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Application of spirulina platensis on ice cream and soft cheese with respect to their nutritional and sensory perspectives

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Application of Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler into food product can be used for producing functional food and improve its nutritional value. However, some bioactive compounds containing in S. platensis are heat sensitive, therefore processing techniques need to be strictly considered. It is necessary to observe the application of S. platensis powder into different products of ice cream and soft cheese in which the application of S. platensis was in relatively low temperature to protect its bioactive compounds from damage. S. platensis contains approximately 55% to 70% of protein and its utilization on food product can be expected to improve the nutritional value. Innovation technique to produce such kind of product should respect to its acceptance by panelist using sensory test. Therefore, the objective of this research was to find out maximum concentration of S. platensis that can be added to the product and acceptable based on sensory and physical properties point of view. Experimental design used in this research was Completely Randomized Design with three replications. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and followed by HSD–test. The results showed that addition of 1% and 1.2% S. platensis were considered as the best concentration for soft cheese and ice cream, respectively. Addition of S. platensis gave significant effect to protein, water, fat, ß carotene and texture (soft cheese) and protein, total solid, fat and total sugar, overrun, melting point and sensory (ice cream).
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78:42 (2016) 245251 |www.jurnalteknologi.utm.my | eISSN 21803722 |
Jurnal
Teknologi
Full Paper
APPLICATION OF Spirulina platensis ON ICE
CREAM AND SOFT CHEESE WITH RESPECT TO
THEIR NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PERSPECTIVES
Tri Winarni Agustinia*, Widodo Farid Ma’rufa, Widayatb, Meiny Suzeryc,
Hadiyantob, Soottawat Benjakuld
aFisheries Department, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof.
H. Sudharto, S.H, Tembalang, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia
bDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
Diponegoro University
cDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics,
Diponegoro University
dDepartment of Food Technology, Faculty of Agroindustry, Prince of
Songkhla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
Article history
Received
4 November 2015
Received in revised form
11 February 2016
Accepted
22 February 2016
*Corresponding author
tagustini@yahoo.com
Abstract
Application of Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler into food product can be used for
producing functional food and improve its nutritional value. However, some bioactive
compounds containing in S. platensis are heat sensitive, therefore processing techniques
need to be strictly considered. It is necessary to observe the application of S. platensis
powder into different products of ice cream and soft cheese in which the application of
S. platensis was in relatively low temperature to protect its bioactive compounds from
damage. S. platensis contains approximately 55 % to 70% of protein and its utilization on
food product can be expected to improve the nutritional value. Innovation technique to
produce such kind of product should respect to its acceptance by panelist using sensory
test. Therefore, the objective of this research was to find out maximum concentration of S.
platensis that can be added to the product and acceptable based on sensory and
physical properties point of view. Experimental design used in this research was
Completely Randomized Design with three replications. Data were analyzed using
ANOVA and followed by HSDtest. The results showed that addition of 1 % and 1.2 % S.
platensis were considered as the best concentration for soft cheese and ice cream,
respectively. Addition of S. platensis gave significant effect to protein, water, fat, β
carotene and texture (soft cheese) and protein, total solid, fat and total sugar, overrun,
melting point and sensory (ice cream).
Keywords: Ice cream, physical properties, sensory, soft cheese, Spirulina platensis
(Gomont) Geitler
© 2016 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Application of Spirulina platensis (Gomont) Geitler is
usually for food colorant due to its phycocyanin
content. Some research have been conducted on
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of
phycocyanin [1] stability of phycocyanin extract [2
4]. Therefore, S. platensis can also be used for
functional food production due to its bioactive
compounds which can improve nutritional value.
However, some bioactive compounds containing in
S. platensis are heat sensitive, therefore processing
techniques need to be strictly considered.
246 Tri Winarni Agustini et al. / Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering) 78:42 (2016) 245251
Spirulina contains chlorophyll and carotenoids as well
as phenolic and flavonoids compounds, which can
act as natural substances [5]. In addition, S. platensis
in the form of powder contains potential phenolic
and flavonoid compounds. -carotene contained in
S. platensis is one of antioxidant which can neutralize
free radical substances in human body and -
carotene is one of simple form of carotenoid with
molecular formula of C40H56 [6, 7].
S. platensis is one of microalgae that is commonly
utilized by people who live nearby water reservoir, or
water with high salt concentration. S. plantesis
harvested from sea water has higher mineral content
compared to that of one harvested from fresh water
and brackish water areas. Sea water contains high
salt such as NaCl, KCl, MgCl. Spirulina cultivated in
salted medium also contain phycocyanin,
polysaccharide, inositol that are higher than the one
from fresh water.
Cheese is milkprocessed product that is produced
by coagulation process of entirely or part of protein
of milk, skim milk, butter milk, and whey cream by
using rennet or other coagulation agent [8, 9].Ice
cream is semisolid food that is made by freezing of
milk, fat, sugar mixture with or without food additives
[10]. Ice cream usually contains 0.2 % to 0.3 %
stabilizer, 0.1% emulsifier, 10 % to 15 % sugar, flavor
and coloring agent, 12 %, 4.1 % protein, 20.7 %
carbohydrate and energy of 196.7 calorie per 100 g
[11].
Commercial ice creams are lack of protein, easily
melted and contains high fat. Therefore it is
necessary to improve ice cream quality. Increase
nutritional quality of ice cream and soft cheese can
be done by certain food ingredient containing high
nutritional value such as S. platensis. This microalga
can be used as food source and be applied into
some food products for example biscuit, paste,
lozenges, jelly drink etc. [12].
This study was aimed to observe the application of
S. platensis powder into two different products of ice
cream and soft cheese in which the application of S.
platensis was in relatively low temperature to protect
its bioactive compounds from damage. According
to Agustini et al., the nutritional value of fresh S.
platensis had significant difference compare to that
of dried S. platensis [13]. Moreover, here is significant
different quantitatively for its bioactive compounds.
Maximum concentration of S. platensis that can be
added to the product was determined, thus, will be
acceptable for consumption.
2.0 EXPERIMENTAL
To prepare soft cheese, fresh milk (1 L) was heated at
70 °C for 15 min (Pasteurization) and was cooled to
achieve temperature of 35 °C to 40 °C, added 5 mL
acetic acid per 1 L milk, stirred for 15 sec. About ¼
tablets rennet was diluted in 1 mL water and added
to a mixture of milk and acetic acid. Allow the milk
added with rennet for 1 h to become fermented
fresh cow milk and then cut so that they can be
easily exerted, wait for 5 min. Fermented fresh cow
milk was drained by using stainless steel bowl, and
then poured hot water (30 mL) to accelerate the
whey production and drained again. Compacted
fermented fresh cow milk was then weighed
according to the formulation (200 g). Salt (0.3 %) was
added as well as S. platensis powder with different
concentration (0 %, 0.5 %, 1 %, 1.5 %). The soft cheese
resulted was then kept at refrigerated temperature
for further analysis [14].
To prepare ice cream, egg yolk (3 %) and sugar
cane (16 %) were mixed thoroughly to form foaming.
Milk (45.5 %, 44.9 % and 44.3 %), skim milk (10 %), and
gelatin (0.5 %) were heated at 60 °C. Then the
mixture was poured into egg yolk and sugar cane
mixture The mixture was then added with essence (10
%), and pasteurized at 85 °C for 10 min.
Homogenized mixture was conducted while ice
cream dough is still hot for 10 min at 1 500 rpm (1 rpm
= 1/60 Hz). S. platensis powder was added at
different concentration (0%, 0.6% and 1.2%). The final
mixture of ice cream was then put in refrigerator (for
aging process) until the temperature of 40 °C for 12 h.
For ice cream maker, it takes only 15 min to get the
final product. Packaging of Ice cream was
conducted soon after removing from refrigerator /
ice cream maker. Storing of the product was carried
out at freezer at temperature of -18 °C for 24 h [15].
Protein content and fat content were analyzed for
both products [16, 17]. Water content, Ash content,
and β-carotene analysis were carried out for soft
cheese [17, 18], while total solid, total sugar, overrun,
melting point and hedonic test were carried out for
ice cream [19-21].Experimental design used in this
study was experimental laboratory by Completely
Randomized Design with three replications for each
treatment. Data obtained were then analyzed by
ANOVA and follows by HSD test to see the different
between treatments by using SPSS with significant
level of 5 % [22].
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Soft Cheese
Nutritional value of soft cheese produced from this
study was compared between control treatment
(without S. platensis addition) and other treatments
(with S. platensis addition) as presented in Table 1.
247 Tri Winarni Agustini et al. / Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering) 78:42 (2016) 245251
Table 1 Chemical analysis of soft cheese added with S.
platensis powder (% w/w)
Parameter
Concentration of S. platensis
powder (% w/w)
0*)
1.0*)
1.5*)
Water content
(%)
48.17 ±
1.29a
36.42 ±
1.35b
35.41 ±
0.74b
Protein content
(%)
3.79 ±
0.30a
16.44 ±
1.41b
22.62 ±
1.35c
Fat content (%)
3.16 ±
0.12a
3.31 ±
0.06a
3.46 ±
0.10a
Ash content (%)
2.37 ±
0.10a
2.55 ±
0.11a
2.46 ±
0.08a
β-carotene(%)
0.57 ±
0.12a
4.25 ±
0.77b
8.08 ± 0.84c
*)Value ± se
3.1.1 Proximate Analysis of Soft Cheese
Based on analysis of variance, soft cheese with
addition of S. platensis powder with different
concentration showed significant effect to water
content of the samples (P < 0.05). S. platensis powder
had fairly low water content which was less than10 %.
According to Agustini et al., water content of S.
platensis powder was 7.78 % [13]. Water content of
the cheese was 35.41 % to 48.17 %, thus, it can be
categorized as soft cheese. Water content of
mozzarella cheese is 52.0 % to 60.0 % [23] or 46.0 %
[24]. Increased concentration of S. platensis led to
reduced water content of the samples. According to
Mardiani, less water content of soft cheese resulted in
longer shelf life of the product [25].
There is significant difference on protein content of
samples due to addition of S. platensis powder (p <
0.005). High protein content in S. platensis powder in
the range of 55 % to 75% [26], 6 % to 62% [27], 60 % to
71% [28], 69 % to 74% [13] has resulted in increasing
protein significantly on the product. During
processing of soft cheese, S. platensis powder was
added at 30 °C, to avoid denaturation process on
protein. Protein can denature due to heating at 60
°C to 70 °C [29]. Protein content of the samples with
addition of S. platensis in the range of 16.44 % to
22.62 % is consistent with protein content of soft
cheese 18 % to 20 % [30] and 17 % [31].
There was no significant different on fat content of
the soft cheese before and after addition of S.
platensis (P > 0.005). Fat content of S. platensis
powder is relatively low 2.64 % [13], 5.6 % to 7 % [32], 6
% to 6.5 % [12]. Due to low amount of S. platensis
powder addition (0 % to 1.5 %), the treatment had no
effect on fat content of the product.
There was a significant difference on ash content
of the soft cheese before and after addition of S.
platensis powder (P < 0.005). This occurrence was
affected by ash content of S. platensis powder which
was 10.66 % to 11.56 % [13]. Ash content of the
product was comparable to Mozzarella cheese from
Italy of which the concentration was 2.3 % [33] and 1
% to 3 % [34]. Increased ash content of soft cheese
with addition of S. platensis powder was due to
relatively high ash content of S. platensis. Sodium
content also increased due to salt addition during
processing as well as whey excretion cause by
acidification process
3.1.2 β-carotene
Significant increase of β-carotene was found on the
product added with S. platensis powder. Higher
concentration of S. platensis led to higher β-carotene
concentration in the product (P < 0.005). S. platensis
contains high amount of β-carotene (26.74 %),
moreover, the content which was about 700 mg kg1
to 1 700 mg kg1 in dried S. platensis [32, 35]. β-
carotene of S. platensis powder was not significantly
damaged during processing because it was mixed
with fermented cow milk at 30 °C in order to prevent
degradation [35]. According to Aisyah, high
temperature can reduce the number of β-carotene
and it is susceptible towards oxygen exposure and
leads to enzymatic oxidation by lypoxygenase
enzyme thus destroy β-carotene molecules [36].
Furthermore, it is obvious that β-carotene is also
vulnerable towards light exposure and is sensitive to
temperature higher than 60 °C. Cosequently,
isometric change occured from trans- into cis-β-
carotene which was more unstable [7]. β-carotene is
one of natural antioxidant that can prevent illness
because it can neutralize free radicals substances
inside human body which can promote the existence
of degenerative diseases [37]. S. platensis has also
been used for fortification on chocolate bar to
increase its β-carotene content with concentration
up to 5 % (w/w), while β-carotene content of soft
cheese produced in this research was 7 mg per 100 g
[38]. According to FAO, β-carotene intake of 6 mg d
1 can reduce cancer risk for human [12].
3.2 Ice Cream
Nutritional value of ice cream produced from this
study was compared between control treatment
(without S. platensis addition) and other treatments
(with S. platensis addition) as presented in Table 2.
3.2.1 Total Solid
Total solid replaced amount of water in the product,
hence increased nutritional value and improve
texture of the product. Higher total solid of ice cream
led to fewer amount of water added to the product.
According to Hadiwiyoto, total solid covers all
component include carbohydrate, fat, protein,
vitamin and minerals [39]. Total solid of the samples
was consistent with standard of National
Standardized Agency [4], i.e. 3.4 % (w/w). Maximum
total solid of ice cream is 42 %, and if it is more than
248 Tri Winarni Agustini et al. / Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering) 78:42 (2016) 245251
42 %, it can give effect to weight and humidity of the
product [11].
Table 2 Chemical analysis of ice cream added with S.
platensis powder (% w/w)
Parameter
Concentration of S. platensis powder
(% w/w)
0*)
0.6*)
1.2*)
Total Solid
(%)
32.89 ±
0.23a
34.54 ±
0.96b
34.82 ± 0.73b
Protein
content (%)
3.23 ± 0.08a
3.48 ±
0.07b
3.54 ± 0.14b
Fat content
(%)
7.41 ± 0.26a
7.28 ±
0.21a
6.76 ± 0.25b
Total sugar
(%)
24.33 ±
1.16a
21.97 ±
0.55b
21.27 ± 0.61b
*)Value ± se
3.2.2 Protein Content
Based on protein content, the ice cream product
can be categorized as high protein ice cream. This is
due to high protein content from S. platensis powder.
Protein content of S. platensis was around 55 % to 70
% [40] and 67.18 % to 72.85 % [13]. There is significant
difference on protein content of ice cream before
and after addition of S. platensis. Increasing protein
content after addition of S. platensis was due to high
protein content of S. platensis powder, thus
increasing nutritional value of the ice cream. During
homogenization, protein content in milk as well in S.
platensis might be coagulated and denatured.
Pasteurization at 60 °C to 70 °C can lead to protein
coagulation [41] and heating may also lead to
protein denaturation [29].
3.2.3 Fat Content
The ice cream product in this study can be
categorized as low fat ice cream because the
source of the fat was from fresh milk, egg yolk and
whipping cream. There is no significant difference on
fat content among the treatments (P > 0.005). S.
platensis has fat content of 4 % to 6% [27] and 2.64 %
to 2.86 % [13]. Therefore,this product is suitable for
lowfat diet.
3.2.4 Total Sugar
According to National Standardization Agency,
minimum sugar content (sucrose) of ice cream
should be 8 % [10]. Sugar content of the ice cream
(with and without addition of S. platensis) was quite
high, and there is significant difference before and
after addition of S. platensis. Addition of S. platensis
powder tend to reduce total sugar of the product,
on the other hand, total solid of the product
increased with addition of S. platensis powder. This
high total sugar of the product is still consistent with
standard (Indonesian National Standard-SNI)
Table 3 Physical analysis of Ice cream added S. platensis
Parameter
Concentration of S. platensis
powder (% w/w)
0*)
0.6*)
1.2*)
Overrun (%)
33.99 ±
0.28
35.25 ±
1.10
37.62 ± 0.58
Melting (min
per 10 g)
21.38 ±
0.88
24.26 ±
0.98
28.08 ± 0.98
*)Value ± se
3.2.5 Overrun
Overrun can be defined as increased volume of ice
cream dough due to entrapped air during mixing
and freezing inside ice cream maker [20]. Figure 3
shows that overrun of ice cream with addition of S.
platensis powder tend to be higher compared to
that of without addition of S. platensis powder.
Protein can increase consistency and softness of ice
cream. During homogenization, addition of S.
platensis powder can increase foam volume
compared to that without addition of S. platensis.
Addition of protein rich substances into ice cream
could increase foam volume because more air was
entrapped inside the ice cream dough and
consequently increased its volume [42]. Different
overrun could be occurred because each
processing steps had different air trapping effect
during freezing [43].
3.2.6 Melting
Addition of S. platensis increased melting point of ice
cream. Melting point is time required for ice cream to
be completely melted. Melting point of ice cream is
affected by total solid [11]. The rate of melting
generally depends on the existence of stabilizer
agent, emulsifier agent, ratio of salt and other
substances as well as processing and storing [20].
Generally, ice cream should not melt at room
temperature, but quickly melts at human body
temperature. The longer time required for ice cream
to melt at room temperature means that the ice
cream is more stable. Therefore, ice cream with very
low melting point usually has hard texture. Addition of
S. platensis powder resulted in low melting point
compared to that of without addition of S. platensis.
High concentration of S. platensis addition led to
increasing resistance of melting point. In addition, S.
platensis has other effect on increasing viscosity and
texture of ice cream.
249 Tri Winarni Agustini et al. / Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering) 78:42 (2016) 245251
3.2.7 Hedonic Test
Hedonic test is determined by panelist and it is based
on subjective method [44]. Hedonic test of the ice
cream can be seen on Table 4.
Table 4 Hedonic test of Ice cream with addition of S.
platensis powder
Parameters
Concentration of S. platensis
powder (% w/w)
0*)
0.6*)
1.2*)
Aroma
7.10 ± 0.66
6.60 ± 0.85
6.23 ± 1.07
Color
7.27 ± 0.52
6.93 ± 0.64
6.0 ± 1.22
Texture
7.03 ± 0.81
6.97 ± 1.09
6.70 ± 0.91
Taste
7.10 ± 0.96
6.97 ± 0.89
6.46 ± 1.13
*)Value ± se
Color and appearance are considered as the
dominant factor for food quality. Odor is one of
specification which determines consumer
preference. Volatile compounds are responsible for
odor. Based on hedonic test, odor of ice cream in
the range of 6.60 ± 0.85 (for 0.6 %) and 6.23 ± 1.07 (for
1.2 %). However, panelist preferred ice cream without
addition of S. platensis (7.10 ± 0.66). Odor of ice
cream is determined mostly by fat in milk. S. platensis
addition will give additional odor that is tend to be
fishy or unpleasant. Fishy odor of S. platensis is coming
from its minerals content [29]. Kurskall-Wallis test
showed that Chi square18.085 > Chi Squaretable 5.991,
so that addition of S. platensis gave significant
difference to odor of ice cream.
Hedonic test for color of ice cream with addition of
S. platensis were 6.93 ± 0.64 (for 0.6 %) and 6.0 ± 1.22
(for 1.2 %). Color of ice cream should be attractive
for consumer. Panelists preferred ice cream without
addition S. platensis (7.27 ± 0.52). This phenomenon
suggested that panelists preferred lighter green color
(ice cream added with S. platensis had dark green
color). Higher amount of S. platensis addition gave
darker green color to the ice cream due to blue
green pigment (phycosianin) in S. platensis [29].
Kurskall-Wallis test showed that Chi square34.497 >
Chi Squaretabel 5.991, indicated that addition of S.
platensis gave significant effect on color of ice
cream.
Texture of ice cream is affected by ice crystal
which was formed during processing. Ice cream with
smooth texture could only be formed when ice
crystal size is small, on the other hand, the texture will
be if the crystal was big. Texture of ice cream
depends on the size of ice crystal which is dispersed
into air crystal, so that ice cream will have specific
texture and taste [11]. Texture of ice cream is
determined by total solid, sugar concentration and
viscosity [47].
Taste of ice cream is detected by taste receptor
(tongue). Ice cream is usually sweet and this factor
will determine whether ice cream is accepted or not
by consumer. In order to increase nutritional value of
ice cream, S. platensisis added especially for protein
and phycocyanin content. However, addition of S.
platensis could give effect on taste of ice cream,
therefore it is necessary to know the suitable
concentration of S. platensis addition to obtain
nutritional increase while still acceptable from
sensory perspectives. Flavor of ice cream is
combination of taste and odor [45]. Quality and
taste of ice cream is affected by sugar, stabilizer, and
dried nonfat matter. Factors affecting panelist on
taste include chemical substances, temperature,
concentration of total solid and interaction with other
taste compounds. Product with unpleasant taste will
not be accepted by consumer even if other
parameters such as color, texture and odor are still
acceptable [46].
4.0 CONCLUSION
The results showed that addition of 1 % and 1.2 % S.
platensis were considered as the best concentration
for soft cheese and ice cream, respectively. Addition
of S. platensis gave significant effect to protein,
water, fat, β-carotene and texture (soft cheese) and
protein, total solid, fat, total sugar, overrun, melting
point and sensory (ice cream).
Acknowledgement
This work is financially supported by National
Competitive Grant of MP3EI fiscal year 2014-205 from
Directorate General of Higher Education.
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... This was expected since microalgal biomass from A. platensis has a high protein and fat content [77]. Agustini et al. [78] also reported a similar behavior in samples enriched with this strain. ...
... This parameter depends on different factors, such as total solids, ice crystal sizes, quantity and size of fat globules, presence of stabilizers, emulsifiers, and storage [81,82]. Agustini et al. [78] reported melting times of 24.26 and 28.08 min/10 g for 0.6 and 1.2% A. platensis-fortified ice cream, respectively, and 21.38 min/10 g for the control. This reduction in the melting time could be a consequence of the high fat content of the enriched samples that decreased the heat transfer rate, resulting in higher melting times [77]. ...
... The addition of microalgal biomass may influence this parameter. Agustini et al. [78] observed that overrun values in 0.6 and 1.2% w/w A. platensis-enriched samples were higher (35.25 and 37.62%, respectively) than the value found in the unfortified product (33.99%). One reason for this trend might be the techno-functional properties of the microalgae proteins. ...
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... There are many studies in the literature in which researchers have added A. platensis to food products, such as bakery (Ak et al., 2016) and pastry products (Golmakani et al., 2015), ice cream (Agustini et al., 2016), sausages (Luo et al., 2017), baby food formula (Sharoba, 2014), snack foods (Lucas et al., 2018), fruit (Bahlol et al., 2018), and dairy products (Agustini et al., 2016;Beheshtipour et al., 2012;Dubey & Kumari, 2011;Guldas & Irkin, 2010) to enhance their nutritional value and functional properties. However, there have been very few reports about traditional kefir. ...
... There are many studies in the literature in which researchers have added A. platensis to food products, such as bakery (Ak et al., 2016) and pastry products (Golmakani et al., 2015), ice cream (Agustini et al., 2016), sausages (Luo et al., 2017), baby food formula (Sharoba, 2014), snack foods (Lucas et al., 2018), fruit (Bahlol et al., 2018), and dairy products (Agustini et al., 2016;Beheshtipour et al., 2012;Dubey & Kumari, 2011;Guldas & Irkin, 2010) to enhance their nutritional value and functional properties. However, there have been very few reports about traditional kefir. ...
... In previous research into milk-based products enriched with A. platensis, addition rates ranged from 0.25% to 1.5 % (Agustini et al., 2016;Beheshtipour et al., 2012;Guldas & Irkin, 2010). This being so, with some changes, the samples of KEA were prepared in a range of 0.05%-2% (w/v, Figure 1a). ...
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Abstract Arthrospira platensis is a microalgae generally known as a source of bioactive compounds and protein. The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional value, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of traditional kefir by addition of A. platensis. In the study, the traditional kefir samples were prepared by the addition of A. platensis at 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (w/v) by considering generally recommended daily intake rate and consumer's acceptability. The sensory analysis scores showed that kefir with 0.05% and 0.1% A. platensis have the highest score, in which case the protein in the kefir slightly increased from 27 to 37 mg/ml. The addition of 1% A. platensis to kefir was found to increase amino acid contents. Some slight differences in calcium content were observed; however, there was a fourfold increase in iron. Palmitic and oleic acids (28.94% and 19.04%) were the most abundant fatty acids. The result indicated that A. platensis addition increased the antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) of kefir, and addition of traditional kefir by A. platensis is a suitable way to increase the nutritional value of kefir.
... The addition of bulk agents resulted in smoothness, creaminess, improved texture and microstructure [48]. Agustini et al. [49] noticed that ice cream with spirulina resulted in changes to the body with a fine gel, providing very low pores. These results confirm those of Atallah et al. [50], who observed that sweeteners alternative to sucrose in the ice cream resulted in changes to the structure, with a fine gel providing very low pores compared with the control treatment. ...
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Frozen yogurt is known as ice cream with some properties of yogurt. Frozen yogurts are a rich source of sucrose levels between 15% and 28% of total ingredients. Consumers suffering from lactose intolerance and metabolic syndrome are looking for sugar-free products. The current study investigates the sugar replacements by using sweeteners (stevia, sucralose and sorbitol) on physicochemical, microbiological, microstructural and sensory characteristics of probiotic-frozen yogurt. Four different treatments of probiotic-frozen yogurts were studied (control probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucrose (F1), probiotic-frozen yogurt with stevia (F2), probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucralose (F3) and probiotic-frozen yogurt with sorbitol (F4)). The chemical properties were not significantly present p > 0.05) during storage in all treatments. In the F1 treatment, sucrose value was higher (14.87%) and not detected in the F2, F3 and F4 treatments. The highest values of overrun, hardness and viscosity (p < 0.05) were detected in the F2, F3 and F3 samples, but the lowest value was detected in the F1 treatment. Total Str. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus counts were gradually decreased (p < 0.05) during storage periods. At 1 day, the Bifidobacteria counts ranged from 7.56 to 7.60 log10 CFU g􀀀1 in all groups and gradually decreased during storage, but these bacterial counts remained viable (>6.00 log10 CFU g􀀀1) during storage periods up to 60 d. During storage periods, the highest scores of total acceptability were detected in the F3, F4 and F2 treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of all probiotic-frozen yogurt treatments illustrated that the microstructures showed a difference with a fine network, size pores and structure between the frozen yogurt with sweeteners (F2, F3 and F3) and control frozen yogurt (F1).
... The addition of bulk agents resulted in smoothness, creaminess, improved texture and microstructure [48]. Agustini et al. [49] noticed that ice cream with spirulina resulted in changes to the body with a fine gel, providing very low pores. These results confirm those of Atallah et al. [50], who observed that sweeteners alternative to sucrose in the ice cream resulted in changes to the structure, with a fine gel providing very low pores compared with the control treatment. ...
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Frozen yogurt is known as ice cream with some properties of yogurt. Frozen yogurts are a rich source of sucrose levels between 15% and 28% of total ingredients. Consumers suffering from lactose intolerance and metabolic syndrome are looking for sugar-free products. The current study investigates the sugar replacements by using sweeteners (stevia, sucralose and sorbitol) on physicochemical, microbiological, microstructural and sensory characteristics of probiotic-frozen yogurt. Four different treatments of probiotic-frozen yogurts were studied (control probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucrose (F1), probiotic-frozen yogurt with stevia (F2), probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucralose (F3) and probiotic-frozen yogurt with sorbitol (F4)).
... The addition of bulk agents resulted in smoothness, creaminess, improved texture and microstructure [48]. Agustini et al. [49] noticed that ice cream with spirulina resulted in changes to the body with a fine gel, providing very low pores. These results confirm those of Atallah et al. [50], who observed that sweeteners alternative to sucrose in the ice cream resulted in changes to the structure, with a fine gel providing very low pores compared with the control treatment. ...
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Frozen yogurt is known as ice cream with some properties of yogurt. Frozen yogurts are a rich source of sucrose levels between 15% and 28% of total ingredients. Consumers suffering from lactose intolerance and metabolic syndrome are looking for sugar-free products. The current study investigates the sugar replacements by using sweeteners (stevia, sucralose and sorbitol) on physicochemical, microbiological, microstructural and sensory characteristics of probiotic-frozen yogurt. Four different treatments of probiotic-frozen yogurts were studied (control probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucrose (F1), probiotic-frozen yogurt with stevia (F2), probiotic-frozen yogurt with sucralose (F3) and probiotic-frozen yogurt with sorbitol (F4)). The chemical properties were not significantly present p > 0.05) during storage in all treatments. In the F1 treatment, sucrose value was higher (14.87%) and not detected in the F2, F3 and F4 treatments. The highest values of overrun, hardness and viscosity (p < 0.05) were detected in the F2, F3 and F3 samples, but the lowest value was detected in the F1 treatment. Total Str. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus counts were gradually decreased (p < 0.05) during storage periods. At 1 day, the Bifidobacteria counts ranged from 7.56 to 7.60 log10 CFU g−1 in all groups and gradually decreased during storage, but these bacterial counts remained viable (>6.00 log10 CFU g−1) during storage periods up to 60 d. During storage periods, the highest scores of total acceptability were detected in the F3, F4 and F2 treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of all probiotic-frozen yogurt treatments illustrated that the microstructures showed a difference with a fine network, size pores and structure between the frozen yogurt with sweeteners (F2, F3 and F3) and control frozen yogurt (F1).
... This could be attributed to spirulina's high levels of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and oligo-elements. (Agustini et al., 2016). The results indicate that, increase of spirulina from 0 to 1.5 per cent resulted in increase in total carotenoids from 0.82 to 7.43 mg RE/100 with significant differences between all treatments. ...
... Bulking agents (maltodextrin and polydextrose) impart smoothness and creaminess, improve texture, and structure, and protect against temperature fluctuations to please customers [43]. These data align with those obtained by Agustini et al. [44], who reported that ice cream fortified with spirulina led to a different structure with a fine matrix, obtaining several very small pores. In general, a positive effect of sweeteners and bulking agents would be the enhanced microstructure of ice cream through water binding. ...
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