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Evaluating conceptual definitions of ecosystem services and their implications

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... Finally, supporting services referring to those ES necessary to maintain all the other services. In general, ES may be intended as the multiple linkages between all these categories of services conceived as a whole (Danley and Widmark, 2016). The previous conceptualization and classification of ES form the basis of the so-called 'ecosystem services approach', as a framework for analyzing, understanding, and acting on the socio-ecological relations by linking the concepts of ES and well-being, and also recognizing the intrinsic value of biodiversity and ecosystems (MA, 2005). ...
... However, it is important to point out that this single conception of ES pertains to a wide spectrum of definitions often found in the specialized literature (Danley and Widmark, 2016). ...
... The systematic categorization of ES as supporting, regulating, provisioning, and cultural, and its definition as how their multiple and complex interactions may (directly or indirectly) benefit human beings, offer a quite broad notion of what should be considered as a service provided by nature and its ecosystems (Danley and Widmark, 2016). In this context, many authors from multiple disciplines have tended to narrow such definition as a way to get a better description and understanding in relation to ES (Danley and Widmark, 2016). ...
... In this sense, the importance of including ecosystem services in planning processes is supported by a vast literature. In fact, the overcoming of the sectoral approaches (Geneletti, 2011;Baker et al. 2013, Zoppi et al. 2018) [34][35][36][37], oriented to the coherence between the economic and environmental dimension (Danley et al. 2016) [37], build the prerequisites for the integration of ecosystem services within environmental planning. In particular, the transition to anticommons and semicommons is activated through the integrated environmental planning of ecosystem services. ...
... In this sense, the importance of including ecosystem services in planning processes is supported by a vast literature. In fact, the overcoming of the sectoral approaches (Geneletti, 2011;Baker et al. 2013, Zoppi et al. 2018) [34][35][36][37], oriented to the coherence between the economic and environmental dimension (Danley et al. 2016) [37], build the prerequisites for the integration of ecosystem services within environmental planning. In particular, the transition to anticommons and semicommons is activated through the integrated environmental planning of ecosystem services. ...
... In this sense, the importance of including ecosystem services in planning processes is supported by a vast literature. In fact, the overcoming of the sectoral approaches (Geneletti, 2011;Baker et al. 2013, Zoppi et al. 2018) [34][35][36][37], oriented to the coherence between the economic and environmental dimension (Danley et al. 2016) [37], build the prerequisites for the integration of ecosystem services within environmental planning. In particular, the transition to anticommons and semicommons is activated through the integrated environmental planning of ecosystem services. ...
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The paper addresses the issue of the concurrent use of coastal areas for military training and civil activities, namely tourism. In the paper, starting from the consideration of publicly owned assets as 'semi-commons', we propose a method based on the comparison of planning instruments related to the different uses, and try to model them in a grid, where different weights and degrees of evaluation can be considered, in order to promote, rather than blocking, possible activities, compatible with concurrent use. The military areas in Sardinia (region and island, Italy) are around 234 km 2 , which constitutes 60% of the national surface affected by military easements. This situation is due to its geographic position, considered centrality in the Mediterranean for strategic reasons. This contribution evaluates the performance of the Local Coastline Plan (LCP) and the Site management plan of Community Interest (SCI) in conditions of military constraint. The case study is the municipality of Villaputzu South Sardinia, Italy), where an important coastal military easement and the use of the coast for recreational tourism purposes coexist together through specific planning, a consequence of institutional agreements between the Municipal Administration of Villaputzu and the Ministry of Defense. The idea is considering the concurrent possible land uses guaranteed by the different planning instruments, instead of focusing, as it is generally the rule, on the sum of constraints provided by the laws. The local coastline plan has been identified as the ideal planning tool, which addresses the coexistence of apparently opposite land uses and interests, as those expressed by the local municipal planning and those expressed by the military. An evaluation of the congruence of the specific objectives of the LCP and SCI shows how their combined action favors the environmental enhancement of Sardinia, contributing to the formation of ecosystem services, even in particular conditions arising from military easements. These are sites that evolve from 'anticommons' to 'semicommons'. In fact, the military release process in Sardinia, together with the promiscuous military and civil use, activates unique governance policies of their kind that find a significant field of application in Sardinia to guarantee sustainable renewal of economic development of the 'semi-commons' awaiting to become 'commons'.
... In this sense, the importance of including ecosystem services in planning processes is supported by a vast literature. In fact, the overcoming of the sectoral approaches (Geneletti, 2011;Baker et al. 2013, Zoppi et al. 2018) [34][35][36][37], oriented to the coherence between the economic and environmental dimension (Danley et al. 2016) [37], build the prerequisites for the integration of ecosystem services within environmental planning. In particular, the transition to anticommons and semicommons is activated through the integrated environmental planning of ecosystem services. ...
... In this sense, the importance of including ecosystem services in planning processes is supported by a vast literature. In fact, the overcoming of the sectoral approaches (Geneletti, 2011;Baker et al. 2013, Zoppi et al. 2018) [34][35][36][37], oriented to the coherence between the economic and environmental dimension (Danley et al. 2016) [37], build the prerequisites for the integration of ecosystem services within environmental planning. In particular, the transition to anticommons and semicommons is activated through the integrated environmental planning of ecosystem services. ...
... In this sense, the importance of including ecosystem services in planning processes is supported by a vast literature. In fact, the overcoming of the sectoral approaches (Geneletti, 2011;Baker et al. 2013, Zoppi et al. 2018) [34][35][36][37], oriented to the coherence between the economic and environmental dimension (Danley et al. 2016) [37], build the prerequisites for the integration of ecosystem services within environmental planning. In particular, the transition to anticommons and semicommons is activated through the integrated environmental planning of ecosystem services. ...
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The military areas in Sardinia are around 234 km2, which constitutes 59.97% of the national surface affected by military easements. This situation is due to its geographic centrality in the Mediterranean. This contribution evaluates the performance of the Local Coastline Plan (LCP) and the Site Management Plan of Community Interest (SCI) in conditions of military constraint. The case study is the Municipality of Villaputzu where an important coastal military easement and the use of the coast for recreational tourism purposes coexist together through specific planning, a consequence of institutional agreements between the Municipal Administration of Villaputzu and the Ministry of Defense. The evaluation of the congruence of the specific objectives of the LCP and the SCI shows how their combined action favors the environmental enhancement of Sardinia, contributing to the formation of ecosystem services, even in particular conditions arising from military easements. These are sites that pass from the status of "anti-commons" to "semi-commons". In fact, the military release process in Sardinia, together with the promiscuous military and civil use, activates unique governance policies of their kind that find a significant field of application in Sardinia to guarantee a sustainable renewal of economic development of the ‘semi-commons’ awaiting to become ‘commons’
... Based on literature reviews on ESS, most of the research has been explanatory and descriptive in nature, and mainly concerned with the critical understanding of what ESS are and the assessment of various case studies on ESS. Danley and Widmark (2016), for instance, surveyed the existing literature and offered an overview on differences in conceptualization while identifying three main areas of scholarly interest: i) ESS physical components, ii) the relations among those physical components, and iii) the benefits they produce to human welfare. Fewer publications have a normative approach, focusing on actions that enhance humans' ability to take advantage of ESS. ...
... Along these lines, some have worked on definitions of units to measure the final services produced by nature for human welfare (Boyd & Banzhaf, 2007). This debate, according to others, has left out the search for other methods capable of taking into account the monetary values associated with the complex ecological processes that are vital to achieve those very same services (Danley & Widmark, 2016). Some critiques have also raised a broad set of issues related to the lack of attribution of values to ESS that are not only monetary, trying to find innovative indicators to express intangible values (Radford & James, 2013). ...
Article
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While limits of natural resources and climate change are forcing communities all over the world to redefine relationships with their own living environments, this challenge can be interpreted in several ways, depending on a broad variety of different values and beliefs. Not all communities worldwide share the same understanding of values such as love for humankind, sensitivity for other forms of life on earth, care for the breathable air and drinkable water, and appreciation for the soil we plough and build upon. As a matter of fact, too often these values are threatened by other social values, such as monetary efficiency and economic growth, which push societies in a quite different direction. For instance, the ecosystem service concept, with its emphasis on how humans can better take advantage of natural ecosystems, is an attempt to address the environmental crisis while maintaining a utilitarian and human-centric perspective. This paper argues for the need and shows the possibility for planning researchers to address environmental issues while framing the concept of ecosystem services within a broader value-centered framework. Drawing from Complexity Theory, Deep Ecology and a relational approach to Ecology, this paper proposes the use in planning practice of the concept of Ecological Device that is inclusive of the Ecosystem Service one. An Ecological Device is intended as a project for eco-systemic improvements whose emphasis is not on the maximization of benefits for humans but is on the creation of multispecies and multi-actors functional and emotional relationships (entanglements). In particular, this paper presents one effort to shape Ecological Devices by a long-term, community-university partnership in the Simeto River Valley (Sicily, Italy) in the context of an annual, action-research summer school called CoPED (Community Planning and Ecological Design). The authors, who are also the founders and instructors of the summer school, show the possibilities for ecological devices generated through a highly pragmatic and engaged approach to research to address environmental technical issues as deeply interconnected with social and political dynamics.
... In academic as well as political circles the ecosystem services (ES) approach and related policy instruments such as payments for ecosystem services (PES) are highlighted as a promising solution to halt the degradation of ecosystems. The prominent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment defines ES as "benefits that people obtain from ecosystems" (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005:V), although this definition is criticized for its anthropocentric view on ES and its imprecision (Farley and Costanza 2010, Gómez-Baggethun and Ruiz-Pérez 2011, Danley and Widmark 2016, Farley 2020. Many ES can be denoted as market externalities because of their open access or public good character. ...
... Many authors refer to the definition of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment stating that ES "are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems" containing also "provisioning services such as food, water, timber, and fiber" besides further regulating, cultural and supporting services (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005:V). However, Danley and Widmark (2016), for example, show the great diversity of ES understandings existent in the literature and carved out that they build on three connected and overlapping concepts: "... the physical components of the ecosystem (structure), ... the functioning of and interaction between those components (process or function), ... and the resulting contribution to human welfare from the ecosystem (benefit or benefit-providing service)" (Danley and Widmark 2016:134). Thereby, they highlight the natural science view on ES by referring, for example, to Daily (1997). ...
Article
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The economic conservation instrument of payments for ecosystem services (PES) enjoys an increasing popularity among scientists, politicians, and civil society organizations alike, while others raise concerns regarding the ecological effectiveness and social justice of this instrument. In this review article, we showcase the variety of existing PES definitions and systematically locate these definitions in the range between Coasean conceptualizations, which describe PES as conditional and voluntary private negotiations between ES providers and ES beneficiaries, and much broader Pigouvian PES understandings that also assign government-funded and involuntary schemes to the PES approach. It turns out that the scale at which PES operate, having so far received very little attention in the literature, as well as critique of PES must be considered in the context of the diversity of definitions to ensure the comparability between studies researching PES programs. Future research should better target linkages between global, regional, and local scales for the development of PES programs, while taking local collective governance systems for a sustainable use of resources into account more seriously.
... and ecologists and economists to work together to define how services are provided under the complex interactions of social-ecological systems. For policymaking purposes, the ecosystem services framework can be seen as a tool for integration of environmental, social and economic knowledge (Danley and Widmark 2016). It can be used to conceptualise the social system as the human users of the ecological system ( Binder et al. 2013) and contributes to the renaissance of the conservation paradigm "nature for people" (Mace 2014), where decisions are derived on the basis of instrumental support (generation of wellbeing) from nature to humans. ...
Article
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In the last 15 years, conservation has shifted increasingly towards perspectives based on the instrumental value of nature, where what counts is what provides benefits to humans. The ecosystem services framework embraces this vision of nature through monetary valuation of the environment to correct market failures and government distortions that hinder efficient allocation of public goods, including goods and services provided by biodiversity and ecosystems. The popularity of this approach is reflected in different countries legislation; for instance, US, EU and UK have introduced economic criteria for comparing costs and benefits of environmental policies in protecting ecosystem services. From an operational perspective, the ecosystem services framework requires ecologists to estimate how the supply of services is affected by changes in the functionality and/or the extent of ecosystems; and economists to identify how changes in the supply affect the flow of direct and indirect benefits to people. However, this approach may be simplistic when faced with the complexity of social-ecological systems. We investigated this for three different marine services: assimilative capacity of waste, coastal defense and renewable energy. We find that economic valuation could provide efficient and fair allocations in the case of assimilative capacity, but leads to social clashes between outputs generated by cost benefit analysis and citizens’ expectation in the case of coastal defense. In the case of renewable energy, controversies can be generated by regulatory mechanisms that are not necessarily aligned with the interests of industry or important social groups. We conclude that there is a need to integrate perspectives arising from utilitarian allocation of resources with those involving legislation and communal values in order to reconcile conflicting interests and better sustain marine social-ecological systems.
... This can now be summarized as contributions to human well-being that people can experience from natural processes, patterns, and structures (i.e., ecosystem functions sensu lato). Generally speaking, all definitions cover the different aspects of ecosystems from the perspective of human well-being (51). This implies that an ecosystem function can only be a service if a demand is identified. ...
Article
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Biodiversity's contribution to human welfare has become a key argument for maintaining and enhancing biodiversity in managed ecosystems. The functional relationship between biodiversity (b) and economic value (V) is, however, insufficiently understood, despite the premise of a positive-concave bV relationship that dominates scientific and political arenas. Here, we review how individual links between biodiversity, ecosystem functions (F), and services affect resulting bV relationships. Our findings show that bV relationships are more variable, also taking negative-concave/convex or strictly concave and convex forms. This functional form is driven not only by the underlying bF relationship but also by the number and type of ecosystem services and their potential trade-offs considered, the effects of inputs, and the type of utility function used to represent human preferences. Explicitly accounting for these aspects will enhance the substance and coverage of future valuation studies and allow more nuanced conclusions, particularly for managed ecosystems.
... The conceptions of ecosystem services have been discussed in different domains, e.g. natural science, economics and policy (Danley and Widmark 2016). ...
Article
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Abstract Business ecosystem is popularly used to investigate a complex social system with the business perspective, and particularly contributes to the understanding of actors and their relations in the innovation research. However, the aspect of business ecosystem modeling is limited discussed in the literature, although the importance has emerged significantly in recent years due to the emphasis on cross-disciplinary research and digitalization with artificial intelligence. Therefore, this paper proposes a framework for business ecosystem modeling with the discussion of system engineering and ecological modeling. The domain of smart grid is selected to demonstrate how system engineering, especially standards and ontologies contribute to the business ecosystem modeling. The proposed framework of the business ecosystem modeling includes three parts and nine stages that combines theories from system engineering, ecology, and business ecosystem. Part I-Business ecosystem architecture development includes four stages which aims to identify a target business ecosystem and its elements (actors, roles, and interactions). Part II-Factor analysis includes two stages to identify potential changes (and the dimensions of the changes) in the ecosystem. Part III- Ecosystem simulation and reconfiguration aims to use simulations to investigate the transition of an ecosystem and the re-configurated ecosystem. The framework not only provides a systematic approach for modeling a business ecosystem but also provides a methodological foundation for research on the aspect of complex systems in the business ecosystem field.
... These «additional» non-market functions (called Ecosystem Services) generate «potential monetary revenues» which could offset the management costs. There are several definitions of ecosystem services (ES) in the literature (Saarikoski et al., 2015;Danley, Widmark, 2016). One of them is provided by Pearce and Turner (1990), who describe them as «the multiple benefits provided by ecosystems to mankind». ...
Article
Soil degradation in coastal Mediterranean areas is mainly related to deser- tification processes and is a severe threat for the provision of ecosystem services of these areas. This entails the need to consider an urgent restoration that can be addressed by adopting a sustainable forest management approach that also considers income related to non-market forest functions. The present paper analyses two non-market forest func- tions of a case study in the Sicily Region through the quantification of the recreational function and the carbon sequestration function of the Zingaro Reserve. To assess the effects of these functions over time, a sensitivity analysis was conducted by considering different discount rates and different time scenarios related to shift (turnover) of the forest. The results quantified how the potential monetary revenues deriving from the above-mentioned functions are useful for forest economic balance in order to make reforestation projects aiming to contain degradation phenomena convenient.
... Many definitions of ES have been formulated over the past 20 years that emphasize the beneficiary perspective and the key role for sustaining and fulfilling human life underpinning the ES concept (e.g. (Fisher et al. 2009, Seppelt et al. 2011, Danley and Widmark 2016. (Boyd and Banzhaf 2007) (Boyd and Banzhaf 2007, Fisher et al. 2009, Potschin-Young et al. 2017, which should prioritize the quantification of final ecosystem service flows that directly contribute to human well-being. ...
Article
The assessment of ecosystem services (ES) is covered in a fragmented manner by environmental decision support tools that provide information about the potential environmental impacts of supply chains and their products, such as the well-known life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Within the flagship project of the Life Cycle Initiative (hosted by UN Environment), aiming at global guidance for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indicators, a dedicated subtask force was constituted to consolidate the evaluation of ES in LCA. As one of the outcomes of this subtask force, this paper describes the progress towards consensus building in the LCA domain concerning the assessment of anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems and their associated services for human well-being. To this end, the traditional LCIA structure, which represents the cause-effect chain from stressor to impacts and damages, is re-casted and expanded using the lens of the ES ‘cascade model’. This links changes in ecosystem structure and function to changes in human well-being, while LCIA links the effect of changes on ecosystems due to human impacts (e.g. land use change, eutrophication, freshwater depletion) to the increase or decrease in the quality and/or quantity of supplied ES. The proposed cascade modelling framework complements traditional LCIA with information about the externalities associated with the supply and demand of ES, for which the overall cost-benefit result might be either negative (i.e. detrimental impact on the ES provision) or positive (i.e. increase of ES provision). In so doing, the framework introduces into traditional LCIA the notion of “benefit” (in the form of ES supply flows and ecosystems’ capacity to generate services) which balances the quantified environmental intervention flows and related impacts (in the form of ES demands) that are typically considered in LCA. Recommendations are eventually provided to further address current gaps in the analysis of ES within the LCA methodology.
... This inconsistency reflects the general state of ES application (Danley & Widmark, 2016;Nahlik et al., 2012). Some consternation is expressed in the literature about the lack of firm, agreed-upon language and definitions (Munns et al., 2015). ...
Article
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The potential of land-use planning to implement ecosystem services (ES) knowledge is mostly unfulfilled. Examining how ES concepts are currently applied can provide practical and theoretical insights for supporting their further integration. The purpose of our research was to establish the use of ES concepts in Canadian municipal planning policy. We conducted a content analysis of extant Canadian municipal plans to understand the language used to express ES concepts, which ES are addressed, and to what extent ES concepts are included in planning policies. We found that ES concepts are used to support and justify conventional planning approaches, introduced to deal with emerging challenges, and invoked to support urban place-making. We propose a framework for ES in plans anchored by three imperatives for planning: protect ES supply, mimic and rebuild ES, and capitalize on ES. Approaches for implementing ES in planning must incorporate understanding of the interacting, multiple contexts influencing the design and implementation of planning policies.
... We retrieved the views of the cattle ranchers in order to define services according to their perceived benefits, as similar studies with other types of stakeholders have done (Berbés-Blázquez 2012, Asah et al. 2014, Klain et al. 2014, Mahajan and Daw 2016. We considered a service to consist of each benefit that proved to be significant for the cattle ranchers and that was directly provided by the ecosystem (details in Appendix 3.1) (Fisher et al. 2009, Danley andWidmark 2016). Each service was classified under a main type, applying the nomenclature proposed by MEA (2005): provisioning, cultural, regulating, and supporting. ...
Article
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Stakeholder groups are not homogeneous across individuals and through time, especially in relation to the importance of ecosystem services. However, the approaches commonly used to characterize the average importance and values of stakeholder groups overlook the heterogeneity in the individual priorities. This heterogeneity is particularly relevant for smallholders, who play a key role in ecosystem management but are more vulnerable to globalization than owners of large plots. We analyzed the priorities differentially assigned to ecosystem services and the reasons associated with the importance attributed to those services by individual cattle ranchers on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. We interviewed 27 cattle ranchers from neighboring rural communities. The services perceived by each rancher were identified from selected regional photographs. These services were then arranged in order of importance by interviewees, who were asked to provide the reasons for their choices. We used multivariate methods to examine the relationship between priorities for services and the livelihood of the individual. Interpretative qualitative methods elicited the reasons associated with the relative importance of the prioritized services. We identified 54 different services. Overall, individuals prioritized provisioning services directly related to their ranching activity. Individuals with the highest level of education and greatest diversity of productive activities (e.g., farmer, mason, merchant) also prioritized cultural services associated with ecotourism potential. The reasons associated with the importance attributed to the prioritized services varied widely among individuals. The list of ecosystem services perceived was context-specific, strongly influenced by the salient characteristics of the ecosystem and of the ranching way of life. A generational change in livelihoods has affected priorities. The reasons behind the importance of the prioritized services were diverse among individuals. By revealing the heterogeneity among individuals, we emphasize the need to make flexible policies that integrate diverse values and contexts to accomplish smallholder inclusivity.
... These include natural goods, such as food, raw materials and genetic resources, but also carry out functions, such as purification of air and water, climate regulation, pollination, protection against extreme events and many others ecosystem functions which benefit human well-being [1]. The ESs framework was, indeed, designed with the aim of including those benefits into decision-making processes in order to facilitate the transition of the global economy towards a sustainable state [2][3][4]. ...
Article
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Seaweeds are attracting increasing attention as an alternative healthy food and renewable drugs source and as agents of climate change mitigation that provide essential ecosystem services. In this context, seaweeds represent marine resources capable of supporting and pursuing the objectives of the Sustainable Blue Economy and the Bio-Based Circular Economy. In this review, we analyze the state of seaweed bio-based products and research on the Mediterranean Sea from the last 20 years. Results of this analysis show a large number of investigations focusing on antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities compared to on biofuels and bioplastics. Attempts at seaweed farming, although generally very limited, are present in Israel and some North African countries. Lastly, we focus on the Italian situation—including research, companies and legislation on seaweed production—and we discuss gaps, perspectives and challenges for the potential development of a sustainable seaweed industry according to the Sustainable Blue Economy.
... Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity Danley and Widmark (2016) claimed that ecosystem services is a phrase with many meanings. The United Nations Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) succinctly defined ecosystem services as 'the benefits people obtain from ecosystems' while for Fisher et al. (2007) 'ecosystem services are the aspects of ecosystems utilized (actively or passively) to produce human well-being.' ...
Chapter
Chinese Foreign Direct Investments in Germany have been discussed controversially in German Mass Media. Based on the analysis of previous studies and literature review this paper attempts to gain in an insight-view on the real situation in German companies after a takeover by a Chinese investor. The lead research question is: „What impact does Chinese direct investment have on company-specific factors and the development of the German investment object?“ A qualitative approach is applied by conducting expert interviews in companies concerned. The results are interesting and promising too, all companies have described their previous cooperation with the Chinese investor as positive and a win-win situation and expect it to continue in the future.
... Related to the importance of the relevant decision context, ref. [31] argues for multiple classification systems. In [32], the authors review the evolution of ecosystem service defini-tions, identifying four main approaches to classification: Natural Science [33][34][35], Ecology-Economics Hybrid [36,37], Economics [29], and Generalized or Public Policy [1,38]. ...
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This paper provides a brief overview of methods to incorporate ecosystem service values into measures of agricultural total factor productivity (TFP), both in theory and in practice. This includes a review of the academic literature, a summary of related economic index theory, and a comparison of agency guidelines. We consider areas of consensus between the agencies and the research literature, as well as open debates surrounding the implementation of a standardized ecosystem accounting framework to integrate with existing TFP measures. This helps to bridge the gap between theoretical approaches to measurement and valuation in the research literature and their implementation in practice by national accounting agencies. Better connecting theory to practice also serves to highlight common challenges in the field, including questions of definition, scope, and scale for ecosystem services, as well as data collection and dissemination. We end with a summary of recommendations for moving forward.
... These benefits obtain from ecosystems are classified into provisioning services (e.g., food, water), regulatory services (e.g., regulation of floods and land degradation), support services (e.g., soil formation and nutrient cycling), and cultural services (e.g., recreational and religious benefits [2,3]. Recently, studies into ecosystem services have primarily focused on the development, evaluation strategies [4], SWOT analysis [5], provision of requirements for selecting the appropriate ecosystem services [6], analysis and assessment of ecosystems policy [7] towards the achievement of an improved ecosystem health [8]. In the work done by [5], the authors discussed four (4) key factors to improve ecosystems services as 1) increasing awareness of the extent to which human societies interact with and are dependent upon the environment; 2) better integrating the natural and social sciences and engaging and acknowledging stakeholder knowledge; 3) greater understanding of the impacts of environmental change and environmental policy on human wellbeing; and, 4) contributing towards achievement of sustainable relationships between human society and ecosystems. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this paper is to design a conceptual model that combines technology and environmental services through stewardship for ecosystem sustainability. The paper is aimed at creating an ecosystem platform (e-EcosysPlatform) that integrates the various components (knowledge, action strategies, and sustainable approaches) of stewardship with the ultimate goal of improving ecosystem health. The combination of technology with stewardship approaches shows a promising approach to solving the basic ecosystem challenges faced in most part of the world. The design idea can be extended for the development of many applications which can help ensure a healthy ecosystem. The proposed design model demonstrates a new idea towards providing stewardship of the ecosystem through information technology.
... In academia, more refined terminology and conceptual definitions of ESS have evolved with time and across disciplines (for detailed reviews see Braat & de Groot, 2012;Danley & Widmark, 2016). Although the concept originated in the natural sciences, it is rooted in and shaped by both ecological and economic discourses. ...
Technical Report
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Please refer to the updated, peer-reviewed concepts: Seed Commons: http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/ijc.1043 governance/regulatory system around Seed Commons: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.esg.2021.100097 Social Ecological Transformation: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.106361 This working paper presents and critically discusses some of the key terms and concepts relevant for the transdisciplinary research project RightSeeds, which investigates Commons-based approaches to variety breeding, seed production and seed usage and their potential contribution to a social-ecological transformation. The main purpose is the development of a joint understanding of a Commons-orientation in the seed sector across academic disciplines and in cooperation with practical partners. First, the relevance of developing joint definitions in transdisciplinary research contexts is highlighted and the process of conceptual and communicative integration is outlined. Subsequently, key terms and concepts are reviewed from diverse disciplinary perspectives and in light of their historical disciplinary developments and practical significance. These include (1) seeds, (2) varieties, (3) organic breeding, (4) agrobiodiversity & ecosystem services, (5) food sovereignty, (6) social-ecological transformation and (7) Commons. On this basis, a conceptualization of Seed and Variety Commons (SVC) as the common research subject of RightSeeds is proposed and the main relations between the discussed terms and concepts are summarized. The conceptualization of SVC reflects the current state of Commons discourses and is of high relevance for researchers that have an interest in (New) Commons research. In the context of their historical development, the strengths and weaknesses of numerous concepts are examined and the relations among normative concepts such as agrobiodiversity, food sovereignty and social-ecological transformation are discussed. This may be of interest to researchers in the larger field of environmental governance and to early-career researchers aiming to gain an overview of the conceptual development of these terms and concepts. Please refer to the updated (and peer-reviewed) concepts by following the links : - Seed Commons: http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/ijc.1043 - Social Ecological Transformation: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.106361 - governance/regulatory system around Seed Commons: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.esg.2021.100097
... La Notte et al., 2017, Raffaelli andWhite, 2013) have emphasised the need for new or improved definitions and classifications. Even the latest comprehensive, collaborative global initiative to create a detailed classification and organisation of provisioning, regulation, cultural, and supporting ecosystem services, the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES), struggles to settle on a common operational definition and classification of ecosystem services (Danley and Widmark, 2016). Thus, other scholars have called for the use of different classifications for different purposes, adding to the complexity (Fisher et al., 2009, Costanza, 2008. ...
Article
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The concept of ecosystem services offers a useful framework for the systematic assessment of the multiple benefits ecosystems deliver. However, the anthropogenic focus of the concept also requires a detailed understanding of the stakeholders interested in the goods and services ecosystems provide. Indeed, linking ecosystem services to stakeholders and systematically mapping their potential stakes in these is essential for effective, equitable and sustainable ecosystem governance and management because it specifies who is in the system and why. This paper endeavours to provide a better appreciation of systematic stakeholder analysis in ecosystem services research by, first, presenting an illustrative stakeholder analysis example, using a key natural resource in relation to ecosystem services: forests in the UK. In this exploratory study, a qualitative approach was adopted, using a literature review and interviews to identify the stakeholders with a stake in the provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services of forests, to distinguish their characteristics, and to examine their relationships towards each other on different levels. The illustrative example then informed the design of a conceptual framework for the systematic application of stakeholder analysis in ecosystem services research. The comprehensive framework consists of a three-phase model entailing the planning phase, the execution of the actual stake-holder analysis phase, and, finally the subsequent actions. The framework incorporates stakeholders and ecosystem services on a geographical, institutional and ecosystem level. Systematic stakeholder analysis can be used to develop future activities linked to ecosystem services, including new policy or instruments , stakeholder engagement activities, and decision-making processes.
... From other theoretical frameworks possibly relatable to affordance theory, I can think of at leastGiddens (1984) structuration theory,Lewin's (1951) field theory,Sen's (1995) capability approach, practice theory (e.g.,Bourdieu, 1990 andShove et al., 2012), Paul Stern and colleague's(Guagnano et al., 1995;Stern, 2000) attitude-behavior-context model, nudge theory from behavioral economics(Thaler and Sunstein, 2008) as well as the whole discourse on ecosystem services (see e.g.,Danley and Widmark, 2016). ...
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Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit between local thinking and external behavior possibilities entails a deep understanding of tacit and explicit attitudes, values, knowledge as well as physical and social environments, best gained via inclusive and polycentric policy approaches.
... While Boyd and Banzhaf (2007) argue that pollination is an ecosystem function, Saarikoski et al. (2015) prefer to refer to it as an intermediate service because terms such as 'process' or 'function' may be 'confusing to wider audiences' (Saarikoski et al., 2015, p 154). However, such a position seems at the same time to undermine the goal of 'analytical clarity' which these authors also champion; as Danley and Widmark (2016) argue, ambiguity around the notion of ecosystem services is not necessarily a virtue. In fact, pollination can in some contexts be legitimately regarded as a final service, as in the case of understanding the factors responsible for the 'yield gap' that arises from pollinator deficiency in types of small holder agriculture found in developing countries Garibaldi et al., (2016). ...
... Here, we direct attention to specific ecosystem functions as the 'means' of ES provision (Wallace 2007) that we assume as delivery of services (Danley and Widmark 2016). For consistency in our arguments, we follow the ES nomenclature of Villamagna et al. (2013). ...
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The ecosystem service framework is now well accepted for focussing management strategies to preserve and restore ecosystems. Its implementation remains challenging, however, due to the environment’s complexity and dynamics that interfere with ecosystems’ ability to provide the services. Here, we question whether we can show where and how to intervene in riparian corridors to restore specific ecosystem services without endangering others. Specific hypotheses in this context are for the spatial aggregation of ecosystem services delivered by riparian corridors with respect to naturalness (1), to the existence of bundles of ecosystem services (2), and finally for the scale sensitivity of this congruence (3). Within a Geographical Information System framework, we analyse the capacity of riparian corridors to provide ecosystem services over three river basins in the Bresse region (France) based on high-resolution data of the riparian corridor hydromorphology and land use. Specifically, we compare the capacity to provide two services: in-stream water purification and riparian retention of nutrients that are critical goals for river management and rehabilitation strategies. We observe little spatial association and high spatial variability for the two emphasized ecosystem services. Surprisingly, no congruence of ecosystem services with riparian corridor naturalness is present. The absence of associations between ecosystem services and their spatial variability will oblige environmental managers to identify underpinning environmental processes and patterns at local scales. In conclusion, we plead for fine-grained multifunctional assessment of ecosystems’ capacity to deliver services, especially in environments such as river corridors that exhibit high environmental heterogeneity. EDITED BY Neville Crossman
... The economic valuation of ES has been vastly studied in the literature, covering different perspectives from methodological proposals to empirical applications. Danley and Widmark (2016) analyse the existing definitions of ecosystem services and their implications for ecosystem management, whereas Rakotonarivo et al. (2016) and Oehlmann et al. (2017) assess the validity of economic valuation methods and how to improve economic valuation surveys. Empirical applications deal with a wide range of case studies such as forest management (Juutinen et al., 2014), coasts conservation (Failler et al., 2015), and restoration of rivers (Perni et al., 2012) and wetlands (Newell and Swallow, 2013), among others. ...
Article
Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services provides valuable information for the management of anthropized environments, where individual preferences can be heterogeneous and even opposed. Here, we discuss how these ecosystem services were approached in the literature and we address the main issues in relation to their economic valuation. We consider that avoiding misspecifications in economic valuation surveys requires considering the linkages between anthropized ecosystems and human intervention. To illustrate, we analyse the case study of a human-created Mediterranean wetland (El Hondo, SE Spain) using a Choice Experiment. Our findings suggest that management strategies in El Hondo should be oriented to improve the water ecological status, to enhance biodiversity and to develop ecotourism, whereas hunting should be strictly limited and controlled. Our measures of conflict (trade-off between ecosystem services and willingness to pay values) can help to find the optimal allocation of public and private goods and services and for the implementation of compensation schemes in the area. According to public preferences, a conservationist management strategy would generate 331,100 €/year in terms of environmental benefits, whereas a tourism-based management strategy would benefit society with 805,200 €/year.
... The fact that ecosystem services have indirect effects on human well-being, and that their value is usually unobservable, leads to their underestimation. The economic assessment can be traced back to the 70s [5], when scientists started fearing and wondering about species' extinction and the effect it might have on human well-being, and began thinking about a way to replace them [1,6,7]. However, it gained international attention with Costanza's publication in 1997 "The value of the world's ecosystem service", defining ES as benefits that human populations derive directly or indirectly from ecosystems [8], where the interest in the economic approach to ecosystem services valuation was intended to "stress societal dependence on natural ecosystems and raise public interest on biodiversity conservation" [2]. ...
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Forest ecosystems are an important anthropogenic pillar to human wellbeing, providing a multitude of ecosystem services. In Mediterranean countries, where climate change effects are exponentially increasing, the value of the forest ecosystem services is even higher and their preservation is more crucial. However, the biophysical and economic value of such services is usually not observable due to their non-marketable characteristics, leading to their underestimation by decision-makers. This paper aims to guide decision-making through a set of new management scenarios based on ecosystem services’ values and their spatial distribution. It is a cumulative multidisciplinary study based on biophysical models results, economically valued and implemented using the geographic information system (GIS) to analyze spatial data. The investigation was based on a biophysical and economic valuation of cork, grazing, carbon sequestration and sediment retention as a selection of ecosystem services provided by cork oak forest (Ain Snoussi, Tunisia). The valuation was made for the actual situation and two management scenarios (density decrease and afforestation of the shrub land), with emphasis on their spatial distribution as a basis to new management. The total economic value (TEV) of the investigated services provided by Ain Snoussi forest (3787ha) was €0.55 million/year corresponding to €194/ha/year. The assessment of two different scenarios based on the land cover changes showed that the afforestation scenario provided the highest TEV with €0.68 million/year and an average of €217/ha, while the density decrease scenario provided €0.54 million/year and an average of €191/ha. Such results may orient decision-makers about the impact new management may have, however they should be applied with caution and wariness due to the importance of the spatial dimension in this study.
... The term "ecosystem services" is borrowed from biodiversity conservation science, and can be defined in multiple ways, which illustrates the complexity of the concept (Danley and Widmark, 2016). For the purpose of this report, ecosystem services can broadly be defined as the structures and functional attributes of ecosystems that result in the provisioning of goods and services that contribute to human well-being (Daily, 1997;Boyd and Banzhaf, 2007). ...
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SUMMARY FORESTS, TREES AND FSN: SCOPE AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1. There are numerous definitions of forests reflecting both the diversity of forest ecosystems in the world and the diversity of human perceptions and uses of forests. The term “forest” is used to describe a broad range of ecosystems from scattered trees in dry landscapes to dense, close canopy old growth forests in high rainfall areas. A forest can be an administrative unit, a type of land cover or a type of land use. Land cover refers to the physical appearance of land, while land use refers to its utilization by humans for different purposes (including production, conservation, cultural or religious value). The FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) has contributed to harmonize, for statistical purposes at the global level, the approaches used to define and categorize forests. The FRA uses a definition of forests that includes minimum thresholds for: the height of trees (5m), the canopy cover (10 percent) and the area (0.5 ha). 2. The FRA definition covers very different types of forests. In addition, there are various types of landscapes incorporating trees. Given this diversity and the purpose of this report, a typology of forests and landscapes with trees, building on the FRA statistical categories, is proposed. This typology uses FRA data and is grounded on the degree of management, as this is the criterion that most influences the various contributions of forests to FSN and that can be more easily influenced by policies. This typology distinguishes three broad categories that are considered as forests according to the FRA definition (primary [or old growth] forests, secondary forests, plantation forests); a fourth one gathering other wooded lands that are not classified as agricultural land and with a canopy cover of 5 to 10 percent; and a fifth one called “trees outside forests”. Delimitations among these types are not always clear cut as they exist on a continuum of management intensity along the forest transition curve.3 3. The category “trees outside forests” gathers the considerable diversity of agriculture systems with trees. It includes in particular agricultural tree plantations such as palm oil, olive trees and orchards (fruit and nut trees), as well as very diverse agroforestry systems and mosaic landscapes where forest patches are too small to be considered as forests for statistical purposes. The term “agroforestry” refers to systems and technologies where trees are deliberately used on the same land-management units as agricultural crops and/or animals, in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. In spite of their diversity, all these systems share the common characteristic of trees being closely linked to agriculture and food production activities. 4. Any people who rely to some extent on forests and trees for their livelihood can be considered forest-dependent. When including: indigenous peoples that mainly depend on forests for their subsistence, rural dwellers living in or at the margins of forests, smallholder farmers who grow trees or manage forest patches and employees in formal or informal forest-based enterprises, from 1 to 1.7 billion people can be considered as forest-dependent. 5. In this report, forestry is considered in a very broad sense, encompassing all decisions related to forest management, in any type of system or landscape that includes trees, including three broad types of decisions: those related to the presence or absence of trees in a certain area, to the types of forests and trees, to the way they are managed. The purpose of sustainable forest management (SFM), as defined by the United Nation General Assembly is to maintain and enhance the economic, social and environmental values of all types of forests, for the benefit of present and future generations. SFM is rooted in two main premises: first that ecosystems have the potential to renew themselves, and second that economic activities and social perceptions or values that define human interaction with the environment are choices that can be changed or modified to ensure the long-term productivity and health of the ecosystem. 3 The forest transition curve, from natural forests to agriculture and reforestation illustrates the evolution of forests, through a continuum of management intensity across the different forest types. This curve can not only illustrate the evolution of forests in time but also describes spatial variations across contemporary landscapes. HLPE Report on Sustainable forestry for food security and nutrition Extract from the Report: Summary and Recommendations (9 June 2017) 3/10 CONTRIBUTIONS OF FORESTS AND TREES TO FSN 6. Forests and trees contribute to FSN through four main channels: direct provision of food; provision of energy, especially for cooking; income generation and employment; and provision of ecosystem services that are essential for FSN, human health and well-being. 7. Direct provision of food: Although forest foods have been estimated to represent only 0.6 percent of global food energy supply, they make a considerable contribution to dietary quality and diversity and play a critical role for the FSN of forest-dependent communities. Forest foods, by reaching local, national and even international markets, also contribute to diverse and balanced diets for people living far from forests. Forests and trees are also used as a source of fodder by farmers and pastoralists in traditional extensive systems and in more intensive silvopastoral systems. 8. Provision of energy: Woodfuel4 contributes globally to 6 percent of the total primary energy supply and 27 percent in Africa. Some 2.4 billion people, one-third of the global population (including two-thirds of the households in Africa), rely on wood as their main source of energy for cooking. Moreover, 764 million people use woodfuel to boil and sterilize water, of which 644 million are in Asia. 9. Income and employment: Formal and informal forestry sectors are also an important source of employment and income, often underestimated given the importance of the informal sector. In 2011, the formal forest sector employed an estimated 13.2 million people worldwide and represented 0.9 percent of the world gross domestic product. Such figures hide a huge diversity across countries and generally underestimate the real contribution of forests to national income as they do not integrate the value added of wood products accounted for in the industrial sector, nor, for instance, their contribution to tourism and recreation. Moreover those figures only cover the formal forest sector and data are still lacking to properly reflect the importance of informal forest-related activities for income generation and employment, including through woodfuel and collection of non-wood forest products (NWFPs). 10. Forest products collected either for sale or for auto-subsistence can, in both cases, make a crucial contribution to the FSN of women and of their entire household. In spite of a lack of gender-disaggregated data, studies suggest that women play a lesser role in the formal sector and in income generating activities, but are central in fuelwood collection as well as in the collection of many forest products, with important regional differences. 11. Provision of ecosystem services: Forests and trees directly support food production at farm, landscape and broader levels by delivering numerous non-provisioning ecosystem services that are essential for FSN and sustainable development in the long term (such as water regulation, soil protection, nutrient circulation, pest control and pollination). Forests host the major part of terrestrial biodiversity and play a critical role for climate change mitigation at the global level and for adaptation to climate change at farm, household, landscape and broader levels. Production systems that integrate forests, trees and crops need to explicitly take into account potential competition for nutrients, water and light. 12. Human health and well-being: Forests, tree-based agricultural systems and forestry impact human health in a diversity of ways, including: provisioning of food, medicinal plants, fuelwood, clean water and income. Empirical evidence suggests that forest environments can improve peoples’ mental health and reduce depression and stress. However, forests can also provide habitat for parasites and diseases that can affect human and domestic animals. The critical linkages between human, animal, and ecosystem health are encompassed in the concept of “One Health”, which highlights the need for collaboration across sectors. 13. Resilience and safety net: Forests and trees can play a crucial role to improve resilience, defined as the capacity to prevent, mitigate or cope with risk, and recover from shocks, at landscape, community and household levels. They thus make a significant contribution to stability, the fourth dimension of FSN, by playing a major role as a safety net during drought or lean seasons as well as during periods of crises and conflicts. Forests and trees can provide a complement or a 4 Woodfuel designates the total of fuelwood plus charcoal, as per FAO’s terminology. HLPE Report on Sustainable forestry for food security and nutrition Extract from the Report: Summary and Recommendations (9 June 2017) 4/10 substitute to other sources of food, income and employment, in periods of scarcity. This role of safety net is often important for the most vulnerable groups. 14. Importantly, contributions of forests and trees to FSN depend upon numerous interactions inside complex environmental, economic and social systems that are often built and sustained with a considerable amount of traditional and indigenous knowledge. FORESTRY TRENDS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR FSN 15. Changes in forest cover, forest types and management have considerable impacts on the contributions of forests and trees to FSN at different spatial and temporal scales. These changes, as well as their drivers, enable the identification of some of the challenges and opportunities for sustainable forestry to contribute to FSN. 16. In 2015, almost 4 billion ha worldwide (30.6 percent of the world’s land area) were covered by forests. Despite relatively high rates of ongoing deforestation, particularly in the tropics, the global net forest loss has slowed over the past two decades. The FRA 2015 has also provided for the first time global figures on forest degradation based on partial canopy cover loss (PCCL)5 and estimated that, in the tropics, the area subject to PCCL is 6.5 times the area deforested since 1990. 17. The overall decrease in total forest area is the result of contrasted trends across forest types and across regions. Between 1990 and 2015, most regions showed a steady decrease in natural forest area, including primary and secondary forests, and a sharp increase in planted forests. The loss of primary forest is of particular concern as they are irreplaceable reserves of biodiversity. Planted forests are increasingly important, not only in terms of area, increasing from 4 to 7 percent between 1990 and 2015, but also in terms of production, with 46.3 percent of industrial roundwood coming from planted forests in 2012. Planted forests are also a way to restore degraded land and to provide ecosystem services such as reduced erosion and protection from floods. Considering the increasing demand for wood, planted forests could help to reduce the pressure on natural forests. 18. Deforestation and forest degradation threaten income, livelihoods and ways of life of forestdependent populations, and compromise the provision of ecosystem services that are essential to FSN and sustainable development in the long term. Deforestation for agricultural expansion is sometimes considered to offer greater opportunities for welfare improvement. However, those immediate benefits can result in depletion of natural resources, simplified diets and compromised livelihoods and ways of life in the long term. Finally, deforestation and forest degradation, leading to habitat fragmentation, can also impact human health by increasing the risk of transmission of pests and diseases. 19. Changes in forest cover, forest types and uses are driven by the interaction of numerous factors, at local and global levels: growing demand for food, feed, wood and energy, driven by population and income growth; and increased importance given to the protection of biodiversity, to carbon stocks, water and soil protection. They also depend on the governance systems that address and manage these demands. 20. Given the global population and economic growth, the increase in demand for food, feed, wood and bioenergy is expected to continue in the future. Wood and fibre demand is in particular expected to double between 2005 and 2030. 21. In addition, forests need now to adapt to climate change and are called upon to contribute to its mitigation. Land degradation fuels additional demand for land for agriculture, creating additional pressure on forests, but also opportunities for reforestation and afforestation. There is at the same time increased awareness of the role of forests to protect soil, water and biodiversity and to contribute to climate change mitigation. These trends intensify the competition for land. They also intensify the competition between forest uses, for environmental preservation, for timber and wood production, and for food and other NWFPs, each of which impacts FSN. Addressing the issue of competition for land while taking into account agricultural and forests demands on the one hand, environmental and climate concerns on the other hand, calls for tackling consistently the trade-offs at and between different scales, from local to global. This requires moving beyond 5 Defined as the loss of more than 20 percent of tree cover between 2000 and 2012. HLPE Report on Sustainable forestry for food security and nutrition Extract from the Report: Summary and Recommendations (9 June 2017) 5/10 the controversy materialized by the two opposite narratives “land sharing - land sparing” to design and implement appropriate arrangements and mechanisms. 22. These increasing demands on land, forests and trees, create new challenges and opportunities for their contributions to FSN. They can threaten some of the contributions of forests to FSN, particularly when such contributions are less visible or concern marginalized and most vulnerable groups. On the other hand, they can create additional reasons to protect and invest in forests and generate new jobs and opportunities for sustainable development. This calls for a better understanding of the drivers of change, and of the dynamics at play in evolving landscapes such as secondary forests, landscape mosaics, agroforestry systems and their impact for FSN and sustainable development, and for a better support for the forest restoration of areas that qualify as other wooded land. HOW TO OPTIMIZE THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF FORESTS AND TREES TO FSN IN A SUSTAINABLE WAY? 23. There are potential synergies and trade-offs between the benefits provided by forests and trees for FSN, at different scales, from local and global, from short to long term. SFM for FSN has thus to take fully into account and integrate: the multiple uses of forests and trees, as well as the diverging and sometimes conflicting interests, needs and rights of different stakeholders, paying specific attention to the more vulnerable and marginalized groups. It requires governance mechanisms at different spatial and temporal scales, through international instruments, national policies and local arrangements. 24. The FRA identifies a set of enabling conditions for SFM: permanent forestlands, legal frameworks, management plans, stakeholder involvement, as well as information, monitoring and reporting systems. According to the FRA, only half of the 2.2 billion ha of permanent forest land met all those conditions in 2015. However, areas under forest management plans have sharply increased during the last decades. In 2015, 167 countries reported to have such forest management plans and these plans cover more than half of their forest area (around 2.1 billion ha). The main objective of a forest management plan (whether forest conservation in primary forests and protected areas or wood production in plantation forests) may conflict with rights of access to and use of forest resources and therefore with the FSN of local forest-dependent people and communities, including indigenous peoples. Legal frameworks regulating these rights vary hugely across countries. 25. There are numerous international treaties and standards that have an influence on the way forests are managed. Among them some focus on the environmental dimensions of forest management, such as the three Rio Conventions, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the United Nations Convention to Combat Diversification (UNCCD). Other treaties relate to international human rights, in particular to the right to adequate food and nutrition. A third group of international instruments is directly linked to forest management, such as the 1992 United Nations Forest Principles6 and the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security. 26. There is increasing interest in market-based instruments to recognize and valorize the different contributions of forests, especially related to environmental issues. Examples include carbon credits and other payments for environmental services, certification and green procurement. Forest certification plays an important role in assessing and monitoring the sustainable management of forests in an independent way. The two main international certification schemes (the Forest Stewardship Council and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, introduced in the late 1990s) covered 438 million ha in 2014 (90 percent of which are situated in boreal and temperate climatic domains). Also, voluntary green building programmes, codes and standards promote the use of legally and sustainably harvested wood products. While such instruments can link forestry management to people who consume forest products from a 6 Annex III – Non-Legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests – Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992 HLPE Report on Sustainable forestry for food security and nutrition Extract from the Report: Summary and Recommendations (9 June 2017) 6/10 distance by enabling them to pay for environmental impacts, they do not always fully integrate FSN concerns and the needs of local forest-dependent people and communities. 27. SFM for FSN thus requires integrated, innovative and inclusive governance systems across sectors at different spatial and temporal scales, ensuring the full and effective participation of all concerned stakeholders and affected groups, particularly of women, as well as vulnerable and marginalized groups, including indigenous peoples and forest-dependent communities. In particular, appropriate arrangements must be designed at the landscape level where the challenges are to optimize the concrete cohabitation among cities, agriculture, forests and other natural areas, and to better integrate FSN concerns in forest management. 28. The realization of the right to adequate food of local communities, forest-dependent communities and indigenous peoples requires ensuring their land and forest use rights. Forest-based goods and services are also crucial for the realization of social, economic and cultural rights of people around the world. In this context, laws, policies and interventions related to forests should not only avoid infringing rights but advance human rights outcomes, prioritizing the most disadvantaged groups in order to achieve substantive rather than formal equality. Such processes should respect the human rights principles of non-discrimination and equality, transparency and access to information, participation, empowerment, legality and accountability.
... ese variables also provide a breakthrough in the dynamic evaluation of ecosystem services. Scholars divide the ecosystem services of urban green spaces into three levels: carrying capacity, flows, and demand [17][18][19][20]. ...
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The capacity and ecological flows of ecosystem services as well as the demand for them are key areas of urban and rural ecological planning that have been studied using the spatial-explicit model as a decision support tool. This study develops a framework for mapping the relationships among the capacity of and demand for ecosystem services, ecological flows, and planning management. This is done by estimating the ecosystem services based on the space for recreation and environmental conditions and assessing planning for green spaces using the spatial-explicit model. The results show that the carrying capacity of green recreational space was high in the northwest, southwest, and southeast parts of the city of Hefei in China, where this space was highly sustainable in the northwest and southwest. The data also show that the carrying capacity for air purification was higher in the northwest, southwest, and southeast suburbs of Hefei, while areas with high demand for air purification were mainly located in the northeast. The spatial variation in the flows of supply and demand for ecosystem services remained high and unbalanced in the northeast and southwest of Hefei. The excessive use of ecosystem services was concentrated in the urban center while their use in suburban areas was sustainable. The results show that the gap between the supply and demand of space for recreation increased with distance while that between the supply and demand of air purification decreased with increasing distance. The results of assessment based on spatial visualization show that green space was abundant in areas with low demand for it, while those with high demand for it tended to have limited green space in Hefei. This analysis shows that indices for the demand for green spaces in the context of ecosystem services can be improved via public participation, interactions between different scales of ecosystem services for green space, and use of decision support in urban and rural planning systems. These areas will form important directions for future research. 1. Introduction With rapid urbanization and the attendant increase in urban population, the ecosystem of urban green space has been significantly influenced by the activities of humans and undergone major changes [1]. A growing number of problems with the urban ecological environment, such as soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, erosion of green land, and air pollution, have significantly reduced the benefits of the ecosystem services provided by urban green spaces [2]. Green spaces are an important part of the urban ecosystem, which contribute to the human health, recreation, and survival. Important challenges in this context include finding ways to assess the balance of urban green spaces, considering the relationship between supply and demand for such spaces and better coupling the recreational activities of urban residents and the function of urban green spaces. The term “ecosystem services” refers to the provision, regulation, and support provided by nature for humans [2, 3]. The provision of ecosystem services depends on the ecological and socioeconomic conditions (of urban areas) [4–6]. Against the backdrop of rapid urbanization, ecosystem services provided by urban green spaces have generated a great deal of interest in academia. Work on the evaluation of ecosystem services provided by urban green spaces has emphasized the value of carrying capacity and supply-demand relationships [5–7]. The assessment of ecosystem services from a static perspective, in the absence of considerations of dynamic delivery, is absent from previous work [8]. Ecological flow is a functional dynamic that is indicative of the relationships among material metabolism, energy conversion, information exchange, increases and decreases in value, and biological migration within ecological systems, all of which are concrete manifestations of ecological processes [9]. It is the movement of ecosystem services from source to sink in time and space driven by nature and human beings. Assessing the flow of ecosystem services is an important issue in the relevant research, which is in its incipient stage. The concept of ecosystem service flow is vague, and research has yielded two main interpretations: (1) the process of service transfer from the ecosystem to humans; (2) a of ecosystem services used to advance the well-being of humans [10, 11]. Both interpretations emphasize the flow of materials and energy of the ecosystem to service people, rather than the operation and dissipation of other aspects of the ecosystem. Based on the concept of ecosystem service flow, Baró et al. conducted a quantitative study on outdoor leisure and air purification in Barcelona, Spain, in 2016. They identified areas where the supply and demand of ecosystem services did not match [12]. Ecological carrying capacity refers to the ability of an ecosystem to develop in a healthy and orderly fashion to provide goods and services [13]. Ecological demand refers to socioeconomic system requirements with respect to the dynamic delivery of ecosystem services and ecological environmental resources within natural ecosystems in light of economic activities [14]. These are inseparable within the ecological system of urban green space with respect to ecological flows and carrying capacity and demand [15]. This is indicative of the sustainable development of ecosystem dynamics, flows, and demand as well as the supply and demand of goods and services within dynamic ecological systems [16]. These variables also provide a breakthrough in the dynamic evaluation of ecosystem services. Scholars divide the ecosystem services of urban green spaces into three levels: carrying capacity, flows, and demand [17–20]. This has enabled a dynamic evaluation of the sustainability of the ecosystem services of urban green spaces as well as the supply and demand for them [21]. The area chosen for this study is the city of Hefei, China. A framework is proposed to map the relationships among carrying capacity, ecosystem service flows, and demand for green spaces [22, 23]. Planning for green spaces in urban areas is evaluated using the results of the spatial-explicit model [24–26]. 2. Research Area and Methods 2.1. Concepts and Frameworks A conceptual framework for the assessment of ecosystem services based on capacity, flows, and demand is indicative of the relationship between ecosystem characteristics, functions, services, benefits, and human preferences [27]. Ecosystem service capacity is therefore defined as the ability of an ecosystem to provide services on the basis of biophysical characteristics, social conditions, and ecological functions even though service flows are services that are actually produced that people use or experience. At the same time, ecosystem service demand refers to the amount of services required or expected by society [28]. This approach can be further developed into an operational framework (Figure 1) that represents the degree of mismatch between ecosystem services, and how this influences decision making based on the relationships among capacity, flow, and demand [29–31]. In cases where the carrying capacity of ecosystem services is smaller than the flow, overuse or unsustainability is implied [20]. When the flow does not meet social demands, the ecosystem services remain incompletely utilized [29].
... Ecosystem services refer to the numerous benefits that humans derive from ecosystems (Danley and Widmark, 2016). Ecological values of ecosystem services are often placed on supporting and regulating services (e.g. ...
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Seagrass meadows, algal forests and mussel beds are widely regarded as foundation species that support communities providing valuable ecosystem services in many coastal regions; however, quantitative evidence of the relationship is scarce. Using the Baltic Sea as a case study, a region of significant socio-economic importance in the northern hemisphere, we systematically synthesized the primary literature and summarized the current knowledge on ecosystem services derived from seagrass, macroalgae, and mussels (see animated video summary of the manuscript: Video abstract). We found 1740 individual ecosystem service records (ESR), 61% of which were related to macroalgae, 26% to mussel beds and 13% to seagrass meadows. The most frequently reported ecosystem services were raw material (533 ESR), habitat provision (262 ESR) and regulation of pollutants (215 ESR). Toxins (356 ESR) and nutrients (302 ESR) were the most well-documented pressures to services provided by coastal ecosystems. Next, we assessed the current state of knowledge as well as knowledge transfer of ecosystem services to policies through natural, social, human and economic dimensions, using a systematic scoring tool, the Eco-GAME matrix. We found good quantitative information about how ecosystems generated the service but almost no knowledge of how they translate into socio-economic benefits (8 out of 657 papers, 1.2%). While we are aware that research on Baltic Sea socio-economic benefits does exist, the link with ecosystems providing the service is mostly missing. To close this knowledge gap, we need a better analytical framework that is capable of directly linking existing quantitative information about ecosystem service generation with human benefit.
... Seit den 1990er-Jahren hält das Konzept der ÖSL vor dem Hintergrund des Klimawandels, des Verlusts der biologischen Vielfalt und der weiterhin wachsenden Ressourcenentnahme Einzug in den internationalen Umweltdiskurs(DAILY 1997. Die Anzahl der Veröffentlichungen zu ÖSL ist seit 2005 stark angestiegen(MCDONOUGH et al. 2017, CHAUDHARY et al. 2015. ...
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Flusslandschaften bieten die Möglichkeit der Ausübung vielfältiger Freizeitaktivitäten. Fließgewässer und ihre Auen werden wegen ihrer landschaftlichen Schönheit geschätzt, sie sind beliebte Ausflugsziele und Orte der Inspiration. Aus der Perspektive des Ökosystemleistungskonzepts stellen Flüsse und Auen zahlreiche kulturelle Ökosystemleistungen (ÖSL) bereit. Durch kulturelle ÖSL entsteht ein Nutzen, der das menschliche Wohlergehen beeinflusst. In der Dissertation sind kulturelle ÖSL definiert als Beiträge der Ökosysteme zu den materiellen und immateriellen Vorteilen, z. B. Fähigkeiten und Erfahrungen der Menschen, die sich aus einer Umwelt-Mensch-Beziehung entwickeln und ermöglicht werden. Es bedarf in der Regel eines menschlichen Beitrags zu ihrer Inanspruchnahme. Teilweise genügt aber auch die bloße Existenz einer kulturell aufgeladenen Landschaft, um Wertschätzung durch die Menschen zu erzeugen. Durch die Nutzung von Flusslandschaften für Infrastrukturen, Siedlungen und die Landwirtschaft ist die Bereitstellung kultureller ÖSL beeinträchtigt. Nach dem Auenzustandsbericht wird nur noch rund ein Drittel der ehemaligen Überschwemmungsflächen von Flüssen bei Hochwasserereignissen überflutet. Vor dem Hintergrund der weitreichenden Beeinträchtigung von Flusslandschaften liefert die Bewertung ihrer ÖSL ein Entscheidungswerkzeug für Renaturierungsmaßnahmen und erleichtert die Kommunikation zwischen Entscheidungstragenden von Planungsprozessen und der Öffentlichkeit. In den letzten Jahren entstand eine Vielzahl von konzeptionellen ÖSL-Ansätzen und Methoden zur Bewertung von ÖSL, die sich aber zumeist auf terrestrische Ökosysteme beziehen. Bislang werden kulturelle ÖSL zwar in Klassifikationssystemen von ÖSL benannt, jedoch zumeist nicht vollständig bewertet. Versorgungs- und Regulationsleistungen werden hingegen häufiger als kulturelle ÖSL bei einer ÖSL-Bewertung von Flusslandschaften quantifiziert. Eine möglichst substanzielle und quantitative Erfassung und Bewertung von kulturellen ÖSL ist je-doch wichtig für eine Integration kultureller ÖSL in Planungsprozesse. Eine Erfassung und Bewertung kultureller ÖSL unterstützt auf einer bundesweiten Skala dabei, diejenigen Flusslandschaftsbereiche zu identifizieren, die ein Defizit in der Bereitstellung kultureller ÖSL vorweisen. Diese Flusslandschaftsbereiche können in bundesweite Strategien integriert werden, um hier geeignete Renaturierungsmaßnahmen durchzuführen. Andererseits können Flusslandschaftsbereiche, die im bundesweiten Vergleich eine besonders hohe Bereitstellung kultureller ÖSL vorweisen, erhalten und geschützt werden. Eine lokale Operationalisierung kultureller ÖSL unterstützt Planungsprozesse, da Stakeholder sowie die Bevölkerung über den aktuellen Status von kulturellen ÖSL in Flusslandschaften informiert werden und dadurch geeignete Handlungsoptionen kommuniziert werden können. Ziel der Dissertation ist es, den Wert kultureller ÖSL von Flusslandschaften in Deutschland zu ermit-teln. Die Erfassung und Bewertung von kulturellen ÖSL soll mittels einer transparenten, die Spezifika von Flusslandschaften berücksichtigenden Methode umgesetzt werden. Indem die Bereitstellung (z. B. des Landschaftsbildes) und die Nutzung kultureller ÖSL in verschiedenen Flusslandschaftsbereichen vergleichbar werden, wird es möglich, Schutz- und Entwicklungsmaßnahmen sowie Schutz- und Entwicklungsprioritäten abzuleiten. Für die Zielsetzung werden vier Frageblöcke aufgestellt: - Im Frageblock A wird ermittelt, ob Flusslandschaften auf einer bundesweiten Ebene besonders wertvoll für die Bereitstellung der kulturellen ÖSL Landschaftsbild sind. Studien und Befragungen heben das Landschaftsbild als eine Art Leitklasse kultureller ÖSL hervor. Der Schutz des Landschaftsbildes ist im Bundesnaturschutzgesetz und in planungsrechtlichen Instrumenten verankert. Ohne einen quantitativen „Beweis“ wird Flüssen und Auen häufig eine „schöne“ Landschaft zugeschrieben. - Der Frageblock B beinhaltet die Fragestellung, wie die Bereitstellung, der menschliche Beitrag und die Nutzung von kulturellen ÖSL auf lokaler und bundesweiter Ebene räumlich erfasst und bewertet werden können, um die Bewertungen in Planungsprozesse integrieren zu können. Ne-ben dem Landschaftsbild werden die kulturellen ÖSL nicht-wasserbezogene Aktivitäten, wasserbezogene Aktivitäten und Natur- und Kulturerbe erfasst und bewertet. - Im Frageblock C werden die Ausstattungen einer Flusslandschaft erhoben, die für Erholungssu-chende besonders wichtig sind, sowie der Nutzen des Flusslandschaftsbesuchs auf das menschliche Wohlergehen. - Im Frageblock D werden eine Implementierung der Bewertung kultureller ÖSL in einen praxis-tauglichen ÖSL-Gesamtindex für Flusslandschaften (River Ecosystem Service Index – RESI) und eine räumliche Synthese von der Bewertung der Bereitstellung und Nutzung vorgenommen. Die Fragestellungen erfordern den Einsatz eines Methodenmix aus der Geographie, den Sozialwis-senschaften und den Umweltwissenschaften (insbesondere der Umweltplanung). Die Entwicklung und Anwendung eines Methodenmix resultiert aus dem transdisziplinären Charakter des ÖSL-Konzepts. Das Untersuchungsgebiet umfasst 79 morphologische Auen (Synonym: Flusslandschaften), die sich aus den drei Zonen rezente Aue, Altaue und Fließgewässer zusammensetzen. Die lokale Bewertung kultureller ÖSL wird in der morphologischen Aue der bayerischen Donau umgesetzt. Zur Beantwortung des ersten Frageblocks wird auf eine existierende, deutschlandweite Bewertung des Landschaftsbildes zurückgegriffen, die als Raster bereitgestellt ist. Als weiterer Dateneingang wird eine Abgrenzung von 79 morphologischen Auen genutzt. In einem geographischen Informati-onssystem (GIS) wird das Landschaftsbild der Flusslandschaften und der restlichen Fläche Deutsch-lands bestimmt und statistisch verglichen. Mithilfe des Welch-Tests wird überprüft, ob sich die Mit-telwerte der beiden Landschaftsbilder statistisch signifikant unterscheiden. Durch einen Geoverar-beitungs-Workflow werden Flusslandschaftszonen und Flusslandschaftsbereiche ermittelt, die eine besonders hohe Landschaftsbildbewertung vorweisen. Landschaftliche Elemente und Ausstattungen, die typisch für hohe Landschaftsbildbewertungen von Flusslandschaften sind, werden über einen statistischen Vergleich von prozentualen Abweichungen der Mittelwerte einzelner (Sub-)Indikatoren der Landschaftsbildbewertung ermittelt. Für (Sub-)Indikatoren mit einer besonders hohen prozentualen Abweichung wird Landbedeckung bestimmt. Ein Kartier-Verfahren, das KÖSLMAP-Verfahren, wird entwickelt, um die Bereitstellung der kulturellen ÖSL nicht-wasserbezogene Aktivitäten, wasserbezogene Aktivitäten und Natur- und Kulturerbe, der Erholungsinfrastruktur und der Nutzung zu erfassen und zu bewerten (Frageblock B). Das KÖSLMAP-Verfahren basiert auf der Bewertung von Indikatoren mit räumlichen Daten, wodurch hoch und gering bewertete Flusslandschaftsbereiche abgegrenzt, kartographisch visualisiert und statistisch verglichen werden können. Ein Indikator setzt sich aus einer Kombination und Gewichtung verschiedener Subindikatoren zusammen, die mit räumlichen Daten in einem GIS bewertet werden. Das KÖSLMAP-Verfahren liefert ein Indikatoren-Set, das auf bundesweit einheitlichen räumlichen Daten basiert. Dieses Indikatoren-Set kann durch weitere Subindikatoren erweitert und ergänzt werden, die räumliche Daten lokaler Behörden als Berechnungsgrundlage benötigen. Für eine automatisierte Bewertung der Subindikatoren werden GIS-Modelle entwickelt, die eine zeitsparende und reproduzierbare Bewertung jedes Subindikators ermöglichen. Durch die entwickelten Geoverarbeitungs-Workflows werden die einzelnen Indikatoren in Raster auf einer Skala von 0 bis 100 bewertet. Die räumlich-konkreten Bewertungen werden für die 79 Flusslandschaften in Raster mit einer Auflösung von 100 × 100 m (bundesweite Bewertung) und 10 × 10 m (lokale Bewertung) dargestellt. Eine repräsentative qualitative Online-Befragung wird durchgeführt, um zu untersuchen, welche Ausstattungen einer Flusslandschaft für Erholungssuchende von besonderer Bedeutung sind. Der Nutzen eines Flusslandschaftsbesuches wird auf einer Likert-Skala für verschiedene Kategorien ermittelt. In den Fragebogen wird ein Kartier-Werkzeug integriert, mit dem die Befragten ihren wichtigsten Besuchspunkt markieren können. Um zu überprüfen, ob die Erholungsorte der Befragten eine höhere Bereitstellungsbewertung vorweisen, werden in einem GIS die Mittelwerte von Puffern um Erholungsorte und Wohnorte verglichen (Frageblock C). Zur Implementierung der Bereitstellungsbewertung kultureller ÖSL in den RESI wird die Rasterbewertung von der Bewertungsskala 0–100 in die RESI-Bewertungsskala und den -Bewertungsraum transformiert. Der RESI nutzt eine fünfstufige Bewertungsskala und Fluss-Auen-Kompartimente als Bewertungsraum. Für die Übertragung wird ein weiterer Geoverarbeitungs-Workflow entwickelt. Um die Bewertung der Bereitstellung kultureller ÖSL, der Erholungsinfrastruktur und der Nutzung in einem Bewertungsraum einander gegenüberzustellen, werden Spinnendiagramme je Fluss-Auen-Kompartiment konzipiert (Frageblock D). Die Ergebnisse des Landschaftsbildvergleiches zeigen, dass die Landschaftsbildbewertung der Fluss-landschaften geringer ist als die Bewertung der restlichen Fläche von Deutschland. Die rezenten Auen und Fließgewässer weisen jedoch ein höher bewertetes Landschaftsbild auf. Altauen erzielen die geringste Landschaftsbildbewertung. Sie sind vom Überflutungsregime abgetrennt und haben weniger flusslandschaftsspezifische Landschaftselemente. Flusslandschaftsbereiche, die eine hohe Reliefdynamik, prägnante Ausstattungen (z. B. Laubhölzer) und ein Fließgewässernetz als seltene Landbedeckung vorweisen, sind in Bezug auf ihre Bereitstellung der kulturellen ÖSL Landschaftsbild besonders schützenswert. In rezenten Auen ist die Bewertung der Bereitstellung generell höher als in der Altaue. Die Landbedeckungsklassen „nicht bewässertes Ackerland“, „Industrie- und Gewerbeflächen“ und „nicht durchgängig städtische Prägung“ charakterisieren Auenbereiche mit einer geringen Bewertung für die Bereitstellung kultureller ÖSL. In hoch bewerteten Flusslandschaftsbereichen der Bereitstellungsindikatoren Landschaftsbild, nicht-wasserbezogene Aktivitäten und wasserbezogene Aktivitäten sind hingegen die Landbedeckungsklassen „Laubwälder“, „Gewässerläufe“ und „Wiesen und Weiden“ prägend. Hoch bewertete Flusslandschaftsbereiche des Bereitstellungsindikators Natur- und Kulturerbe werden hingegen von „nicht bewässertes Ackerland“ und „nicht durchgängig städtische Prägung“ bedeckt. Die bundesweite und lokale Bewertung zeigt bei der Analyse der häufigen Landbedeckungen und Auenzonen in hoch und gering bewerteten Flusslandschaftsbereichen vergleichbare Resultate. Ein Vergleich der beiden Ergebnisraster verdeutlicht jedoch lokale Differenzen, da lokale Eingangsdaten eine wesentlich höhere Anzahl an Bewertungselementen enthalten. Die Flusslandschaftsbereiche mit der am höchsten bewerteten Erholungsinfrastruktur verteilen sich zumeist auf Altauen, die von „nicht bewässertem Ackerland“, „Laubwäldern“ und „Wiesen und Weiden“ geprägt sind. Das Indikatorergebnis für die Bewertung der Nutzung zeigt hohe Werte in Städten und in touristisch stark frequentierten Flusslandschaftsbereichen. Die Erholungssuchenden präferieren für Ausflüge zu Flusslandschaften ruhige, natürliche Flusslandschaften mit einer Sichtbarkeit des Fließgewässers, um spazieren zu gehen und Rad zu fahren. Der Besuch einer Flusslandschaft bewirkt bei den Befragten einen Stressabbau und einen körperlichen Ausgleich. Die Erholungsorte wiesen eine höhere Bereitstellungsbewertung für kulturelle ÖSL auf als die Wohnorte der Befragten. Die paarweisen Korrelationen nach Spearman zeigen keine starken Zusammenhänge zwischen den Bereitstellungsindikatoren. Ein mäßiger Zusammenhang wird zwischen den wasserbezogenen Aktivitäten und dem Landschaftsbild festgestellt. Zwischen den verschiedenen konzeptionellen Bewertungsbereichen werden ebenfalls keine starken Zusammenhänge gefunden. Wasserbezogene Aktivitäten und die Nutzung zeigen einen mäßigen Zusammenhang. Um die Bewertung der Praxis zugänglich zu machen, werden Indikatorkennblätter angefertigt. Es wird zudem belegt, dass die aufgestellten Indikatoren sensitiv für Renaturierungsmaßnahmen sind. Der Einsatz von räumlichen Eingangsdaten ermöglicht eine indikatorbasierte Bewertung der Bereit-stellung kultureller ÖSL, der Erholungsinfrastruktur und der Nutzung. Da die Bewertung kultureller ÖSL räumlich vorliegt, ist es möglich, die Bewertung in den RESI-Bewertungsraum und die RESI-Bewertungsskala zu übertragen. Der RESI berücksichtigt dadurch erstmalig die drei Bereiche versor-gende, regulierende und kulturelle ÖSL in Flusslandschaften. Sowohl die erzeugten Karten als auch die Spinnendiagramme können Entscheidungsträger nutzen, um Maßnahmen zum Schutz und zur Wiederherstellung von kulturellen ÖSL in Planungsprozesse einzubeziehen und sie zu kommunizie-ren. Die Bewertung zeigt räumlich explizite Flusslandschaftsbereiche mit einer besonders geringen Bereitstellung und Bereiche, die aufgrund einer hohen Bereitstellung kultureller ÖSL geschützt werden sollten. Die Ergebnisse können genutzt werden, um Flusslandschaftsbereiche zur Umsetzung von bundesweiten Strategien (z. B. Bundesprogramm „Blaues Band“) zu identifizieren. Das KÖSLMAP-Verfahren liefert eine Erweiterung und Ergänzung zu bestehenden Bewertungen im Gewässerkontext (z. B. WRRL, Auenzustandsbericht), die bislang keine kulturellen ÖSL berücksichtigten. Die Erfassung und Bewertung kultureller ÖSL mit dem KÖSLMAP-Verfahren erfüllt die Zielsetzung des „Action 5“ der EU-Biodiversitätsstrategie, da es transparente und reproduzierbare Indikatoren bereitstellt. Die Dissertation liefert damit einen Beitrag zum internationalen Diskurs um Bewertungsverfahren von kulturellen ÖSL. Die aufgestellten Indikatoren und ihre Bewertung helfen, Wissen über kulturelle ÖSL von Flussland-schaften bereitzustellen, zu erweitern und Zusammenhänge zwischen der Bereitstellung und der Nutzung von kulturellen ÖSL darzustellen. Eine differenzierte Bewertung der Bereitstellung und der Nutzung von kulturellen ÖSL liefert Erkenntnisse über deren Unterschiede in einer räumlichen Ein-heit. Diese Erkenntnisse können genutzt werden, um planerische Handlungsoptionen abzuwägen. Die Bewertung kultureller ÖSL ist auf weitere Untersuchungsgebiete übertragbar, wenn die Rahmenbedingungen vergleichbar sind und räumliche Daten zur Verfügung stehen. Weiterer Forschungsbedarf besteht in der tatsächlichen Integration von kulturellen ÖSL in die Planungspraxis von Flusslandschaften. Der planerische Umgang mit Unterschieden in der Bereitstellung von kulturellen ÖSL und ihrer Inanspruchnahme ist bisweilen ebenfalls wenig erforscht.
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This transdisciplinary doctoral thesis presents various theoretical, methodological and empirical approaches that together form an ecological approach to the study of social sciences. The key argument follows: to understand how sustainable behaviours and cultures may emerge, and how their development can be facilitated, we must further learn how behaviours emerge as a function of the person and the material and social environment. Furthermore, in this thesis the sustainability crises are framed as sustain-ability crises. We must better equip our cultures with abilities to deal with the complexity and uncertainty of socio-ecological systems, and use these cultural skillsets to survive in and adapt to an increasingly unpredictable world. This thesis employs a plurality of ecological social sciences and related methodologies—such as ecological psychology, ecological rationality and agent-based modelling—to enlighten the question of how the collective adoption of sustainable behaviours can be leveraged, particularly by changing the affordances in the material environment. What is common to these ecological approaches is the appreciation of ‘processes’ over ‘products’: we must understand the various processes through which sustainable forms of behaviour or decision-making emerge to truly locate leverage points in social systems. Finally, this thesis deals extensively with uncertainty in complex systems. It proposes that we can look to local and traditional knowledge in learning how to deal adaptively with uncertainty.
... Thus, ESS subsumes the multifunctional roles played by components of ecological systems, including agri-ecological systems, and comprises provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural services [216]. There are ongoing problems with assessing ESS, as the concept itself conflates functions, services, and benefits [217]. However, usually a chain is conceptualised whereby natural assets generate functions that provide beneficial services to society, and which society may or may not explicitly value in various ways. ...
Article
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Multifunctional agriculture (MFA) has attracted increased attention from academics and policymakers in recent years. Academic researchers have utilised various approaches to assess and measure the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural landscapes. This paper outlines the nature of MFA and key supporting policies, before reviewing the applied research approaches, drawing primarily from the European Union and China where specific policies on MFA have been implemented to support rural development and promote sustainable rural communities. Four distinct types of valuation of modern MFA are recognised: economic, biophysical, socio-cultural, and holistic. Following a search of both the recent and older MFA literature, evaluations of the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods applications are provided using examples from a range of recent studies. The review illustrates the diversity of approaches to measure MFA. While noting that many studies operate at a landscape scale, the challenge remains that the lack of commonality in the research approaches applied means it is difficult to provide effective comparisons between studies or to compare findings. A future research agenda will need to emphasise the need for more consideration of the roles of MFA research to support decision-makers, especially policy makers, but also farmers who largely make decisions for individual farms but, if considered collectively, can transform production systems at a landscape scale.
... In this sense, the importance of including ecosystem services in planning processes is supported by a vast literature. In fact, the overcoming of the sectoral approaches (Geneletti, 2013;Blouin, 2013;Baker et al. 2013;, oriented to the coherence between the economic and environmental dimension (Danley et al. 2016), build the prerequisites for the integration of ecosystem services within environmental planning. In particular, the transition from anticommons to semicommons is activated through the integrated environmental planning of ecosystem services. ...
Conference Paper
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The paper addresses the issue of the concurrent use of areas for military and civil activities. In particular, the paper analyzes the effect of planning tools on the valorization of a territorial enclave, namely a military training area located in the coastal area of the municipality of Villaputzu (South Sardinia, Italy), that is, moreover, a Site of Community Importance. In this area, thanks to an institutional agreements between the Municipal Administration of Villaputzu and the Ministry of Defense, has been possible define the coexisting ways where is an important coastal military easement. and the use of the coast for recreational tourism purposes through a specific planning tool. In this specific case, the Local Coastline Plan (LCP) has been identified as the planning tool, which better addresses the co-existence of apparently opposite land uses and interests, as those expressed by the local municipality and those expressed by the military hierarchy. The assessment method is based on the capacity of the Local Coastline Plan (LCP) and the Site of Community Interest Management Plan (SCIMP) to create ecosystem services in the military enclave. The evaluation of the LCP and SCIMP shows how their combined action favors the environmental enhancement of territory, contributing to the formation of ecosystem services, The area, initially subject to different constraint (military easements and SIC rules) evolve, by that way, from ‘anticommons’ to ‘semicommons’, guaranteeing sustainable renewal of economic development of the area and looking to become ‘commons’ through planning of ecosystem services.
Article
Ecosystem services (ES) are the benefits people obtain from nature contributing to our well-being. Although this concept has high didactic potential, its presence in education literature is scarce. This article presents the ES framework as a new teaching principle that, taught together with the biodiversity concept, may help students develop competencies to make valid claims about the world and to think critically about humans’ role on Earth. To do so, we present an educational experience based on active teaching and learning strategies implemented with pre-service teachers (PSTs), which is adaptable and transferable to many educational contexts. Teaching ES through active teaching methodologies has proven to be useful and necessary to help PSTs understand and be able to defend the importance of nature conservation. As a result of teaching the ES concept, students improved their argumentation in favour of nature conservation and developed communication competencies to better transfer this knowledge to society. We conclude that teaching ES can make a large contribution to education for sustainable development, as teaching the ES concept contributes to acquiring knowledge, skills (e.g. argumentation capacity) and values that are necessary to shape a sustainable future. .
Preprint
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Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecosystem health of Meighan Wetland of Arak. Methods: To evaluate the Meighan Wetland of Arak, the status of benthic organisms and other parameters, sampling of sediments of the wetland floor was performed at 10 points of the wetland and at 5 replications at each point. Heavy metal pollution, biological, and water quality indices were also evaluated. Then, the map of ecosystem health was prepared. Results: The results showed that except for the nickel, zinc and lead, for other elements and compounds (EC, Na, Cl, Mg, Ca, HCO3, SO4 and TDS), the minimum and maximum values belonged to stations 3 and 6, respectively. In the case of copper, zinc and lead, the lowest concentration was seen in the northwestern part of the wetland and the highest in the western and southeastern parts of the wetland. Conclusion: The high amount of the mentioned elements and compounds in station 6 may be due to the activity of a factory that produces sodium sulfate in the northern part of the wetland, which causes changes in the wetland ecosystem by removing sediments from the wetland floor. The high level of the copper, zinc and lead in the southern part of the wetland can be due to urban and domestic wastewaters that enter the wetland from the southwest of the wetland through the outlet channel of Arak refinery.
Book
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In the last decades, taking advantage of the ecomodernist approach to nature conservation and sustainability (the so-called “new conservation”), the ecosystem services have become enormously popular. One controversial aspect, accompanying the raise of this approach, is the monetary valuation of ecosystems and ecosystem services based on an instrumental perspective of nature. In this brief book, the authors expose some of the main criticisms to the monetary valuation of ecosystem services, not only in methodological, ethical or socio-political terms, arguments already shown in many works, but also in formal terms. The authors argue that it is not only problematic the use of ecosystem services in its current form, but it has no formal sense. In his pages, the authors try to support the argument that the monetary valuation of non-economic goods and services, such as ecosystem services, creates mathematical artifacts with no meaning for conservation, management or decision-making. Through monetary valuation, the false sensation of having a unique and scientific measure of the value of ecosystems for decision making is created, producing a dangerous drift of public policies and funds for the conservation and management of the environment towards different market instruments, not suitable to manage non-economic goods and services. A new granfalloon of sustainability is being created through the monetary valuation of ecosystem services to deal with biodiversity and ecosystem loss and degradation. Do we have time to understand it and to take another path? Some general paths are proposed to reverse the influence of the valuation of ecosystem services in Ecology and Ecological Economics.
Chapter
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La naturaleza brinda un abanico de contribuciones para las personas, quienes las perciben y las valoran de maneras muy diversas. Esta pluralidad de valores es relevante para el caso de los pequeños productores rurales, que son los responsables directos del manejo de la naturaleza. El uso de las fotografías para la valoración plural de las contribuciones de la naturaleza, permite profundizar el vínculo entre las personas y la naturaleza. En este trabajo nos propusimos analizar cómo los ganaderos de un bosque tropical seco en México definen y valoran las contribuciones de la naturaleza desde su conocimiento local. Se utilizaron dos acercamientos metodológicos basados en foto-entrevistas: 1) observar fotografías del entorno local para identificar beneficios de la naturaleza y 2) capturar fotografías instantáneas de los beneficios en las propiedades. Esto con el fin de identificar las contribuciones de la naturaleza desde los beneficios percibidos por los ganaderos, documentar la prioridad relativa otorgada a estas contribuciones ordena-das sobre un gradiente de importancia e inferir los valores subyacentes a estas elecciones de prioridad. En el método "observación", se presentaron 12 imágenes previamente seleccionadas a 27 ganaderos. En el método "captura", 21 ganaderos tomaron 254 fotografías. En ambos métodos identificamos una diversidad de contribuciones. El número total de contribuciones fue mayor en el método de observación que el de captura (54 versus 39), pero el 41% de las contribuciones fueron identificadas por ambos métodos. Las contribuciones priorizadas por la captura fueron, la pastura (forraje) y el agua para ganado, mientras que la lluvia resultó ser prioritaria en la observación. La asociación entre contribuciones prioritarias y valores sugirieron la importancia integral del sistema productivo. La importancia fue discutida desde lo contexto-específico, las experiencias narradas y la dinámica de los métodos empleados. Ambos métodos permitieron aportar a la valoración plural las intrincadas relaciones entre las contribuciones y los valores que conectan a los ganaderos con la naturaleza.
Chapter
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Bu Çalışmada kentsel haklar, insan haklar temelinde ele alınmakta ve iklim değişikliği risklerinin yol açtığı/açabileceği hak ihlalleri kentsel alanlar açısından analiz edilmektedir. Betimsel nitelikte olan bu analizin iki temel boyutu bulunmaktadır. Birincisi 21. Yüzyılda kentlerin karşı karşıya iklimsel risklerin sınıflandırılarak açıklanması ile ilgilidir. İkincisi ise kent sakinlerinin iklim değişikliği etkileri nedeniyle karşılaştıkları veya karşılaşacakları “hak ihlallerinin” İnsan Haklar Evrensel Bildirisi, İklim Sözleşmeleri ve Avrupa Kentsel Şartı ilkeleri çerçevesinde yorumlanmasını içermektedir.
Article
Although aggressive tree planting and vegetation recovery have enhanced the ecosystem functions and services of the Yellow River (YR) basin, there have been unintended consequences. The primary goal of this study is to explore the implications of alternatives of vegetation cover restoration to water resource allocation in the YR basin using a linear programming model that maximizes the ecological productivity. Our results reveal that under the conservative scenario, the water resource endowment would be sufficient. In comparison, the optimized vegetation pattern is 86% shrub and 14% of grass covers under the moderate scenario, and 23% shrub and 77% grass covers under the aggressive scenario. In view of these and other findings, it can be seen that the current practices of restoration have put too much attention on planting trees and establishing forest cover, rather than mixing forest, shrub, and grass covers appropriately according to the purpose(s) of ecological restoration and the available water resources. Our findings are of broad relevance given the heightened international efforts of restoring degraded ecosystems.
Article
Ecosystems supply beneficial contributions to people’s quality of life and well-being. Freshwater lakes provide diverse consumptive and non-consumptive ecosystem services (ESs) to people. This study examined ecosystem goods and services that Lake Ziway in the Rift valley region of Ethiopia supply and identified the anthropogenic pressures that impact the lake and its services. The lake currently supports investment projects and livelihoods of the local communities. It contributes to the local and national economy from the export of cut flowers. The biggest commercial floriculture investment in the country is located on the shore of this lake, depending mainly on its water. Assessing the views and knowledge of local communities towards the contributions of ESs to human life, well-being, and livelihoods is important to protect and prolong the long-term benefits of ESs. A total of 41 experts, 137 households, and 20 discussants from two districts were selected for interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs). Pearson's Chi-square tests were used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Multiple regression models were developed to examine the ESs of the lake and human impacts. The result showed that respondents prioritize the ESs of the lake as provisioning > supporting > cultural > regulating services. The Chi-square results revealed a strong association among ESs with respondents’ type and residence locations. The multiple regression results revealed that respondents’ types and residence locations were significant determinants in prioritizing the importance of ESs of Lake Ziway (p
Article
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L’usage humain de la végétation a une longue tradition en Afrique de l’Ouest semi-aride et les populations locales apprécient grandement les biens et services fournis par les plantes ligneuses de la région naturelle de Casamance au Sénégal. Notre étude vise à identifier les services écosystèmiques de la forêt aménagée de Kalounayes et les ligneux pour les villages environnants des communes de Ouonck et de Coubalan. Pour ce faire, des enquêtes basées sur des entretiens individuels et des discussions de groupe et des observations sur le terrain ont été réalisées. Les populations locales ont considéré les services d’approvisionnement caractérisés par une valeur d’usage de 79% comme la plus importante fonction de la forêt et des ligneux. Les services culturels (13%) étaient les deuxièmes services écosystèmiques les plus importants fournis par la forêt et les ligneux, suivis des services de régulation /support (8%). Parmi les services écosystèmiques d'approvisionnement, l'alimentation, la pharmacopée, le bois de chauffage et le fourrage ont été les plus cités et utilisés. Au total, 27 espèces répertoriées par les populations ont participé à la fourniture de trois types de services écosystèmiques (approvisionnement, régulation / support et culturel).
Thesis
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The overall goal of this doctoral programme was to contribute to the study of cultural landscapes and cultural ecosystem services within the Natura 2000 protected areas in Greece. Biodiversity conservation is the specific angle from which this research views landscapes. Our methods are interdisciplinary. In this way, novel steps could be taken to inventory, survey, and to assess the complex concept of cultural landscapes. We hope this contribution may provide conservation-relevant approaches for Greece's evolving protected area system. This dissertation is presented in the English language with an extended introduction and concise summary of synthesis and proposals in Greek. The main aspect of the work concerns three peer-reviewed scientific papers and a completed manuscript from research undertaken within the doctorate program between June 2015 to June 2020.
Article
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The wetlands form in the complex ecological, hydrological, and geological conditions, and supply a range of ecological services. Nowadays, there is a growing recognition of wetland services and benefits for human societies. Identifying and assessing wetland services as well as managing human and natural threats affecting it, in addition to maintaining the wetland ecological integrity, can also affect the economies of the local communities dependent on the wetland. Shadegan Wetland has been selected as a case study because of the diversity of its ecological structure as well as its crucial role in controlling the phenomenon of dust. The purpose of this study is to apply the ecosystem services concept in assessing and managing the wetland ecological conditions, which provides an approach for the continuation of service supply, optimal allocation of wetland resources and their effective management. For this purpose, the hydrological-ecological framework has been developed based on wetland structural characteristics, functions, services and pressures imposed on them, in which two ecological and socio-economic spheres are its main structure, according to ecosystem service cascade model. In order to identify wetland structural and hydrological characteristics, the wetland classifications have been used. The results show that Shadegan Wetland has been formed in three lotic, estuary and marine classes. The lotic part has a high potential for hydrological and biogeochemical functions such as water storage and detention, retention of sediments and particles, nutrient transformation, carbon sequestration, and all ecological functions. The marine- estuary part has a high potential for functions such as shoreline stabilization, nutrient transformation, carbon sequestration, aquatic habitat, waterbird habitat, and wildlife habitat; therefore, the Shadegan wetland provides numerous services (provisioning, regulating, habitat and cultural services). According to the compatibility matrix, the supportive and positive relationships are dominant between wetland services, and the most competitive relationship is between provisioning and regulating services. Keywords: Wetland classifications, biophysical characteristics, Conceptual framework, Ecosystem service supply, Ecosystem services trade-offs.
Technical Report
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Havsmiljöinstitutet har på uppdrag av Havs- och vattenmyndigheten tagit fram en rapport om hur användning och utformning av samhällsekonomisk kunskap, metoder och analyser skulle kunna vidareutvecklas som ett led i genomförandet av en ekosystembaserad fiskförvaltning. Rapporten är framtagen i samarbete med Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Umeå Universitet, och SLU Agrifood.
Article
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The Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) is widely used for mapping, ecosystem assessment, and natural capital ecosystem accounting. On the basis of the experience gained in using it since the first version was published in 2013, it has been updated for version 5.1. This policy brief summarises what has been done and how the classification can be used.
Article
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An increasing amount of information is being collected on the ecological and socio-economic value of goods and services provided by natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, much of this information appears scattered throughout a disciplinary academic literature, unpublished government agency reports, and across the World Wide Web. In addition, data on ecosystem goods and services often appears at incompatible scales of analysis and is classified differently by different authors. In order to make comparative ecological economic analysis possible, a standardized framework for the comprehensive assessment of ecosystem functions, goods and services is needed. In response to this challenge, this paper presents a conceptual framework and typology for describing, classifying and valuing ecosystem functions, goods and services in a clear and consistent manner. In the following analysis, a classification is given for the fullest possible range of 23 ecosystem functions that provide a much larger number of goods and services. In the second part of the paper, a checklist and matrix is provided, linking these ecosystem functions to the main ecological, socio–cultural and economic valuation methods.
Article
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Habitat management needs comprehensive perspectives, considering multiple ecosystem services at local and landscape scales. Stakeholder involvement with participatory research and development programmes for farmers is an essential part of it. Currently, ecological engineering by habitat management and participatory programmes and mass media campaigns are developed to counteract the adverse effects of ongoing intensification of rice production in Southeast Asia. These schemes often suggest the establishment of flower strips. Flower strips are a common measure to promote biodiversity and ecosystem service conservation in industrialised countries, since they aesthetically enrich production landscapes and provide supplementary food resources and shelter for natural enemies and pollinators.
Technical Report
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Ecosystems provide essential services to society, from pollination and filtering of pollution to climate and water regulation. These services are often treated as though they have no value, with ecosystems too frequently managed for short-term gain at the expense of broader, longer-term societal benefits. There is an increasing array of tools to evaluate the trade-offs associated with these developments, as well as a growing body of ecosystem service assessments which highlight the changes in value. Efforts to incorporate ecosystem values in decision making are growing – through partnerships, in government, and in the private sector. This issue brief highlights barriers, opportunities, and pathways to broader consideration of ecosystem services in decision making.
Article
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The first public product of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is its Conceptual Framework. This conceptual and analytical tool, presented here in detail, will underpin all IPBES functions and provide structure and comparability to the syntheses that IPBES will produce at different spatial scales, on different themes, and in different regions. Salient innovative aspects of the IPBES Conceptual Framework are its transparent and participatory construction process and its explicit consideration of diverse scientific disciplines, stakeholders, and knowledge systems, including indigenous and local knowledge. Because the focus on co-construction of integrative knowledge is shared by an increasing number of initiatives worldwide, this framework should be useful beyond IPBES, for the wider research and knowledge-policy communities working on the links between nature and people, such as natural, social and engineering scientists, policy-makers at different levels, and decisionmakers in different sectors of society.
Article
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Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers.
Article
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We describe and reflect on seven recurring critiques of the concept of ecosystem services and respective counter-arguments. First, the concept is criticized for being anthropocentric while others argue that it goes beyond instrumental values. Second, some argue that the concept promotes an exploitative human-nature relationship, while others state that it re-connects society to ecosystems, emphasizing humanity's dependence on nature. Third, concerns exist that the concept may conflict with biodiversity conservation objectives while others emphasize complementarity. Fourth, the concept is questioned because of its supposed focus on economic valuation, while others argue that ecosystem services science includes many values. Fifth, the concept is criticized for promoting commodification of nature, while others point out that most ecosystem services are not connected to market-based instruments. Sixth, vagueness of definitions and classifications are stated to be a weakness, while others argue that vagueness enhances transdisciplinary collaboration. Seventh, some criticize the normative nature of the concept implying that all outcomes of ecosystem processes are desirable. The normative nature is indeed typical for the concept, but should not be problematic when acknowledged. By disentangling and contrasting different arguments we hope to contribute to a more structured debate between opponents and proponents of the ecosystem services concept.
Article
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We combine natural science modelling and valuation techniques to present economic analyses of a variety of land use change scenarios generated for the UK National Ecosystem Assessment. Specifically, the agricultural, greenhouse gas, recreational and urban greenspace impacts of the envisioned land use changes are valued. Particular attention is given to the incorporation of spatial variation in the natural environment and to addressing issues such as biodiversity impacts where reliable values are not available. Results show that the incorporation of ecosystem services and their values within analyses can substantially change decisions.
Article
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The Ecosystem Services Journal starts in 2012 with a formidable basis in the reports and books from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and TEEB projects. Following a half-century history of growing awareness and associated scientific based policy development a bridging concept with natural and social science notions was developed and coined “ecosystem services”. The agenda for the journal Ecosystem Services, presented in this introductory paper to the Journal Ecosystem Services is aimed at scientists and policy analysts who consider contributing to better knowledge and better use of that knowledge about ecosystem services. This should include knowledge of the ecological systems that provide the services, the economic systems that benefit from them, and the institutions that need to develop effective codes for a sustainable use. The agenda is derived from the experience of the authors in science and policy analysis and extended with some of the recommendations from the TEEB book for national and international policy making emphasising the science—policy—practice linkage, which is the philosophy of the Journal.
Article
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The goal of this paper is to illuminate the debate concerning the economics of ecosystem services. The sustainability debate focuses on whether or not ecosystem services are essential for human welfare and the existence of ecological thresholds. If ecosystem services are essential, then marginal analysis and monetary valuation are inappropriate tools in the vicinity of thresholds. The justice debate focuses on who is entitled to ecosystem services and the ecosystem structure that generates them. Answers to these questions have profound implications for the choice of suitable economic institutions. The efficiency debate concerns both the goals of economic activity and the mechanisms best suited to achieve those goals. Conventional economists pursue Pareto efficiency and the maximization of monetary value, achieved by integrating ecosystem services into the market framework. Ecological economists and many others pursue the less rigorously defined goal of achieving the highest possible quality of life compatible with the conservation of resilient, healthy ecosystems, achieved by adapting economic institutions to the physical characteristics of ecosystem services. The concept of ecosystem services is a valuable tool for economic analysis, and should not be discarded because of disagreements with particular economists' assumptions regarding sustainability, justice and efficiency.
Article
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Insect pollinators of crops and wild plants are under threat globally and their decline or loss could have profound economic and environmental consequences. Here, we argue that multiple anthropogenic pressures – including land-use intensification, climate change, and the spread of alien species and diseases – are primarily responsible for insect-pollinator declines. We show that a complex interplay between pressures (eg lack of food sources, diseases, and pesticides) and biological processes (eg species dispersal and interactions) at a range of scales (from genes to ecosystems) underpins the general decline in insect-pollinator populations. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and impacts of these interactions will be needed if human food security and ecosystem function are to be preserved. We highlight key areas that require research focus and outline some practical steps to alleviate the pressures on pollinators and the pollination services they deliver to wild and crop plants.
Article
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The concept of ecosystem services (ES) has taken the environmental science and policy literature by storm, and has become almost the approach to thinking about and assessing the nature-society relationship. In this review, we ask whether and in what way the ES concept is a useful way of organising research on the nature-society relationship. We trace the evolution of the different versions of the concept and identify key points of convergence and divergence. The essence of the concept nevertheless is that the contribution of biotic nature to human well-being is unrecognised and undervalued, which results in destruction of ecosystems. We discuss why this formulation has attracted ecologists and summarise the resultant contributions to research, particularly to the understanding of indirect or regulating services. We then outline three sets of weaknesses in the ES framework: confusion over ecosystem functions and biodiversity, omission of dis-services, trade-offs and abiotic nature, and the use of an economic valuation framework to measure and aggregate human well-being. Underlying these weaknesses is a narrow problem frame that is unidimensional in its environmental concern and techno-economic in its explanation of environmental degradation. We argue that an alternative framing that embraces broader concerns and incorporates multiple explanations would be more useful, and outline how this approach to understanding the nature-society relationship may be implemented.
Article
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Ecosystems are capital assets: When properly managed, they yield a flow of vital goods and services. Relative to other forms of capital, however, ecosystems are poorly understood, scarcely monitored, and--in many important cases--undergoing rapid degradation. The process of economic valuation could greatly improve stewardship. This potential is now being realized with innovative financial instruments and institutional arrangements.
Article
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Discussions of sustainable use have become polarized. Welfarists oppose all use that involves killing animals. Among conservationists polarization arises in part from failure to distinguish between different ideas nestled under the umbrella term of ‘sustainable use’. These include direct use as an imperative or choice, the ideal of keeping any use within biologically sustainable limits, and use as a possible conservation strategy that can create positive incentives, which are key where land could otherwise be converted to biodiversity-unfriendly practices. People will continue to use wild living resources, which increasing human populations could further deplete. In response the conservation community can follow one of two approaches. On the one hand, it can try to stop use through the establishment of strictly protected areas and by enforcing legislation, although many would question the ethical position of imposing such an approach. On the other hand, it can work to introduce the wider management systems needed to deliver sustainable use and, if possible, incentive-driven conservation. Because most rural populations will continue using wild living resources in human-dominated landscapes, sustainable use and incentive-driven conservation should both be at the centre of the conservation agenda this century. Both species- and ecosystem-based management are likely to have a role in sustainable use. However, current enthusiasm for the ecosystem approach may throw up unexpected consequences, making the search for sustainability even more polarized. Nevertheless, direct use of species cannot provide sufficient incentives to ensure the continued delivery of ecosystem services, which need to be fully incorporated in the global accounting system.
Article
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Mainstreaming ecosystem services into policy and decision making is dependent on the availability of spatially explicit information on the state and trends of ecosystems and their services. In particular, the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 addresses the need to account for ecosystem services through biophysical mapping and valuation. This paper reviews current mapping methods, identifies current knowledge gaps and provides the elements for a methodological framework for mapping and assessing ecosystems and their services at European scale. Current mapping methodologies go beyond purely land cover based assessments and include the use of primary data of ecosystem services, the use of functional traits to map ecosystem services and the development of models and ecological production functions. Additional research is needed to cover marine ecosystems and to include the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change in spatially explicit assessments. The ecosystem services cascade which connects ecosystems to human well-being is argued to provide a suitable, stepwise framework for mapping ecosystem services in order to support EU policies in a more effective way. We demonstrate the use of this framework for mapping using the water purification service as case.
Article
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Using a range of different methods including extensive reviews, workshops and an electronic conference, 70 key research recommendations and 12 priority research needs to integrate the ecosystem services approach into biodiversity conservation policy and funding were identified by a cross-disciplinary group of over 100 scientists and 50 stakeholders, including research funders and policy-makers. These recommendations focus on the ecological underpinning of ecosystem services, drivers that affect ecosystems and their services, biological traits and ecosystem services, the valuation of ecosystem services, spatial and temporal scales in ecosystem service assessment, indicators of ecosystem services, and habitat management, conservation policy and ecosystem services. The recommendations in this paper help steer the research agenda on ecosystem services into policy-relevant areas, agreed upon by funders, researchers and policy-makers. This research agenda will only succeed with increased collaboration between researchers across disciplines, thereby providing a challenge to the research community and research funders to work in new, interdisciplinary ways. KeywordsBiodiversity-Conservation policy-Ecosystem services-Indicators-Knowledge base-Research priorities-Valuation
Article
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H uman impacts on the environment are intensifying, raising vexing questions of how best to allocate the limited resources available for biodiversity conservation. Which creatures and places most deserve attention? Which should we ignore, potentially accepting their extinction? The answer to this
Article
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What started as a humble metaphor to help us think about our relation to nature has become integral to how we are addressing the future of humanity and the course of biological evolution. The metaphor of nature as a stock that provides a flow of services is insufficient for the difficulties we are in or the task ahead. Indeed, combined with the mistaken presumption that we can analyze a global problem within a partial equilibrium economic framework and reach a new economy project-by-project without major institutional change, the simplicity of the stock-flow framework blinds us to the complexity of the human predicament. The ecosystem services approach can be a part of a larger solution, but its dominance in our characterization of our situation and the solution is blinding us to the ecological, economic, and political complexities of the challenges we actually face.
Article
Despite growing interest and investment in ecosystem services across global science and policy arenas, it remains unclear how ecosystem services — and particularly changes in those services — should be measured. The social and ecological factors, and their interactions, that create and alter ecosystem services are inherently complex. Measuring and managing ecosystem services requires a sophisticated systems-based approach that accounts for how these services are generated by interconnected social—ecological systems (SES), how different services interact with each other, and how changes in the total bundle of services influence human well-being (HWB). Furthermore, there is a need to understand how changes in HWB feedback and affect the generation of ecosystem services. Here, we outline an SES-based approach for measuring ecosystem services and explore its value for setting policy targets, developing indicators, and establishing monitoring and assessment programs.