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WEEE: Booming for Sustainable Recycling

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WEEE: Booming for Sustainable Recycling

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... The main pressure of change that prevail within the EEE industry to promote the pathway towards a CE, are classified by the key triple-bottom-line themes: social, environmental and economic. Social pressures, such as increasing consumer demand for EEE, have led to a fast increase in the rate of production of EEE (Akcil, 2016). Fast improving technology and consumer behavioural trends also contribute to the disposal of still functional EEE despite shortening of product-lifecycles. ...
Conference Paper
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The Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment industry is gaining primary importance within the circular economy, but its implementation is facing internal and external barriers. This paper shows how knowledge-accumulation favours the transition to circular-business-models in a traditional sector. It focuses on the internal barrier related to knowledge and technology and shows a successful overcome within the case study of Astelav Ri-Generation project. The company was able to make the transition to a circular-business-model, preserving the value of the product and achieving economic, environmental and social benefits. The research methodology proposes a holistic single-case study approach, multiple source of evidence have been used to collect different types of data. The study shows that the transition to a circular-business-model is not easy as it appears, but it is a long and complex process that requires accumulation of knowledge and its correct strategic application in the changing competitive environment.
... 11 Several metal recovery techniques can be applied to PCBs, according to the metal content, including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and bio-hydrometallurgy. 12,13 Bio-hydrometallurgical techniques, such as bioleaching, are more suitable for metal recovery due to their eco-friendly nature, high selectivity for metals and lower operational costs. [14][15][16][17] Bioleaching has proven to be a successful method for dissolving metal sulfides (also successfully applied to secondary resources such as e-waste) owing the oxidative activity of certain chemolithotrophic microbes which are mainly sulfur and iron oxidizers; these microbes obtain their Table 1 Reported studies on bioleaching of metals from WPCBs by mesophilic acidophiles [18][19][20][21][22] Biological activity can be reflected by variation in redox (oxidation-reduction) potential (ORP) in leaching solution, and several attempts have been made to control ORP for efficient metal dissolutions (see Table 1). Maximal values of ORP can promote the interaction between bacteria and WPCB for metal recovery, 23 and this can be achieved by providing pH balance. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: The waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), today, offer a wide array of metals and are of great importance because their metal concentration is much more than that in the ores. Largely, studies have been devoted to Cu bioleaching from WPCBs because it has the highest ratio among all metallic elements ( ̴ 10-30%). In the present study, an intensified mixed meso-acidophilic bacterial leaching of multi-metals has been studied from WPCBs of spent mobile phones, with the system operating under high oxido-reductive potentials (HORPs). ICP-OES, XRD and SEM-EDX characterization indicated the sample to have recoverable contents of Cu, Al, Ni & Zn which were targeted for bioleaching. RESULTS: Shake flask optimization studies, under HORP of >750 mV indicated dissolutions of Cu – 98.1%, Al – 55.9%, Ni – 79.5% and Zn – 66.9% under optimized conditions of 9 g/L Fe (II), 10% pulp density, 1.8 initial pH and 10% (v/v) as initial inoculum. Under these conditions, at ORP >650 mV, Cu – 97.3%, Al – 55.8%, Ni – 79.3% and Zn – 66.8% were achieved in bench scale (1L) bioreactor systems without any significant reduction in efficiency (compared to shake flasks) in 8 days of operation. CONCLUSION: Variations in the co-relatable parameters, to metal leaching, such as pH, ORP and Fe (II) concentrations indicated that these parameters significantly contributed to metal leaching. Operating the system under high and controlled ORPs is a faster and efficient way to leach multi-metals from WPCBs.
... Considering the economic/environmental facts, regulations have been issued in EU and worldwide for the management of WEEE through recycling/recovery of metals from this waste stream (Akcil, 2016). For example, in the EU from 2016 onwards, the minimum collection rate has been established at 45%. ...
... All the factor associated (represented above) with environment and economy indicates the importance of e-waste recycling, proper e-waste management, urban mining, and circular economy from e-waste. Although sustainable WEEE recycling is booming, but are mostly focused on base metals and precious metals (Akcil, 2016;Akcil et al., 2015;Tuncuk et al., 2012). More importantly responsible formal waste recycling technology and e-waste management still also challenge need to be addressed. ...
Article
Recycling of the waste LCD and recovery of indium which is an important classified critical raw material rarely have been industrially valorized for the circular economy due to lack of technology. Waste specific technology development is a cost-intensive and time-consuming process for the recycling industry. Hence, integrating existing technology for the purpose can address the e-waste issue in general and waste LCD in particular. Waste LCD and LCD industry itching wastewater are two important challenges can be addressed through an insightful combination of two. Hence, here possible integration of waste LCD leaching process with ITO wastewater treatment has been focused on indium recovery purpose. From our perspective process integration can be managed in two different ways, i.e., waste-to-waste mix stream process and integration of two different valorization processes for complete recovery of indium. With reference to indium recovery and context of e-waste recovery the process integration can be managed in two different ways, i.e., (i) waste LCD leaching with ITO etching industry wastewater then valorized (Waste-to-waste mix stream), (ii) Integration of waste LCD leaching process with ITO wastewater treatment process (integration of two valorization processes).Through proposed process semiconductor manufacturing industry and ITO recycling industry can address various issues like; (i) waste disposal, as well as indium recovery, (ii) brings back the material to production stream and address the circular economy, (ii) can be closed-loop process with industry and (iii) can be part of cradle-to-cradle technology management and lower the futuristic carbon economy, simultaneously.
... Dünya'da yapılan çalışmalarda E-atıkların ikincil kaynak olarak değerlendirilmesine yönelik çevresel, teknik ve ekonomik açıdan uygun bir geri dönüşüm yönteminin geliştirilmesi bu çalışmaların en önemli çıktısı olmaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra, E-atıkların toplanması konusunda tüketicilerin bilinçlendirilmesi ve geri dönüşüme tabi tutulacak atık oranlarının arttırılması, atıklardan Cu, Au, Ag ve Pd kazanımı başta olmak üzere metalik ürünlerin eldesi, atıkların geri dönüşümü ile atıkların rehabilitasyonu ve dolgu alanlarına depolanacak atık miktarının azaltılması gibi birçok konuda önem arz etmektedir (Erüst vd, 2013;Akcil, 2016). E-atıklarda bulunan metallerin önemli bir bölümü bu atıkların baskılı devre kartlarında bulunmaktadır (USGS, 2001;Goosey ve Kellner 2003). ...
... Dünya'da yapılan çalışmalarda E-atıkların ikincil kaynak olarak değerlendirilmesine yönelik çevresel, teknik ve ekonomik açıdan uygun bir geri dönüşüm yönteminin geliştirilmesi bu çalışmaların en önemli çıktısı olmaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra, E-atıkların toplanması konusunda tüketicilerin bilinçlendirilmesi ve geri dönüşüme tabi tutulacak atık oranlarının arttırılması, atıklardan Cu, Au, Ag ve Pd kazanımı başta olmak üzere metalik ürünlerin eldesi, atıkların geri dönüşümü ile atıkların rehabilitasyonu ve dolgu alanlarına depolanacak atık miktarının azaltılması gibi birçok konuda önem arz etmektedir (Erüst vd, 2013;Akcil, 2016). E-atıklarda bulunan metallerin önemli bir bölümü bu atıkların baskılı devre kartlarında bulunmaktadır (USGS, 2001;Goosey ve Kellner 2003). ...
... Studies suggest that between 20 and 50 million metric tons of WEEE are produced per year, with an annual increase of 3-5 percent (Luda, 2011;Neto et al., 2016;Yamane et al., 2011). However, awareness of this subject is also growing (Akcil, 2016), prompting the search for new ways to reutilize these components. To illustrate this scenario, entries related to the keywords ''printed circuit board recycling" in scientific databases 1 indicate an increase of the number of publications at a rate of 35% per year on average over the last decade. ...
Article
Management of waste of electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a key issue for modern societies; furthermore, it contains valuable materials that can be recycled, especially in printed circuit boards (PCB), which have approximately one-third of their weight in copper. In this study we demonstrated the use of laser to strip the covering soldering mask on PCB’s, thus exposing the copper underneath so that extraction techniques may take place. Using a Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm and 532 nm we tested the procedure under different energy conditions. The laser stripping of the soldering mask was achieved with satisfactory results by irradiation with 225 mJ at 1064 nm. However, when using similar parameters at 532 nm the process of the coating ejection was not promoted properly, leading to a faulty detachment. Infrared laser PCB stripping presents itself to be technically viable and environmental friendly, since it uses no chemicals inputs, offering one more option to WEEE treatment and recycling.
... In April 2015, an e-waste world-map was presented by the initiative (StEP, 2015), providing comparable, country-level data on the amount of WEEE generated in 184 countries around the world. The global quantity of WEEE generation in 2014 was around 41.9 Mt, an average of 5.9 kg for each of the world's 7 billion people (Akcil, 2016). Fig. 10 shows the WEEE generation in main areas in the world. ...
Article
New development and technological innovations make electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) more functional by using an increasing number of metals, particularly the critical metals (e.g. rare and precious metals) with specialized properties. As millions of people in emerging economies adopt a modern lifestyle, the demand for critical metals is soaring. However, the increasing demand causes the crisis of their supply because of their simple deficiency in the Earth’s crust or geopolitical constraints which might create political issues for their supply. This paper focuses on the sustainable supply of typical critical metals (indium, rare earth elements (REEs), lithium, cobalt and precious metals) through recycling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). To illuminate this issue, the production, consumption, expected future demand, current recycling situation of critical metals, WEEE management and their recycling have been reviewed. We find that the demand of indium, REEs, lithium and cobalt in EEE will continuously increasing, while precious metals are decreasing because of new substitutions with less or even without precious metals. Although the generation of WEEE in 2014 was about 41.9 million tons (Mt), just about 15% (6.5 Mt) was treated environmentally. The inefficient collection of WEEE is the main obstacle to relieving the supply risk of critical metals. Furthermore, due to the widespread use in low concentrations, such as indium, their recycling is not just technological problem, but economic feasibility is. Finally, relevant recommendations are point out to address these issues.
Article
Faced with a scarcity of materials, increasing quantities of waste, and low rate of recovery, the electrical and electronic equipment sector has become a key focus in the drive for a transition to the circular economy. An increasing body of work has addressed the integration of the circular economy at a business model level but there is a limited understanding of a sector-wide approach to circular economy business model innovation. Additionally, no studies have been identified that endeavoured to develop a circular economy business model innovation process for electrical and electronic manufacturers. To address this gap, this research adopted a qualitative approach via seven iterative workshops with key stakeholders in the electrical and electronic equipment sector to inform the development and refinement of a Circular Economy Business Model Innovation Process Framework. The resulting Framework, which has five-fold interconnected layers, provides electrical and electronic equipment manufacturers with a comprehensive layered process for developing and implementing a circular economy business model tailored to their business offerings. Using the manufacturer’s business strategy as a starting point, the developed Framework prompts the integration of the circular economy into business practices. Influencing factors affecting the circular economy business model innovation process are addressed by identifying the associated challenges and opportunities and related policy. Finally, the Framework proposes circularity indicators relevant to electrical and electronic equipment, helping to ensure that the proposed circular economy actions are measurable and informed.
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In order to study the sustainable development of the e-waste recycling industry in China, more attention has been paid to the behavior evolutions and strategic choices of the multi-participants. This paper presents a tripartite evolutionary game model consisted of the government, the recycler and the consumer, determines the payoff matrices of the system and calculates the replicator dynamic equation of each participant. We obtain the evolutionary stability strategies of the system and analyze their stability conditions. Some numerical simulations on three optimal evolutionary stability strategies of the industry development are used to verify the rationality of the model. We focus on multiple evolutionary stability strategies of the game model corresponding to different stages of industry development. The results show that the government should play a leading role in the development of the e-waste recycling industry. In the initial stage, the government should increase the subsidy for the recycler, increase the penalty on unqualified disassembly and properly control the cost of supervision. The government adjusts the reward-penalty-supervision joint mechanism to promote the e-waste recycling industry to develop into the middle stage. In the middle stage, the government should control the subsidy level to avoid over high financial burden from decreasing its supervision passion, while avoiding over low incentive from decreasing the recycler’s enthusiasm. The recycler should actively attach importance to the construction of collection channel, reduce collection cost and control the extra investment of upgrading dismantling. Adequate subsidy helps guide the consumer to choose green strategy, while the consumer should not always overestimate the residual values of used products in their hands and pay more attention to the environmentally sound treatment of used products. In the mature stage, the consumer actively protects environment and the recycler actively collects and disassembles the e-waste with compliance, thereby the government gradually relaxes the supervision and finally withdraws from the market.
Article
BACKGROUND Phosphor in discarded cathode ray tube (CRT) contained valuable metals, yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu), which are categorized as technology‐critical elements (TCEs) in terms of their supply risk and importance in emerging technologies. Microwave‐assisted leaching was applied to recover Y and Eu from waste CRT with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution as the leaching agent in the current study. It is aimed to develop an alternative leaching method of valuable metals from waste CRT phosphor. RESULTS The effects of microwave power and acid concentration on leaching efficiency of Y and Eu were investigated. Shrinking‐core model could describe the leaching kinetics of Y and Eu well and it was controlled by chemical reaction and diffusion through the product layer. Higher leaching efficiency was found when microwave power increased from 200 to 600 W, and was also found as acid concentration increased from 0.5 to 2 mol L⁻¹. Leaching efficiency of Y and Eu were 78.07% and 100%, respectively, for Y and Eu within 60 min at microwave power of 400 W, using 2 mol L⁻¹ of H2SO4 at 10 g L⁻¹ of solid to liquid ratio. Compared with conventional leaching, microwave‐assisted leaching is an alternative technology that could shorten reaction time significantly. CONCLUSIONS The concentration of acid and microwave power affected microwave‐assisted leaching of Y and Eu from waste CRT phosphor. Microwave‐assisted leaching could be an alternative process for rare earth elements recovery. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Regulations force to Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) management by recycling the materials by safe and suitable methods, due to generating massive amounts of WEEE. This research aims towards extract metals from waste random-access memory (RAM) devices in different solutions. In addition, the effect of different parameters such as reagent concentration, oxidant concentration and solid/liquid ratio were investigated with full factorial experimental design tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the extraction of gold and silver was 96.81% and 99.02% respectively under the following conditions: concentration of 2% iodine and 3% hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent, 5% solid/liquid ratio and leaching period of 2 h. An increase of the hydrogen peroxide concentration increased gold and silver extraction. While about 79.30% silver was found to be extracted using 2 M sulfuric acid, 1.5 M ammonium persulfate, 5% solid/liquid ratio and leaching period of 5 h, 79.43% copper was extracted by using ammonia instead of sulfuric acid under the same conditions. Ammonium persulfate was found to be a good oxidizing agent for sulfuric acid and ammonia leaching, since it provided selective extraction of silver and copper respectively. Two-step sequential bench scale reactor leaching tests were conducted to extract copper (98.73%), gold (99.98%) and silver (96.90%) selectively with high extraction. Two-step leaching approach was concluded as the most appropriate method for selective extraction of targeted metals from waste RAM devices.
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El aumento en la generación de residuos de aparatos eléctricos y electrónicos -RAEE- es proporcional a la evolución de la tecnología, conllevando implicaciones ambientales por la satisfacción de requerimientos de la sociedad moderna, el consumismo de tecnología y la apropiación incontrolada de materiales primas. Dado lo anterior surgen estrategias como la minería urbana y la economía circular, que permitirían mejorar la eficiencia en el uso de recursos y la reutilización de materiales; con la recolección, el tratamiento y el reciclado, al final de la vida útil de los RAEE, se contribuye a bajar la carga contaminante y a disminuir la extracción de minerales, a la cual está expuesto el medio ambiente.
Article
a b s t r a c t Waste of electric–electronic equipment (WEEE) with an annual growth rate of about 3–5% is the fastest growing waste stream in municipal wastes. Notwithstanding their environmental pollution potential, waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with their high content of base and precious metals, in particular, are regarded as a potential secondary resource when compared with ores. For the recovery of metals from WEEE, various treatment options based on conventional physical, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes are available. These process options with particular reference to hydromet-allurgical processes were reviewed in this study. With their relatively low capital cost, reduced environ-mental impact (e.g. no hazardous gases/dusts), potential for high metal recoveries and suitability for small scale applications, hydrometallurgical processes are promising options for the treatment of WEEE. Since the metals are present in native form and/or as alloys, an oxidative leaching process is required for the effective extraction of base and precious metals of interest. A two-stage process based on oxidative acid leaching of base metals (Cu in particular) followed by leaching of precious metals using cyanide, thiosulfate, thiourea or halide as lixiviant(s) can be suitably developed for the hydrometallurgical treat-ment of WEEE. However, further research is required to develop new, cost effective and environmentally friendly processes and/or refine existing ones for leaching and, in particular, downstream processes.
Solving the E-Waste Problem Annual
STEP, 2010. Solving the E-Waste Problem Annual Report 2010. < http://www.stepinitiative.org/tl_files/step/_documents/Annual_Report_2010.pdf>.
/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) (recast)
EU, 2012. Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) (recast). Official Journal of the European Union 24.07.2012, L 197/38.
Study on Critical Raw Materials at EU Level. Report of the Ad hoc Working Group on Defining Critical Raw Materials
EU, 2014. Study on Critical Raw Materials at EU Level. Report of the Ad hoc Working Group on Defining Critical Raw Materials. European Commission, May, 41 p.