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Abstract

Yogun rekabetin yasandigi gunumuz is dunyasinda sadece sirketler degil ulkeler de rekabet icindedir. Bu nedenle ulkede sektorlere gelisimleri icin destek olacak kurumlarin ve mekanizmalarin onemi tartisilamaz. Universitelerle sanayinin isbirligi deger zincirini olumlu sekilde etkileyecek, bir taraftan sirketlerin rekabet gucunu artirirken diger taraftan ekonomik buyumeyi ve toplumsal kalkinmayi da beraberinde getirecektir. Bu dogrultuda Izmir’de faaliyet gosteren bir aile sirketinin yoneticileriyle universite-sanayi isbirligi deneyimleri konusunda derinlemesine gorusme yapilmistir. Calismada, KOBI olarak degerlendirilen soz konusu isletme ozelinde yuksek ozguven, universitelere yonelik guvensizlik, isbirliginin teknik boyutta degerlendirilmesi, karsilikli iletisim eksikligi ve yapilandirilmis yaklasim eksikligi gibi nedenlerle universite sanayi isbirliginde noktasinda arzu edilen noktaya gelinemedigi belirlenmistir.
Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
205
ÜNİVERSİTE-SANAYİ İŞBİRLİĞİNDE KARŞILAŞILAN
ZORLUKLAR: İZMİR MERKEZLİ BİR SANAYİ İŞLETMESİ
ÖRNEĞİ
THE CHALLENGES IN UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY
COLLABORATION: AN INDUSTRIAL BUSINESS EXAMPLE IN
İZMİR
    ,      
erhan.zalluhoglu@ege.edu.tr
    
 aykan.candemir@ege.edu.tr
  BAYBARS,       
miray.baybars@ege.edu.tr
   ,       
cihat.karsli@ege.edu.tr
Öz
Bilgi      rekabet    en
  birisidir      
 bu sistemde    mektedirler.    
        ulusal inovasyon sisteminin
izmas- 
rek, bir taraftan  
        
getirmektedir.    -sanayi  
       Bu
    bir aile inin e -
  deneyimleri konusunda derinlemesine ler 
        
   k   
       
gibi nedenlerle - nde    
.
Anahtar kelimeler: Üniversite-Sanayi İşbirliği, Üniversite, İşbirliği Önündeki
Engeller, İnovasyon
A.E. Zalluhoğlu ve diğerleri Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
206
Abstract
Knowledge is one of the most important factors to gain competitive advantage in a
rapid evolution of the complex business environment. Universities have a critical role
in this system by generating information and transforming them into new technologies
for companies. Although, collaboration between industry and universities is a difficult
and complex process, it is a highly important mechanism of national innovation
system. Therefore, the institutions which are likely to help the industries on their
developmental issues are considered as. University-industry collaboration is expected
           
bring about the economic growth and social development. The aim of this study is to
examine the problems at the collaboration between universities and industries and
making suggestions to develop collaborations. In order to shed a light on the issue, in
             
carried out on their experiences of university-industry collaboration. The reasons
preventing the university-industry collaboration on the specific case of this business
which is categorized in SME status-, are found to be the high self confidence of the
firm (owners/managers), lack of confidence to universities, evaluation of
collaboration in terms of technical dimension only, lack of mutual communication
and lack of a structured approach. Knowledge is the most important factor to gain
competitive advantage in a rapid evolution of the business complex environment.
Universities have a critical role in this world by generating information and
transforming them into new technologies for companies.
Keywords: University-Industry Collaboration, University, Barriers on Collaboration,
Innovation
1. GİRİŞ
         
  vb. nedenler  bi   diller
uyor gibi   (Karnani, 2014:205; Board of Trade of Metropolitan
Montreal Survey, 2012:6), 
           
, ortak bir dil ve
 
 , in    birbirlerinin
a
.       
        
   -sanayi
nin her i        

Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
207
2014-        
        
-        
. -
         
 A  -     d
s       rekabet edebilirlik
Kamu--Sanayi
.

-       
merkezler      
          
      -sanayi 
         
         
       deki

       -
mesi beklenmektedir.
    -sanayi   
     Bununla beraber -
sanayi  kapsamdaki akademik 
   nede    
        

         

2. ÜNİVERSİTE-SANAYİ İŞBİRLİKLERİ
-       
       
seviyesinde tutmakta, kimi iteler ile
   a        
gitmektedir (-., 2015: 9).-
      devlet  
      
nde , ve yine bu 
- ifade edilmektedir (Freitas
   451).       
 -      
       devlet viklerinin
A.E. Zalluhoğlu ve diğerleri Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
208
vargerek 
       
        ifade
etmektedir (Guimon, 2013:3).
         
      
       devlet 
         
        
   ile   de  
         


2.1 Üniversite-sanayi işbirliği örnekleri
-      de de gerek sanayi
        
        
       -
 
    :77). Bu   nun   
olarak  Henry Etzkow(Triple Helix Model) 
ver  Etzkowitz ve Leydesdorff nin
 (Etzkowitz ve Leydesdorff, 2000: 111)
-         
         
       
 
       

-  
    (BAU  , 2015:1). Benzer
-
 
      ,
2015:1).

sa        
    
Ebiltem, 2016:1). 
ve         
Yagem, 2016:1). 
Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
209
         
           

-       
          nasyon
       

engel        ayi
       
       
        
desteklenm    :1).
         
edilebilir.
-       
r, bu alanda etkin ve verimli 
uygulama        
     
          
        
      

   erek     

beraber, ida aktif kurabilmesi ile
konusunu         
   
Board Report, 2012: 8-112010:85).
2.2. Üniversite-sanayi işbirliğinin önündeki engeller
-sanayi 
        
o        205). -
engeller s 
         
    rokrasi ve esnek olamama
        vb.
 Freitas, 2013: 448), bu engelleri
       
limlerle ler ve le 
engel (Bruneel, 2010: 864).
A.E. Zalluhoğlu ve diğerleri Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
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3.ALAN ARAŞTIRMASI: İZMİR MERKEZLİ BİR SANAYİ İŞLETMESİ
ÖRNEĞİ
-ve

3.1 Araştırmanın metodolojisi
   -   
 kadar  platformda taraflarca dile getirilip, bu
       , bu
       
 , -sanayi i   
nedenleri       , bu
 rulamama    . Elde edilen
bulgular,       
edilmesi sayesinde      
       
.
3.2 Araştırma yöntemi
        
        
bozmadan       
      - 
        
     
         2013:42).
           

- 
       
   -      
k    Ar-Ge   -sanayi

        
beklenmemektedir. Bu  -   
          
        
e 
   niversite-s    
       
 dur.         
Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
211
, i       ifade
edilebilir gibi
         iki
 
    sanayinin temel girdisi olarak kabul edilebilecek

   
   
   derinlemesine g    
        
 ir.  -
    -  
 ilgili    15-30 Temmuz 2015
  
merkezi
   d       
  .       
dokuz 


-daha 
        
        
      -  
        

        

         
          
          
  aile i olarak .
     
 teknik  ilgili faaliyetlerden 
(GMY) ile irketin (OSGMY)  ile
mezuniyetlerinden bu yana 
devam etmektedirler.     yaka     
    cirosu ya    Avro
 birlikte de faaliyet
       
laboratuv da 
A.E. Zalluhoğlu ve diğerleri Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
212
3.3. Bulgular

Genel bulgular:  
istek duysa da aile   OSGMY ve
GMY         ol
yla da 
... (şirkette) işi sabahtan oturup sırf araştırma geliştirme olan bir kişi yok... bu
tamamen firma sahiplerinin boş zamanına endeksli olduğu zaman da...işin yürümesi
öncelikli olduğu için..sonuçta burası bir şirket, ciro öncelik. ciro öncelik olunca,
müşteri öncelik oluyor; müşteri patron. o şekilde (bizim zamanımız) müşteri
kovalamakla geçiyor yani..daha doğrusu bir KOBİ olarak sırf ayrı ARGE departmanı
yapacak şeyimiz yok şu anda.” (GMY)
elektrik 
faaliyetleri de       
  ,      
nedeniyle yeniliklere a GMY
ulusal ve ulusl      
etmektedir.   almakta,

         

bir uygulama i        

         
anda seri 


         
         



  -     
       
     ...   
 
         
        
alan GMY 
        
       
      
Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
213

etmektedir.
“.. Üniversite-sanayi işbirliği olmalıdır. ....Bana bu konuda şu ana kadar ...
Üniversitesinden gelen davetlerin hiçbirini reddetmedim. Yapılan danışman kurulu
toplantılarında bize “Mezunlarımızdan ne bekliyorsunuz” şeklinde sorular
soruyorlar. Yapılan görüşme de herkes fikrini söylüyor.... Bir de üniversiteden bize
öğrencilerin bitirme ödevlerini sundukları kurula davet geliyor. Ben katılıyorum ve
öğrencilerin bitirme ödevlerini yerinde inceliyorum, çünkü öğrencilerin ne
yaptıklarını nasıl fikirleri olduğunu önemsiyorum.” (GMY)
“... ... Üniversitesi’nden tanıdığım hocaya ben (laboratuvarımızdan) bahsetmiştim,
hatta geldi ve kendisi gördü, daha sonra o hoca teklif etti, “ne yapabiliriz” şeklinde
bende “istediğiniz şekilde laboratuvarımızı kullanabilirsiniz” dedim.
Laboratuvarımızda çok güzel testler yaptık, gelen her bir öğrenci için de farklı
konularda çalışmalar gerçekleştirdik ve öğrenciler de yapılan bu çalışmaları
dosyalarına eklediler....” (GMY)
       
site-        

Özgüven:        b 
    da elektrik
        
 
u ifade edilebilir.
“… şirketimizin şöyle bir ayrıcalığı var: şirket kurucumuz ileri düzeyde mühendislik
bilgisine sahip olduğu için böyle bir işbirliğine şuana kadar ihtiyaç duymamış
olabiliriz. Biz genelde finansal desteklerle ilgili işbirliğinde bulunuyoruz.
Üniversitelerin teknik bölümlerine ne kadar güveniyoruz onu da sorgulamak lazım”
(OSGMY)
Güvensizlik:  -     
dile
getirmektedir:
“… Genel konjonktürden ya da üniversitelerden yeni mezun gelen öğrencilerin
durumlarının da üniversitelere yönelik güven oluşmamasında payı vardır. ...-
başvurusu için gelen öğrenciler-genel olarak ne yapmak istediklerini bilmiyorlar. Bir
alanda uzmanlaşmıyorlar. Ayrıca gerçekleştirmiş oldukları tezleri ya da projeleri
sadece teoride kalıyor ve uygulamaya geçirilemiyor...” (GMY)

u yapan leri ve 
    -   
A.E. Zalluhoğlu ve diğerleri Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
214
         
:27).
İşbirliğinin teknik düzeyde algılanması:    
-sana

         
       

“....Üniversite-sanayi işbirliği üniversitenin teknik bir bölümü ile olursa tabiî ki
teknik anlamda olur ama başka fakülteler kapsamında pazarlama, pazar araştırması
konularında da işbirliğimiz olabilir.” (OSGMY)
Karşılıklı iletişim eksikliği:      
      
rojesi  niversitesinden 
, 
   Bu kapsamda niversitelerin herhangi bir
         

“... Üniversitelerden bize hiç gelen yok. Hiç öyle bir şey olmadı. Örneğin ......
Üniversitesi Türkiye Enerji Projesi kapsamında Avrupa Birliği’nden destek alıp
Türkiye’deki trafo merkezlerini gezip genel bir araştırma gerçekleştirdi. Biz enerji
kalitesi üzerine çalışıyoruz ama o projenin yapıldığı günde bile bir işbirliğimiz
olmadı...”(GMY)
“.. Ama teknik liselerdeki hocalar bizimle hep iletişimde, stajyerlerimiz var onlar hep
iletişimde hatta onlardan talep de çok geliyor ben her zaman yardım ediyorum daha
hiç geri çevirmedim ...”(GMY)
“.. Evde hamur açan kadın bile biliyor KOSGEB in destek verdiğini yani herkes
biliyor ama biz neden üniversitelerin ilgili birimlerini, iletişim stratejilerini nedir
bilmiyoruz ve duymadık. Hatta …. tarafından yıllar önce gönderilen davetiye
faaliyetlerle ilgili dökümanların tarihlerinin eski olması çok manidardı ...” (OSGMY)
        
pa        

-işbirliğinin- bize faydalı bir çalışma olması için de bizden oraya talep gitmesi
gerekirdi ama açıkçası böyle bir talebimiz de olmadı…” (GMY)
Yapılandırılmış yaklaşım eksikliği:     
  GMY    
       
       

Ege Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
215
“... hep …… Üniversitesine gittim. O da kişisel olarak, yakın gördüğüm bir hoca
vardı, onunla diyalog içindeydik. O hoca da başka bir üniversiteye geçince …..
Üniversitesi ile de bir bağım kalmadı. ...” (GMY)
      -sanayi  
         

   ,     

4. SONUÇ VE ÖNERİLER
        
        
        
      

        
       

        
         

         



       
teknolojilerin g
        
        
        
 -
        

        

     f kategorize edilen aile
 e ile   engeller   ve inovasyon
 potansiyeline    duyulan 
   ve    olarak ifade edilebilir.

       
 
a   
         
A.E. Zalluhoğlu ve diğerleri Cilt 7, Özel Sayı, 2016
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        

        

Bu         
-sa         
        
-sanayi    
- sa     

        

  

        
      Bununla
    
        
        
, kazan-kazan prensibiyle hareket ederek  
eler ile bir platform ni ihmal
e 
KAYNAKÇA
    -sanayi   
http://www.bahcesehir.edu.tr/icerik/9580-bau-ve-netastan-ornek-universite-
sanayi-isbirligi. 
  -8871-1-
1/isik_universitesi/isik_universitesi/etkinlikler/bir_asirlik_iki_kurumun_isbirligi
. 
Board of Trade of Metropolitan Montreal Survey. (2012). University-Industry
Collaboration: Researchers Weigh In. (
http://www.ccmm.qc.ca/documents/pdf/RDVS-Savoir2012_en.pdf 
Tarihi: 1 Ekim 2015.
 ve Salter, A. (2010). Investigating the Factors that Diminish
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