Conference PaperPDF Available

The Shape of Digital Transformation: A Systematic Literature Review

  • Institut Mines-Télécom Business School
Association for Information Systems
AIS Electronic Library (AISeL)
-+ ""!&*$. "!&/"--*"*+*#"-"* "+**#+-)/&+*3./").
%e Shape of Digital Transformation: A Systematic
Literature Review
Emily Henrie&e
Télécom Ecole de Management, France")&(3%"*-&"6"/"(" +)")"0
Mondher Feki
Telecom Business School, France)+*!%"-#"'&/"(" +)")"0
Imed Boughzala
TELECOM Business School&)"!+0$%4(/"(" +)")"0
+((+2/%&.*!!!&/&+*(2+-'./ %6,&."(&.*"/+-$) &.
5&.)/"-&(&.-+0$%//+3+03/%""!&/"--*"*+*#"-"* "+**#+-)/&+*3./")./(" /-+*& &--3"/%.""*
 ",/"!#+-&* (0.&+*&*-+ ""!&*$.3*0/%+-&4"!!)&*&./-/+-+#(" /-+*& &--3"+-)+-"&*#+-)/&+*,("."
+*/ / "(&--3&.*"/+-$
" +))"*!"!&//&+*
"*-&"6")&(3"'&+*!%"-*!+0$%4()"!5"%,"+#&$&/(-*.#+-)/&+*3./")/& &/"-/0-""1&"2
 MCIS 2015 Proceedings. ,"-
%6,&."(&.*"/+-$) &.
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
Complete Research
Henriette, Emily, Télécom Ecole de Management, France,
Feki, Mondher, Télécom Ecole de Management, France,
Boughzala, Imed, Télécom Ecole de Management, France,
Digital market has never been so unstable due to more and more demanding users and new disruptive
competitors. CEOs from most of industries investigate digitalization opportunities. Through a System-
atic Literature Review, we found that digital transformation is more than just a technological shift.
According to this study, these transformations have had an impact on the business models, the opera-
tional processes and the end-users experience. Considering the richness of this topic, we had proposed
a research agenda of digital transformation in a managerial perspective.
Keywords: Digital transformation, Business models, Operational processes, User experience.
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
1 Introduction
In the past few years, industries are facing technological shifts. Market volatility has resulted in a need
for a better response to demand. In a perspective of enabling business agility and changing the way
people work to optimize business performance, companies have undertaken digital transformation.
Some of the most important innovations are essentially based on internet and cloud technologies; also
called digital technologies.
Digital transformation, also known as digitalization, refers to a business model driven by “the changes
associated with the application of digital technology in all aspects of human society” (Stolterman and
Fors, 2004, p. 689). It is usually implemented through digitization, i.e. the “ability to turn existing
products or services into digital variants, and thus offer advantages over tangible product” (Gassmann
et al., 2014).
As part of our research, we found that most of existing papers regarding digitalization dealt with tech-
nological innovations (e.g. mobile technologies, analytics solutions, etc.), while this subject actually
covers a wider potential of scope. We believe that digital transformation should also be studied from a
different angle. Indeed, both observations and existing studies from professional papers (MIT - Cap
Gemini, 2013; IBM Institute for Business Value, 2012) expose that digital transformation affects
every aspect of an organization. The four aspects we will be focusing on are digital capabilities, busi-
ness models, operational processes and user (internal and external IT consumer) experience.
In this paper, we intend to provide a research agenda on digital transformation with new perspectives,
based on systematic literature review method. We will discuss the following questions:
What are the digital capabilities impacted by the digital transformation?
How digitalization transforms business models, operational processes and user experience?
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the research methodology.
Section 3 presents the results. Finally, section 4 discusses the key findings and provides future re-
search directions.
2 Methodology
The aim of this study is to explore the shape of digital transformation drawing on a literature review.
For it, we used a systematic literature review, following Kitchenham (2007) and Okoli and Schabram
(2010) protocol. It is a rigorous approach to select, analyze and assess papers. Applied in a given do-
main, it allows identifying trends and gaps in research.
The systematic literature review follows these following 6 steps:
Figure 1. Systematic literature review method.
2.1 Research identification
The idea here is to examine and evaluate research on digital transformation. For that, we investigated
the above research questions.
2.2 Research strategy
Our search strategy consists first in deriving major terms related to the research questions, and then
identifying alternative spelling and synonyms for these terms by leading a pilot test. We used the Boo-
Data synthesis
and analysis
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
lean operators (OR; AND) for connecting the founded terms. This resulted in the following used
strings for automated search:
("digital transformation" OR "digitalization") AND ("user experience" OR "operational process" OR
"business model").
The search of articles was conducted regardless of time limitation of publications by using Scopus
database. This bibliographic database holds more than 21,000 peer-reviewed journals, over 1,200
“open access” journals, more than 600 trade publications, 350 book series. The search of articles has
begun on May 16
, 2015
2.3 Study selection
In this step, we defined selection criteria to determine which studies are included or excluded. Studies
that met the following criteria were included:
The paper should be written in English
The paper should be published in a scientific journal
The paper approaches digital transformation
The articles which they weren’t accessible stated as excluded, as well as, master and doctoral theses,
proceedings or conference articles, working papers and textbooks. This choice of journal articles falls
in line with Ngai and Wat (2002, p.416), who believe that “academics and practitioners a like use
journals most often for acquiring information and disseminating new findings and represent the high-
est level of research”.
The final list of considered publications included 202 articles. Both authors carried out the selected
study process independently. Each reviewer performed the screening of the results based on title and
abstract for each publication that was considered according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Then, a comparison of screening results is realized, in case of difference, verification is jointly made
to reach a consensus. At the end of this process, 153 articles were excluded and 49 articles were kept
for the quality assessment step.
2.4 Quality assessment
In this step, the quality criteria are defined to evaluate the rigor and credibility of the selected articles.
The evaluation requires the complete review of the paper. Based on the works of Nguyen-Duc et al.
(2015), Hauge et al. (2010), and Dyba and Dingsoyr (2008), we defined the following quality stated
criteria as questions:
Is there an adequate description of the context in which the research was carried out?
Is there a clear statement of research aims?
Does the paper describe an explicit research question?
Is the research design appropriate to address the research aims?
Is the literature review adequate?
Is the collected data in a way of addressed research issue?
Is the data analysis sufficiently rigorous?
Is there a clear statement of findings?
Is the study valuable for research or practice?
Does the paper discuss limitations or validity?
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
Each question has four possible options: (0) issue is not mentioned at all, (1) little mentioned, (2) ade-
quately addressed and (3) completely addressed (Nguyen-Duc et al., 2015). Hence, we used a four
points Likert scale for collecting answers. Articles with an average quality score lower than 1, were
removed. At the end of this process 13 articles were qualified to be analyzed for the data extraction
2.5 Data extraction
In this step, we extracted data from the qualified articles.
2.6 Data synthesis and analysis
At the end, some results came out of the extracted data. The data synthesis includes a descriptive
analysis to provide a background about the included articles and an analysis of their findings in order
to underline the future directions of research.
Figure 2 presents the literature search, selection and assessment process.
Figure 2. Systematic literature review process.
3 Results and Analysis
This section presents an overview of 13 selected articles and a classification by digital capabilities,
business model, operational process, and user experience.
RQ1: What are the digital capabilities impacted by the
digital transformation?
RQ2: How digitalization transforms business models,
operational processes and user experience?
Research identification
Date: May 16, 2015
Keywords and database selections (Scopus)
Research strategy
202 articles identified from database
44 inaccessible articles
109 articles excluded by defined criteria
Study selection
49 articles assessed for quality
Quality assessment
13 qualified articles
Data extraction, synthesis and analysis
Henriette et al. /
The shape of D
Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems
Distribution of articles by year of publication
Table 1 presents the distribution of articles
in 2006. From 2011 to 2012, the amount of articles doubled each year to finally stabilize to 3 articles
per year in 2013 and 2014. As the subject is contemporary and at leading
over time.
Number of articles
Table 1.
Distribution of articles by year of publication
Distribution of articles by journal
Figure 3 represents the distribution of articles by journal subject area. We can notice that digitalization
covers a lot of areas such as social sciences, in
5 articles are published in a high ranked journal:
MIS Quarterly E
xecutive (Kohli et al., 2011)
European Journal of Information Systems (Zhu et al., 2006)
Technological Forecasting & Social Change (Øiestad et al., 2014)
Journal of Consumer Research (Belk, 2013)
Figure 3. Articles
distribution by journal subject area
Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems
(MCIS), Samos
, Greece, 2015
Distribution of articles by year of publication
Table 1 presents the distribution of articles
by the year of publication. The first article was published
in 2006. From 2011 to 2012, the amount of articles doubled each year to finally stabilize to 3 articles
per year in 2013 and 2014. As the subject is contemporary and at leading
edge, publications
Number of articles
(%) References
(Zhu et al., 2006)
(Kohli et al., 2011)
; (Rogers et al., 2011)
(Berman, 2012)
; (Gastaldi et al., 2012)
al., 2012)
(Barland, 2013); (Belk, 2013); (Medina et al., 2013)
(Pardo et al., 2014); (Øiestad et al., 2014); (Rothmann et al.,
Distribution of articles by year of publication
Distribution of articles by journal
Figure 3 represents the distribution of articles by journal subject area. We can notice that digitalization
covers a lot of areas such as social sciences, in
formation system and management.
5 articles are published in a high ranked journal:
xecutive (Kohli et al., 2011)
European Journal of Information Systems (Zhu et al., 2006)
Technological Forecasting & Social Change (Øiestad et al., 2014)
(Rothmann et al., 2014)
Journal of Consumer Research (Belk, 2013)
distribution by journal subject area
, Greece, 2015
by the year of publication. The first article was published
in 2006. From 2011 to 2012, the amount of articles doubled each year to finally stabilize to 3 articles
edge, publications
are steady
; (Rogers et al., 2011)
; (Gastaldi et al., 2012)
; (Liu, 2012); (Pînzaru et
(Barland, 2013); (Belk, 2013); (Medina et al., 2013)
(Pardo et al., 2014); iestad et al., 2014); (Rothmann et al.,
Figure 3 represents the distribution of articles by journal subject area. We can notice that digitalization
formation system and management.
(Rothmann et al., 2014)
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
3.3 Distribution of articles by methodology
The distribution of articles by research methodology (Palvia et al., 2006) is shown in Table 2. Most of
the articles (6 – 60%) use “case study” methodology due to the contemporaneity of the subject and
because most of the articles have for main subject digital business models (of which case study is an
appropriate method). 20 % of articles adopt a frameworks and conceptual model development (2 arti-
cles). The rest of articles use quantitative and qualitative research (with 1 article each).
We also noticed that most of the time, research methodology was poorly developed and research limits
were not expressed. Moreover, we couldn’t find any rigorous literature review dealing with the con-
cept of digitalization.
Methodology Number of articles
(%) References
Case study 6
(Liu, 2012); (Rothmann et al., 2014); (Bar-
land, 2013); (Øiestad et al., 2014); (Kohli et
al., 2011); (Gastaldi et al., 2012)
Frameworks and conceptual model 2
(20%) (Zhu et al. 2006); (Pînzaru et al., 2012)
Quantitative research 1
(10%) (Pardo et al., 2014)
Qualitative research 1
(10%) (Medina et al., 2013)
Table 2. Distribution of articles by methodology.
3.4 Distribution of articles by application area
Table 3 presents the studies which were applied on industries. A large part of articles deals with non-
material industries. We can suppose that researchers have more hindsight on both internet-based and
digitization business models which are the pioneers of digital era thus bring more perspectives for a
case study.
Industry Number of articles
(%) References
Book / publishing 3
(Liu, 2012); (Øiestad et al., 2014); (Rothmann
et al., 2014)
Media 3
(Barland, 2013); (Medina et al., 2013); (Pardo
et al., 2014)
Music 2
(20%) (Pînzar et al., 2012); (Rogers et al., 2011)
Healthcare 1
(10%) (Gastaldi et al., 2012)
Oil/Gas 1
(10%) (Kohli et al., 2011)
Table 3. Distribution of articles by application area.
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
3.5 Classification of articles by digital capabilities
A firm’s IT capabilities represent “the application of physical or intangible IT resources such as tech-
nology, knowledge, practices, relationships, management skills, business process understanding and
human resources to further organizational goals” (Sandberg et al., 2014). We made the assumption
that a digital capability is a kind of IT capability. In digital context, the main difficulty is to identify
the boundaries of digital capabilities. None of the author tried to neither identify these boundaries nor
define what a digital capability is.
However, they mentioned different capabilities presented on table 4. Among digital capabilities, we
can identify technological assets which purposes are to optimize and transform business activities such
as analytics and mobility.
Digitalization can be implemented through the transformation of physical asset to digital asset (digiti-
zation). For example, the book industry has lived a digital shift with the dematerialization from physi-
cal books to e-books (Liu, 2012). Internet and social network enable the access of a new field of po-
tential customers and strengthen ties with existing customers (Berman, 2012)
Digital transformation also has an organizational impact on human resources. Job roles evolve in line
with the transformation of activities. Decision makers must have to take into account the evolution of
knowledge and skills (Kohli et al., 2011; Liu, 2012).
Digital capability Number of articles
(%) References
Digitization / dematerialization 5
(Liu, 2012); (Rothmann et al. 2014); (Øiestad
et al., 2014); (Belk, 2013); (Gastaldi et al.,
Internet technologies 10
(Liu, 2012); (Rothmann et al., 2014); (Kohli et
al., 2011); (Berman, 2012); (Øiestad et al.,
2014); (Zhu et al., 2006); (Pardo et al., 2014);
(Rogers et al., 2011); (Pînzaru et al., 2012);
(Medina et al., 2013)
Analytics 3
(Kohli et al., 2011); (Berman, 2012); (Gastaldi
et al., 2012)
Mobility 5
(Berman, 2012); (Liu, 2012); (Pardo et al.
2014); (Pînzaru et al., 2012); (Medina et al.,
Social Network 2
(7%) (Berman, 2012); (Rogers et al., 2011)
Knowledge and skills 3
(10%) (Kohli et al., 2011); (Liu, 2012); (Belk, 2013)
Table 4.
Distribution of articles by digital capability
3.6 Classification of articles by business model
In this paper’s context, a business model is “a description of a company’s intention to create and cap-
ture value by linking new technological environments to business strategies” (Liu, 2012). We found
that digitalization can be considered either as a business model or as a reshaping of existing business
model, taking into account digital capabilities (Rothmann et al., 2014).
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
Along with the technological shift, convergence of social media and mobile technologies is changing
the way of conducting business. Opportunities from new capabilities (for example, dematerialization)
are a door opener to an extended market and result to an adjustment of business focus. We also noticed
that digitalization is often presented as an inescapable evolution as market imperatives present a high
risk of not doing the technological shift, especially for publishing and music companies.
Table 5 presents the distribution of articles by impact on business model. We identified 3 impacts on
business models: Extend market (4 articles -36%), focusing on customer value propositions (3 articles
– 28%) and reshaping existing business model due to market imperatives (4 articles – 36%).
Business model Number of articles
(%) References
Extend market 4
(Liu, 2012); (Øiestad et al., 2014); (Pînzaru et
al., 2012); (Medina et al., 2013)
Focusing on customer value proposi-
(Berman, 2012); (Rogers et al., 2011); (Pînza-
ru et al., 2012)
Reshaping existing business model
due to market imperatives
(Rothmann et al., 2014); (Kohli et al., 2011);
(Rogers et al., 2011); (Medina et al., 2013)
Table 5. Distribution of articles by impact of digitalization on business model.
3.7 Classification of articles by user experience
Table 6 presents the distribution of articles by impact of digitalization on user experience. The major-
ity of articles based on user maturity (6 articles – 46%), followed by interaction (3 articles – 15%) and
collaboration (2 articles – 18%).
Our review showed that the user is in the heart of digital transformations. Customers are more de-
manding and expect companies to listen, understand and be flexible about the evolution of their needs.
In companies, users, by using new technologies in private context, expect to use the same technologies
at work. Especially for new generations, also known as “digital natives” (Pardo et al., 2014), which are
born surrounded by technologies.
Collaboration tools expansion and commoditization of social networks changed the way of working by
tightening interactions between users and their ecosystem.
User experience Number of articles
(%) References
Digital natives & user maturity 6
(Rothmann et al. 2014); (Berman, 2012);
(Øiestad et al., 2014); (Pardo et al., 2014);
(Rogers et al., 2011); (Pînzaru et al., 2012)
Interaction 3
(Berman, 2012); (Belk, 2013); (Pînzaru et al.,
Collaboration 2
(18%) (Berman, 2012); (Belk, 2013)
Table 6. Distribution of articles by impact of digitalization on user experience.
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
3.8 Classification of articles by operational process
Undertaking digital transformation can impact the whole company supply chain. Table 7 presents the
distribution of articles by operational process impacted by digitalization.
Our review showed two kinds of impact in operational processes:
Transformation of processes induced by implementation of new technologies: As we explained
above, digitalization transforms the way to work, both in term of user experience and business
model. For example, implementing analytic tools to make predictive analysis on consumption
trends will impact the way of doing marketing, and so, the marketing process (Berman, 2012).
Digitalization of a chosen process: Companies can decide to undertake the digitalization of a spe-
cific process which implies to make investments in order to modernize a full process. For example
the digitalization of knowledge management implies to invest on new technologies (such as col-
laboration or analytic tools), to conduct change on usages and assign specific resources on
knowledge management (Kohli et al., 2011).
Operational process Number of articles
(%) References
Supplier relationship 1
(10%) (Kohli et al., 2011)
Customer relationship 1
(10%) (Kohli et al., 2011)
Knowledge management 1
(10%) (Kohli et al., 2011)
Marketing 1
(10%) (Berman, 2012)
Delivery 3
(30%) (Kohli et al., 2011); (Berman, 2012)
Sales / Engagement 1
(10%) (Berman, 2012)
Knowledge management 2
(20%) (Kohli et al., 2011); (Gastaldi et al., 2012)
Table 7. Distribution of articles by operational process impacted by digitalization.
4 Discussion and future research directions
We have seen that digital transformation is often described as a new business model or as a reshaping
of existing business models. It is driven by several factors:
Companies are vulnerable to these new technologies: the past few years of technological shifts
have broken down market barriers for new disruptive competitors (e.g. Netflix, Uber, etc). Indus-
tries such as publishing, media or music had to undertake deep transformations, especially by dig-
itizing assets.
Opportunities to extend the market: we saw that new capabilities (e.g. internet and mobile tech-
nologies) are a door opener to an extended market. They require a company to adjust their busi-
ness model accordingly.
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
A high and fluctuant expectation from users: with a deep knowledge on new technologies users
wish to use personalized and cutting-edge technologies.
A digital transformation project involves implementing digital capabilities to support business model
transformations. It impacts the whole organization, especially operational processes, resources, inter-
nal and external users. This is a major change in ones habits and ways of working, which is based on
collaboration and intensive interactions.
Table 8 summarizes findings of this study, responding to our following research questions: What are
the digital capabilities impacted by the digital transformation? How digitalization transforms business
models, operational processes and user experience?
Research questions Findings
What are the digital capabilities impacted by the digital transformation?
Digitization / dematerialization;
Internet technologies; Analytics;
Mobility; Social Network; Knowl-
edge and skills
How digitalization transforms
business models, operational
processes and user experience?
Business models
Extend market; Focus on customer
value propositions; Reshaping exist-
ing business model due to market
Operational processes
Supplier relationship; Customer
relationship; Knowledge manage-
ment; Marketing; Delivery; Sales /
User experience Digital natives & user maturity;
Collaboration; Interactions
Table 8. Findings summary.
Nonetheless, our research is limited by several factors such as the chosen keywords. We would have,
for example, added afterwards other keywords such as “consumer experience” or “business process”.
We can add others databases such as “science direct” or “business source complete” in order to enrich
our results. Regardless of the prior, this first investigation also highlights some future research direc-
First, we believe that the priority is to settle a rigorous theoretical frame on what digitalization is and
what digital capabilities are.
Second, we identified a lack of research regarding the realization of digital transformation projects.
The questions that arise are: How to manage a digital transformation? ; How to identify and manage
the costs of this transformation?
Third, it would be interesting to make a digitalization maturity assessment tool to identify opportuni-
ties and make a benchmark of organizations interested in leading a digital transformation. Then, a
guide for digital transformation could help industries initiate a change and frame their project.
Fourth, as we have seen above, digitalization projects have a strong impact on this whole organization.
The authors mentioned some of them; however, a research focused on digitalization impacts would
also be interesting; especially regarding its impacts on IT. This has an even larger impact on big com-
panies. Indeed, blue-chip companies have a significant and aging infrastructure (system of record),
which might have to evolve to adjust to these digital technologies. It also raises issues regarding IT
management and governance: who will manage IT infrastructure, how to avoid shadow IT and how IT
jobs will evolve?
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
Finally, our three research questions had resulted in that digitalization impacts business models, opera-
tional processes and the user experience. Research on these three areas should be deepened. To lead
proposed research, we suggest the use of different approaches (e.g. design science or quantitative ap-
proach) and expand application area (blue-chip companies, other industries such as retail or govern-
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
Barland, J. (2013). “Innovation of New Revenue Streams in Digital Media.” Nordicom Review 34, 99-
Belk, R. (2013). “Extended Self in a Digital World.Journal of Consumer Research 40 (3), 477-500.
Berman, S. (2012). “Digital transformation: opportunities to create new business models.” Strategy &
Leadership 40 (2), 16-24.
Dyba, T. and T. Dingsoyr (2008). “Empirical Studies of Agile Software Development: A Systematic
Review”. Information and Software Technology 50 (9-10), 833-859.
Gassmann, O., Frankenberger K. and M. Csik (2014). The St. Gallen Business Model Navigator. URL:
Gastaldi, L. and M. Corso (2012). “Smart Healthcare Digitalization: Using ICT to Effectively Balance
Exploration and Exploitation Within Hospitals.” International Journal of Engineering Business
Management (4), 1-13.
Hauge, O., Ayala C. and R. Conradi (2010). “Adoption of Open Source Software in Software-
intensive Organizations – A Systematic Literature Review.” Information and Software Technology
52 (11), 1133–1154.
IBM Institute for Business Value (2012). CMOs and CIOs Acquaintances or allies?. URL:
Kitchenham, B. (2007). Guidelines for Performing Systematic Literature Reviews in Software. Tech-
nical Report EBSE-2007-01, UK, Keele University and University of Durham.
Kohli, R. and S. Johnson (2011). “Digital Transformation in Latecomer Industries: CIO and CEO
Leadership Lessons from Encana Oil & Gas (USA) Inc. MIS Quarterly Executive 10 (4), 141
Liu, D. (2012). “Competitive Business Model in Audio-book Industry: A Case of China.” Journal of
software 7 (1), 33-40.
Medina, M. and B. Prario (2013). “The transformation of audiovisual media companies: The cases of
Mediaset (Italy) and Antena 3 (Spain).” Studies in Communication Sciences 13 (2), 166–173.
MIT - Cap Gemini (2013). Digital transformation: a roadmap for billion-dollar organizations. URL:
Ngai, E. W. T. and F. K. T. Wat (2002). “A literature review and classification of electronic commerce
research.” Information & Management 39 (5), 415–429.
Nguyen-Duc, A., Cruzes, D. S. and R. Conradi (2015). “The impact of Global Dispersion on Coordi-
nation, Team Performance and Software Quality: A Systematic Literature Review. Information
and Software Technology (57), 277-294.
Øiestad, S. and M. Bu (2014). “Digitisation of publishing: Exploration based on existing business
models.” Technological Forecasting & Social Change 83, 54-65.
Okoli, C. and K. Schabram (2010). “A Guide to Conducting a Systematic Literature Review of Infor-
mation Systems.” Sprouts: Working Papers on Information Systems 10 (26).
Palvia, P., V. Midha and P. Pinjani (2006). “Research Models in Information Systems.” Communica-
tions of the Association for Information Systems 17, 1042-1063.
Pardo, A. and C. Etay (2014). “Movies and screens: the Spanish audience’s choice.” Communication
& Society 27 (4), 131-145.
Pînzaru, F. and A. Mitan (2012). “Social media and marketing of the “popcorn” music wave: the suc-
cess of romanian commercial musicians analysed through their perceived image on facebook and
youtube.” Economics & Sociology 5 (2a), 125-138.
Rogers, J. and S. Sparviero (2011). “Same tune, different words: The creative destruction of the mu-
sic.” Observatorio Journal 5 (4), 1-30.
Henriette et al. /
The shape of Digital Transformation
Ninth Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS), Samos, Greece, 2015
Rothmann, W. and J. Koch (2014). “Creativity in strategic lock-ins: The newspaper industry and the
digital revolution”. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 83, 66–83.
Sandberg, J., Mathiassen, L. and N. Napier (2014). “Digital Options Theory for IT Capability Invest-
ment.Journal of the Association for Information Systems 15 (7), 422-453.
Stolterman, E. and A. C. Fors (2004). “Information Technology and the Good Life.” In: Information
Systems Research: Relevant Theory and Informed Practice. Ed. Kaplan, B. et al., London: Kluwer
Academic Publishers.
Zhu , K., Dong, S., Xin Xu, S. and K. Kraem (2006). “Innovation diffusion in global contexts: deter-
minants of post-adoption digital transformation of European companies.” European Journal of In-
formation Systems 15, 601–616.
... Westerman et al. (2014) define digital transformation as the use of technology to radically improve the operational efficiency or reach of an enterprise. Henriette et al. (2015) argue that digital transformation is a business model driven by changes associated with the adoption of digital technology in all aspects of human society. According to Piccinini et al. (2015) digital transformation is characterized by the use of new digital technologies to create great improvements in business. ...
... Advances in digital technology and the ensuing digitalization of various societal sectors have influenced the terminology's richness, which uses terms like "digitalization," "digitalization," and "digital transformation," which served as a catalyst for the final "digital transformation" (Spremić, 2017;Henriette, Feki & Boughzala, 2015;Goran, LaBerge & Srinivasan, 2017;Trcek, 2019). "Digitalization" refers to both the automation of operations using information technology and the translation of information from analog to digital form. ...
The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of digital transformation (DT) and how it helps companies to face the challenges of a competitive dynamic market. Digital business transformation is a necessity for companies that want to survive in the modern world. Contemporary conditions of market competition are characterized by the digitization of economies and its current progress, as well as all related consequential changes in that process. Digital transformation changes the business organization in all segments and affects not only companies, but also society, the environment and institutions. In this paper, we discuss the hotel sector and listed some of the examples used to shed light on how digital transformation has affected business and contributed to sustainable development. The goal of the research was to point out the need for rapid digital transformation in the hotel industry, and to emphasize the importance of sustainable development in tourism using the benefits that digital transformation provides. In its initial part, the paper will provide an overview of the current literature on digital transformation and a definition of the mentioned terminology. The second section of the paper discusses the status of digital transformation in the hotel industry and its positive impact on sustainable development. In the latter section of the paper limitations are provided, and implications for future research are considered.
... As a research strategy, a case study is appropriate for events not influenced by the researcher and needing to be answered by asking questions like "how" and "why" (Yin, 2017). The methodology has often been successfully applied while researching various aspects of DT (Henriette et al., 2015). We applied a multiple-case design since that is considered more robust than a single-case study design, while it also offers the possibility of direct replication in different, independent cases (Yin, 2017). ...
Full-text available
Previous research has increased our understanding of individual digital transformation (DT) activities, roles, responsibilities, and related dilemmas, yet a comprehensive insight is missing with respect to the organizational forms that are most appropriate for developing the capabilities needed for successful DT. The purpose of this paper is to identify the main organizational characteristics and organizational forms for a successful DT and to identify influential factors that impact decisions about suitable organizational forms. Drawing on two case studies, we look at how companies can develop digital capabilities through different configurations of organizational forms. Findings show that decisions on organizational forms have to be influenced by digital culture, IT department’s role, and the goals of DT. Moreover, top management leadership is more important than a formal digital strategy, and DT projects must be executed by coordinated interdisciplinary teams. The presented research offers a comprehensive insight on how companies can develop digital capabilities that enable a successful DT by developing their organizational forms, i.e., by combining the different DT actions, actors, their roles and responsibilities, their interplay, implementing DT strategies, and combining the design of digital software solutions with the design of organizational routines and practices.
“Insurance technology,” or “Insur-Tech,” refers to technology and newness that aim to provide the insurance business with enhanced services and technologies. Today, managing finances, policies, and risks relies more on technology to obtain a competitive edge and assist decision-makers in reaching better conclusions for the insurer. Some research has been done in this area as insurance technology has grown. This study’s objective is to outline the current Insur-Tech trend. The researcher took the data from Scopus in this study’s bibliometric analysis. Microsoft Excel is used to analyze the frequency, and VOSviewer is used to visualize the results. This study uses standard bibliometric metrics like publication year and annual growth rate, document type, source type, source titles, active institution, keyword analysis, and country contributions to convey its findings. Based on research, there has been a significant increase in Insur-Tech publications every year since 2018. The growing body of studies on insur-tech shows how vital technology is to the insurance sector. There are undoubtedly some effects on the economy and general way of life.
Full-text available
A transformação digital não deve ser resumida em apenas tecnologias, mas sim, em estratégias que envolvam a implementação de recursos digitais para apoiar as transformações nos modelos de negócios, e os líderes exercem um papel essencial nesse processo. Diante disso, o objetivo deste artigo consiste em verificar a relação entre a transformação digital e a liderança no contexto empresarial. Para isso, foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura com buscas na base Scopus, filtradas pelos termos em inglês: “Digital Transformation” and “Leadership” or “Management Business”. Foram obtidos 214 resultados iniciais que passaram pelos critérios de inclusão (somente artigos) e exclusão (duplicidade, período de publicação anterior a 2019, retirada de artigos com acesso restrito e aderência ao foco da pesquisa) resultando como base para esta pesquisa 50 artigos datados de 2019 a 2021. Os principais resultados apontam que embora a transformação digital esteja em expansão influenciada pelas exigências de mercado, de competitividade e de sustentabilidade, a pesquisa identificou tentativas científicas de extrair o perfil e as competências do líder digital, na busca de criar modelos de habilidades e atribuições para critérios de desenvolvimento e eficiência na gestão da transformação digital.
This paper aims to explore the extent to which the pandemic has forced SMEs to accelerate their digital transformation efforts to remain competitive and adapt to the changing business landscape. The focus is set on three key research questions: (i) How did digitalization manifest itself in SMEs before the pandemic outbreak? (ii) how did SMEs’ digital transformation evolve during the pandemic? and (iii) what business challenges do SMEs face in the post-COVID period due to the acceleration of digital transformation? For the empirical investigation, qualitative research methods are used as in-depth interviews in 10 SMEs in Poland (six) and Croatia (4). The main results emphasize three main findings. First, even before the pandemic, SMEs recognized and used various digital transformation technologies to improve their business processes and performance. Second, the development of digitalization processes in the observed SMEs during the pandemic was mainly driven by the need for remote work, e-commerce, virtual events, and automation of business relationships among all stakeholders. Third, the post-pandemic world confirms the need for SMEs to invest in cybersecurity, talent acquisition, infrastructure, customer engagement, and data privacy to remain competitive in the digital economy.
Digital Transformation has fused digitalization with traditional management processes, creating the physical and virtual worlds connected and opening unimagined possibilities for 21st-century business growth. Allied with Digital Transformation, Industry 4.0 paradigm must speed up the use of sensors, connectivity, and system integration to promote information transparency, data analysis and quick and strategic decision-making. However, the most of research in this domain is evolving the development of methods, architectures, and frameworks exploring the technologies’ application to specific goals and focused on the manufacturing process. In this way, this paper proposes to carry out a literature review to analyze, classify and identify the main contributions published on the topic of Industry 4.0, Digital Transformation and Business Management Processes to support the gap in the application the Digital Transformation into Business Management. Therefore, it was used the Scopus database for the bibliometric literature review to achieve the research aim. As a result, it seeks to discover the gaps remaining in the literature and discover future research opportunities in this domain. This work scientifically contributes to pushing the development of literature on Industry 4.0 and digital transformation in the business management processes.KeywordsDigital TransformationIndustry 4.0Business Management ProcessesLiterature Review
Full-text available
With the advent of Industry 4.0 (I4.0), companies were induced to invest in technologies to remain competitive and make their processes more efficient. However, the scarcity of structured processes is pointed out in the literature as one of the biggest barriers to the I4.0 transition since companies need implementation guides warning about possible difficulties encountered. Thus, the paper aims to identify the company’s maturity level regarding I4.0 to present the best direction for implementing 4.0 technologies. Therefore, a case study was carried out through a semi-structured interview and an on-site visit to a company that specialized in manufacturing and selling fibre cement artefacts for civil construction. The Acatech model and a theoretical framework of Industry 4.0 technologies were combined to analyze the company’s maturity level. With the completion of the study, it was identified that the company has the initial level of implementation of I4.0 technology. To improve production processes, the company invests in new systems and equipment, training for the qualification of employees, and changes in organizational culture.KeywordsIndustry 4.0digital technologiesmaturity levelcivil construction
After the first restrictions promoted to control the COVID-19 outbreak, strategies for keeping presential activities in Educational environments have been the focus of several studies because they configure spaces with great risk of viral diseases propagation due to the high circulation of people. However, the exhaled virus can accumulate and infect even people who do not have direct contact with an infected person. This makes the rates of disease transmission in closed environments still a point of discussion in the academic literature. Moreover, it is necessary to find out the main contagious areas in Universities to define the mitigation measures that should be adopted. In this context, this article aims to: (i) demonstrate the main contagion areas in a University building; (ii) assess the impact of physical distancing on the campus with different secondary infection rates. For this, the spread of COVID-19 within the Federal University of Santa Catarina campus was simulated using an adaptation of the SIR model in an agent-based simulation model. The results show that corridors, libraries and bathrooms are also important sources of contagion. Regarding the infection rates evaluated in simulation, the building occupancy should be limited to 33% to avoid contamination. However, reducing classroom capacity by 50%, the infection rate decreases to 1% in the worst infection rates scenario. Finally, with a 50% capacity, the infection rate variation do not significantly impact the final number of infected agents, indicating that physical distancing would be effective even for virus variants with other transmission rates.KeywordsSARS-CoV-2 virusagent-based simulationSIR modeluniversity class-roomsindoor environment risksanylogic
Full-text available
The objective of this report is to propose comprehensive guidelines for systematic literature reviews appropriate for software engineering researchers, including PhD students. A systematic literature review is a means of evaluating and interpreting all available research relevant to a particular research question, topic area, or phenomenon of interest. Systematic reviews aim to present a fair evaluation of a research topic by using a trustworthy, rigorous, and auditable methodology. The guidelines presented in this report were derived from three existing guidelines used by medical researchers, two books produced by researchers with social science backgrounds and discussions with researchers from other disciplines who are involved in evidence-based practice. The guidelines have been adapted to reflect the specific problems of software engineering research. The guidelines cover three phases of a systematic literature review: planning the review, conducting the review and reporting the review. They provide a relatively high level description. They do not consider the impact of the research questions on the review procedures, nor do they specify in detail the mechanisms needed to perform meta-analysis.
Full-text available
Recent digital transformations of the media landscape have altered media economics. Media outlets are experiencing a decline in newspaper circulation and are struggling to develop new revenue streams within digital media. Newspaper publishers are accustomed to a two-sided revenue model geared towards readers and advertisers. In digital publishing, such two-sided revenue models must be further developed. This article describes a model in which journalistic content functions as an engine for digital traffic, and how that market position is used to promote other commercial digital services. Unlike earlier advertising models, the media company itself has become both the advertiser and the owner of the promoted services. This article's contribution is a description of how new revenue streams are being developed around digital journalistic products. A case study of the Schibsted Media Group, including examples from the media outlets VG (Norway) and Aftonbladet (Sweden), is used here as the empirical source.
Full-text available
Consumer habits in relation to audiovisual products are changing due to the greater range and unlimited access to contents available. This article explores the screens viewers favor in watching films, as well as the screens they actually use. The data are taken from a survey of a sample comprising 1,000 Spanish people aged over 14. The results show that there are differences with regard to preferences for screen-type and frequency of use, which correlate with socio-demographic variables (sex, age and educational background).
Full-text available
While research has shown that investments in IT capability may translate into improved firm performance, how and why they do is still a source of debate. Drawing on financial options thinking, recent research suggests that managers can support appropriate investment decisions by examining digital options. However, current research has not effectively translated the financial options construct into the IT domain, which makes it difficult to rigorously examine digital options. To address this void, we revisit general options theory and review current notions of digital options. To support understanding, we extend current theorizing by offering a rigorous conceptual foundation that defines the digital option lifecycle and relationships to neighboring constructs. To support practice, we present principles for examining digital options for a specific business process. To illustrate the detailed workings of the theory, we examine a production planning process in the dairy industry to arrive at a set of desirable and feasible IT capability investments. Our proposed theory supports managerial practice by offering a rigorous and actionable foundation for digital options thinking. It also sets an agenda for academic research by articulating theory-based constructs and principles that are subject to further empirical and theoretical investigation.
A strong business model is the bedrock to business success. But all too often we fail to adapt, clinging to outdated models that are no longer delivering the results we need. The brains behind The Business Model Navigator have discovered that just 55 business models are responsible for 90% of the world's most successful businesses. These 55 models – from the Add-On model used by Ryanair to the Subscription model used by Spotify – provide the blueprints you need to revolutionise your business and drive powerful change.
In this paper, we experiment and adopt 'new' economic approaches to interrogate some of the fundamental changes and continuities in the music industry 'system' that have been produced as a result of digitalisation. In this experiment, we also include established techniques of media industries' analysis like a value-chain analysis (e.g. Küng, Picard and Towse 2008) and the distinction between audience and users markets, following the seminal work by Picard (1989). However, not only we consider the music industry as composed by three segments: (1) the digitalisation of content production in the music industry stage; (2) the distribution and marketing stage; (3) the delivery and exhibition stage, but we also attempt to provide a map of the increasing variety of activities in each segment. Moreover, we embrace a service activity perspective and pay particular attention to changing relationships between these activities. Our account of the main changes to the music industry relies on evidence derived from the findings of a recent empirical research study of the music industry in Ireland, and in the conclusions we discuss the significance of the effects of unauthorised downloads of music and provide arguments on how the industry could deal with this issue.
Context Global software development (GSD) contains different context setting dimensions, which are essential for effective teamwork and success of projects. Although considerable research effort has been made in this area, as yet, no agreement has been reached about the impact of these dispersion dimensions on team coordination and project outcomes. Objective This paper summarizes empirical evidence on the impact of global dispersion dimensions on coordination, team performance and project outcomes. Method We performed a systematic literature review of 46 publications from 25 journals and 19 conference and workshop proceedings, which were published between 2001 and 2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify global dimensions and their measures. Vote counting was used to decide on the impact trends of dispersion dimensions on team performance and software quality. Results Global dispersion dimensions are consistently conceptualized, but quantified in many different ways. Different dispersion dimensions are associated with a distinct set of coordination challenges. Overall, geographical dispersion tends to have a negative impact on team performance and software quality. Temporal dispersion tends to have a negative impact on software quality, but its impact on team performance is inconsistent and can be explained by type of performance. Conclusion For researchers, we reveal several opportunities for future research, such as coordination challenges in inter-organizational software projects, impact of processes and practices mismatches on project outcomes, evolution of coordination needs and mechanism over time and impact of dispersion dimensions on open source project outcomes. For practitioners, they should consider the tradeoff between cost and benefits while dispersing tasks, alignment impact of dispersion dimensions with individual and organizational objectives, coordination mechanisms as situational approaches and collocation of development activities of high quality demand components in GSD projects.
Purpose According to IBM research, companies seeking opportunities in an era of constant customer connectivity focus on two complementary activities: reshaping customer value propositions and transforming their operations using digital technologies for greater customer interaction and collaboration. This paper aims to address this issue. Design/methodology/approach The paper explains that businesses aiming to generate new customer value propositions or transform their operating models need to develop a new portfolio of capabilities for flexibility and responsiveness to fast‐changing customer requirements. Findings The paper finds that engaging with customers at every point where value is created is what differentiates a customer‐centered business from one that simply targets customers well. Customer interaction in these areas often leads to open collaboration that accelerates innovation using online communities. Practical implications Companies focused on fully reshaping the operating model optimize all elements of the value chain around points of customer engagement. Originality/value The article explains how companies with a cohesive plan for integrating the digital and physical components of operations can successfully transform their business models.
During the last decade newspapers all over the world have faced a severe and in many cases even existential crisis. At the same time, the technology for producing and supplying journalistic content has changed dramatically. While digitalization, along with socio-cultural and technological changes, threatened the established newspaper business models and therefore increased the necessity for change, it simultaneously offered various opportunities to establish new business models, not least for quality journalism, which is crucial to a vital democracy. Adopting a strategy process perspective and introducing the concepts of “horizontal” and “vertical” creativity, we analyze how the key players in the quality-newspaper sector in Germany have tried to benefit from digitalization and why they have failed so far. Our analysis of select cases shows that, under specific conditions, organizations tend to use up all their creative potential in order to maintain problematic strategies rather than explore new ones.