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Evolution has resolved many of nature’s challenges leading to lasting solutions. Nature has always inspired human achievements and has led to effective materials, structures, tools ,mechanisms, methods, systems, and many other benefits. This field ,represents the studies and imitation of nature’s methods is known as biomimetics, also offers enormous potential for inspiring new capabilities for exciting future technologies. Billions of years of evolution have produced extremely efficient natural materials, which are increasingly becoming a source of inspiration for engineers. Biomimetics is the science of imitating nature is now a growing multidisciplinary field. Substantial benefits of biomimetics include the development of prosthetics that closely mimic real limbs and sensory-enhancing microchips that are interfaced with the brain to assist in hearing, seeing and controlling instruments. A review is given of selected areas that were inspired by nature, and an outlook for potential development in biomimetics is presented.
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BIOMIMICS
NISHITHA SHRINATH1, Dr. B. E RANGASWAMY2, DR. SREENIVAS REDDY BATHULA3
2Professor and Head of Department of biotechnology, 3Associate Professor
1,2,3Department of Biotechnology, Bapuji Institute of Engineering and Technology, Davanagere, Karnataka.
Corresponding Author: DR. SREENIVAS REDDY BATHULA, jaishwa@hotmail.com
Abstract-Evolution has resolved many of nature’s challenges leading to lasting solutions. Nature has
always inspired human achievements and has led to effective materials, structures, tools ,mechanisms,
methods, systems, and many other benefits. This field ,represents the studies and imitation of nature’s
methods is known as biomimetics, also offers enormous potential for inspiring new capabilities for
exciting future technologies. Billions of years of evolution have produced extremely efficient natural
materials, which are increasingly becoming a source of inspiration for engineers. Biomimetics is the
science of imitating nature is now a growing multidisciplinary field. Substantial benefits of biomimetics
include the development of prosthetics that closely mimic real limbs and sensory-enhancing microchips
that are interfaced with the brain to assist in hearing, seeing and controlling instruments. A review is
given of selected areas that were inspired by nature, and an outlook for potential development in
biomimetics is presented.
I. INTRODUCTION
The term biomimetics, which was coined by Otto H.Schmitt in1969,represents the studies and
imitation of nature’smethods. Biologically inspired design or adaptation orderivation from nature is
referred to as ‘biomimetics’[1]. It means mimickingbiology or nature. Biomimetics is derived from the
Greek word biomimesis[2].Otto Schmitt, who did his doctoralresearch, developed a physical device that
mimicked the electrical action of anerve. Other words used include bionics (coined in 1960 by Jack
Steele of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, OH), biomimicry and biognosis.The field of
biomimetics is highly interdisciplinary[3]. It involves the understandingof biological functions,
structures and principles of various objectsfound in nature by biologists, physicists, chemists and
material scientists, andthe design and fabrication of various materials and devices of commercialinterest
by engineers, material scientists, chemists and others.
The cell-based structure,which makes up the majority of biological creatures, offersthe ability to
grow with fault-tolerance and self-repair, whiledoing all of the things that are characteristic of
biologicalsystems. If we are successful in making biomimetic structures that consist of multiple cells, we
may be able to design devicesand mechanisms that are currently considered science fiction.Emerging
nanotechnologies increasingly enhance the potentialof such capabilities. Humans have learned much
from natureand the results have helped surviving generations and continueto secure a sustainable future.
The process hasalso involved scaling from nano and micro to macro andmega.Biological materials have
capabilitiesthat surpass those of man-made ones and these includesilk, leather and wool that are widely
used to makeclothing.
Figure 1: First aircraft by Wright brothers was inspired by the fight of pigeon.
International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 03, [March – 2016] ISSN (Online):2349–9745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161
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II. BIOMIMICRY: THE BRIDGEBETWEEN THE ECONOMY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Biomimicry provides the means to achieve both environmental and economic goals. As policy
leaders throughout the world begin to focus more on “sustainable growth”, the clash between
environmental and economic interests could potentially be greater than ever. As job growth following
the “great recession” continues to be subpar, finding the proper balance between preservation of our
natural resources and increasing employment poses great challenges.Biomimicry could provide a critical
bridge between business and the environment.
Biomimicry is a rapidly growing field where solutions found in the natural world are applied to
human problems. Man has taken inspiration from nature for centuries to find answers. For example,
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) attempted to design a flying machine based on a study of the anatomy
and flight of birds. In the long-term, policymakers, business, and the public will only embrace efforts to
protect the environment and safeguard our natural resources if it makes economic sense. Biomimicry
provides that critical bridge. By increasing efficiency and reducing costs, solutions inspired by nature
can allow us to both raise standards of living.
III. BIOINSPIRED STRUCTUREAND TOOLS
Biological creatures can build amazing shapes and structures using materials in
theirsurroundings or materials that they produce. The produced structures are quite robustand support
the required function over the duration the function is needed[6]. Plants offer engineering inspiration,
where mimicking the concept of seeds that adhere to an animal’s fur Velcro was invented and it has led
to an enormous impactin many fields, including clothing and electric-wires strapping. Devices and
instruments that are designed using biologically inspired rules are intuitive to operate by humans, which
makes them user friendly and means they require minimal operation instructions.
These examples illustrate the diverse and incredible number of possibilities that have already
been mimicked:
LOTUS EFFECT
Figure 2: The hydrophobic effect of water on lotus leaves which collects dust.
Lotus is one of two species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae. This plant is an
aquatic perennial. Under favorable circumstances its seeds may remain viable for many years. What is
so special about this flower is,that it showssuper-hydrophobic power of self cleaning.
Although they live above muddy water and cannot actively groom themselves, lotus leaves
remain pristine and dirt free. The self-cleaning ability of lotus leaves results from the tiny, wax-coated
protuberances on their surface.[4] When water falls on a leaf, it does not spread out and wet the surface,
as it would on the smooth leaves of most plants, but rather forms tiny beads atop and collects dust.
Hence this application of lotus is now used in many ways. A brand of paints is now available to
clean your house whenever it rains.This concept is used in water proofing phones, protecting fabrics etc.
International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
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IV. TERMITE MOULDS
A small, pale soft-bodied insect(termites) that lives in large colonies with several different
castes, typically within a mound of cemented earth.[5] Many kinds feed on wood and can be highly
destructive to trees and timber.
Figure 3: The principle of flow of heat in termite moulds( Thermosiphon Effect)
Few years ago, scientists observed that big termite mounds in Africa stay remarkably cool inside,
even in blistering heat. The insects accomplish this with a clever system of air pockets, which drive
natural ventilation through convection.
Architect Mick Pearce and engineering firm Arup borrowed that idea to build East gate Centre, a
large office and shopping center in Zimbabwe that is cooled with the outside air. The system uses only
10 percent as much energy as conventional air-conditioning to drive fans that keep the air
circulating.The building has an extensive tube system within the walls and floors that move air trough
the building. Heat generated within the building, along with stored heat within the structure, creates a
thermosiphon-effect that draws air up and down through the rooftops wherelarge chimney stacks is
located. These tall stacks are essential for creating an induced flow.
V. BIONIC CAR INSPIRED BY BOX FISH
Ostracioncubicus is a species of boxfish.It can be found in reefs throughout the Pacific and
Indian Ocean as well as the south eastern Atlantic Ocean. It reaches a maximum length of 45
centimetersequal to 18 inches.
The Mercedes-Benz Bionic was a concept car created by Daimler Chrysler AG under
the Mercedes Group. It was first introduced in 2005. The exterior design was modeled after the yellow
boxfish. Mercedes-Benz decided to model the Bionic after this fish due to the supposed low coefficient
of drag of its body shape and the rigidity of its exoskeleton.
The boxfish conserves its strength by moving while consuming the least possible amount of
energy. The Boxfish car includes many traits of the boxfish including;
1.The overall appearance
2. The rigid yet light material of car frame.
3.A complex engine and overall design that allows it to be extremely fuel efficient.20 percent lower fuel
consumption and up to 80 percent lower nitrogen oxide emissions.
International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
Volume 03, Issue 03, [March – 2016] ISSN (Online):2349–9745; ISSN (Print):2393-8161
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Its skin consists of numerous hexagonal, bony plates which provide maximum strength with minimal
weight and effectively protect the animal from injury in exhaust emissions
Figure 4: Appearance of Bionic car inspired by boxfish
VI. SWIM SUIT INSPIRED BYSHARK SKIN
When seen under an electron microscope, sharkskin is made up of countless overlapping scales
called dermal denticles. The denticles have grooves running down their length in alignment with water
flow. These grooves disrupt the formation of eddies, or turbulent swirls of slower water, making the
water pass by faster. The rough shape also discourages parasitic growth such as algae and barnacles.
Scientists have been able to replicate dermal denticles in swimsuits. Which are now banned in
major competition but still used in the bottom of boats. When cargo ships can squeeze out even a single
percent in efficiency, they burn less bunker oil and don't require cleaning chemicals for their hulls.
Scientists are applying the technique to create surfaces in hospitals that resist bacteria growth the
bacteria can't catch hold on the rough surface.
Figure 5: Swim suit made from imitation of shark skin .
VII. FUTURE OF BIOMIMICS
As we have seen nature and technology both are inter-related and nature has enabled us to think
in a different way. There are many more applications than the few discussed above.
The Era of biomimics will not end right here, but follow a path which never ends.The next
decade should be exciting for the field of Bionics. Justas biologists are discovering the structural and
physiological mechanisms that underlie the functional properties of plants and animals, engineers are
beginning to develop a fabrication tool kit that is sophisticated enough to capture their salient features.
As the performance gap between biological structures and our mechanical analogs shortens, engineers
may feel increasingly encouraged to seek and adopt design concepts from Nature.
International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research (IJMTER)
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Although the devices they construct may at first appear alien, their origins in the organic world
may endow them with an odd familiarity. Also Artificial skin, heart, liver have also been biomimicked
to solve human healthcare problems.Hence we as individuals should conserve nature and let it grow
rather than destroying it for our own benefits.
VIII. CONCLUSION
From the discussion on the above study, it can be concluded that, the nature also can give an
impact to the world. From the nature to the world of biomimics, in this article we discussed more on the
application ofbiomimicry in the entire phenomenon and nature in this world. Furthermore, the ability of
the nature to adapting the environment itself is enough for the human to take some knowledge of it.
Sustainable thinking to find solutions using the nature can be harmonized through biomimics. As the
result, designers, biologists, artist started to use nature. Each step taken will help the man kind to save
the Earth from time to time. The important thing is to get people ready with the ideology of
biomimicry. Using nature as model, mentor and measure the concept of inspired by nature can be seen
right now. The inspiration from nature is expected to continue leading to technology improvements and
the impact is expected to be felt in every aspect of our lives. Some of the solutions may be considered
science fiction in today’scapability, but as we improve our understanding of nature and develop better
capabilities this may become a reality that is closer than we think. Hence, let’s make this world a better
place to live in and let’s imbibe knowledge from nature and convert this to technology.
REFERENCE
[1] Vincent, Julian F. V.; et al. (22 August 2006). "Biomimetics: its practice and theory". doi:10.1098/rsif.2006.0127,April
2015.
[2] Jump up to: a b Mary McCarty. "Life of bionics founder a fine adventure". Dayton Daily News, 29 January 2009.
[3] Biomimetics: its practice and theory Julian F. V. Vincent*, Olga A. Bogatyreva, Nikolaj R. Bogatyrev, Adrian Bowyer
and Anja-Karina Pahl Department of Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Biomimetic and Natural Technologies,
University of Bath, UK
[4] Bionics: Biological insight into mechanical designMichael H. Dickinson* Department of Organismal Biology,
University of California, Berkeley, Canada(1999)
[5] Cranshaw, Whitney (2013). "11". Bugs Rule!: An Introduction to the World of Insects. Princeton, New Jersey:
Princeton University Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-691-12495-7
[6] Biomimetics: lessons from nature – an overview BY BHARAT BHUSHAN* Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- &
Nanotechnology and Biomimetics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA(2009)
[7] Biomimetics—using nature to inspire human innovationYoseph Bar-Cohen Jet Propulsion Lab, California Institute of
Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena,CA,USA.(2006)
[8] Biomimetics for next generation materials-BY FRANCOIS BARTHELAT*Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada .(2007)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Biological insight into mechanical designMichael H. Dickinson* Department of Organismal Biology
  • Bionics
Bionics: Biological insight into mechanical designMichael H. Dickinson* Department of Organismal Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Canada(1999)
Bugs Rule!: An Introduction to the World of Insects
  • Whitney Cranshaw
Cranshaw, Whitney (2013). "11". Bugs Rule!: An Introduction to the World of Insects. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-691-12495-7