testae free from the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal
region on endotesta of seed belonging to the tube type.
Eleven species distributed in temperate E Asia and eastern North America.
Taxonomic combinations:
Yulania stellata
(Siebold et Zucc.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Buergeria stellata
Siebold et Zucc., Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl.
Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 4 (2): 186. 1845.
14.
Michelia
L., Sp. Pl.: 536. 1753. =
Magnolia
sect.
Michelia
(L.) Baill., Adansonia 7: 66. 1866. – Type:
Michelia
champaca
L.
=
Champaca
Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 365. 1763. – Type:
Champaca michelia
Noronha –
Michelia champaca
L.
Liriopsis
Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég., Phan. 7: 460. 1839. – Type:
Liriopsis fuscata
(Andr.) Spach –
Michelia go
(Lour.) Spreng.
Magnolia
sect.
Micheliopsis
Baill., Adansonia 7: 4, 66. 1866. =
Michelia
sect.
Micheliopsis
(Baill.) Dandy in J. Praglowski,
World Pollen Spore Fl. 3: 5. 1974. – Type:
Magnolia go
(Lour.) DC. =
Michelia go
(Lour.) Spreng.
=
Sampaca
Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl.: 6. 1891. – Type:
Sampacca euonymoides
Kuntze =
Michelia champaca
L.
Elmerrillia
Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1927: 261. 1927. =
Magnolia
subsect.
Elmerrillia
(Dandy) Figlar et Noot.,
Blumea 49 (1): 93. 2004. – Type:
Elmerrillia papuana
(Schltr.) Dandy –
Michelia tsiampacca
L.
Paramichelia
Hu, Sunyatsenia 4: 142. 1940. =
Michelia
sect.
Paramichelia
(Hu) Noot. et B. L. Chen, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.
80 (4): 1087. 1993. – Type:
Paramichelia baillonii
(Pierre) Hu =
Michelia baillonii
(Pierre) Finet et Gagnep.
069
Tsoongiodendron
Chun, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8 (4): 281. 1963. =
Michelia
sect.
Tsoongiodendron
(Chun) Noot. et B.L.Chen,
Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80 (4): 1086. 1993. – Type:
Tsoongiodendron odorum
Chun =
Michelia odora
(Chun) Noot. et B. L.
Chen
Description. Trees or shrubs, deciduous, hairy. Branching only monopodial; branches produced by prolepsis, or rarely by
prolepsis and syllepsis. Leaves conduplicate, erect in the bud when young, arranged distichously on the shoot, or spirally on
the terminal shoot and distichously on the axillary shoot; leaf blades unlobed, cuneate to rounded at the base. Stipules adnate
to or free from the petiole. All axillary buds in mixed bud undeveloped and not sprouted, or the basal axillary bud in mixed
bud developed, sprouted and formed into a scorpioid cyme of 2 to 4 oral branches; all of the oral branches into which mixed
buds formed shed after flowering or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary, spathaceous or
rarely foliaceous, caducous. Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles short. Pedicles absent or rarely present, invisible
or visible. Tepals 4 to 23, 3- to 5-merous, subequal, or rarely unequal, ones in outmost whorl smaller than 1/2 of ones in other
inner whorls, coloured only on the abaxial surface. Stamens persistent; anthers dehiscent sublatrorsely to latrorsely, anther
connective appendages shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium stipitate or sessile. Fruits apocarpous to synocarpous; mature
carpels without a dorsal suture groove, dehiscing along the dorsal and/or ventral suture, or circumscissile. Placentation marginal;
ovules 2 to 36 in each carpel. Testae free from the endocarp. The morphological charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed
belonging to the tube type or the pore type.
About 60 species distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia.
Taxonomic combinations:
Michelia ovalis
(Miq.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Talauma ovalis
Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4: 69. 1868.
Michelia pubescens
(Merr.) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Talauma pubescens
Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 3: 133. 1908.
Michelia tsiampacca
var.
glaberrima
(Dandy) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Elmerrillia papuana
var.
glaberrima
Dandy,
Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 185. 1928.
Michelia tsiampacca
subsp.
mollis
(Dandy) Sima et S. G. Lu, comb. nov. =
Elmerrillia mollis
Dandy, Bull. Misc. Inform.
Kew 1928: 184. 1928. =
Elmerrillia tsiampacca
subsp.
mollis
(Dandy) Noot., Blumea 31(1): 108. 1985.
II. Magnoliaceae subfam. Liriodendroideae (Nurk.) Y. W. Law
15.
Liriodendron
L., Sp. Pl.: 535. 1753. – Type:
Liriodendron tulipifera
L.
=
Tulipifera
Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. 1754. – Type:
Tulipifera liriodendrum
Mill. =
Liriodendron tulipifera
L.
Description. Trees, deciduous, hairy and glabrescent or glabrous. Branching sympodial and monopodial; branches produced
by only syllepsis. Leaves conduplicate, pendant in the bud when young, arranged spirally on the shoot; leaf blades 4- to
10-lobed, rounded, truncate or slightly cordate at the base. Stipules free from the petiole. All axillary buds or some upper axillary
buds in the mixed bud developed and sprouted; only the parts, from owers or fruits to pseudophyllaries, of the oral branches
into which mixed buds formed shed after owering or fruiting. Flowers terminal, solitary, bisexual. Pseudophyllaries solitary,
foliaceous, persistent. Bracts solitary, spathaceous, caducous. Peduncles short or slender. Pedicles present or absent, invisible or
visible. Tepals 9 to 12, 3-merous, subequal, coloured on both surfaces. Stamens persistent; anthers dehiscent extrorsely, anther
connective appendages shorter than the anther cells. Gynoecium sessile. Fruits apocarpous; mature carpels samariod, without a
dorsal suture groove, indehiscent. Placentation apical; ovules 2 in each carpel. Testae adnate to the endocarp. The morphological
charater of chalazal region on endotesta of seed belonging to the pore type.
Two species distributed in SE Asia and SE North America.
070
Acknowledgements
The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30660154, 31060096), the Foundation of The
Magnolia Society International and the Foundation of Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory for Cultivation and Exploitation of
Forest Plants, China.
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Relationships within Magnolioideae have been the subject of persistent debate; the main point at issue mostly being the disposition of tribes, genera and sections. A morphological cladistic analysis of the subfamily using Liriodendron as the out-group showed that Magnolioideae consisted of a large basal polytomy, but with five resolved and variously supported clades. Manglietia constituted a clade with sect. Rytidospermum of Magnolia subg. Magnolia. Kmeria and Woonyoungia formed a pair. Pachylarnax, Parakmeria and Manglietiastrum were grouped together, and sect. Splendentes and Dugandiodendron also formed a pair. The largest and best supported clade consisted of Magnolia subg. Magnolia sects. Oyama and Maingola, Magnolia subg. Yulania, Michelia, Aromadendron, Alcimandra, Elmerrillia, Paramichelia and Tsoongiodendron, with sect. Oyama of Magnolia subg. Magnolia is sister to the remainder. Although Magnolia sect. Maingola, Aromadendron, Alcimandra and Elmerrillia constituted a poorly resolved subclade, Aromadendron formed a monophyletic clade with Alcimandra. Within the Michelia/Magnolia subgen. Yulania subclade, Paramichelia was sister to Tsoongiodendron. These results are supported by similar placement of taxa within various molecular analyses of the family, but the low level of resolution indicates that more morphological data are needed to improve phylogenetic signal. Our results support the molecular analyses in suggesting that Magnolia is best considered to be a large and diverse genus, but that the relationships between the taxa within it require more detailed clarification, with more extensive sampling and a combined molecular and morphological approach being needed.
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Investigation of the fruits and seeds of the Oligocene (?) Brandon Lignite of west-central Vermont (U.S.A.) is continued with a consideration of the seeds of the Magnoliaceae of the deposit. Following a review of the morphology of modern magnoliaceous seeds and a summary of the fossil record of seeds of the family, two new species are described: Magnolia septentrionalis, which is quite similar to the seeds of the extant Magnolia grandiflora of the southeastern United States, and Magnolia waltonii, which lacks a modern counterpart but is closely comparable to the seeds of Magnolia lignita of the European Mid-Tertiary. The presence of two species of Magnolia in this deposit supports the assumed warm-temperate nature of the climate in Vermont during Brandon time. Diagnostic features for the description of the seeds of the Magnoliaceae are proposed.
Article
(disjuncts), however, have similar chemical profiles. A molecular phylogeny of Magnoliaceae was constructed to reveal phylogenetic relationships of taxa by sequencing the trnK intron (including the matK coding region), psbA-trnH, and atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer regions of chloroplast DNA from 25 Magnolia, two Michelia, and two Liriodendron taxa. The psbA-trnH spacer region showed twice the sequence divergence (0.0157) of the trnK intron (0.0073) or the matK coding region (0.0077). The strict consensus tree constructed from the combined data set (ca. 3,700 bp) indicated the genus Magnolia was polyphyletic containing Michelia species as ingroup. The clade of Magnolia liliifera var. obovata, M. coco, and M. delavayi formed the first branch. Among the remaining species, two additional large clades were recognized, i.e., one comprised of American evergreen Magnolia species and another of subgenus Yulania. The relationship among sect. Rytidospermum taxa was not clearly resolved. Parsimonious mapping of the floral scent chemical characters was performed onto the molecular phylogenetic tree to discuss evolutionary trends of the floral scent chemistries.