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Skills trained by coaches of Canadian male volleyball teams: A comparison with long-term athlete development guidelines

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Abstract

Volleyball Canada and Volleyball Quebec developed long-term athlete development models in order to guide volleyball coaches concerned with athlete development. These models propose guidelines about the development of skills. However, it has yet to be determined whether coaches apply long-term athlete development guidelines in their coaching practice. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to describe the amount of time devoted to the various skills trained by four volleyball coaches of different levels and to compare these training skills with the long-term athlete development guidelines. The results of this multiple case study (n = 4) indicated that based on long-term athlete development guidelines, (a) college and university coaches over-trained technical skills; (b) high school coaches and university coaches undertrained individual tactical skills; and (c) high school coaches over-trained team tactical skills. Corrective measures that might help coaches apply the long-term athlete development guidelines are changes in the access to training facilities, competition schedules, and coach education programs.

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... Another factor is the demand of the sport, which determines the manipulation and adaptation of specific loads. A third factor is the stage of the performance expectation plan, since beginner athletes in the youth categories need greater attention to acquire technical skills and reach basic performance levels to be able to subsequently withstand the specific demands of the sport (Chevrier et al., 2016). ...
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Periodization is a methodological system that distributes training contents. With the evolution of sports, several periodization models were developed based on Matveev’s classic periodization, Verkhoshansky’s Blocks periodization model, Vorobiev’s Modular, Arosiev and Kalinin`s Pendular, Tschiene`s High Load, Valdivielso’s ATR, Platonov’s Multicyclical, and Bompa’s Priority, among others. The vast majority of models - and even their variations - have made it difficult to classify and select which periodization to use. To that end, the aim of the present study was to create criteria to identify sports training periodization models and, with the use of analysis and discussion of their characteristics, propose a classification and indicate the applicability of the most widely cited models in the literature. In the methodology of this study, a group technique known as direct discussion was used. The group consisted of 20 Master’s students, all researchers of the models proposed and sports training students at the Science of Human Motricity Course of Castelo Branco University, in addition to four discussion mediators. Despite a number of conceptual differences, the results show that most of the contemporary periodization training models derive from Matveev’s model, in an attempt to meet the demands currently imposed by sports. We analyzed the models investigated and concluded that despite their diversity, some characteristics are common and help distinguish each of them in terms of structure, load variation, number of peaks, sports level and applicability. Resumen. La periodización es un sistema metodológico que distribuye los contenidos formativos. Con la evolución de los deportes, se desarrollaron varios modelos de periodización basados en la periodización clásica de Matveev, el modelo de periodización de Bloques de Verkhoshansky, Modular de Vorobiev, Pendular de Arosiev y Kalinin, Carga de alto de Tschiene, ATR de Valdivielso, Multicíclico de Platonov y Prioridad de Bompa, entre otros. La gran mayoría de modelos, e incluso sus variaciones, han dificultado la clasificación y selección de qué periodización utilizar. Para ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue generar criterios para identificar modelos de periodización del entrenamiento deportivo y, con el uso del análisis y discusión de sus características, proponer una clasificación e indicar la aplicabilidad de los modelos más citados en la literatura. En la metodología de este estudio se utilizó una técnica grupal conocida como discusión directa. El grupo estuvo integrado por 20 estudiantes de maestría, todos investigadores de los modelos propuestos y estudiantes de formación deportiva del Curso de Ciencia de la Motricidad Humana de la Universidad Castelo Branco, además de cuatro mediadores de discusión. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de los modelos de entrenamiento de periodización contemporáneos derivan del modelo de Matveev, en un intento de satisfacer las demandas impuestas actualmente por los deportes. Analizamos los modelos investigados y concluimos que a pesar de su diversidad, algunas características son comunes y ayudan a distinguir cada uno de ellos en cuanto a estructura, variación de carga, número de picos, nivel deportivo y aplicabilidad.
... Whilst the NSCA position statement and recent research related to long-term athletic development has emerged within the fields of sport science, physical education, coaching, and strength and conditioning (e.g., [6,10,13,14]), it remains to be determined whether these strategies are consistently implemented in practice. For example, whilst research has evaluated the implementation of the LTAD model in Canada (e.g., [15][16][17]), no research to our knowledge has explored the concept of long-term athletic development. Furthermore, a paucity of practical guidance and evaluation of the knowledge and skills of practitioners to successfully implement the ten pillars of long-term athletic development currently does not exist. ...
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Long-term athletic development practices have been recommended for the past two decades. However, limited research exists exploring the knowledge and skills required by practitioners to optimise long-term athletic development. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, adherence, practices, and challenges of practitioners responsible for delivering long-term athletic development. A mixed methods survey was completed by 236 practitioners (e.g., sport coaches, physical education teachers) consisting of four parts; 1) demographics, 2) knowledge, 3) adherence, and 4) practices and challenges. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed by Friedman’s analysis of variance and thematic analyses, respectively. Quantitative findings showed practitioners 1) recognised their responsibility for delivering long-term athletic development, 2) have a familiarity with existing developmental models, and 3) had high adherence, focused upon health and wellbeing, to delivering long-term athletic development. However, practices associated with growth and maturity, monitoring and assessment, and the systematic progression and individualisation of training had lower adherence. Qualitative analysis indicated that practitioner’s perceived definitions of athleticism and long-term athletic development were inconsistent, especially according to the psychological components (i.e., confidence). Practitioners’ descriptions of their long-term athletic development practices identified two higher order themes; 1) goals, in which long-term athletic development “is for life” and the importance of “an individual centered journey” highlighted as sub-themes; and 2) realities of delivering long-term athletic development, whereby variety in programme delivery, monitoring development and practical challenges were noted as key priorities. Eight practical challenges were identified including governance and priorities, resources, education, early specialization, high training volumes, staff communication, parents and youth motivation. This mixed method survey highlighted a multitude of knowledge, adherence, practices and challenges towards long-term athletic development. These novel findings can help inform policy to optimise long-term athletic development and to support the complex problem of developing a healthier, fitter and more physically active youth population.
... In addition to physical characteristics and technical skills in volleyball, the tactics and decisionmaking abilities are crucial in order to become a successful player (Broek, Boen, Claessens, Feys, & Ceux, 2011). However, the remaining challenge regarding the long-term athlete development is the amount of time devoted to various skills (Chevrier, Roy, Turcotte, Culver, & Cybulski, 2016). Therefore, more research is needed in order to confirm this theory, especially in younger volleyball players. ...
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The aim of our research was to determine the effects of small-sided games on explosive strength in young volleyball players. The authors hypothesized that this program might significantly improve explosive strength in adolescent volleyball players. Thirty-eight adolescent volleyball players participated in this study (12.26±1.01). They were tested for lower body explosive power and passing accuracy. Players were randomly allocated into a small-sided games group (n = 20) and instructional training group (n = 18). Each player participated in a 12-week training program that included 3 organized court training sessions per week. Both groups made significant increases in block jump (p < 0.05) after 12 weeks of training, with significant interaction effect between the groups. There were no significant interaction effects between the groups (p>0.05) for spike jump. In SJ and CMJ results revealed a statistically significant difference between groups pre- to post- training (p < 0.05). Both groups made significant increases in passing accuracy with significant interaction effect between the groups. Small-sided games appears to be an effective way of improving explosive power and passing skills in young volleyball players. The results of this study indicate that game-based training method was more effective for lower body explosive power than traditional instructional programme.
... However, it is possible that much of this research may not directly address the needs of the participants in the current study because they specifically expressed a desire for research examining LTAD models (which are not based on this body of talent development research). Studies of LTAD are scarce and, of the few published studies, there has been a focus on coaches' perceptions of LTAD (e.g., Black & Holt, 2009;Chevrier, Roy, Turcotte, Culver, & Cybulski, 2016) and their views of its adoption and implementation (Beaudoin, Callary, & Trudeau, 2015). Ford et al. (2011) suggested that LTAD models are fundamentally based on physiological principles. ...
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... The most important is that children may benefit from this fun and dynamic approach to learning the game of different sports.In addition to physical characteristics and technical skills in team sports, the tactics and decision making abilities are crucial in order to become a successful player (Broek, Boen, Claessens, Feys, &Ceux, 2011). However, the remaining challenge regarding the long term athlete development is the amount of time devoted to various skills (Chevrier, Roy, Turcotte, Culver, & Cybulski, 2016). Some studies have shown the effects of invasion games on improving students' game performance (skill execution efficiency and efficacy and decision making) in invasion games (Tallir, Lenoir, Valcke, & Musch, 2007), in particular for girls and low skill-level students (Ricardo & Graca, 2008). ...
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