Cixiidae are small strictly phytophagous hemipteran insects worldwide distributed. Ecology and systematics of Chinese fauna remains poorly investigated. For instance, does their distribution follows the patterns of biogeogaphical distribution established for their host plants or other related-taxa because they are all obligatory phytophagous taxa? Do they follow the usual distributional Chinese realms and boundaries already recognized? Which zoogeographical Chinese regions and connections between them do they depict. To investigate these issues, we provide here a referenced and comprehensive checklist of the 250 cixiid species currently reported from China (77 new records), with their precise distribution at the regional level. In the 8 Chinese main zoogeographical regions usually recognized and 2 adjacent areas, we analyzed further their diversity at the tribal, generic, and specific levels using a non-metric multidimensional scaling and an unweighted pairwise group analysis using an arithmetic mean cluster analyses. The observed distribution patterns shown that an intercalary Sino-Japanese realm is recognisable between the Palaearctic and Oriental realms. At the regional level, the South China region clusters more closely with the Southwest, Central and North China regions. Taiwan, clearly separated from the South China region and mainland China, is more closely related to the Qinghai-Tibet region and Indochina countries. Although Central and South China regions remain close to each other, the Qinghai-Tibet region appears singularly different.
An updated checklist of the 250 Cixiidae species, known to occur in China and counting for 10% of the Chinese planthopper fauna, is presented based on literature, recent collections, and museum records. More than 400 records distributed among the 28 provinces and 8 regions in China are extensively provided, including 77 new records. Of these, more than 80% of the species (205 species, 82%) have been only reported from China, and most of them are endemic species, which could reflects the great diversity degree of the Chinese regions and local biotypes highlights the uniqueness of this fauna. These species are found in 8 Chinese zoogeographical regions: The Taiwan region is the most diversified with 161 species and the highest rate of endemic species (69.57%), followed by South China (78 species, 17.95%), Central China (60 species, 33.33%), Southwest China (43 species, 39.53%), North China (29 species, 34.48%), Qinghai-Tibet region (10 species, 20%), Northeast China (8 species, 12.5%), and 5 species found in the Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region that are not endemic ones. Endemism was analyzed for each region and repeated for species distribution patterns across them, 9 being bi-regionally and tri-regionally distributed. The South China-Taiwan pattern is the most richest one, followed by the Central-South China-Taiwan pattern. Semonini and Pentastirini tribes are widespread among all the zoological regions, representing respectively 21.20% and 17.20% of all the species, while Cixiini being is the most common tribe with 45.20%, remains absent from the North-Eastern China region. Andini with only 5.20% of the species is distributed in the Sino-Japanese - Oriental Region; Eucarpini (6.40%) and Borysthenini (2.00%) are mainly concentrated in the south of the Qingling Mountain-Huai River. The remaining four tribes, Bennini (0.40%), Briixini (0.80%), Oecleini (1.20%) and Stenophlepsiini (0.40%) are relatively rare and restricted to Taiwan. At the generic level, Kuvera (7.2%) is the most widely distributed genus in China while Cixius, Betacixius, Kuvera, Oecleopsis and Andes are the more diversified. One genus (Oliparisca) is distributed only in the Tibet region, while 10 genera are distributed only in the Taiwan region. In addition, nearly half of the genera (16 genera, 48.48%) are distributed south of the Palearctic/Oriental boundary. A non-metric multidimensional scaling and an unweighted pairwise group method analysis using arithmetic mean clustering based on the Jaccard similarity coefficient matrix support a Palaearctic/Sino-Japanese boundary and a South China region closer to the Southwest, Central and North China regions. The Taiwan region appears clearly separated from the South China region and to mainland China, and more closely related to the Qinghai-Tibet region and Indochina countries. The Central and South China regions appear close to each other, but the Qinghai-Tibet region is singularly isolated.