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Blockchain Technology: Principles and Applications

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Abstract

Handbook of Research on Digital Transformations edited by F. Xavier Olleros, and Majlinda ZheguA paraitre
... Let us now move on to the main scientific problems that can be found concerning the consensus protocols [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]. First of all, presently any algorithm is not capable of fully securing the right process of a blockchain based on PoS. ...
... At present, there are three kinds of consensus for blockchain [14][15][16][17][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32]: decentralized/permissionless (examples are Bitcoin and Ethereum [17]), somewhat decentralized (examples are Ripple and Stellar), and consortium/permissioned-(example is BFT (Byzantine Fault Tolerance)). Moreover, there are also consortium consensuses still in development, [14], Tendermint, Chain, JPMC Quorum, Axoni. ...
... On the other hand, it can be noted that blockchain became a prolifering technology [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32], successfully developed by various sectors, including academia, industry, and governments worldwide. This technology has numerous application domains in almost all spheres of human lives. ...
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In the present era, the consensus for blockchain is of three types: consortium/permissioned, decentralized/permissionless, and somewhat decentralized. Presently, security and privacy of blockchain scenarios are in four directions: auditability and transparency, accountability and nonrepudiation, contract privacy, and transactional privacies. Blockchain works on multilayered architectures with its consensus mechanisms. In this paper, important mechanisms of various consensus protocols for application specific usage are analyzed. In general, these consensus mechanisms have four groups of properties; all are examined and discussed. Moreover, the security analysis is shown. Furthermore, the paper examines the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA), which is in use by the cryptocurrencies along with many blockchain-based systems. Moreover, a variant of ECDSA (vECDSA) is also considered. In particular, ECDSA and vECDSA are compared in this research. In addition, modeling and analysis aspects related to the security and concurrency aspects of CPS are discussed. In particular, Petri-net-based models of CPS are considered, especially in terms of liveness and boundedness properties of the system.
... In the traditional clearing and settlement process, intermediary clearing organizations are still a key component; the process entails several complex steps such as bookkeeping, transaction, reconciliation, balance reconciliation, and payment initiation (Guo & Liang, 2016). (Pilkington, 2016) states that the traditional method is expensive and timeconsuming because it relies on cross-border payments, which require a 3-day settlement period. As a result, the inefficiency and a large number of expenditures required are explained. ...
... When a transaction is added to blockchain, it is marked as final, and multiple nodes in the network can verify it at the same time. As a result, employing blockchain in the clearing and settlement process eliminates the need for a third-party intermediary (Pilkington, 2016). According to Ref. (Guo & Liang, 2016); the life cycle of the clearing and settlement procedure will be reduced from several days to a few minutes because the cost of cross-border transactions will be abolished. ...
... It allows credible transactions with no need for the intervention of any third party because it is completely automated. These protocols make a decision about whether or not a definite operation (e.g., a given payment) should be permitted (Pilkington, 2016). Apart from the payment that is often made by an agreedover cryptocurrency, such contracts are able to outline some functions and conditions, for instance, the validation of the assets in a range of transactions using non-monetary elements (Reyna et al., 2018). ...
... On the other hand, to take part in a private blockchain, the participants need to be both invited and validated. Typically, businesses, including SCs, prefer to establish a private network instead of a public one (Pilkington, 2016). In these networks, the access control mechanism may be varied; for instance: the present participants may make decisions about future entrants in accordance with some defined rules that have been provided by the network initiator. ...
Article
Recently, blockchain technology has greatly revolutionized industries by offering a variety of applications in various domains, including finance, healthcare, the food industry, and the supply chain. Blockchain generally refers to a secured, shared, distributed ledger comprising a list of transactions, which is not modifiable without reaching a consensus. Blockchain technology attempts to prepare the stage for smart networks for data mobility, which can remarkably make sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) more productive and transparent. Thus, numerous companies have either already started the implementation of this technology or are currently considering it in order to enhance their business quality. Therefore, in this paper, a new decision framework called the q-rung orthopair fuzzy set (q-ROFS)-entropy-rank sum-weighting method (RSWM)-multi-objective optimization with ratio analysis with the full multiplicative form (MULTIMOORA) is developed. In this approach, the q-ROF-entropy-RSWM is utilized to obtain the subjective and objective weights of critical success factors, and the MULTIMOORA model is used to assess the preferences of manufacturing firms to implement blockchain technology in SSCM. An empirical case study is taken to evaluate the critical success factors of implementing blockchain technology in SSCM. Also, comparison and sensitivity investigation are made to show the superiority of the developed framework.
... At a high level, it is possible to distinguish between a public and a private blockchain. The literature mentions the terms "open" or "without permission" to refer to a public blockchain, and "with permission" to a private one [27,28]. ...
... The idea of a private blockchain is to monitor recording permissions given by a central decision-making entity and to restrict or allow reading permissions of individual users [28]. The level of decentralization and anonymity also differentiates blockchain in public and Appl. ...
Article
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The market of oil and gas has many particularities, once it is a natural resource of great value. Due to the fact the resource is owned by nations, it is highly regulated. The volumes traded are high; for this reason, their calculation needs to be performed very carefully, meeting not only the uncertainties and metrological control, but also particularly the tracking of the activities. The technical regulations of measurement adopted by the countries carefully follows many guidelines. The reason is that the established volumes directly affect the calculation of royalties and profit sharing in concession agreements or even a simple ownership shift of the products. Therefore, it is an application with a lot of responsibility, involving a large amount of equipment, software, and execution processes. Therefore, the transfer of data among different entities requires total transparency and security. Blockchain technology, which has been initially developed for the financial market, presents itself as an alternative to ensure reliability, from the sensors in the field to the effective generation of the Monthly Report on the petroleum and natural gas production unit, which is the basic document for determining the remuneration of the owners of the product. This paper presents a technical solution for creating the blockchain validation blocks by the MAC (Media Access Control Address) addressing, which in turn comes from the communication boards of the flow computers and from the Supervisory Stations. There are limitations to extending this solution to the level of field sensors due to the current links of communication, but also because of the way that historical, events and alarm databases of the flow computers are generated. Once these devices exhibit an elevated degree of safety in their operation, the solution herein presented adds a high level of reliability in the fiscal measurement and/or custody transfer.
... The principles behind blockchain technology are discussed in detail by [5]. According to [6], the blockchain technology has been actively applied in five main sectors such as finance, Internet of Things (IoT), public and social service, reputation system as well as security and privacy. ...
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, cryptocurrency prices showed abnormal volatility that attracted the participation of many investors. Studying the behaviour of volatility for the prices of cryptocurrency is an interesting problem to be investigated. This research implements the state space model framework for volatility incorporating the Kalman filter. This method directly forecasts the conditional volatility of five cryptocurrency prices (Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Ripple (XRP), Litecoin (LTC) and Bitcoin Cash (BCH)) for 10,000 consecutive hours, i.e., approximately 417 days during the COVID-19 pandemic from 26 February 2020, 00:00 h until 18 April 2021, 00:00 h. The performance of this model is compared to the GARCH (1,1) model and the neural network autoregressive (NNAR) based on root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE) and the volatility plot. The autocorrelation function plot, histogram and the residuals plot are used to examine the model adequacy. Among the three models, the state space model gives the best fit. The state space model gives the narrowest confidence interval of volatility and value-at-risk forecasts among the three models.
... Transactions are validated by consent in the blockchain platform that is performed by the participants of the network (Pilkington, 2016). As blockchain systems are maintained by multiple servers, to hack or manipulate the system, it is required to hack all the computers at a time. ...
Article
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Abstract: Blockchain technology has recently emerged as a contentious issue in academics and industry. Financial institutions have responded immediately to the adoption of blockchain technology. The remarkable features of this technology, such as high security, dependability, and efficiency, have made it extremely popular in the financial sector. However, the hospitality and tourism industries are blissfully unaware of this new blockchain technology and its exceptional services. Furthermore, the notion of blockchain is still foggy and poorly understood, and information on the level of knowledge and application of blockchain in the hospitality industry is very few. This research thus aims to highlight the blockchain's standard features, advantages, and applications in the hospitality industry. This study has been carried out based on secondary data sources. Specifically, journal articles, book chapters, organisational publications, website materials, and other sources have been used for data and information generation. To better operational efficiency and revenue generation and improve privacy and security, the study examines the consequences and several advantages of blockchain technology using secondary sources. The study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of blockchain technology and the benefits and diverse uses of blockchain technology in the hospitality industry.
... Because the hash values of Tx-3 and Tx-4 will be erroneous, we do not need to check Tx-1 and Tx-2. Consequently, the Merkle tree is extremely useful for data verification in peer-to-peer distributed systems [49]. ...
Article
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Blockchain is a modern technology that has revolutionized the way society interacts and trades. It could be defined as a chain of blocks that stores information with digital signatures in a distributed and decentralized network. This technique was first adopted for the creation of digital cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. However, research and industrial studies have recently focused on the opportunities that blockchain provides in various other application domains to take advantage of the main features of this technology, such as: decentralization, persistency, anonymity, and auditability. This paper reviews the use of blockchain in several interesting fields, namely: finance, healthcare, information systems, wireless networks, Internet of Things, smart grids, governmental services, and military/defense. In addition, our paper identifies the challenges to overcome, to guarantee better use of this technology.
... Blockchain is a peer-to-peer system that is expected to disrupt many industries (e.g., energy, logistics, health, food, agriculture, finance, government, tourism) in the next decade (Ante, Steinmetz, & Fiedler, 2021;Ar et al., 2020;Ar, Erol, & Ozdemir, 2018;Erol et al., 2020;Erol et al., 2022 (a); Erol et al., 2022 (b); Lim et al., 2021;Nandi et al., 2020;Nuryyev et al., 2020;Ö nder & Treiblmaier, 2018;Ozdemir et al., 2021;Ozdemir et al., 2020;Sanka et al., 2021) by building trust among the companies. Blockchain is a secure, decentralized public ledger in which each member of a network can view their transaction history, eliminating the necessity for a third party (Pilkington, 2016). Each block in the chain represents a network member's acknowledgement that a transaction took place and was not tampered with. ...
Article
The tourism industry is extremely important to the world economy; yet, the industry falls short when it comes to economic, social, and environmental issues. Blockchain as an information technology can be utilized to help solve these issues and establish sustainable tourism globally. However, the challenges to blockchain adoption in the tourism industry have not yet been examined systematically. The goal of this study, therefore, is three-fold: we first identify the challenges to blockchain using literature review and expert opinions. Then, we examine them using the proposed rough Interpretive Structural Modeling - Cross-Impact Matrix Multiplication based on expert judgments. Finally, we link these challenges to diffusion of innovation theory. The results suggest that “lack of technical maturity” and “lack of interoperability” are the most important challenges of blockchain in the tourism industry. The findings of the study support macro- and micro-level decision-making in tourism industry's prospective applications of blockchain.
... It is natural that a tool with these features could find use in several other fields besides transaction validation. Some references on the various fields where blockchain technology has been employed can be found in [2]. ...
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In 2020, Sala, Sogiorno and Taufer were able to find the private keys of some Bitcoin addresses, thus being able to spend the cryptocurrency linked to them. This was unexpected since the recovery of non-trivial private keys for blockchain addresses is deemed to be an infeasible problem. In this paper, we widen this analysis by mounting a similar attack on other small subsets of the set of private keys. We then apply it to other blockchains as well, examining Ethereum, Dogecoin, Litecoin, Dash, Zcash and Bitcoin Cash. In addition to the results, we also explain the techniques we have used to perform this exhaustive search for all the addresses that have ever appeared in these blockchains, and we give an estimate of the time needed to perform all the computations. Finally, we also examine the possibility of mounting a similar attack on other elliptic curves used in blockchains, i.e., Curve25519 and NIST P-256.
... In case of IoT solutions based on blockchain, attackers attempting to get control of the centralized server in order to steal personal information or take over the whole system will be unable to cause any risk to the network. Moreover, by implementing blockchain, the additional cost of IoT server security checking can be effectively minimized [38]. Furthermore, in the event of a malfunction, blockchain technology keeps IoT device data in a format which grants permission to track easily. ...
Article
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Internet of Things (IoTs) is an integrated network collection of heterogeneous objects which enable seamless integration between systems, humans, devices, and various other things, to support pervasive computing for smart systems. IoT-driven systems and sensors continuously ingest data resulting in an increased volume and velocity of information which can lead to critical concerns such as security of the data and scalability of the system. The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUTs) is a specific genre of IoTs in which data related to oceanic ecosystems is continuously sensed through underwater sensors. IoUT has emerged as an innovative paradigm to support smart oceans. However, there are several critical challenges which IoUT system designers must consider such as (1) scalability of the system to handle large volumes of oceanic data and (2) security of data that is transmitted from IoT sensors deployed underwater. Blockchain as a newly emerged technology and an enabling platform allows decentralized and secure transmission of data among a wide group of untrustworthy parties. This research aims to exploit blockchain technology to secure IoUT data transmission by exploiting Interplanetary File System (IPFS) method. Additionally, this study also addresses the system’s scalability in two aspects, (1) scalability, and (2) security. We used a case study-based approach and performed experiments to evaluate the proposed solution’s usability and efficiency in terms of query response (i.e., performance), and algorithmic execution (i.e., efficiency). The proposed solution unifies blockchain technologies to secure IoT-driven systems and provides guidelines to engineer and develop next-generation of robust and secure blockchain-aided distributed IoT systems.
... The encrypted data can only be decrypted by the associated private key and data stored on the network is digitally signed with the private key of the publisher. The public-key encryption and digital signatures contribute to the verifiability of information stored on a blockchain network [28]. ...
... • Immutability: Transactions in a public blockchain cannot be manipulated because many participants store the records [8]. • Consensus mechanism: This concept is critical as it pertains to the process where an agreement is reached by most/all of the network validators regarding the state of a ledger [9]. ...
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Despite the rapid growing of blockchain technology, the literature shows no evidence of its use in Arab countries’ hospitals, particularly in Saudi Arabia. It is vital to understand the level of user acceptance of any new technology before implementing it. This study aims to identify the various predictors that influence the adoption of blockchain technology in public hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The framework is based on the technological-organisational-environmental (TOE) framework and developed to investigate IT employees’ points of view to find which predictor will affect blockchain adoption. Understanding these predictors in a better way may help in making sure that blockchain technology, which is still in its initial stages, is implemented in a way that is acceptable to healthcare organisations, so as to promote the meaningful use of the technology. It is expected that the implications of this study will be useful from both a theoretical and practical perspective.
... Blockchain became very popular with its first appearance, as the main platform for the virtual currency of Bitcoin, which derives its strength and the trust of the dealers in it thanks to this system. It has also been used in many other applications, such as property registration and transaction documentation [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the world of information technology, blockchain technology is a relatively new method. Blockchain-based applications are gaining traction in a variety of industries, including financial services, supply chain management, and the creation of immutable data backups, among others. Many people know blockchain on the scale of cryptocurrency. Blockchain is a decentralized ledger that allows transactions to take place in an unchangeable method. Blockchain is a decentralized ledger system that handles data and transactions using time-stamped blocks and cryptography. It works across a computing network in a decentralized way. Blockchain-free solutions are being developed by IT companies for usage in a variety of areas. These solutions have produced extremely positive results in a variety of disciplines, particularly those that assist the economy. The issues surrounding blockchain technology will be discussed in this paper, as well as a case study supporting Libya's marine resources in the future.
... Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology that performs distributed transactions by eliminating central entities [164]. In energy systems, many rapid changes are undergoing with the utilization of renewable energy sources. ...
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The United Nations’ sustainable development goals have emphasized implementing sustainability to ensure environmental security for the future. Affordable energy, clean energy, and innovation in infrastructure are the relevant sustainable development goals that are applied to the energy sector. At present, digital technologies have a significant capability to realize the target of sustainability in energy. With this motivation, the study aims to discuss the significance of different digital technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), edge computing, blockchain, and big data and their implementation in the different stages of energy such as generation, distribution, transmission, smart grid, and energy trading. The study also discusses the different architecture that has been implemented by previous studies for smart grid computing. Additionally, we addressed IoT-based microgrids, IoT services in electrical equipment, and blockchain-based energy trading. Finally, the article discusses the challenges and recommendations for the effective implementation of digital technologies in the energy sector for meeting sustainability. Big data for energy analytics, digital twins in smart grid modeling, virtual power plants with Metaverse, and green IoT are the major vital recommendations that are discussed in this study for future enhancement.
... Such applications are noticeable in different domains ranging from public services [12], finance [13], smart hospitals [14], smart manufacturing [15], supply chains [16], energy trading [17], etc., to the new era of IoT [18]. Despite the development and implementation of many blockchain projects, there are still concerns associated with the blockchain platforms' throughput, latency, and ability to scale [19]. ...
Article
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Blockchain technology, with its decentralization characteristics, immutability, and traceability, is well-suited for facilitating secure storage, sharing, and management of data in decentralized Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Despite the increasing development of blockchain platforms, there is still no comprehensive approach for adopting blockchain technology in IoT systems. This is due to the blockchain’s limited capability to process substantial transaction requests from a massive number of IoT devices. Hyperledger Fabric (HLF) is a popular open-source permissioned blockchain platform hosted by the Linux Foundation. This article reports a comprehensive empirical study that measures HLF’s performance and identifies potential performance bottlenecks to better meet the requirements of blockchain-based IoT applications. The study considers the implementation of HLF on distributed large-scale IoT systems. First, a model for monitoring the performance of the HLF platform is presented. It addresses the overhead challenges while delivering more details on system performance and better scalability. Then, the proposed framework is implemented to evaluate the impact of varying network workloads on the performance of the blockchain platform in a large-scale distributed environment. In particular, the performance of the HLF is evaluated in terms of throughput, latency, network size, scalability, and the number of peers serviceable by the platform. The obtained experimental results indicate that the proposed framework can provide detailed real-time performance evaluation of blockchain systems for large-scale IoT applications.
... Since the issue of appropriation of kinetic or choreographic material by unauthorised third parties is both a legal problem and an ethical issue, we deploy and disentangle, over the following sections, the various layers that are unleashed when digitising the human body and the language configured by its movements. We will narrow our focus to two instances, the usage of motion capture recording technologies, as the one employed for digitising sign-language (Jantunen et al., 2012); and secondly the encryption of Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) on the Blockchain (Pilkington, 2015;Wood, 2014) associated to dance steps. It is pressing to consider all the digital assets and objects that are created throughout these processes, to then move forward to account for the authorial and ownership-related tensions that stem from them. ...
Conference Paper
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The documentation, protection and dissemination of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) in the digital age pose significant theoretical, technological and legal challenges. Through a multidisciplinary lens, this paper presents new approaches for collecting, documenting, encrypting and protecting ICH-related data for more ethical circulation. Human-movement recognition technologies such as motion capture, allows for the recording, extraction and reproduction of human movement with unprecedented precision. The once indistinguishable or hard-to-trace reproduction of dance steps between their creators and unauthorized third parties becomes patent through the transmission of embodied knowledge, but in the form of data. This new battlefield prompted by digital technologies only adds to the disputes within the creative industries, in terms of authorship, ownership and commodification of body language. For the sake of this paper, we are aiming to disentangle the various layers present in the process of digitisation of the dancing body, to identify its by-products as well as the possible arising ownership rights that might entail. "Who owns what?", the basic premise of intellectual property law, is transposed, in this case, onto the various types of data generated when intangible cultural heritage, in the form of dance, is digitised through motion capture and encrypted with blockchain technologies.
... Since then, developments in the virtual space have continued to evolve. After Blockchain Technology [7] was invented in 2009, Decentraland [8] used the technology to create a decentralized online virtual world platform in 2015. ...
Article
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Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) have revolutionized technology and taken the world by storm. They established the foundation for numerous future innovations. Virtual and augmented reality are now widely employed to improve user experiences in various areas. Over time, more and more companies and businesses have begun to use this cutting-edge technology to improve their products and services. Recently, the attention to VR and AR has exploded with the concept “Metaverse” surfacing in mainstream media. Many major companies have already set their goals in motion and are working on building the core of their metaverses. This review paper focuses on explaining the concept of the metaverse, its history, and its associated benefits. Through a survey, it helps understand people’s concerns with the metaverse and how it can impact and affect humans mentally, physically, and psychologically. The analysis of this paper can help humans prepare themselves for what the new technologies have to offer, in addition to assisting companies in building a flawless metaverse.
... Blockchain became very popular with its first appearance, as the main platform for the virtual currency of Bitcoin, which derives its strength and the trust of the dealers in it thanks to this system. It has also been used in many other applications, such as property registration and transaction documentation [10]. ...
Article
In the world of information technology, blockchain technology is a relatively new method. Blockchain-based applications are gaining traction in a variety of industries, including financial services, supply chain management, and the creation of immutable data backups, among others. Many people know blockchain on the scale of cryptocurrency. Blockchain is a decentralized ledger that allows transactions to take place in an unchangeable method. Blockchain is a decentralized ledger system that handles data and transactions using time-stamped blocks and cryptography. It works across a computing network in a decentralized way. Blockchain-free solutions are being developed by IT companies for usage in a variety of areas. These solutions have produced extremely positive results in a variety of disciplines, particularly those that assist the economy. The issues surrounding blockchain technology will be discussed in this paper, as well as a case study supporting Libya's marine resources in the future.
Chapter
A significant challenge in bootstrapping a jointly used infrastructure such as Data Spaces is to incentivize the participants to invest in setting up the infrastructure. In this chapter, we investigate this challenge and possible solutions, focusing on an approach called “Tokenomics.” The incentivization scheme should be utilized by governance frameworks, in which the participants of Data Spaces remain capable of action and independent through automated, effective, and fair decision-making processes. Also, potential participants should be motivated to participate in the establishment and further development of the system, while on the other hand, undesirable behavior should be penalized. In combination with distributed ledger technology (DLT) and machine-readable, legally compliant smart contracts, participant behavior can be affected in such a way that both data quality and quantity are improved for the whole Data Space. To derive possible design options for Tokenomics approaches, we examine different token frameworks and their impact on participants. The investigation of the frameworks is carried out taking into account five significant domains: technical, behavior, inherent value, coordination, and pseudo-archetypes. Furthermore, we investigate which token designs provide smaller or larger incentives in order to join or maintain a DLT-based ecosystem.
Article
The purpose of this study was to select the most promising smart reverse logistics system development scenario which would serve as a guideline for the decision-making in the process of building sustainable systems of circular economy and closed supply chains. Four development scenarios are defined in the study and evaluated by the representatives of the main stakeholders in relation to a broad set of sub-criteria classified within the six main criteria. To solve the defined problem, a novel multi-criteria decision-making model, combining the Delphi, Analytical Network Process (ANP) and COmprehensive distance Based RAnking (COBRA) methods in the fuzzy environment, was developed. The application of the developed model resulted in selecting the scenario which most effectively balances the wide application of Industry 4.0 technologies and the necessary resources. The scenarios imply the integration of the most effective Industry 4.0 technologies, such as the Internet of Things, Automated guided vehicles, Autonomous Vehicles, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data and Data Mining, Blockchain, Cloud Computing and Electronic/Mobile marketplaces, and their most realistic applications. The widest possible application of Industry 4.0 technologies does not necessarily guarantee the most acceptable development scenario and the solution should be sought in the area of common interest of all stakeholders.
Article
The main issues with drug safety in the counterfeit medicine supply chain, are to do with how the drugs are initially manufactured. The traceability of right and active pharmaceutical ingredients during actual manufacture is a difficult process, so detecting drugs that do not contain the intended active ingredients can ultimately lead to end consumer patient harm or even death. Block chain’s advanced features make it capable of providing a basis for complete traceability of drugs, from manufacturer to end consumer, and the ability to identify counterfeit-drug. This paper aims to address the issue of drug safety using Block chain and encrypted QR(quick response) code security. Manufacturer generates an encrypted QR (quick response) code for the details and attaches the transaction to the block chain system. If any participants want details of drugs, then public key must be shared by that participant to the manufacturer. Manufacturer will encrypt the QR code and will send back to the participant. The QR code will be decrypted by the valid participant by their private key.
Article
Blockchain is a disruptive technology that is expected to revolutionize the world of trusted transactions. Through a combination of cryptographic techniques, a distributed, shared, and immutable ledger, consensus validation of transactions, and a financial audit trail, blockchain is poised to do for businesses what the Internet did for communication. With its promise of reducing cost, time, friction, and fraud in business transactions and ensuring trust, identity management, and reputation management, companies around the world are now contemplating their transition to blockchain versions of themselves. However, the cost of implementing such technology and its effect on the readiness of the organization to adopt blockchain has not been fully explored yet. This study examines the mediation and moderation roles of the perceived cost on the relationship between organization readiness and the intention to adopt blockchain. Data was collected from blockchain experts and Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used as the analytical tool to test all of the framework hypotheses. To investigate the potential managerial implications of this topic, Importance-Performance Map Analysis (IPMA) was utilized. The findings reveal that perceived cost is not a mediator; rather, it moderates the relationship between the TRI (Technology Readiness Index) enablers and the TRI inhibitors with the intention to adopt blockchain. In terms of importance, the empirical data analysis through IPMA revealed that the enablers construct is the most important factor, while perceived cost has the highest performance on the intention to adopt blockchain. With this discovery, our findings are expected to aid decision-makers in prioritizing and improving the enabling aspects required for the successful adoption of blockchain technology.
Chapter
Flexibility in administration process and access to student information have become difficult, besides validating the information and a waste of time in verification procedures. A simulation system to build a framework that records and archives the data of students who have been accepted into universities and saves their information to the university’s registration office using block chain technology has been proposed. The main purpose of this system is to provide the possibility of facilitating the processes of archiving student data remotely. The system provides the necessary facilities for each student to update (remotely) his information personally or through an authorized employee. Moreover, the system yields sufficient capacity to facilitate the work of the staff in the registration department regarding entering data, documents, validity of their issuance so that the student can verify the correctness of the information provided. In this research, the work is divided into two stages: The first stage is using the blockchain technology to save, modify, and archive information, and the second stage is protecting the information that is stored. The proposed system simplifies the task of the human resources unit in the educational institution and makes it more reliable with less effort.
Article
Purpose Blockchain technology (BCT) can be used for a wide variety of applications across domains and can bring many benefits. BCT-based applications can be beneficial for the government as well as businesses. Despite the many promises, BCT implementation lags behind. The purpose of this research is to identify a roadmap of critical implementation challenges that influence BCT implementation by governments. Design/methodology/approach The study develops an ISM-based model spread across seven levels to analyze the inter-relationship among the selected BCT challenges. The MICMAC analysis further helps in evaluating the variables based on their driving power and dependencies. Findings The findings show that all challenges have a strong impact on implementing BCT. The foundation for implementation BCT is to define standards and develop appropriate regulations. Next, the findings show the need for a shared infrastructure meeting the basic technical and societal requirements and developing viable business models to advance BCT implementation. Many challenges hinder the development of blockchain applications meeting the technical and ethical requirements. Originality/value Existing research has analyzed the relationship among challenges. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first paper to collate these implementation challenges and incorporate them to develop a hierarchical model using interpretive structural modeling technique. The results can be used to prioritize the tackling of the challenges.
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In this from analysis EDAS method is the most ideal solution Short-distance and negative-best The solution with the longest distance from the solution Determines, but the comparison of these distances Does not consider importance. From the result it is seen that entrepreneur 3 is got the first rank where as is the entrepreneur 3 is having the lowest rank. First, we briefly review the definition of P2TLS and introduce the P2TLN scoring function, accuracy function and operating laws. Then, we merged the traditional EDAS model for multi-scale panel decision making (MCGDM) with P2TLNs. Ours to consider conflicting attributes The model presented was very accurate and effective. Finally, a number case for green supplier selection was given to illustrate this new model, Also Figure 2-Double Linguistic Weight Average (P2TLWA), Figure 2-Double Linguistic Weight Geometric (P2TLWG) Integration Operators and EDAS Some comparisons were made between. To further illustrate the advantages of the new method, the model with P2TLNs.Entrepreneurs play an important role in the economic development of a country. The economy of a country Development depends primarily on its entrepreneurs. Mainly India as an agricultural country Entrepreneurship can be considered as a powerful tool for economic growth. Minor, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) account for 7-8 per cent and GDP of India 45 percent of GDP. It contributes 40 per cent to exports. They are the economy The engine of development is approved. Next to agriculture, the MSME sector has the highest number People work. MSMEs are spread across the country are of different types required for different segments of the market Produce products. Geographical localization, different product range and novelty and the potential for job creation is equitable in the context of economic growth and Making them more important with regional balance. To solve the unemployment problem, the growth and self-employment of SMEs is pure.
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This chapter conceptualizes NFTs, describes their creation process, and illustrates their main characteristics (i.e., unicity, indivisibility, and scarcity), which differentiate them from Fungible Tokens (e.g., cryptocurrencies). It presents the technical aspects of NFTs and the main technology behind them, the so-called Blockchain, which essentially consists of a set of software applications that allow data storage in a transparent, decentralized, immutable ways.
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In this chapter, one of the emerging technologies, namely blockchain, is discussed to create the foundation of technology and information management in the peer-to-peer network to enhance the functionalities and reliability of connected systems in smart cities. Three areas are involved in the blockchain discussion, namely (i) definition and overview of blockchain, (ii) features of blockchain, (iii) applications of blockchain in daily life. A case study in blockchain technology selection was also included.
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The recent Blockchain technology for recording and storing data opened a cultural scenario which prefigures unexplored frontiers. It is precisely in this frontier territory that a revolution in the digital art sector has come to life, represented by the introduction and dissemination of non-fungible tokens (NFTs) as certificates of ownership/authorship of a digital work. NFTs redefine the concepts of artwork ownership/authorship, authenticity and value. Supported by the Blockchain structure, which is in fact permanent and unchangeable, these certificates are inviolable, unassailable and indestructible, offering a type of guarantee never experienced before. As any new technologies, there are challenges that users face: 1) avoiding fraud (i.e. digital artworks that are not original, but mere copies of the original) 2) estimating the real value of a NFT connected to a digital artwork. The paper proposes a predictive tool, NFT price Oracle, as a solution for the Blockchain users that want to be sure they are purchasing an authentic digital artwork and wish to understand the value of the artwork (and thus how much to pay for the NFT associated with the artwork) in the Blockchain.KeywordsNon-fungible tokenDigital artworkBlockchainOracle pricesHistory of productionHistory of effects
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Artificial intelligence and blockchain technologies are widely used in the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT to collect and present data, blockchain to provide the infrastructure to define operational rules, and AI optimization processes and rules are all possible connections between these technologies. These technologies converge, enabling new autonomous business models and the innovative impacts of this triad on increasing the competitiveness of companies. This chapter delves into the basic understanding of each of the triads and how they complement each other’s drawbacks in possibly revolutionizing the entire financial domain.
Chapter
Illegal movement or the flow of drugs in the supply chain has always been the root cause of various criminal activities involving pharmaceutical products. One such concern is the black-marketing of drugs by erasing the record of the drug from the registered supply chain and selling it on various channels for many times the price with an alteration made to the drug itself. To counteract such methods, we have proposed a solution using one of the most prominent characteristics, i.e., traceability, using which we can back-trace the route taken in the supply chain for the targeted drug on which the medical prescription is made.KeywordsBlockchainTraceabilityPharmaceuticalDrug traceabilityTracing medical prescriptionDecentralized applicationBlockchain traceability systemDecentralized tracking system
Chapter
Recently, the internet of things (IoT) has gained popularity as an enabling technology for wireless connectivity of mobile and/or stationary devices providing useful services for the general public in a collaborative manner. Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are regarded as a legacy enabling technology for various IoT applications. Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) and flying ad-hoc networks (FANETs) are specific extensions of MANETs that are drivers of IoT applications. However, IoT is prone to diverse attacks, being branded as the weakest link in the networking chain requiring effective solutions for achieving an acceptable level of security. Blockchain (BC) technology has been identified as an efficient method to remedy IoT security concerns. Therefore, this chapter classifies the attacks targeting IoT, VANETs, and FANETs systems based on their vulnerabilities. This chapter explores a selection of blockchain-based solutions for securing IoT, VANETs, and FANETs and presents open research directions compiled out of the presented solutions as useful guidelines for the readers.
Chapter
The present study is concerned with the analysis to determine the working range of process parameters in friction stir processing (FSP). Commercial AA6082-T6 rolled plates were subjected to FSP with various process parameters such as tool rotational speed, processing speed, and tilt angle. The experiments were conducted to study the influences of different levels of process parameters on the surface appearance, surface defects, heat generation, and flash formation. The study shows that the operating range of process parameters can be estimated within two critical conditions, i.e., excessive heat and insufficient heat generation. Beyond these two critical conditions, material prone to defect formation during FSP. The tilting of the tool produces lower flash formation and evenly distributes it on the advancing side and retreating side compared to the 0° tilt angle.
Chapter
Industrial Ecology (IE) is a field that is engrossed in the production stages, including products and services for protecting, recycling, and reusing natural resources. It is more like a natural eco-system that includes all processes and phases of resource extraction to conversion into finished products or services. The concept of industrial ecology was first proposed and used by Robert Frosch and Nicholas E. Gallopulos in 1989. The idea of ‘industrial ecology’ flourished with the emergence and recognition of the industrial revolution that transformed the whole agriculture and handicraft industry into a large-scale efficient and effective manufacturing industry. Overall, it can be said that the industrial revolution is the part of the industrial restriction, has become possible due to the resurgence of the technology in entire industrial productions and operations around the globe. With time, scientific revolutions are characterized by the advancement of product and process innovation intended for cost-effective policies and processes. Moreover, constant industrial revolution and progress created an adverse effect on the environment due to poor mechanisms of waste disposal and resources depletion. This study intends to explore and understand the role of the technological revolution in creating industrial ecology. Additionally, this study deepened knowledge with the recent trends and fashion to adopt emerging technological tools; (artificial intelligence, big data analytics, and blockchain technology) to sustain organizational/business productivity. These evolving tools help the organization design efficient processes like cost reduction and revenue generation. Therefore, inquiry provides practical guidelines to industrialists, policymakers, practitioners, and regulatory bodies to adopt the emerging machinery and embed it in the whole organizational infrastructure system and set-ups to gain sustainable competitive outputs.KeywordsIndustrial ecologyBlockchain technologyArtificial intelligenceBig data analyticsEnergy
Article
The emergence of blockchain technology is reshaping several aspects of economies, opening a wider spectrum for the research communities, and making it critical to conduct studies that comprehensively analyze this body of knowledge. From the Web of Sciences' database, a bibliometric study using VOS viewer and biblioshiny tool is provided on the evolving research on blockchain technology in finance. Blockchain in finance has provided enabled applications such as tokens, initial coin offerings, crowdfunding, smart contracts, prediction marketplace systems, and digital currencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. In this study, we convey a detailed bibliometric-based evaluation of scientific research publications from 2008 to mid-2020. With 157 articles retrieved, our findings show the global trends, current tendencies, and frontiers. We report that blockchain technology research in finance has evolved and is predominated by studies on crowdfunding/equity crowdfunding, entrepreneurial finance, bitcoin, entrepreneurship, fintech, and venture capital. However, several of these studies are contextually based, with scantily used cases leading to the design of frameworks and architectures. Additionally, the majority of the studies could not afford sufficient details on the practical discharge of the few blockchain-enabled prototypes.
Article
Blockchain technology is based on a series of time-stamped and decentralized immutable records without third-party involvement. Since the infancy of the term, it has attained attention from academic researchers and industrial contributors, globally. The extensive characteristics of blockchain have created new investigation domains in multiple industries including finance, medical, education, governance etc. In this study, we have conducted the systematic literature mapping to collect all relevant research in the field of blockchain since the inception of this exclusive paradigm and presented a comprehensive assessment and analysis on the extracted research papers in a systematic manner. We have rigorously reviewed the relevant research papers found in the literature for understanding the state of the art techniques, methodologies and, applications of using blockchain in different industries. Moreover, we also have presented the evolution and future insights on the use of blockchain in several real-world applications and also consolidated the blockchain into different high level technical and applied perspectives.
Article
Full-text available
The past decade is known as the era of integrations where multiple technologies had integrated, and new research trends were seen. The security of data and information in the digital world has been a challenge to everyone; Blockchain technology has attracted many researchers in these scenarios. This paper focuses on finding the current trends in Blockchain technology to help the researchers select an area to carry future research. The data related to Blockchain Technologies have been collected from IEEE, Springer, ACM, and other digital databases. Then, the formulated corpus is used for topic modelling, and Latent Dirichlet Allocation is deployed. The outcomes of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model are then analyzed based on various extracted key terms and key documents found for each topic. All the topic solution has been identified from the bag of words. The extracted topics are thereafter semantically mapped. Thus, based on the analysis of more than 900 papers, the most recent research trends have been discussed in this paper, ultimately focusing on the areas that need more attention from the research community. Also, the meta data analysis has been accomplished, evaluating the year wise and publication source wise research growth. More than 15 research directions are elaborated in this paper, which can direct and guide the researchers to pursuit the research in specific trends and also, find the research gaps in various technologies associated with Blockchain Technology.
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), used primarily for aerial surveying, can monitor control information and carry out stalking tasks connected to the Internet of Things (IoT) using advanced wireless technology. It's limited to short distances where the delicate aerial communication system can share a spectrum with terrestrial systems. Moreover, severe privacy and security concerns are due to the unlicensed broadcasting and wireless UAV transmission networks. Therefore, this paper focus on developing a blockchain-based spectrum trading and sharing system that addresses security concerns and maintains user privacy. Mobile network operators can exchange spectrum without relying on a third party using a Distributed Blockchain Consortium System (DBCS). As a result, data is well-protected from plaintext, stalker, and ciphertext attacks, making it easier to track, manage, and control services. Experimental; results showed that the proposed DBCS outperformed other conventional systems in terms of security and performance.
Article
Blockchain has been a revolution in the past few years. Beyond the new currencies that were created around different incarnations of the blockchain concept, there are many other contributions that provide interesting services as a data linked structure using a decentralized network that provide a high level of security. Companies have developed many projects to incorporate blockchain into their business logic pursuing to incorporate other related services as persistence of large volumes of data, privacy or anonymity of transactions, distributed data processing, security (confidentiality, integrity, and availability), document management or micro messages in real time. Nevertheless, as it will be discussed in this article, current blockchains do not meet the needs of companies in many aspects, leading to a scarce or superficial adoption. This article introduces Kriper, a blockchain that aims at meeting corporate world needs by responding with a community-based, open blockchain that may also be segregated and private for certain uses whereas it provides a permissioned distributed storage and micro message lightweight services.
Article
The main issues with drug safety in the counterfeit medicine supply chain, are to do with how the drugs are initially manufactured. The traceability of right and active pharmaceutical ingredients during actual manufacture is a difficult process, so detecting drugs that do not contain the intended active ingredients can ultimately lead to end consumer patient harm or even death. Block chain’s advanced features make it capable of providing a basis for complete traceability of drugs, from manufacturer to end consumer, and the ability to identify counterfeit-drug. This paper aims to address the issue of drug safety using Block chain and encrypted QR(quick response) code security. Manufacturer generates an encrypted QR (quick response) code for the details and attaches the transaction to the block chain system. If any participants want details of drugs, then public key must be shared by that participant to the manufacturer. Manufacturer will encrypt the QR code and will send back to the participant. The QR code will be decrypted by the valid participant by their private key.
Article
Technological advancements have always been influencing our lives. Recently, the Internet of Things (IoT) and Blockchain (BC) are emerging as potentially disruptive technologies. Whereby, the IoT is a system of inter-related devices with unique identifiers for data sharing and device management and control. IoT is based on the integration of traditional technologies including embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, and automation. While, the concept of IoT is continuously evolving with the convergence of multiple technologies including real-time analytics, machine learning, commodity sensor, and embedded systems. On the other hand, BC technology is a distributed ledger used to maintain the transaction logs of a network, and it has started revolutionizing data provenance, storage, secure, and traceable transaction management systems. There is limited use of blockchain technology for a fully decentralized, untrusted, and secure environment in the field of IoT. This article reviews the current state-of-art blockchain technology and its current utilization in different application domains of IoT. Furthermore, it presents the use of blockchain technology with digital ledger technology (DLT) and IoT. Similarly, the notable challenges of BC and IoT integration are presented. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such SLR available that provides a comprehensive review in this domain. Applying blockchain to solve IoT problems improves IoT security. Moreover, a taxonomy of application domains is presented, which can be integrated with BC and IoT. The article identifies and discusses open research issues and challenges that need to be addressed to harness the potential of BC technology for IoT.
Chapter
The smart grid concept was developed as a modern-day economic construct for holding up the traditional power infrastructure to determine the most effective strategy for incorporating renewable and green energy technology to everyday energy use by people. The smart grid has been developing as a novel solution for ensuring energy access whenever required and from any location. The overriding goal of such developments is really to foster the development of a sustainable society. Nevertheless, connecting and managing the rapidly rising number of users and connections seems to be a challenge in the existing centralized grid architecture. As a result, the smart grid is evolving from a centralized to a decentralized topology. On the other hand, the blockchain offers several advantageous features of a packaged software ready to be unpacked and installed which can benefit smart grid paradigm. We intend to present a complete assessment of blockchain applications in smart grids in this study. As such, we highlight the security solutions that blockchain can resolve in the smart grid.
Article
Bitcoin is an online communication protocol that facilitates the use of a virtual currency, including electronic payments. Bitcoin's rules were designed by engineers with no apparent influence from lawyers or regulators. Bitcoin is built on a transaction log that is distributed across a network of participating computers. It includes mechanisms to reward honest participation, to bootstrap acceptance by early adopters, and to guard against concentrations of power. Bitcoin's design allows for irreversible transactions, a prescribed path of money creation over time, and a public transaction history. Anyone can create a Bitcoin account, without charge and without any centralized vetting procedure—or even a requirement to provide a real name. Collectively, these rules yield a system that is understood to be more flexible, more private, and less amenable to regulatory oversight than other forms of payment—though as we discuss, all these benefits face important limits. Bitcoin is of interest to economists as a virtual currency with potential to disrupt existing payment systems and perhaps even monetary systems. This article presents the platform's design principles and properties for a nontechnical audience; reviews its past, present, and future uses; and points out risks and regulatory issues as Bitcoin interacts with the conventional financial system and the real economy.
Article
A number of internet-based digital currency platform based on decentralized public ledgers have started since the introduction of the blockchain concept by the founder of Bitcoin in 2008. An important element of these public ledger platforms is an incentive system that elicits efforts from a distributed global workforce to verify and record transactions on the public ledger and a governance system for the platform. The economic efficiency and possibly viability of a public ledger platform ultimately depend on the design of these incentive and governance systems. Even if a decentralized public ledger were a more efficient technology for conducting financial transactions, and for providing a platform for distributed innovation, deficiencies in its incentive and governance systems could make it overall inferior to alternatives, including existing systems. Current claims that public ledger platforms can conduct financial transactions more efficiently ignore the inefficiencies associated with the incentive and governance systems and the likely costs associated with regulation of these platforms and complementary service providers such as vaults, wallets, and exchanges. It is possible that public ledger platforms are more efficient than other alternative platforms for conducing financial transactions, but as of now the proposition is based on apples-to-oranges comparisons compounded with speculation. Competition will lead to better incentive and governance systems for public ledger platforms.
Article
A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
Conference Paper
Cryptographically generated addresses (CGA) are IPv6 addresses some address bits are generated by hashing the address owner’s public key. The address owner uses the corresponding private key to assert address ownership and to sign messages sent from the address without a PKI or other security infrastructure. This paper describes a generic CGA format that can be used in multiple applications. Our focus is on removing weaknesses of earlier proposals and on the ease of implementation. A major contribution of this paper is a hash extension technique that increases the effective hash length beyond the 64-bit limit of earlier proposals.
Article
"Technology is not the answer to the population problem. Rather, what is needed is 'mutual coercion mutually agreed upon'--everyone voluntarily giving up the freedom to breed without limit. If we all have an equal right to many 'commons' provided by nature and by the activities of modern governments, then by breeding freely we behave as do herders sharing a common pasture. Each herder acts rationally by adding yet one more beast to his/her herd, because each gains all the profit from that addition, while bearing only a fraction of its costs in overgrazing, which are shared by all the users. The logic of the system compels all herders to increase their herds without limit, with the 'tragic,' i.e. 'inevitable,' 'inescapable' result: ruin the commons. Appealing to individual conscience to exercise restraint in the use of social-welfare or natural commons is likewise self-defeating: the conscientious will restrict use (reproduction), the heedless will continue using (reproducing), and gradually but inevitably the selfish will out-compete the responsible. Temperance can be best accomplished through administrative law, and a 'great challenge...is to invent the corrective feedbacks..to keep custodians honest.'"
3 ways Bitcoin can change development
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Some Crypto Quibbles with Threadneedle Street
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Saper, N. (2013). International Cryptography Regulation and the Global Information Economy. Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property. Fall. 11(7), 673-88. Retrieved from http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/njtip/vol11/iss7/5/
Inflation, chômage et malformations du capital
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Schmitt, B. (1984). Inflation, chômage et malformations du capital. Economica. Castella: Albeuve, Switzerland.
Code your own utopia: Meet Ethereum, bitcoin's most ambitious successor. Aljazeera America
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Schneider, N. (2014). Code your own utopia: Meet Ethereum, bitcoin's most ambitious successor. Aljazeera America. April 7. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/4/7/code-your-ownutopiameetethereumbitcoinasmostambitioussuccessor.html
Bitcoin startup funding soars as value dives: Here are the top deals so far this year
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Scubarth, C. (2015). Bitcoin startup funding soars as value dives: Here are the top deals so far this year. Silicon Valley Business Journal. Techflash. blogpost.7 August. Retrieved from http://www.bizjournals.com/sanjose/blog/techflash/2015/08/bitcoinstartup-funding-soars-as-value-dives-here.html
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Banks put aside suspicion and explore shared database that drives bitcoin
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Shubber, K. (2015). Banks put aside suspicion and explore shared database that drives bitcoin. Financial Times. 14 October. Retrieved from http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/51c07a78-61cb-11e5-9846-de406ccb37f2.html
A bitcoin miner in every device and in every hand. blog post
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Srinivisan, B.S. (2015). A bitcoin miner in every device and in every hand. blog post, May 18. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@21dotco/a-bitcoin-miner-in-everydevice-and-in-every-hand-e315b40f2821
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Stanley, A. (2015). Money movers wake up to working migrants. Financial Times. June 29. Retrieved from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/3/71227fda-18ea-11e5-8201-cbdb03d71480.html#axzz3fqfFjlIL
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Steiner, J. (2015). Blockchain Can Bring Transparency to Supply Chains. The Business of Fashion. 11 May. Retrieved from http://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/opinion/op-ed-blockchain-can-bringtransparency-to-supply-chains
Consensus-as-a-service: a brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems. Working paper
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Swanson, T. (2015). Consensus-as-a-service: a brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems. Working paper. 6 April. Retrieved from http://www.ofnumbers.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Permissioned-distributedledgers.pdf The Times of India (2015). Aadhaar world's largest biometric ID system. 27 April, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Aadhaar-worlds-largest-biometric-IDsystem/articleshow/47063516.cms
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Waters, R. (2014). Bitcoin 2.0 gives the dreamers focus-but only without the hype. Financial Times. 4 December. Retrieved from http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/f53524de-7bca-11e4-b6ab00144feabdc0.html#axzz3oSjgBwUx
How Bitcoin's Technology Could Make Supply Chains More Transparent. CoinDesk. 31 May
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Williams, R. (2015). How Bitcoin's Technology Could Make Supply Chains More Transparent. CoinDesk. 31 May. Retrieved from http://www.coindesk.com/how-bitcoins-technology-could-make-supply-chains-moretransparent/
Achieving Universal Financial Access by
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The Future of Financial Services -How disruptive innovations are reshaping the way financial services are structured, provisioned and consumed. An Industry Project of the Financial Services Community
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Zamfir, V. (2015). What is Cryptoeconomics?. CryptoEconomicon 2015. Crypto Technology Conference. Mountain View, CA, USA. January 26-29. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9lw3s7iGUXQ NOTES
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Allaire, J. (2015). Bitcoin and the Future of Payments Technology. Panel Discussion, Museum of American Finance. Lecture/Symposia Series. February 11. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-ZTSao8HPk&feature=youtu.be&t=661
Bank of England: Central banks looking at 'hybrid systems' using Bitcoin's blockchain technology. International Business Time
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Allison, I. (2015). Bank of England: Central banks looking at 'hybrid systems' using Bitcoin's blockchain technology. International Business Time. July 16. Retrieved from http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/bank-england-central-banks-looking-hybrid-systemsusing-bitcoins-blockchain-technology-1511195
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Code your own utopia: Meet Ethereum, bitcoin's most ambitious successor. Aljazeera America
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Blockchain based Digital Identity will disrupt commerce and government
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Daily Fintech (2015). Blockchain based Digital Identity will disrupt commerce and government. 22 May. Retrieved from http://dailyfintech.com/2015/05/22/blockchain-based-digital-identity-will-disruptcommerce-and-government/
Get Ready for the Rise of the Blockchain. American Banker
  • C Derose
Derose, C. (2015a). Get Ready for the Rise of the Blockchain. American Banker. April 20. Retrieved from http://www.americanbanker.com/bankthink/get-ready-for-the-riseof-the-blockchain-1073843-1.html
Blockchain for Beginners -Behind the Ingenious Security Feature that Powers the Blockchain. American Banker. 21 May
  • C Derose
Derose, C. (2015b). Blockchain for Beginners -Behind the Ingenious Security Feature that Powers the Blockchain. American Banker. 21 May. Retrieved from http://www.americanbanker.com/bankthink/behind-the-ingenious-security-featurethat-powers-the-blockchain-1074442-1.htm
The Economics of Bitcoin and Similar Private Digital Currencies
  • G Dwyer
Dwyer, G. (2014). The Economics of Bitcoin and Similar Private Digital Currencies. July 8. dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2434628