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The growing use of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in performance contexts (e.g., business, sport) has highlighted the absence of a contextually valid and reliable measure of irrational beliefs. This paper reports the development and initial validation of the Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory (iPBI). The iPBI was developed to provide a validated measure of the four core irrational beliefs of REBT theory. Item development was completed in three stages comprising two expert panels and one novice panel, reducing and refining 176 items to 133. Then, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to refine the measure and reduce the number of items. A total of 665 business professionals completed the 133-item scale, alongside an established measure of irrational beliefs and a measure of negative emotion. A 28-item measure was developed (the iPBI) that showed an acceptable fit to the four-factor REBT structure. The iPBI correlated well with the established irrational beliefs measure, and with anxiety, depression, and anger, demonstrating concurrent and predictive validity. Further validation efforts are required to assess the validity and reliability of the iPBI in alternative samples in other performance-related contexts.
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Running Head: THE IPBI
The development and initial validation of the Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory
(iPBI)
Brief Report
Accepted Version: 7th July 2015
Turner, M. J1*., Allen, M. S.2., Slater, M. J1., Barker, J. B1., Woodcock, C1., Harwood, C.
G3., & McFadyen, K1.
1 Centre for Sport, Health and Exercise Research, Staffordshire University
2 School of Psychology, University of Wollongong
3 School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University
* Corresponding author: martin.turner@staffs.ac.uk B180, Brindley Building, Leek Road,
Staffordshire University, Stoke on Trent, ST4 4DF
Acknowledgments:
The authors would like to thank Dr. Beth Pummell, Andrew Bullock, Jamie Gillman, Samuel
Cumming, and Daniel Shaw, for their contributions at the review stage of the item
development process.
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Abstract
The growing use of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in performance contexts
(e.g., business, sport) has highlighted the absence of a contextually valid and reliable measure
of irrational beliefs. This paper reports the development and initial validation of the Irrational
Performance Beliefs Inventory (iPBI). The iPBI was developed to provide a validated
measure of the four core irrational beliefs of REBT theory. Item development was completed
in three stages comprising two expert panels and one novice panel, reducing and refining 176
items to 133. Then, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to refine the
measure and reduce the number of items. A total of 665 business professionals completed the
133-item scale, alongside an established measure of irrational beliefs and a measure of
negative emotion. A 28-item measure was developed (the iPBI) that showed an acceptable fit
to the four-factor REBT structure. The iPBI correlated well with the established irrational
beliefs measure, and with anxiety, depression, and anger, demonstrating concurrent and
predictive validity. Further validation efforts are required to assess the validity and reliability
of the iPBI in alternative samples in other performance-related contexts.
Keywords: Irrational beliefs; scale development; confirmatory factor analysis; negative
emotion; REBT.
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Development and initial validation of the Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory
(iPBI)
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) predicts that in adverse conditions it is
not the situation that causes dysfunctional emotions, but rather individual beliefs about the
situation (Ellis, 1957). In REBT, dysfunctional emotions (e.g., immobilizing emotions such
as anxiety) and associated maladaptive behaviours (e.g., withdrawal) stem from irrational
beliefs (see e.g., Browne, Dowd, & Freeman, 2010; Szentagotai & Jones, 2010). In contrast,
functional emotions (e.g., mobilizing emotions such as concern) and associated adaptive
behaviours (e.g., assertiveness) stem from rational beliefs (Ellis, Gordon, Neenan, & Palmer,
1997). In current REBT theory (Dryden, 2014) there are four core irrational beliefs – one
primary (demandingness) and three secondary (awfulizing, low-frustration tolerance, and
depreciation). In parallel, there are four types of rational belief, one primary (preferences) and
three secondary (anti-awfulizing, high-frustration tolerance, and self-acceptance). Secondary
beliefs are derived from the primary belief (Dryden, 2012). The goal of REBT is to reduce
irrational beliefs in favour of rational beliefs.
Researchers have applied REBT to develop functional emotions and effective
performance in contexts such as competitive sport (Turner, 2014; Turner & Barker, 2013)
and business (Turner & Barker, 2015). However, one limitation hindering research
developments in performance settings is the lack of a contextually-specific irrational beliefs
measure that is short enough for test-retest purposes and aligns closely with contemporary
REBT theory. A psychometric review of irrational beliefs measures concluded that current
irrational beliefs scales are limited because they do not represent current manifestations of
REBT theory and tend to focus on emotion and behaviour outcomes rather than irrational
beliefs (Terjesen et al., 2009). The development of the Abbreviated Attitudes and Beliefs
Scale-2 (Hyland, Shevlin, Adamson, & Boduszek, 2014) addressed some of these limitations
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and provides a good generic measure of irrational beliefs in everyday life. Nevertheless, a
context-specific measure of irrational beliefs for performance environments (that aligns with
current REBT iterations) is currently absent from the REBT literature. In addition, recent
recommendations (Ziegler & Horstmann, 2015) and research (Breevaart, Bakker, Demerouti,
& Hetland, 2012) express the need to consider situational perception when developing new
measures, so that a more accurate understanding of the specific conditions or subpopulation
with which a tool works best in can be gained. Therefore, the development of a contextually
specific irrational beliefs measure should consider the situational circumstances of the target
population, who in the case of the present paper, could be performers operating within
business, sport, academia, the performing arts, medicine, law, and the military. By
developing a contextual and situational specific measure, a more accurate assessment of
performance irrational beliefs can be achieved, helping to capture specific irrational beliefs
rather than general irrational beliefs.
This short report describes the development and initial validation of a new
performance-relevant irrational beliefs measure – the Irrational Performance Beliefs
Inventory (iPBI). A new theory-driven performance-relevant irrational beliefs questionnaire
will provide working consultants in performance domains with a practical tool for assessing
core irrational beliefs – allowing for more valid diagnosis of irrational beliefs and more
targeted theory-driven interventions.
Item Development
Because accurate item generation is central to the development of a good scale, we
assembled an expert researcher panel to generate an initial pool of items (Hinkin, 1995). The
panel consisted of five experienced performance psychology practitioners and researchers.
Three members were qualified REBT practitioners (Centre for Rational Emotive Behavior
Therapy [the UK affiliate of the Albert Ellis Institute, New York]), and three were registered
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practitioner psychologists (Health Care Professions Council, UK). To ensure construct
validity, we decided to target items towards the four core irrational beliefs with items
reflecting various performance markers (see Macavei & McMahon, 2010). Ten contextual
factors were selected that (based on the experience of the panel) reflected performance
environments across business, sport, academia, the performing arts, medicine, law, and the
military. The ten factors were achievement, approval, consistency, development, failure,
fairness, opportunity, rejection, respect, and security.
The purpose of the expert panel was to develop a large number of items (the more the
better; DeVellis, 2012) that reflect the construct and context to be measured. This ensures that
content validity is built into the development of the measure (Holmbeck & Devine, 2009).
The panel also ensured that item sentences were not extensive or difficult to understand.
Indeed, some measures have received criticism for containing lengthy questions (e.g.,
Lindner, Kirkby, Wertheim, & Birch, 1999) or questions that measure other cognitive or
emotional parameters in addition to irrational beliefs (e.g., Jones, 1969). The panel ensured
that each item measured a single core irrational belief for a particular contextual factor, and
that items did not contain emotional or behavioural wordings (Macavei & McMahon, 2010).
In total, 176 items were constructed at this stage.
The 176 items were then subjected to an independent expert review panel (n = 3) to
further ensure content (and context) validity, that items did not contain emotional and
behavioural wording, and to allow for item refinement (Grant & Davis, 1997). In line with
the Standard for Educational and Psychological Testing (American Educational Research
Association, 1985), the experts were qualified REBT practitioners and experienced
practitioner psychologists. Each expert was provided a definition of each core irrational belief
and each contextual factor, and received an electronic document containing all items and
instructions on item rating. The expert reviewers were asked to rate each item between 1
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(poor) and 5 (excellent) regarding the extent to which the item assesses the four irrational
beliefs and the ten contextual factors (Hinkin & Schrieshei, 1989). Items rated poorly were
removed from the item pool. Items with a lack of clarity or poor wording were retained and
revised for further validation. In total, 146 items were retained at this stage.
The 146 items were then subjected to an independent novice review panel (n = 3) to
validate the clarity of the items among non-experts (DeVellis, 2012). The reviewers were
psychology graduates but with little or no experience in using REBT or practicing as a
psychologist. Each novice reviewer was provided with the same electronic document as the
expert reviewers (but with 146 items) with some items amended based on expert reviewer
suggestions. As before, items that rated poorly were removed from the item pool and others
were amended based on comments regarding wording and clarity. In total, 133 items were
retained (Demandingness = 33, Awfulizing = 33, Low-frustration tolerance = 34,
Depreciation = 33). The 133 items were progressed to statistical validation analysis (DeVellis,
2012). Generally, shorter measures are preferred as they provide a more versatile assessment
(e.g., can be used in time consuming contexts) and allow for accessible testing and retesting
(Terjesen et al., 2009). A sample of five participants per item is recommended (DeVellis,
2012) for statistical validation analyses (133 items x 5 = 665 participants).
Method
Sample
The sample consisted of 665 participants (Mage = 44.56 ± 12.47 years) that were
working in a professional business setting. All participants were in current employment or
were self-employed within a private or public sector organization that had more than ten
employees on a part-time or full-time basis. The sample (264 men, 295 women, 106
participants did not report their gender) had an average of 15.74 years’ experience in their
role as a professional worker (Median = 12.00 ±11.16 years). All participants were working
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in the United Kingdom and data were collected in July and August of 2014. Questionnaires
were completed through an anonymized online system.
Measures
Irrational performance beliefs inventory (iPBI). The iPBI included a similar stem
to a previous irrational beliefs measure (SGABS). Participants were required to indicate the
extent to which they agreed with each of the 133 statements on a 5-point scale ranging from 1
(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). We calculated summed scores for each irrational
belief subscale and computed a composite irrational beliefs score by summing all subscale
items (higher scores are indicative of stronger irrational beliefs).
Shortened general attitude and belief scale (SGABS). The SGABS (Lindner et al.,
1999) comprises of 26 items forming eight subscales. Total irrationality (22 items) is made
up of self-downing (4 items), other-downing (3 items), need for achievement (4 items), need
for approval (3 items), need for comfort (4 items), and demand for fairness (4 items). A
rationality (4 items) subscale is also included. Participants were asked to indicate the extent
that they agreed with each of the 26 statements on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (strongly
disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), with higher scores indicative of stronger beliefs. The SGABS
has shown high test-retest reliability (r = .91; Lindner et al., 1999), and acceptable construct,
concurrent, convergent, and discriminate validity (MacInnes, 2003). The SGABS was
selected for comparison with the iPBI given its prior use in performance contexts (Turner &
Barker, 2013).
State-trait personality inventory (STPI). Trait items from the STPI (Spielberger,
1979) were used to measure negative emotion. The 40-item STPI trait scales include 10-items
per emotion, and assess individual differences in anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity
(Spielberger, 1979). Participants rated their experience of the emotion on a 4-point scale (1 =
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almost never; 4 = almost always). STPI trait scales have demonstrated high internal
consistency coefficients in previous studies ranging from .80 to .96 (Spielberger, 1979).
Preliminary analyses
In total, 38 participants were removed from the sample owing to missing data on one
or more items (final sample, n = 627). Missing data analyses show that items were not
missing completely at random, χ2 (4601) = 5309.07, p < .001, but there were no more than
two missing cases for any one item. For all items, skewness values were between –1.33 and
0.95 and kurtosis values were between –0.77 and 2.64. Visual inspection of the data showed
normal distribution curves on all items, but item 1 (“I absolutely should be treated fairly by
my peers”) and item 43 (“I need to work in a way that works well for me”) showed nine and
five potential univariate outliers, respectively (z scores > 3.29). For each of the four
irrational belief subscales, exploratory principle components analyses were run and in each
case a single component solution emerged. We selected items that showed high loadings for
the confirmatory factor analyses (n = 37).
Data analysis
First, we aimed to confirm the theoretical four-factor structure of the iPBI through
confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Goodness of fit was assessed using the χ2 statistic, the
Comparative Fit Index (CFI), the non-normed fit index (NNFI), the standardised root mean
square residual (SRMR), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Values
close to .06 for the RMSEA and .08 for the SRMR are indicative of a good model fit, as are
values close to .95 for the CFI and NNFI (Hu & Bentler, 1999). In addition, we computed
internal reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s alpha) for each irrational belief subscale.
Coefficients greater than .70 indicate good test score reliability and coefficients greater
than .90 indicate excellent test score reliability (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). Second, we
tested the criterion validity of the new measure by correlating subscales with an existing
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measure of irrational beliefs (concurrent validity) and several theoretical correlates of
irrational beliefs (predictive validity). In particular, we correlated subscales of the new
measure with subscales of the SGABS and STPI. We also compared the irrational beliefs of
men and women, and correlated subscales with participant age and business experience. We
hypothesized that women would report a greater number of irrational beliefs than men (see
e.g., Walen & Greiger, 1988) and that a greater number of irrational beliefs would be
reported by younger participants and by those with less business experience (see e.g., Ndika,
Olagbaiye, & Agiobu-Kemmer, 2012). Support for these hypotheses would be considered
further evidence for the predictive validity of the iPBI.
Results
Construct validity
The initial 37 items included in the CFA produced a somewhat unacceptable fit to the
theoretically expected four-factor structure, χ2 (623) = 3175.27, p < .001, CFI = .89, NNFI
= .87, SRMR = .07, RMSEA = .08. Standardized factor loadings were generally high for all
items but several items loaded on more than a single factor. These items were deleted in
addition to several other items to develop a balanced questionnaire (i.e. the same number of
items per factor). Twenty-eight items were retained (seven items per factor) and a
subsequent CFA produced an acceptable fit to the theoretically expected four-factor structure,
χ2 (344) = 1433.98, p < .001, CFI = .93, NNFI = .92, SRMR = .06, RMSEA = .07. For the
final 28-item iPBI, standardized factor loadings were between .61 and .91 and error variances
were between .24 and .53. Internal consistency (alpha reliability) coefficients were
between .90 and .96 (see Table 1).
Criterion validity
We first tested concurrent validity through correlations between the 28-item iPBI and
SGABS dimensions. Table 2 demonstrates that medium to large positive correlations
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emerged between subscales of the iPBI and those of the SGABS. The largest correlation was
between self-downing and depreciation (r = .86). Based on the similar conceptualizations of
these two dimensions it is not surprising that a strong correlation emerged. We next tested the
predictive validity of the iPBI through correlations with trait subscales of the STPI. Small to
medium positive correlations emerged between iPBI subscales and participants’ trait anger,
trait anxiety, and trait depression. This supports hypotheses that participants’ reporting more
irrational beliefs will have more negative emotional traits. Last, we tested the predictive
validity of the iPBI through gender comparisons and correlations with participants’ age and
experience. Men scored lower on primary irrational beliefs, t(523) = 2.57, p < .05, d = 0.23,
and awfulizing, t(523) = 2.07, p < .05, d = 0.18, and older participants (r’s = –.13 to –.29) and
more experienced participants (r’s = –.08 to –.14) had fewer irrational beliefs (see Table 2).
Discussion
This short report outlines the development and initial validation of a performance-
context specific measure of irrational beliefs. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 28-
item four-factor structure (seven items per subscale) in this sample. Criterion validity was
established through high correlations between subscales of the iPBI and subscales of an
established measure of irrational beliefs (concurrent validity) and through medium
correlations between subscales of the iPBI and the experience of negative emotions
(predictive validity). In particular, iPBI subscales were positively associated with trait anger,
anxiety, and depression. Consistent with previous research (e.g., Nidika et al., 2012; Walen &
Greiger, 1988), we also found that irrational beliefs (as measured using the iPBI) were higher
in women than in men, and were higher in younger participants and those with less business
experience. Taken together, these findings support the construct, concurrent and predictive
validity of the iPBI in a professional working environment.
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There are some potential shortcomings that should be considered prior to adopting the
measure. First, the iPBI does not adhere to the recommendation that researchers assess
rational beliefs alongside irrational beliefs (Terjesen et al., 2009). Because rational and
irrational beliefs are relatively orthogonal (i.e., they do not correlate highly; see Bernard,
1998) a separate measure of rational beliefs may be required to gain a more rounded
appreciation of performance beliefs. To achieve this, researchers might consider developing a
corresponding rational beliefs measure (assessing the same dimensions as the iPBI) that
would require validation through the same processes described in the validation of the iPBI.
Second, the iPBI was validated in a single sample of organizational workers at a single time-
point and therefore the test-retest reliability of the measure is unknown. Further validation
studies are needed to ascertain whether the iPBI provides a valid assessment of irrational
beliefs in other performance contexts (e.g., sport, academia, medicine, law, the military), in
alternative cultures (outside of the UK), and in alternative populations such as adolescent and
older samples.
In short, this study provides some preliminary evidence that the iPBI is a valid
measure of irrational beliefs in organisational contexts. The iPBI addresses some of the
limitations of extant measures, adheres closely to recommendations for scale development
(see Terjesen et al., 2009), and meets recent recommendations that measures consider
situational perceptions in assessing psychological constructs (Ziegler & Horstmann, 2015).
We recommend further work on the psychometric properties of the iPBI and investigations
into irrational beliefs and their relationship to outcomes such as performance and well-being.
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Table 1: Standardized solution and fit statistics for the full four-factor 28-item model
Standardized factor loadings
Items
Error variances
PIB
DEP
Decisions that affect me must be justified
.53
.61
I have to be viewed favourably by people that matter to me
.40
.74
I need others to think that I make a valuable contribution
.33
.80
I absolutely should not be snubbed by people that matter to me
.45
.75
I must not be dismissed by my peers
.33
.82
I have to be respected by the members of my team
.36
.75
I need my manager/coach to act respectfully towards me
.49
.71
I can't bear not being given chances
.50
I can’t stand not reaching my goals
.28
I can’t bear not succeeding in things that are important to me
.25
I can't tolerate it when I fail at something that means a great deal to me
.34
I can’t stand failing in things that are important to me
.28
I can’t bear not getting better at what I do
.36
I couldn’t stand it if my competencies did not continually develop and improve
.40
It’s awful to not be treated fairly by my peers
.43
It’s awful if others do not approve of me
.37
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It’s awful if others think I do not make a valuable contribution
.36
It would be terrible to be dismissed by my peers
.52
It is appalling if others do not give me chances
.46
It would be awful if my position in my team was not secure
.41
It’s terrible if the members of my team do not respect me
.33
If decisions that affect me are not justified, it shows that I am worthless
.26
.89
If others think I am no good at what I do, it shows I am worthless
.25
.91
If I face setbacks it goes to show how stupid I am
.28
.85
If I am not given opportunities, then it shows that I am not a worthwhile person
.28
.89
I am a loser if I do not succeed in things that matter to me
.43
.83
If my position in my team was not secure, then it would show I am worthless
.24
.90
If my competencies did not continually develop and improve, it would show
what a failure I am
.34
.85
Factor
Mean ± SD
α (reliability coefficient)
Inter-factor correlations
Primary irrational beliefs (PIB)
23.36 ± 5.29
.90
Low frustration tolerance (LFT)
23.05 ± 5.54
.92
.71***
Awfulizing (AWF)
21.28 ± 5.97
.92
.85***
Depreciation (DEP)
16.03 ± 7.18
.96
.46***
Note: χ2 (344) = 1433.98, p < .001, CFI = .93, NNFI = .92, SRMR = .06, RMSEA = .07
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Table 2: Descriptive data of the SGASB, STPI and demographic variables, and correlations with IPBI dimensions
Mean ± SD
α (reliability
coefficient)
Primary irrational
beliefs
Low frustration
tolerance
Awfulizing
Depreciation
IPBI Composite
score
SGABS
Need for achievement
2.75 ± 0.82
.87
.60***
.72***
.70***
.64***
.78***
Need for approval
2.65 ± 0.83
.81
.60***
.54***
.71***
.64***
.73***
Need for comfort
3.02 ± 0.73
.81
.54***
.51***
.59***
.43***
.61***
Demand for fairness
3.14 ± 0.73
.83
.69***
.57***
.65***
.34***
.64***
Self-downing
1.99 ± 0.98
.95
.34***
.35***
.52***
.86***
.64***
Other-downing
2.88 ± 0.80
.78
.40***
.38***
.43***
.40***
.47***
SGABS Composite score
16.43 ± 3.88
.93
.65***
.64***
.75***
.72***
.81***
STPI
Trait anxiety
19.48 ± 5.48
.86
.25***
.24***
.36***
.42***
.38***
Trait anger
18.24 ± 5.66
.89
.37***
.33***
.41***
.37***
.43***
Trait depression
19.83 ± 5.62
.89
.15***
.12**
.26***
.39***
.29***
Demographics
Age
44.42 ± 12.42
-
.13**
.17***
.15**
.29***
.22***
Experience
15.56 ± 11.08
-
.08
.14**
.09*
.14**
.13**
Note: n = 627, *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001. IPBI composite score: mean = 83.72, SD = 20.41, α = .96
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According to Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), humans have a strong biological tendency to adopt self-defeating irrational beliefs which are subsequently driven by the socio-cultural environment one lives in Ellis (J Individ Psychol 32:145–168, 1976). Sport of all levels presents a unique environment which may serve to explain sport-related irrationalities harboured by athletes given that sport seems to endorse irrationality evident by the language used by key personnel and outlets (e.g., coaches and the media; (Turner in Front Psychol 7(9):1–16, 2016. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01423). An athlete’s beliefs and philosophies are shaped by a myriad of people within and outside of sport with whom they look to for guidance, such as coaches, medical professionals, parents, and the media. These key social agents within an athlete’s micro- and macro-environment harbour and model irrationality through their behaviour, language and processes. These irrationalities may then be internalized, giving rise to the development and maintenance of irrational beliefs in athletes. Research has consistently demonstrated the association between irrational beliefs and deleterious mental health outcomes in athletes, such as psychological distress (e.g., Turner in Bernard and Dryden (eds.) REBT: advances in theory, research, prevention, promotion, Springer Press, pp. 307–335, 2019). Therefore, the aim of our commentary is twofold: (1) to critically explore how key stakeholders within an athlete’s micro- and macro- environment contribute to the development, maintenance, and strengthening of irrational beliefs in athletes and, (2) to provide guidance to key stakeholders on weakening irrational beliefs and strengthening rational beliefs, thereby promoting a healthy and successful sport environment and positive mental health outcomes in athletes.
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This paper reports the development and initial validation of the Persian language Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory (iPBI-Persian). The original iPBI was developed to provide a validated measure of the four core irrational beliefs of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) within performance-based samples, such as athletes. Data retrieved from 334 athletes (169 men, 165 women, Mage = 21.52 ± 4.00 years) were analyses using SPSS and LISREL software packages. After the linguistic and cross-cultural adaptation processes, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) results showed that six items did not have acceptable factor loadings. After removal of problem items, a 22-item version was developed (CFI = .96). The iPBI-Persian demonstrated excellent levels of reliability, with internal consistency and test–retest reliability, as well as construct validity. This paper indicates that the 22-item iPBI-Persian can be used as a self-assessment instrument to evaluate irrational performance beliefs in Iranian athlete samples.
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Stress Counselling is a comprehensive study of the theory and practice of the Rational Emotive Behaviour approach applied to stress counselling and psychotherapy. Albert Ellis pioneered Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT), which has since been adopted internationally. This approach enables the client to embark on a course of effective counselling which has a clear beginning and end." "This book discusses techniques and solutions to common problems and also provides guidance on conducting group work. Its comprehensive coverage includes additional material on techniques such as skills training, relaxation methods, hypnosis and biofeedback.
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Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) encourages the client to focus on their emotional problems in order to understand, challenge and change the irrational beliefs that underpin these problems. REBT can help clients to strengthen conviction in their alternative rational beliefs by acting in ways that are consistent with them and thus encourage a healthier outlook. This accessible and direct guide introduces the reader to REBT while indicating how it is different from other approaches within the broad cognitive behavioural therapy spectrum. Divided into two sections; The Distinctive Theoretical Features of REBT and The Distinctive Practical Features of REBT, this book presents concise, straightforward information in 30 key points derived from the author's own experience in the field. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy: Distinctive Features will be invaluable to both experienced clinicians, and those new to the field. It will appeal to psychotherapists and counsellors, together with students and practitioners who are keen to learn how REBT can be differentiated from the other approaches to CBT.
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This study investigated age differences in irrational beliefs, self-efficacy and self-confidence of some adolescents in a secondary school in Lagos, Nigeria. The study also examined the relationship between age, irrational beliefs, self-efficacy and self-confidence in these adolescents. The mean age for younger adolescents was 12.18 years, while the older adolescents had a mean age of 15.04 years. The psychological instruments administered were the: 1). Self-efficacy Scale (SES), 2). Idea Inventory (II), and 3). Lack of Self-Confidence subscale of the 1D1. Results revealed that younger adolescents endorsed or agreed more with Albert Ellis' (RET) irrational ideas than the older adolescents. There were no between-group differences in the levels of self-efficacy. The older adolescents had higher levels of self-confidence than their younger counterparts. High endorsement or agreement with RET irrational beliefs was found to be a direct function of age and levels of self-confidence but not levels of self-efficacy among these adolescents.
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Content experts frequently are used in the judgment-quantification stage of content validation of instruments. However, errors in instrumentation may arise when important steps in selecting and using these experts are not carefully planned. The systematic process of choosing, orienting, and using content experts in the judgment-quantification stage of instrument development is addressed, with particular attention to the often neglected, important step of familiarizing these experts with the conceptual underpinnings and measurement model of the instrument. An example using experts to validate content for a measure of caregiver burden is used to illustrate this stage of instrument review. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Res Nurs Health 20: 269–274, 1997