Blockchain Technology: Principles and Applications



Handbook of Research on Digital Transformations edited by F. Xavier Olleros, and Majlinda ZheguA paraitre
... Blockchain technology is widely recognized as one of the most significant and innovative technological advancements in recent years. (Peters and Panayi 2016;Pilkington 2016;PricewaterhouseCoopers [PwC] 2015; Swan 2015) Originally created for Bitcoin trading, it provides a decentralized public ledger that enables secure transactions among unfamiliar parties without the need for a central authority. This technology has the potential to lower trading costs, expedite transaction settlement times, mitigate the risk of fraud, enhance the auditability of transactions, and improve monitoring capabilities. ...
... This technology has the potential to lower trading costs, expedite transaction settlement times, mitigate the risk of fraud, enhance the auditability of transactions, and improve monitoring capabilities. As it continues to evolve, (Swan 2015;Fanning and Centers 2016;Pilkington 2016;Yermack 2017). blockchain is being integrated into an ecosystem of emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, robotics, the Internet of Things (IoT), and crowdsourcing, which will form the technical foundation of future commerce. ...
... The potential impact of these technologies is extensive, with implications for a range of industries and sectors. (Sources: Peters and Panayi 2016;Pilkington 2016;PwC 2015;Swan 2015;Fanning and Centers 2016;Yermack 2017;Omohundro 2014;Deloitte 2016;Dorri, Kanhere, and Jurdak 2016;Ferrer 2016). The integration of blockchain technology has the potential to bring substantial benefits to the accounting and assurance professions, revolutionizing traditional practices and paradigms. ...
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Since its inception in 2009, blockchain has been touted as a revolutionary technology, potentially transforming various industries like the Internet. Originally used to record cryptocurrency transactions, blockchain has evolved to have diverse applications in areas such as banking, finance, insurance, voting systems, leasing contracts, and government services. However, the potential for blockchain in accounting and assurance remains relatively untapped. This paper aims to discuss how blockchain could revolutionize the accounting ecosystem by providing real-time, verifiable, and transparent financial information. Furthermore, blockchain has the potential to automate and improve auditing practices, resulting in more accurate and timely assurance processes.
... The public key is created from the private key and is available at the other agents, while the private key is only available at its owner. A secure hash algorithm (SHA), e.g., SHA-256 and SHA-512 [40], is used in the data encryption process of every data exchange between two agents of the BIoT. Consider the data exchanges between the j-th IoT device and a miner as an example. ...
... Note that the received digital signature at the miner can only be decrypted via the public key of the sender. It is worth mentioning that it is computationally intractable for an attacker to either find a different message which yields the same message digest or generate a valid digital signature for a fake message digest without the private key of the sender [12], [40]. Thus, the authenticity of the data package received at the miner and the identity of the sender can be validated and secured, which can prevent impersonation of the sender. ...
... Theorem 1 provides the analytic form of the optimal solution to the problem in (38). However, as shown in (39), (40), (41), and (42), the analytic expressions of P * (1) ...
Distributed detection over a blockchain-aided Internet of Things (BIoT) network in the presence of attacks is considered, where the integrated blockchain is employed to secure data exchanges over the BIoT as well as data storage at the agents of the BIoT. We consider a general adversary model where attackers jointly exploit the vulnerability of IoT devices and that of the blockchain employed in the BIoT. The optimal attacking strategy which minimizes the Kullback-Leibler divergence is pursued. It can be shown that this optimization problem is nonconvex, and hence it is generally intractable to find the globally optimal solution to such a problem. To overcome this issue, we first propose a relaxation method that can convert the original nonconvex optimization problem into a convex optimization problem, and then the analytic expression for the optimal solution to the relaxed convex optimization problem is derived. The optimal value of the relaxed convex optimization problem provides a detection performance guarantee for the BIoT in the presence of attacks. In addition, we develop a coordinate descent algorithm which is based on a capped water-filling method to solve the relaxed convex optimization problem, and moreover, we show that the convergence of the proposed coordinate descent algorithm can be guaranteed.
... The public key is available at the other nodes, while the private key is only available at its owner. A secure hash algorithm (SHA), e.g., SHA-256 and SHA-512 [30], is used in the data encryption process of every data exchange. To delineate the inter-node data exchanges, let's consider the data exchanges between a wallet and a miner as an example. ...
... Hence the miner can verify the identity of the sender to prevent impersonation of the sender. Moreover, the SHA and the digital signature algorithm can secure the data package transmission since it is computationally intractable for an attacker to either find a different message which yields the same message digest or generate a valid digital signature for a fake message digest without the private key of the sender [7], [30]. To this end, the authenticity of the data packages received at miners and the identities of senders can be validated and secured. ...
... It is well known that if an attacker owns more than half of the computational power of the whole network (i.e., I > 0.5) and launches a DSA on an infinitely-long blockchain, which is called a 51% attack, the probability of success in launching the 51% attack is always one [1]. However, as shown by Theorem 2, for the case where 0 < I < 1 which is generally true if the normalized hash rate of the attacker is between 0 and 1, È L (m, n) is a strictly increasing function of L, and therefore, we can see from (30) that È L (m, n) is strictly smaller than 1 even though I > 0.5. ...
Recently, blockchain has been applied in various fields to secure data exchanges and storage in decentralized systems. In a blockchain application where the task of the application which makes use of the data stored in a blockchain has to be accomplished by a time instant, the employed blockchain is essentially finitely-long. In this paper, we consider a general finitely-long blockchain model which is generalized from most existing works on finitely-long blockchain applications, and take the first step towards characterizing the vulnerability of finitely-long blockchains in securing data against double-spending attacks. For the first time, we develop a general closed-form expression for the probability of success in launching a double-spending attack on a finitely-long blockchain. This probability essentially characterizes the vulnerability of finitely-long blockchains. Then, we prove that the probability of success in launching a double-spending attack on a finitely-long blockchain is no greater than that on an infinitely-long blockchain, which implies that finitely-long blockchains are less vulnerable to double-spending attacks than infinitely-long blockchains. Moreover, we show that unlike infinitely-long blockchains which can be surely paralyzed by a 51% attack, finitely-long blockchains are more resistant to 51% attacks.
... The term 'BCT' has been used in the IT sphere since 2008. The first application it made was for Bitcoin (Nakamoto, 2008;Pilkington, 2016). ...
... In recent years, the number of cyber incidents has increased considerably where businesses gather personal information from their consumers and then store it, which is a significant aspect in facilitating the leakage of personal information in a cyber-attack. c BC-based databases, such as those that underpin cryptocurrencies are data vaults that allow customers financial transactions to be completed without revealing personal information Greater Transparency (Apte & Petrovsky, 2016;Boukis, 2020;Chang et al., 2019;Fan et al., 2020;Francisco & Swanson, 2018;Gatteschi et al., 2019;Handfield & Bechtel, 2002;Kshetri, 2018;Montecchi et al., 2019;Pilkington, 2016) In a fast-paced economy, transparency can be a double-edged sword. For today's consumers, brand openness, trust, and ethics are essential. ...
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The potential of blockchain technology (BCT) to modify and innovates established business structures and frameworks has received widespread attention. Academia and businesses are becoming increasingly curious about how this technology could be used to improve and refine consumer services and operations. Despite the growing popularity of blockchain research in consumer services, there remains a dearth of detailed summaries in the literature. Hence, this bibliometric analysis, combined with a systematic literature review (SLR) using SPAR‐4‐SLR protocol with the theories, characteristics, contexts, and methods framework (A hybrid review), aims to convey qualitative and quantitative knowledge on the ever‐evolving subject of blockchain application in consumer services in an organized manner. Specifically, this article analyses: (1) the current publication trends in studies devoted to blockchain‐based applications for consumers, (2) the most important publications and themes of research in this field, (3) the evolution of blockchain in consumer service over the years, and the most current trends in this field, (4) the advantages and challenges of incorporating BCT into consumer services, (5) gaps in the existing literature that future researchers should investigate. In addition, this review also describes the widely used theories, characteristics, and methods in the application of blockchain in consumer service research by examining the most applied theories, methods, constructs, and study contexts and paving the way for new research directions. The review includes 417 documents after searching for scholarly publications in two databases (Web of Science and Scopus) and choosing documents based on their relevance to the stated goals.
... Nowadays, the utilization of blockchain technology is in increase day after day [1]. Person use of blockchain technology has also remarkably increased since 2016. ...
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This study focuses on the load balancing of the transactions in the blockchain. The problem is how to assign these transactions to the blocks. The objective is to guarantee a load balancing of the workload in the time of blocks. The proposed problem is an NP-hard one. To face the hardness of the studied problem, the challenge is to develop algorithms that solve the problem approximately. Finding an approximate solution is a real challenge. In this paper, nine algorithms are proposed. These algorithms are based on the dispatching-rules method, randomization approach, clustering algorithms, and iterative method. The proposed algorithms return approximate solutions in a remarkable time. In addition, in this paper, a novel architecture composed of blocks is proposed. This architecture adds the component "Balancer". This component is responsible to call the best-proposed algorithm and solve the scheduling problem in a polynomial time. In addition, the proposed work helps users to solve the problem of big data concurrency. These algorithms are coded and compared. The performance of these algorithms is tested over three classes of instances. These classes are generated based on uniform distribution. The total number of instances tested is 1350. The average gap, execution time, and the percentage of the best-reached value are used as metrics to measure the performance of the proposed algorithms. Experimental results show the performance of these algorithms and a comparison between them is discussed. The experimental results show that the best algorithm is best-mi-transactions iterative multi-choice with 93.9% in an average running time of 0.003 s.
... Blockchain Technology is one of the innovative and emerging technologies that evolved in the past few years (Peters & Panayi, 2015;Pilkington, 2016;PWC, 2015;Swan, 2015). Blockchain is one of the Industry 4.0 emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence, the Internet of Things, robotics, and many more. ...
Digital supply chains employ many technologies, each influencing the environmental performance of the supply chain network to some degree. The technological ecosystem includes Additive Manufacturing (AM), Artificial Intelligence (AI), big data, Blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT), and robotics, among others. Technologies in digital supply chains have brought many opportunities and new challenges to sustainability in supply chain management. Sustainability in supply chains refers to adopting processes and technologies that minimize the environmental impact. Circular Economy (CE) supports I4,0 and improves sustainability. Moreover, sustainability applies to the different activities of supply chains, from sourcing to the last mile delivery, at various echelons to minimize the environmental impact. This chapter provides a holistic view of technologies in digital supply chains and their contribution to environmental sustainability.
... Current participants can determine future entries based totally on hard and fast policies established using the network initiator. Pilkington (2016) Regulators can provide licenses for participation. Alternatively, since the blockchain is decentralized, a consortium may want to decide whether an entity joins the community. ...
In a world impacted by disruptive events, the importance of incorporating resilience into supply chain design has become paramount. Especially, the risks associated with food supply chains can cause severe consequences directly impacting the health and well-being of societies. Though the Australian food supply chains are notably efficient and profitable, they can no longer narrowly focus on the conventional “triangle” of time, cost, and quality. Rather, they need to consider an additional, new triangle of design attributes: resilience, sustainability, and trust to assure food accessibility and availability during unprecedented events. This chapter aims to analyze different types of risks (health, natural disasters, drought, geopolitics, and technology) threatening Australian food commodities (grain, horticulture, dairy, red meat, seafood, and wine) and explore the potential role of digital technologies as enablers of resiliency in food supply chain.
... Current participants can determine future entries based totally on hard and fast policies established using the network initiator. Pilkington (2016) Regulators can provide licenses for participation. Alternatively, since the blockchain is decentralized, a consortium may want to decide whether an entity joins the community. ...
In this book, a risk management approach starts off by discussing important issues related to managing supply chain disruption risks from various perspectives during VUCA times. It explores the essence and principles relating to managing these risks and provides the framework and multi-goal model groups for managing such unknown-unknown risks and subsequent disruptions at a global scale. The book explores and presents the latest developments across different emerging topics in supply chain risk and disruption management. These include (i) an overview of supply chain risk, and disruption management tools, techniques, and approaches, (ii) a review on uncertainty modeling for decentralized supply chain systems, (iii) supply chain deep uncertainties and risks - the 'new normal', (iv) emergent technologies for supply chain risk and disruption management, (v) supply chain resilience strategies for times of unprecedented uncertainty, (vi) the role of blockchain in developing supply chain resilience against disruptions, (vii) a qualitative study on supply chain risk management adopting blockchain technology, (viii) assessment of risks and risk management for agriculture supply chain, (ix) resilience of agri-food supply chains: Australian developments after a decade of supply and demand shocks, (x) prioritization of risks in the pharmaceutical supply chains (xi) improving medical supply chain disruption management with the blockchain technology, and (xii) impacts of resilience practices on supply chain sustainability. The book contributes significantly to the growing body of knowledge concerning the theory and practice of managing supply chain risks and disruptions in strategic management, operations and supply chain, and sustainability literature. It presents contemporary, innovative and latest developments in applying smart management tools, techniques and approaches for managing supply chain risk and disruption and future-proofing supply chains to become agile, resilient and sustainable.
... 71 It enables the creation of decentralized and secure digital information which is useful for hospital transactions and store value. 72 Blockchain can also be used to track the movement of goods through the supply chain, helping to ensure the authenticity and quality of products. 73 For identity management, blockchain serves to securely store and manage digital identities, enabling individuals and organizations to prove their Figure 7. Blockchain in genomic toxicology. ...
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Toxicology is undergoing a digital revolution, with mobile apps, sensors, artificial intelligence (AI), and machine learning enabling better record-keeping, data analysis, and risk assessment. Additionally, computational toxicology and digital risk assessment have led to more accurate predictions of chemical hazards, reducing the burden of laboratory studies. Blockchain technology is emerging as a promising approach to increase transparency, particularly in the management and processing of genomic data related with food safety. Robotics, smart agriculture, and smart food and feedstock offer new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and evaluating data, while wearable devices can predict toxicity and monitor health-related issues. The review article focuses on the potential of digital technologies to improve risk assessment and public health in the field of toxicology. By examining key topics such as blockchain technology, smoking toxicology, wearable sensors, and food security, this article provides an overview of how digitalization is influencing toxicology. As well as highlighting future directions for research, this article demonstrates how emerging technologies can enhance risk assessment communication and efficiency. The integration of digital technologies has revolutionized toxicology and has great potential for improving risk assessment and promoting public health.
... Numerous blockchain solutions have been discussed in the literature throughout the years. Three categories, i.e., Public, Private, and Consortium, could be used to characterize these blockchain solutions [6]. ...
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Plasma therapy is an extensively used treatment for critically unwell patients. For this procedure, a legitimate plasma donor who can continue to supply plasma after healing is needed. However, significant dangers are associated with supply management, such as the ambiguous provenance of plasma and the spread of infected or subpar blood into medicinal fabrication. Also, from an ideological standpoint, less powerful people may be exploited throughout the contribution process. Moreover, there is a danger to the logistics system because there are now just some plasma shippers. This research intends to investigate the blockchain-based solution for blood plasma to facilitate authentic plasma transfer. Blockchain parameters, including electronic identification, chain code, and certified ledgers, have the potential to exert a substantial, profound influence on the distribution and implementation process of blood banks. To understand the practical ramifications of blockchain, the current study provides a proof of concept approach that aims to simulate the procedural code of modern plasma distribution ecosystems using a blockchain-based architecture. The agent-based modeling used in the testing and evaluation mimics the supply chain to assess the blockchain's feasibility, advantages, and constraints for the plasma.
... Perusahaan FinTech telah mengembangkan praktik aplikasi untuk meningkatkan efisiensi dalam layanan keuangan di berbagai layanan, termasuk (tetapi tidak terbatas pada): pembayaran tanpa kontak dan instan; jasa pengelolaan aset; investasi dan saran layanan keuangan; dan manajemen/penyimpanan informasi dan data (Schimel, 2016 (Pilkington, 2016). ...
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Currently in Indonesia, financial technology (fintech) services have developed rapidly. The development of fintech in Indonesia has been responded positively by several regulations issued by the Financial Services Authority (OJK) and Bank Indonesia (BI). In addition to conventional fintech, sharia fintech in Indonesia has also begun to develop significantly, especially since the DSN-MUI fatwa on Sharia Information Technology-Based Financing Services (Fatwa No.117/DSN-MUI/IX/2018). Although sharia fintech has begun to develop, OJK has not fully accommodated the DSN-MUI Fatwa as a binding regulation. The DPS institution as a supervisor for Islamic financial institution entities as well as for start-ups such as fintech that operates according to sharia must follow the regulations that have been decided by the DSN-MUI so that these entities can operate in sharia and this is part of compliance with sharia compliance). This study investigates the Shariah compliance status of financial technology services. The research method used is the library research method with a literature review approach. The results of the study show that currently fintech operating in sharia still needs stronger legal instruments so that compliance with sharia is truly carried out comprehensively and not only applies a kind of label that is run by sharia, so that the existence of fintech and customer trust (consumers can be maintained.
... (Operations Manager, Firm O) Based on these findings, supply chain partners may need to work together to consider cutting-edge technologies that have the potential to change supply chains and contribute to strong responsibility and sustainability, as suggested by Gurzawska (2020). One of these technologies is blockchain, a decentralised online database that enables various parties to securely access a master ledger of data and transactions (Pilkington, 2016). Blockchain, for instance, has the potential to change the way we make, advertise, buy, and consume our commodities and alter the supply chain. ...
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Various disruptions to supply chains have occurred over the years, distorting the flow of materials, goods, services, and money. The COVID-19 pandemic, for example, has had an unprecedented impact on supply chain activities, and the current Russian invasion of Ukraine has also resulted in massive disruptions in food, oil and gas, and other commodities around the world. Such challenges can result in new realities, shifts in relationships and network structures, behavioural adjustments, and unexpected actions by supply chain actors, all of which can contribute to unethical behaviour. This chapter presents and overview of how unethical practices are likely to emerge when supply chain disruptions occur and how supply chain partners combat such practices. We focus on supply chain disruptions, responsible and ethical procurement and supply chain management, and behavioural supply chain management. The following emerging unethical practices are examined as a result of disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic: (1) supply chain fraud, (2) supply chain opportunism, and (3) display of unfair and unjust behaviour. This chapter also describes three ways to combat such practices: (1) long-term collaborative relationship formation, (2) investment in technology and new methods of operation, and (3) investment in human resource development in supply chains. The insights provided may assist practitioners in developing capabilities and strategies to improve ethical practices in their supply chain relationships.
... Blockchain technologies have the inherent capability of recording in a distributed ledger of encrypted blocks, a set of transactions involving multiple parties. Because the ledger is maintained in a distributed manner, the proposal of a new block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block and has to be broadcasted and consensualized by the network of peer participants who keep their own copy of the immutable, time stamped ledger [17]. Self-executing computational agreements in the form of smart contracts can also be run on top of a blockchain. ...
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The production of self-executing computational agreements in the form of smart contracts remains a manual coding endeavour that hinders the widespread adoption of solutions that run on top of a distributed ledger technology such as blockchain. We explore the automatic generation of smart contracts based on a visual composition of reusable action rule specifications and other elements from the action model of the DEMO methodology. Several design and implementation considerations entail this choice of SC generation, all of which motivated a smart contract-enabled extension of DEMO’s way of modelling. The main research contribution is a foundation of synergistic knowledge accompanied by an extension proposal involving DEMO and smart contracts that can be built upon in future business cases where enterprise interoperability supported by blockchain technology is a requirement.KeywordsSmart contractsEnterprise engineeringDEMOAction modelAction rule specification
... One type of security technology is a blockchain (BC). The security of blockchain systems is vital for potential users [5]. BCs have attracted researchers' attention, as they believe that this technology will bring about extraordinary changes and opportunities in the world of industries. ...
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Nowadays, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are widely used for collecting, communicating, and sharing information in various applications. Due to its limited resources in terms of computation, power, battery lifetime, and memory storage for sensor nodes, it is difficult to add confidentiality and integrity security features. It is worth noting that blockchain (BC) technology is one of the most promising technologies, because it provides security, avoids centralization, and a trusted third party. However, to apply BCs in WSNs is not an easy task because BC is typically resource-hungry for energy, computation, and memory. In this paper, the additional complication of adding BC in WSNs is compensated by an energy minimization strategy, which basically depends on minimizing the processing load of generating the blockchain hash value, and encrypting and compressing the data that travel from the cluster-heads to the base station to reduce the overall traffic, leading to reduced energy per node. A specific (dedicated) circuit is designed to implement the compression technique, generate the blockchain hash values and data encryption. The compression algorithm is based on chaotic theory. A comparison of the power consumed by a WSN using a blockchain implementation with and without the dedicated circuit, illustrates that the hardware design contributes considerably to reduce the consumption of power. When simulating both approaches, the energy consumed when replacing functions by hardware decreases up to 63%.
... By definition, blockchain technology is an internet-based technology that provides attributes of visible transparency in operation transactions among all members of the supply chain. The transactional data could be combined in a chronological sequence forming a chain and also being able to share among members [12]. Furthermore, Hirata et al. [13] suggest that blockchain technology could provide consumers and businesses to understand production sustainability better and minor the possibility of environmental damage, and illegal or unethical products. ...
Due to the advancement in network technology, consumer behavior has changed gradually. In face of continually developing technology and the upsurge of environmental awareness, the negative environmental impacts generated from the production process and logistics are gradually being valued. In this research, a mathematical model has been built in consideration for a manufacturer with green investments, an online sales platform with blockchain technology, and consumers with environmental awareness in correlation to a supply chain. From the manufacturer’s perspective, decisions on distribution channels, green investment, and pricing will be explored with illustrations of the influence made on the supply chain.
... Accordingly, blockchain technology can reliably and transparently record transactions reliably owing to its decentralized architecture. Considering the decentralized paradigm of IoT systems, blockchain has emerged as a promising solution to ensure IoT security [16]. ...
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The Internet of Things (IoT) continues to attract attention in the context of computational resource growth. Various disciplines and fields have begun to employ IoT integration technologies in order to enable smart applications. The main difficulty in supporting industrial development in this scenario involves potential risk or malicious activities occurring in the network. However, there are tensions that are difficult to overcome at this stage in the development of IoT technology. In this situation, the future of security architecture development will involve enabling automatic and smart protection systems. Due to the vulnerability of current IoT devices, it is insufficient to ensure system security by implementing only traditional security tools such as encryption and access control. Deep learning and blockchain technology has now become crucial, as it provides distinct and secure approaches to IoT network security. The aim of this survey paper is to elaborate on the application of deep learning and blockchain technology in the IoT to ensure secure utility. We first provide an introduction to the IoT, deep learning, and blockchain technology, as well as a discussion of their respective security features. We then outline the main obstacles and problems of trusted IoT and how blockchain and deep learning may be able to help. Next, we present the future challenges in integrating deep learning and blockchain technology into the IoT. Finally, as a demonstration of the value of blockchain in establishing trust, we provide a comparison between conventional trust management methods and those based on blockchain.
... Trust is generally defined as positive expectations towards someone else's behavior and actions (Thomas, 1998). In a purely transactional context (e.g., financial exchanges), blockchain technology is expected to increase trust by enhancing the transparency and accountability of transactions (Atzori, 2015;Pilkington, 2016). However, in complex collaborative contexts where individuals are used to jointly build norms, blockchain might undermine trust between collaboration partners, who are often friends or close colleagues (e.g. ...
... Inspired by blockchain, which is traceable, tamper-proof, and transparent [17][18][19][20][21], we introduce blockchain technique into the administrative punishment process under market supervision and design a system to address the above challenges. ...
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Administrative punishment is one of the most important ways of enforcing administrative law in the field of market supervision in China. However, at the current stage, the abuse of data access permission and the difficulty in managing timeliness in administrative punishment still remain unresolved, which hinders the legalization and standardization of the administrative punishment system. Inspired by blockchain, which is inherently traceable, tamper-proof, and transparent, we design a system, punishment supervisor (PEATS), which is suitable for administrative punishment and technically overcomes the defects of the traditional administrative punishment procedure. To prevent the abuse of data access permission, we innovatively introduce the ACG (authorization control gateway) to verify the access permission of users based on the records in the MSD (market supervision department) contract. To ensure the timeliness of the administrative punishment procedure, we design a special case contract that has the same status as the general case processing state of administrative punishment to track case progress on the blockchain. We experiment and evaluate PEATS in terms of functionality and performance and find that PEATS provides traceability, transparency, and timeliness assurance. In addition, PEATS has 80.9% of the throughput of a traditional server with no more than an additional 3% latency and at most 60 KB additional storage space per case.
... IOTA differs significantly from bitcoin because it is not developed based on BC technology. To facilitate low-cost micropayments, the developers of IOTA have developed an entirely different architecture using directed acyclic graph (DAG) known as tangling [9]. ...
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Blockchain (BC) and Information for Operational and Tactical Analysis (IOTA) are distributed ledgers that record a huge number of transactions in multiple places at the same time using decentralized databases. Both BC and IOTA facilitate Internet-of-Things (IoT) by overcoming the issues related to traditional centralized systems, such as privacy, security, resources cost, performance, and transparency. Still, IoT faces the potential challenges of real-time processing, resource management, and storage services. Edge computing (EC) has been introduced to tackle the underlying challenges of IoT by providing real-time processing, resource management, and storage services nearer to IoT devices on the network's edge. To make EC more efficient and effective, solutions using BC and IOTA have been devoted to this area. However, BC and IOTA came with their pitfalls. This survey outlines the pitfalls of BC and IOTA in EC and provides research directions to be investigated further.
... As mentioned earlier, while Bitcoin uses SHA-256, Ethereum uses ethash. A cryptographic hash function is extremely difficult to revert known as the "collision resistance" property of a hash [11]. Figure 3 shows the Blockchain structure of Bitcoin. ...
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As the Blockchain technology develops, more and more cryptocurrencies were invented after Bitcoin. This paper introduces the technology of Blockchain, including the basic concept of Blockchain and how Blockchain works to allow decentralization of trades; The system of Ethereum and the cryptocurrency Ether (ETH), how it was invented, what was the central mission of its invention, as well as how it differs from Bitcoin and how can it allow more decentralized application to be developed, which in turn illustrates what it means and where its values lie. As all cryptocurrency markets have a huge fall in value in the year 2022, as shown in figure 1, many people are losing faith in cryptocurrency. Many believe that since it is entirely digital and non-government based, it has no actual value, that the entire cryptocurrency market is a bubble. Meanwhile, cryptocurrencies introduce a very revolutionary concept, which is the decentralization of applications, and this decentralization can apply to many things, leading to a great technological structure modification, even for social structures. Because of its anonymous and democratic nature, there is also always going to be demand for cryptocurrencies. Thus, this paper also analyzes the expectations of cryptocurrency, mainly Ether, and the predictions of its future development.
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In recent years, with the rise of digital currency, its underlying technology, blockchain, has become increasingly well-known. This technology has several key characteristics, including decentralization, time-stamped data, consensus mechanism, traceability, programmability, security, and credibility, and block data is essentially tamper-proof. Due to these characteristics, blockchain can address the shortcomings of traditional financial institutions. As a result, this emerging technology has garnered significant attention from financial intermediaries, technology-based companies, and government agencies. This article offers an overview of the fundamentals of blockchain technology and its various applications. The introduction defines blockchain and explains its fundamental working principles, emphasizing features such as decentralization, immutability, and transparency. The article then traces the evolution of blockchain, from its inception in cryptocurrency to its development as a versatile tool with diverse potential applications. The main body of the article explores fundamentals of block chain systems, its limitations, various applications, applicability etc . Finally, the study concludes by discussing the present state of blockchain technology and its future potential, as well as the challenges that must be surmounted to unlock its full potential.
The blockchain technology has attracted attention due to its characteristics of anonymity, openness, decentralization, traceability, and tamper-resistance. However, with the development of the blockchain industry, various financial fraud activities have also emerged on the blockchain. Effective regulation is a necessary condition for the healthy development of the blockchain ecosystem. A comprehensive blockchain anti-fraud prototype system is a system that combines multiple technologies to achieve fraud detection and anti-fraud techniques, aimed at addressing the existing fraud issues in the blockchain field. In this paper, we design and implement an anti-fraud system prototype based on a graph database platform and neural network model. The prototype system has the characteristics of fast, accurate, and reliable, and can effectively combat blockchain fraud activities by identifying blockchain transaction patterns and detecting illegal transaction behavior using new heuristic learning methods and graph neural network methods to detect frequent frauds. The system monitors and detects fraudulent activities such as phishing, ICO, price manipulation, money laundering, and illegal fundraising. The research results of this paper can provide an effective solution for anti-fraud work in the blockchain field and provide technical support for future wider applications.
Current incentive mechanisms for construction safety highly rely on intermediaries and massive paperwork, which lay a foundation for opportunistic behavior and poor performance in the long run. As a solution, this study introduces an automatic incentive mechanism that rewards contractors with Fungible Tokens (FTs) and Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs). Visual data of construction sites is processed through a computer-vision module, which reports safety performance. These reports are evaluated in a network of smart contracts, using a decentralized oracle network (DON), and token-based rewards are determined and distributed accordingly. Users can redeem their FT rewards or NFTs through an interactive front-end portal. The proposed method is successfully implemented through a synthetic case study to prove its feasibility. The proposed decentralized application (Dapp) provides a transparent, traceable, and immutable incentive mechanism that improves trust among stakeholders, and can be used as a template and expanded to fields beyond construction safety.
This paper presents a conceptual framework to apply blockchain technology to two implementation areas in a supply chain. It specifically intends to provide product tracking information to all stakeholders in the product development, assembly and subsequent delivery phases, manage information of supplied components to perform the assemblies where it is included, and track injected components. Information flow and exchange are supported by blockchain. This article contributes to this emerging technology by providing an overview of blockchain and its application to an industrial supply chain by presenting the real problems encountered in the chain, examines the implications of information centralization, traceability, and transparency, and identifies some potential challenges in the work performed by collaborating companies in quality, receipt, and shipment of goods terms, among others.KeywordsBlockchainManufacturingSupply chain
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Blockchain technology provides an entirely new way to record, process, and store financial transactions and information, which has the potential to change the accounting profession fundamentally. This paper examines the effects of blockchain technology, knowledgeable blockchain-based in accounting professionals, and findings on the potential to shape the future of innovation by adopting blockchain. Descriptive statistics, one-sample t-tests, correlation, and regression, were used to analyze the data. Cronbach's Alpha reliability testing has been done to assess the validity of data gathered from primary surveys. The study found that these technologies increase the control of large firms and that auditors were substantially more selective than accountants regarding their desired effects directly related to blockchain technology. The knowledge and involvement of accountants and auditors will assist blockchain development. The impact of blockchain on the accounting profession helps to increase understanding of the potential benefits of blockchain technology for the accountant and auditor profession.
In today’s digital environment, the voting system has moved from paper based to a digital system. A digital e-voting system has many properties such as transparency, decentralization, irreversibility, and non-repudiation. The growth in the digital e-voting system raises many security and transparency issues. In this paper, we used the blockchain technology in the digital electronic voting system to solve the security issues and ful?ll the system requirements. It offers new opportunities to deploy a secure e-voting system in any organization or country. The solution is far better as compared to other solutions because it is a decentralized system, containing the results in the form of bit-coins, having different locations. We will also analyze the security of our proposed voting system, which shows our protocol is more secure as compared to other solutions. The paper proposes a novel electronic voting system based on block chain that addresses some of the limitations in existing systems and evaluates some of the popular blockchain frameworks for the purpose of constructing a blockchain based e-voting system. In particular, we evaluate the potential of distributed ledger technologies through the description of a case study namely, the process of an election, and the implementation of a blockchain based application, which improves the security and decreases the cost of hosting a nation wide election.
Conference Paper
Blockchain was initially designed as a means of enabling the trust-less cryptocurrency Bitcoin, but as more industries and stakeholders view the technology as a viable alternative to existing business solutions and a potential disruptor of mature industries, it has since moved beyond its original intent. A blockchain can be used in a wide variety of ways in real time. The functioning of almost all sectors of the economy depends on handling an infinite number of tasks. As a result, in recent years, blockchain has become a popular technique in not just cryptocurrency, but also healthcare, energy, insurance, supply chain management, cybersecurity, and copyrights. Here, we examine the numerous applications of blockchain and how it can improve management in the sectors the technology is being applied to.
The used vehicle market has long been in India, but due to the danger involved in buying an old vehicle without a guarantee and the fact that it lacks certification, it has not been able to make a significant vehicle in the vehicle sector. Purchasing a second-hand vehicle is a risky decision since it is impossible to judge a vehicle just on the basis of appearance if you don't know anything about its history. Many individuals buy vehicles without looking into their past, which frequently results in them getting into legal difficulties. Some people offer vehicles that have been reported stolen with no prior history. Due to them, consumers who wish to purchase a quality used car are duped, which puts them in legal trouble. A solution to this problem is to use a platform that offers the consumer a reliable approach to looking up information about a vehicle, where all vehicle-related data is added in a safe, unchangeable manner. Thus, this issue may be solved via blockchain technology. We are trying to create an Android app that will use blockchain technology to store previous owner data in such a way that it cannot be altered.
Blockchain technology is used by developers to establish computational confidence in their goods. As a result, organizations and individuals who may not know or trust one another may collaborate quickly and cheaply. You can create and exchange value, establish identity, and check with public distributed ledgers, and the blockchain server is unique in that it achieves the same result as the most widely used public blockchains (such as Bitcoin or Ethereum). These advantages are due to the underlying hash-graph consensus technique and the global enterprise governing body that now owns and manages our proposed project’s efficient blockchain nodes. We will execute NFT transactions using our hedera-optimized blockchain network. This recommended approach combines a variety of areas, including encryption, banking, and financial transactions. The introductory portion below describes the study that allows NFT transactions in the hedera-optimized network phase of the three. This is the first eminent research on the NFT Transaction on the blockchain approach that we are aware of. By adopting an efficient method between data centers and HCS technology, it is possible to assess our multichain approach to banking and financial circumstances with ease. This technique for computational confidence in banking and financial situations is both economical and effective. The incident response and prevention team can quickly enhance any difficult and complicated procedure. It falls under the capability of NFT with blockchain to act rapidly and decide in a perplexed condition. It offers the easiest, most efficient route throughout the transaction phase for interacting with potential customers, integrating test-net, main-net, and mirror-net. With the simplicity of calculation and computation on this enhanced blockchain server, it draws new customers in the future.KeywordsBlockchainNFT (non-fungible token)SecurityScalabilityAuthenticationDecentralized securityHBARToken service
In today’s highly developed, massive corporate offices or industries, it is difficult to personally evaluate every employee’s performance and recommend them for promotion. It has only been the subject of a few research projects, but those who have worked on it have created algorithms for predicting promotions as well as the fundamental traits and job qualities for each person. The incorporation of extra attributes allows our model to do more with fewer strategies. The goal of this research is to provide a machine learning-based system for predicting whether or not an employee will be promoted. We do this by offering a linear model that offers a respectable level of accuracy at a cheap cost. This process takes into account the training record, annual performance review score, length of service, key performance indicators, and other elements of the employee. Due to the limited number of classifications, a linear classifier was utilized to train the model. This linear classifier completes 50 iterations with an accuracy rate of 92.6%. Using this method, you may be able to acquire an answer on the likelihood of promoting any employee. This software might prove to be the saving grace for an organization’s HR department.KeywordsMLEpochsLinear classifierKey performance indicatorsAccuracy
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Within financial technology, Blockchain is a topic that is receiving a lot of attention and discussion. There has been a meteoric rise in engagement and recent studies on this technology. The mainframe, personal computers, the Internet, and mobile applications follow the breakthrough in the history of computing. In qualitative research, the investigation was synthesized utilizing the documentary approach, including content analysis for a review article. The results reveal that Blockchain Technology is getting a foothold not only in the financial industries but is also likely to disrupt other areas like healthcare, real estate, the legal industry, security, government, education, rentals and ride-sharing, charities and aid organizations, and politics. Currently, several projects are researching the possibility of implementing the Blockchain as a structure to support them; as a result, we will soon see that it truly becomes the technology of the future. Furthermore, qualitative interviews or focus group discussions could give more insight into details. In addition, a quantitative approach for further research could provide a generalized explanation.
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The price of a house is increased every year according to the location. It indicates the current economic situation so there is a need for a system to predict house sales in the future for both buyer and the seller. Here we use a dataset of Pune with more than 68,613 entries of train data and test data of housing sales in India. This analysis includes the effect of markdowns on sales and the extent of effects on the sales by size, price, area etc. has been analysed using different machine learning algorithms. Estimating home sales can help the developer determine the selling price of the home and the best time for the buyer to purchase the home. The output values of the algorithms are estimated based on the input characteristics from the data presented in the system and the analysis is a process. Physical conditions, concept and location are the three factors that determine the selling price of a property.
Abstract: The study aims to understand the reflection of the use of blockchain technology on the profession of external audit in Libya through a survey of the opinions of academics in the field of accounting in universities and higher institutes in the eastern region of Libya. The study relied on a questionnaire specifically designed to survey the opinions of the participants, where 100 questionnaires were distributed, 94 questionnaires were received, and 91 questionnaires were valid for analysis. The study concluded that there is a reflection of the use of blockchain technology on the profession of external audit in Libya through its reflection on audit offices, audit tests, changing the role of the auditor, and the responsibilities of the auditor. This result came due to the new concepts imposed by the use of blockchain technology and thus its increased use, especially concerning external auditing. The study recommended focusing on understanding blockchain technology by training auditors in audit offices on this technology and understanding the change caused by blockchain technology in the external audit by academics and auditors before applying it, without neglecting the role of the Association of Accountants and Certified Auditors in issuing laws and regulations for the external audit to improve the use of blockchain technology in the Libyan environment. Keywords: Blockchain Technology, External Audit, Responsibility of the external auditor.
There is an increasing demand for decarbonisation due to environmental and climate concerns, which has led to research efforts being focused on improving the rate of renewable energy integration. Energy markets are promising mechanisms to promote this noble cause by encouraging distributed renewable energy generation whilst providing auxiliary energy management services. Despite these advantages, numerous challenges hinder its widescale adoption. Facilitating energy exchanges through blockchain technology can overcome some of these challenges. The concept is relatively new, with visible research gaps. This paper promotes awareness regarding the applicability of blockchain technology in the energy market industry through a comprehensive literature re- view and a conceptual peer-to-peer energy exchange simulation. Various research opportunities have also been provided.KeywordsDecentralisationDemand managementPower marketSmart contract
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Spin-transfer torque (STT) random-access memory is the most promising new memory, with great scalability, fast access speed, and non-volatility. We present various techniques that are suitable for STT Random Access Memory (RAM) in this paper. The spin-transfer torque in magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) can be improved by using quantum well states in the barrier. Double barrier MTJ consumes low power as compared to single barrier MTJ. To reduce the bit error rate and enhance the sensing margin dynamic dual-reference sensing scheme is preferred. The non-destructive self-reference read technique (NSRS) is used to overwhelm the bit-to-bit resistance variations in STT-RAM. Multilevel SOT-MRAM is preferable to store two bits without requiring any extra area. For high-speed read operations, a voltage sense amplifier (VsenseAmp) with a specific perpendicular MTJ cell is preferred. The voltage-driven NSRS technique improves device tolerance while maintaining a low read latency. The dual-source-line-biasing technique is preferred for sensing accuracy. The dynamic current injector reduces the slow write current pulse in STT-RAM. Toggle spin torques—MRAM is an excellent choice for upper level caches when rapid operation and long write durability are required. The spin-transfer torque in MTJ can be improved by using quantum well states in the barrier.KeywordsMagnetic tunnel junctionMagnetic field sensorMagnetic random-access memories (MRAM)STT
This book takes a diverse perspective on the blockchain-driven supply chain and attempts to delineate its various facets. The book primarily focuses on 12 significant aspects of blockchain-driven supply chain. Chapter 1 of the book focuses on explaining as to what is the architecture of the blockchain and blockchain-driven supply chain. The chapter briefly describes the blockchain and focuses on using Blockchain Technology in Smart Contracts and Supply Chains. We all know that the functioning of a supply chain builds on three essential flows: materials, information, and finances. Keeping in view these three flows, the first chapter explains the artefact of Blockchain-Enabled Smart Contracts. The chapter can help businesses understand how blockchain can improve contractual processes and make procurement and payments a swift transaction. Chapter 2 focuses on understanding the relevance of the antecedents of supply chain collaboration in the era of BCT and highlights the opportunities and challenges for BCT implementation in SC networks. It reviews some of the critical antecedents of SCC considering the BCT implementation and explains how SC partners may leverage these technologies to enhance the network’s collaborative advantage. It contributes to the domain of SCC by extending the perception of underlying constructs of SCC when viewed in conjunction with the BCSCM and motivating the researchers to reconsider the idea of SCC to benefit the SC partners in the network. Chapter 3 builds on the argument that scholastic literature is ambiguous on the impacts of BCT on SC resilience directly and through other essential strategies like SC mapping. The chapter explores blockchain-driven supply chain’s influence on supply chain resilience. It operationalizes supply chain resilience as the constituent of 3Rs (Readiness, Response, and Recovery) and suggests a framework linking blockchain-driven supply chain with these three cords of supply chain resilience. The chapter can help understand the innate complexities associated with BCSCM and SC resilience. Another facet of resilience has been explained in the later part of the book in Chap. 14, with a special focus on the role of a firm’s intellectual capital in capitalizing BCSCM for Supply Chain Resilience. This chapter can help reader understand the role of the human in the supply chain. One of the long-standing issues firms are dealing with is inventory visibility and management. Despite significant development in supply chain management technologies, many aspects of inventory management are yet to be resolved. In this regard, Chap. 4 of this book explains the instrumentality of blockchain technology in managing the supply chain. A brief discussion on the role of blockchain in inventory management has been given in the chapter, followed by recent developments in the field. Adopting blockchain in supply chain management is a challenging task that greatly depends upon the employees in the organization. To make the employees ready to accept the change, leaders have to adopt transformational leadership. Using leadership, organizations can provide the vision to employees to pursue the adoption of blockchain technology. Additionally, through leadership, organizations can address individual roadblocks hampering the adoption of blockchain. Chapters 5 and 6 have been allocated to explore the role of leadership in blockchain adoption. Chapter 5 deals with the transformational leadership-blockchain adoption paradox and explain what could be the most viable leadership style for blockchain adoption. Whereas Chap. 6 reviews the extant literature on the linkages among leadership, blockchain, and supply chain management. This chapter explains how businesses may successfully introduce and integrate blockchain technology into the management of their supply networks through the role of leadership. As mentioned earlier, traceability has been a core issue supply chains are dealing with. Be it the horse-meat scandal or the COVID-led disruptions, the visibility has always been an issue if the supply chain managers. In this regard, Chap. 7 undertakes a thorough discussion on supply chain traceability with a special focus on the food sector and highlights some of the loopholes in existing technologies, which can be overcome by BCT. The chapter can be a wonderful read for those interested in the application of blockchain for SC traceability. Firms heavily rely on their supply chains for innovation especially open innovation. Chapters 8 and 9 of the book have been dedicated to explaining the diverse role of BCSCM in open innovation. The former (Chap. 8) offers a Supply Chain Open Innovation Networks (SCOINET) framework backed by blockchain. SCOINET can help guide policymakers to develop open innovation networks for the supply chain and other functions. The later (Chap. 9) explores the linkage of BCSCM with the open innovation. Despite an increasing focus on supply chain resilience, sustainability has not lost its importance. We can see increasing pressure on firms from outside and inside sources to have more responsible and sustainable supply chains. Keeping in view the significance of the topic, three interrelated chapters (Chaps. 10–12) explore the various role of BCSCM in sustainability. Chapter 10 of the book examines the role that a blockchain-driven supply chain can play in improving firm sustainability. The conclusive argument of the chapter is that blockchain can be instrumental in making a firm more sustainable. Chapter 11 focuses on the Role of Blockchain Technology Adoption between Sustainability-Related Supply Chain Risks and Triple Bottom Line Performance. Whereas Chap. 12 proposes a framework illustrating the role of Intellectual Capital in Implementing Blockchain Technology-driven Sustainable Supply Chain. Chapter 13 has been dedicated to explaining blockchain technologies’ position and role in Industry 4.0. It provides an overview of Industry 4.0 and related technologies. The chapter also highlights obstacles that may give rise to future areas of study in B.Sc. and I4.0. Last two chapters of the book take a diverse approach. Chapter 15 critically reviews the marketing, supply chain management, and blockchain literature and explains the benefit from a blockchain-driven supply chain. The chapter also discusses the application of blockchain technology in marketing and the way it could disrupt the marketing mix and processes. This chapter could be useful in understating the role of a blockchain-driven supply chain in forecasting customer demands, enhancing the traceability and transparency of transactions, improving customer trust, and reduce transaction risks. The last chapter takes a macro approach and explains the linkage of Blockchain-Based Digital Economy and Industry 4.0. xii Introduction Before concluding, it is important to highlight the two aspects of the blockchaindriven supply chain that must be explored. First is Interoperability across BCSC networks, which refers to the ability to trade, review, and access data across many blockchain networks without the involvement of a mediator. Secondly, the challenges, the grey or dark side of the blockchain, from the perspective of capitalizing on the true strength of the technology.
Bitcoin is an online communication protocol that facilitates the use of a virtual currency, including electronic payments. Bitcoin's rules were designed by engineers with no apparent influence from lawyers or regulators. Bitcoin is built on a transaction log that is distributed across a network of participating computers. It includes mechanisms to reward honest participation, to bootstrap acceptance by early adopters, and to guard against concentrations of power. Bitcoin's design allows for irreversible transactions, a prescribed path of money creation over time, and a public transaction history. Anyone can create a Bitcoin account, without charge and without any centralized vetting procedure—or even a requirement to provide a real name. Collectively, these rules yield a system that is understood to be more flexible, more private, and less amenable to regulatory oversight than other forms of payment—though as we discuss, all these benefits face important limits. Bitcoin is of interest to economists as a virtual currency with potential to disrupt existing payment systems and perhaps even monetary systems. This article presents the platform's design principles and properties for a nontechnical audience; reviews its past, present, and future uses; and points out risks and regulatory issues as Bitcoin interacts with the conventional financial system and the real economy.
A number of internet-based digital currency platform based on decentralized public ledgers have started since the introduction of the blockchain concept by the founder of Bitcoin in 2008. An important element of these public ledger platforms is an incentive system that elicits efforts from a distributed global workforce to verify and record transactions on the public ledger and a governance system for the platform. The economic efficiency and possibly viability of a public ledger platform ultimately depend on the design of these incentive and governance systems. Even if a decentralized public ledger were a more efficient technology for conducting financial transactions, and for providing a platform for distributed innovation, deficiencies in its incentive and governance systems could make it overall inferior to alternatives, including existing systems. Current claims that public ledger platforms can conduct financial transactions more efficiently ignore the inefficiencies associated with the incentive and governance systems and the likely costs associated with regulation of these platforms and complementary service providers such as vaults, wallets, and exchanges. It is possible that public ledger platforms are more efficient than other alternative platforms for conducing financial transactions, but as of now the proposition is based on apples-to-oranges comparisons compounded with speculation. Competition will lead to better incentive and governance systems for public ledger platforms.
A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
Conference Paper
Cryptographically generated addresses (CGA) are IPv6 addresses some address bits are generated by hashing the address owner’s public key. The address owner uses the corresponding private key to assert address ownership and to sign messages sent from the address without a PKI or other security infrastructure. This paper describes a generic CGA format that can be used in multiple applications. Our focus is on removing weaknesses of earlier proposals and on the ease of implementation. A major contribution of this paper is a hash extension technique that increases the effective hash length beyond the 64-bit limit of earlier proposals.
"Technology is not the answer to the population problem. Rather, what is needed is 'mutual coercion mutually agreed upon'--everyone voluntarily giving up the freedom to breed without limit. If we all have an equal right to many 'commons' provided by nature and by the activities of modern governments, then by breeding freely we behave as do herders sharing a common pasture. Each herder acts rationally by adding yet one more beast to his/her herd, because each gains all the profit from that addition, while bearing only a fraction of its costs in overgrazing, which are shared by all the users. The logic of the system compels all herders to increase their herds without limit, with the 'tragic,' i.e. 'inevitable,' 'inescapable' result: ruin the commons. Appealing to individual conscience to exercise restraint in the use of social-welfare or natural commons is likewise self-defeating: the conscientious will restrict use (reproduction), the heedless will continue using (reproducing), and gradually but inevitably the selfish will out-compete the responsible. Temperance can be best accomplished through administrative law, and a 'great to invent the corrective keep custodians honest.'"
3 ways Bitcoin can change development
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