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Purpose—The purpose of this study is to examine the differentiated effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and social norms on individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions, through the mediation of attitude toward entrepreneurship, by integrating the framework of gender schema theory with the theory of planned behavior. The authors posit that different factors stimulate the entrepreneurial intentions of males and females, through attitude toward entrepreneurship, in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach—Data are collected from graduating students of South Asia’s largest university. Structural equation modeling is used for model testing. Findings—The results show that perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy has a greater effect on the attitude of males toward entrepreneurship than on the attitude of females, but perceived social norms have a greater effect on female attitude toward entrepreneurship. Attitude toward entrepreneurship has a positive impact on entrepreneurial intentions. Originality/value—This is the first study of its nature which demonstrates that the entrepreneurial intentions of males and females are induced by different factors. Where the social norms are the major factors in determining the entrepreneurial intentions of the females, self-efficacy plays vital role in predicting the entrepreneurial intentions of their male counterparts. This study also attempts to clarify the relationship between self-efficacy, social norms, and entrepreneurial intentions by positing entrepreneurial attitude as mediator. Moreover, it brings a fresh perspective through its setting in South Asia. By testing a model in the cultural setting of a developing country, this study differentiates the research from that conducted in the developed world. Keywords: Entrepreneurial intentions, Gender, Developing countries, Gender schema theory, Theory of planned behavior
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Career Development International
Determinants of individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions: a gender-comparative
study
Muhammad Arshad Omer Farooq Naheed Sultana Mariam Farooq
Article information:
To cite this document:
Muhammad Arshad Omer Farooq Naheed Sultana Mariam Farooq , (2016),"Determinants
of individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions: a gender-comparative study", Career Development
International, Vol. 21 Iss 4 pp. 318 - 339
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Determinants of individuals
entrepreneurial intentions:
a gender-comparative study
Muhammad Arshad
Lahore Business School, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Omer Farooq
Kedge Business School, Marseille, France, and
Naheed Sultana and Mariam Farooq
Lahore Business School, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the differentiated effects of entrepreneurial
self-efficacy and social norms on individualsentrepreneurial intentions (EIs), through the mediation of
attitude toward entrepreneurship, by integrating the framework of gender schema theory with the
theory of planned behavior. The authors posit that different factors stimulate the EIs of males and
females, through attitude toward entrepreneurship, in developing countries.
Design/methodology/approach Data are collected from graduating students of South Asias
largest university. Structural equation modeling is used for model testing.
Findings The results show that perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy has a greater effect on the
attitude of males toward entrepreneurship than on the attitude of females, but perceived social norms
have a greater effect on female attitude toward entrepreneurship. Attitude toward entrepreneurship
has a positive impact on EIs.
Originality/value This is the first study of its nature which demonstrates that the EIs of males and
females are induced by different factors. Where the social norms are the major factors in determining
the EIs of the females, self-efficacy plays a vital role in predicting the EIs of their male counterparts.
This study also attempts to clarify the relationship between self-efficacy, social norms, and EIs by
positing entrepreneurial attitude as mediator. Moreover, it brings a fresh perspective through its
setting in South Asia. By testing a model in the cultural setting of a developing country, this study
differentiates the research from that conducted in the developed world.
Keywords Gender, Developing countries, Entrepreneurial intentions, Gender schema theory
Paper type Research paper
Introduction
Entrepreneurship refers to owning and managing a business on ones own account
and risk(Sternberg and Wennekers, 2005, p. 193) and deals with the process of
opportunity identification, designing, launching, and running a new business
(e.g. Chell, 2013). It is regarded as a compelling force for economic development
(Romer, 1994; Schumpeter, 1934), new job creation, and sustainable employment (Shane
and Venkataraman, 2000). First step in entrepreneurship process is the development of
entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) (Krueger and Carsrud, 1993) which reflects the
willingness of an individual to start a new business (Thompson, 2009) and it is defined
as intention to start a business(de Janasz et al., 2007, p. 383). Exploring the
determinants of EIs is vital to understand the entrepreneurial behaviors (Shane and
Venkataraman, 2000). Therefore, scholars have sought to understand the determinants
of individualsEIs. Research shows personality (de Janasz et al., 2007), prior experience
(Bird, 1988), entrepreneurial education (Fayolle and Gailly, 2015; Karimi et al., 2016)
Career Development International
Vol. 21 No. 4, 2016
pp. 318-339
© Emerald Group PublishingLimited
1362-0436
DOI 10.1108/CDI-10-2015-0135
Received 10 October 2015
Revised 18 March 2016
15 April 2016
Accepted 16 April 2016
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at:
www.emeraldinsight.com/1362-0436.htm
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risk-taking propensity, self-efficacy (Hao et al., 2005), environment support (Luthje and
Franke, 2003), perceived desirability, and feasibility (Guerrero et al., 2008) are
significant antecedents of individualsEIs. Most of the scholars have applied the theory
of planned behavior (TPB) (Engle et al., 2010; Kolvereid, 1996; Van Gelderen et al., 2008)
in the development of individualsEIs, by demonstrating the roles of subjective norms,
attitude toward entrepreneurship, and perceived behavioral control. However, the
findings of the existing studies are inconclusive as they have produced inconsistent
results. For instance, few studies have shown the positive effect of social norms on EIs
(e.g. Tkachev and Kolvereid, 1999; Autio et al., 2001; Carey et al., 2010; Díaz-García and
Jiménez-Moreno, 2010; Yordanova and Tarrazon, 2010), whereas other studies have
shown negative or no relationship between social norms and EIs (Reitan, 1997; Krueger
et al., 2000; Autio et al., 2001). Similarly, the studies examining the impact of
self-efficacy on EIs have also produced inconsistent results (Wang et al., 2016; Pihie and
Bagheri, 2013; Mortan et al., 2014). Therefore, it is also important to explore the
mechanisms and boundary conditions of these relationships for the better
understanding of the phenomenon.
The extant literature has demonstrated the direct effect of attitude, social norms,
and self-efficacy on EIs (Engle et al., 2010; Kolvereid, 1996; Van Gelderen et al., 2008),
whereas the process by which these factors affect EIs is yet to be explained. According
to Bono and McNamara (2011) when the association between two variables is
established, it becomes more critical to clearly describe and measure the process by
which one factor affects other. In current study, we introduce the role of attitude as
mediator to explain the process through which self-efficacy and social norms develop
EIs. According to the TPB, personal behavioral beliefs affect attitude and change
behavioral intentions (Ajzen, 1991, p. 191). Both self-efficacy (belief or confidence)
(Bandura, 1997; Bandura et al., 2001) and social norms (stimuli) contribute to the
development of attitude toward entrepreneurship and are ultimately incorporated into
the EIs of individuals. Social psychology research suggests that various factors (stimuli
and beliefs) influence employee attitude and lead to behavioral intentions (e.g. Bang
et al., 2000; Park, 2009; Jan et al., 2012; Davis, 1993). This study mobilizes the
frameworks of the theory of reasoned actions (TRAs) and the TPB to highlight the role
of individual beliefs in developing individual attitude toward behavior (Bang et al.,
2000; Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). By demonstrating the links between beliefs, attitude,
and behavioral intentions, we propose that social norms and self-efficacy influence
individualsEIs through the mediation of attitude toward entrepreneurship.
In addition, the scholars have paid less attention to the gender differences in
development of the EIs. The review of existing literature demonstrates that women are
less inclined to entrepreneurship as compared to men ( Jonathan and Mark, 2011;
Cañizares and García, 2010; Santos et al., 2016). According to Sidanius and Pratto
(2001), males are more independent and they rely more on their own beleifs. On the
other hand, the females are more communal and they rely more on the opinions of their
social circle especially when they are to make decision about their careers. For this
reason, EIs of males and females seem to be induced differently by the self-efficacy
(self-beliefs) and social norms (communal factors). This study is an attempt to examine
the differentiated role of social norms and self-efficacy in the development of male and
female attitude toward entrepreneurship. Although some scholars have studied the role
of gender as moderator in examining the direct relationship of self-efficacy and social
norms with EIs (Wilson et al., 2007; Díaz-García and Jiménez-Moreno, 2010) they have
not included the attitude as mediator to explain the mechanism of these effects.
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Therefore, unlike previous studies, we examine the moderating effect of gender on
relationship of social norms and self-efficacy with attitude (not with EIs) by
incorporating both personal beliefs and social factors.
This study contributes in existing literature of entrepreneurship at two levels. First,
this study integrates TRA (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975) with the TPB (Ajzen, 1991) and
proposes that social norms and entrepreneurial self-efficacy affect EIs via attitude
toward entrepreneurship. Second, by further integrating the gender schema theory
(Bem, 1981) with our theoretical framework, we propose that relationships of
entrepreneurial self-efficacy and social norms with attitude toward entrepreneurship
vary according to gender (see Figure 1). Our data come from graduate students in the
final semester of their business degree at a large South Asian university. We use
structural equation modeling (SEM) (Kline, 2011) to test our model. The proposed
model of study is presented in Figure 1.
Theoretical framework and hypothesis development
Attitude toward entrepreneurship as a mediator
The TPB suggests that individualsEIs reflect their attitude, perceived behavioral
controls, and social norms (Kolvereid, 1996). EIs is defined as a state of mind directing
a persons attention and action toward self-employment as opposed to organizational
employment(Souitaris et al., 2007, p. 570). Attitude toward a behavior is the degree to
which individuals value themselves as entrepreneurs (Kolvereid, 1996; Ajzen, 1991).
Ajzen (1991) demonstrates that self-efficacy is a behavioral control (i.e. the beliefs of
individuals in their abilities to accomplish tasks) (Bandura, 1977). A perceived social
norm is the perceived social pressure to practice (or not practice) entrepreneurial
behavior. It is the perception that reference peoplewill approve (or disapprove) of the
decision to become an entrepreneur (Ajzen, 2001). Scholars have used the TPB
extensively to demonstrate that social norms, self-efficacy, and attitude toward
entrepreneurship positively influence individualsEIs (Engle et al., 2010; Krueger et al.,
2000; Krueger and Carsrud, 1993), but they have limited their examination to the direct
effect of these factors on EIs. By applying the TRA, we argue that attitude toward
entrepreneurship may mediate the effect of self-efficacy and social norms on EIs.
This theory posits that individual beliefs determine attitude toward behavior, which in
turn determine behavioral intentions (Bang et al., 2000; Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975).
Self-efficacy may lead to positive attitude toward entrepreneurship and the development
of EIs. Social norms are the pressures exerted by peers to start entrepreneurial actions
(Ajzen, 2001). According to Paicheler (1976), social norms are external factors that
influence and regulate individuals attitude toward behaviors. The relationship
Attitude Toward
Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurial
Intentions
Self-Efficacy
Social Norms
Gender
Figure 1.
Hypothesized model
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between attitude and intentions is also supported by the TPB (Ajzen, 1991).
These arguments suggest social norms may influence EIs through attitude toward
entrepreneurship. The arguments are supported by social psychologists, who suggest
individual beliefs and external factors affect intentions through the mediation of
attitude (e.g. Bang et al., 2000; Park, 2009; Jan et al., 2012; Davis, 1993). Bang et al. (2000)
studied the impact of belief on the consequences of renewable energy on individuals
behavioral intention through the mediation of attitude toward the action. Similarly,
Davis (1993) and Park (2009) studied the impact of perceived ease of use and perceived
usefulness (beliefs of individuals) on individual behavioral intention through the
mediation of attitude to use a new technology. Jan et al. (2012) studied the impact
of coercive, normative, and mimetic pressure on individual intentions to adopt
e-learning systems through the mediation of attitude toward e-learning systems.
These pressures are the extended form of social norms (normative pressures) that may
affect attitude; in turn, attitude may affect intentions. Therefore, we propose that
attitude is a mediator.
Impact of self-efficacy on EIs via attitude
Self-efficacy is an individuals innermost perception of personal ability; individuals
seek to apply their skills to task requirements. Perceived self-efficacy motivates
individuals throughout their lives (Markman et al., 2002) and is a key factor in
determining human agency (Bandura, 1989). In existing research, self-efficacy is
contextualized in various domains, including managerial self-efficacy (Robertson and
Sadri, 1993), computer self-efficacy (Compeau and Higgins, 1995), and moral efficacy
(May et al., 2009). The self-efficacy construct is also used in entrepreneurship, where it
is defined as a persons belief in their ability to successfully launch an entrepreneurial
venture(McGee et al., 2009, p. 965). Studies have established the link between
self-efficacy and EIs (Hao et al., 2005; Boyd and Vozikis, 1994). We, however, explain
this link by suggesting that the effects of self-efficacy flow via the mediation of
entrepreneurial attitude. It means that entrepreneurial self-efficacy actually develops
the attitude toward entrepreneurship which in turn develops the individualsEIs.
When individuals begin to believe in their abilities to handle business operations,
they value themselves positively (Kolvereid, 1996; Ajzen, 1991). According to Ajzen
(1991) attitude develop reasonably from the beliefs people hold about the object of the
attitude.The beliefs of individuals are the subjective values that contribute to their
attitude (Ajzen, 1991). Individualsbeliefs are developed by their knowledge, which
influences their attitude (Bang et al., 2000). TRAs posits that attitude toward behavior
are the products of individual beliefs (Bang et al., 2000; Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975).
Entrepreneurial self-efficacy is belief based on knowledge that may result in positive
attitude toward new business creation. Individuals having higher self-efficacy in their
specific domain will have more interest in their relevant tasks (Chen et al., 1998). The
interest toward a specific task is also considered as attitude toward a behavior (Crano
and Prislin, 1995). In laboratory experiments it has beenshown that self-efficacy is
functionally related to attitude-behavior (Schifter and Ajzen, 1985). Gangadharbatla
(2008) conducted a study on social networks and found a positive effect of internet
self-efficacy on attitude toward social networking. It seems that entrepreneurial
self-efficacy may induce positive attitude toward entrepreneurship. According to Ajzen and
Fishbein (1980), attitude explains large variances in different ranges of behavior.
Many scholars demonstrated that domain-specific attitude is important in understanding
behavioral intentions of future business founders (Ajzen, 1991; Kolvereid, 1996).
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A favorable attitude develops positive behavioral intention (Ajzen, 1991). Similarly, we
further argue that entrepreneurial attitude (developed by entrepreneurial self-efficacy) may
positively influence the EIs. Our arguments are supported by the studies that have
demonstrated the link between attitude toward entrepreneurship and EIs (e.g. Engle et al.,
2010; Krueger et al., 2000; Krueger and Carsrud, 1993). We therefore posit:
H1. Self-efficacy has positive indirect effect on EIs via attitude toward
entrepreneurship.
Impact of social norms on EIs via attitude toward entrepreneurship
In the literature related to EIs, social norms refer to perceptions of how people (friends,
family, others) in their surroundings desire people to behave in specific ways (Liñán
and Chen, 2006; Kolvereid, 1996). According to sociologists, social norms are associated
with economic perspectives (Meek et al., 2010), present at the individual level (Sherif,
1936) and the group level (Campbell, 1975; Lipset, 2000). Sherif (1936) argues that
norms curtail individual behaviors related to survival. Entrepreneurship is directly
linked to the economic survival and growth of individuals (Carree and Thurik, 2003).
The impact of social norms is also positively associated with entrepreneurial entry
(Giannetti and Simonov, 2004). Social norms regulate individualsattitude (Paicheler,
1976) and lead to the adoption of socially acceptable actions. Under high levels of social
pressure from friends, family, and others, individuals are forced to develop positive
attitude toward entrepreneurship. Otherwise, they may face conflicts due to their anti-
normative behavior (Paicheler, 1976). Lapinski and Rimal (2005) document the role of
the social group in initiating specific actions or behaviors. Lee (1991) argued that the
individuals who are more motivated from the group norms develop stronger attitude
toward that particular action. According to social psychologists (Lewis et al., 2003;
Venkatesh and Davis, 2000), the subjective norms have influence on individuals
attitude. In the same way, Bock et al. (2005) also found a positive effect of subjective
norms on employeesattitude toward knowledge sharing behavior. Therefore, we
propose that when peers suggest an individual should start a business, a cognition
process begins that ultimately results in a change in attitude toward entrepreneurship
(Edwards, 1990) that may also lead to higher EIs. We therefore hypothesize:
H2. Social norms have positive indirect effect on EIs via attitude toward
entrepreneurship.
Moderating role of gender in the relationship of social norms and attitude toward
entrepreneurship
The distinction between male and female is a basic organizing principle for human
cultures. Gender schema theory (Bem, 1981) proposes that individual perceptions
develop on the basis of incoming information and perceiverspre-existing schemas.
Males and females learn things that are relevant to their gender schemas. In this way,
gender schemas are self-prescriptive standards (Kohlberg, 1966). The preferences,
attitude, and behaviors of individuals build on their prescriptive gender schemas.
Appropriate behavior varies; it is a function of gender, for example, in the selection of
clothes, occupations, and hobbies (Bem, 1981). Occupation selection may depend on
gender. Researchers observe that women are less inclined toward new business
creation ( Jonathan and Mark, 2011), a tendency that may be associated with the
prescriptive gender schemas. Men are more involved in entrepreneurial activity
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(Delmar and Davidsson, 2000), and entrepreneurship is perceived as a prescriptive male
domain (Pernilla, 1997; Winn, 2005). Women may anticipate that being stereotyped
could be a handicap for these activities (Fagenson and Marcus, 1991; Marlow, 2002).
The implication is that the low entrepreneurial participation of women is due to socially
developed gender schemas that confine women to a few prescribed occupations.
However, we suggest that when friends, peers, family, and society believe women
should be involved in entrepreneurial activities and encourage them to do so, women
may develop different gender schemas and have more positive attitude and intentions
toward new business creation. According to Skitka and Maslach (1996), women are
more communal and more concerned with the harmonious functioning of groups and
interrelationship. It has also been suggested that women give higher importance and
more consideration to pleasing others (e.g. Baker, 1986) and have higher tendency to
build strong interpersonal ties vis-à-vis their male counterparts (Miller, 2012). Likewise,
research has also demonstrated that women tend to confirm the majority of opinions
(Eagly, 1978) because they are more communal, considerate, and build stronger
interpersonal ties. Therefore, we expect that they will be more sensitive to the social
norms. Our argument is supported by Venkatesh and Morris (2000), who have also
demonstrated that women are more influenced by subjective norms in the development
of their intention toward a specific behavior. Therefore, social norms appear to have a
stronger impact on attitude toward entrepreneurship for women than for men.
Moreover, research suggests that women are more influenced than men by social
cues in the environment (Garai and Scheinfeld, 1968; Parsons and Bales, 1956).
Sidanius and Pratto (2001) argue males are more assertive and independent and rely
more on their own beliefs than females, who are affiliative and communal and rely
more on the opinions of friends and family when making critical decisions about
careers. The influence of social norms on entrepreneurial attitude should be greater
for women:
H3. Gender moderates the effect of social norms on attitude toward
entrepreneurship, such that the positive effect of social norms on attitude
toward entrepreneurship is higher among females.
Moderating role of gender in the relationship of self-efficacy and attitude toward
entrepreneurship
According to the gender schema theory (Bem, 1981), when males and females think
about their career selection, starting a job, or starting a new business, they have a
generalized readiness to process the available information related to career in their
related schema. They organize information in schema-relevant categories and make
highly differentiated judgments along schema-relevant dimensions. Because
entrepreneurship is regarded as a male domain (Pernilla, 1997; Winn, 2005), men
apply a higher degree of organization to information regarding entrepreneurship, due
to their relevant schema. As a result, they show a higher degree of self-efficacy (Wilson
et al., 2007); their schemas are more developed because they are directly observing more
successful entrepreneurs (Qureshi and Sarfraz, 2012). They develop attitude about
starting new businesses when they feel confident about their abilities in new business
creation, regardless of the pressure of social norms on them. Sidanius and Pratto (2001)
propose that because males are more assertive and independent, they rely more on their
own beliefs; females are communal and rely more on the opinions of others (friends,
family). Entrepreneurship is associated with characteristics such as independence,
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dominance, aggressiveness, challenge, and risk-taking that are more directly linked to
men (Ahl, 2006; Gupta et al., 2009). Therefore, we propose the following hypothesis:
H4. Gender moderates the effect of self-efficacy on attitude toward entrepreneurship
such that the positive effect of self-efficacy on attitude toward entrepreneurship
is higher in males.
Method
Sample and procedure
We collected data from a large university in South Asia. The unit of analysis was
business students in the final semester of their Masters degree. We selected students
for our sample because they are potential entrepreneurs (Fitzsimmons and Douglas,
2011), ready to initiate their careers by acquiring jobs or establishing their own
business ventures. We used the survey method to collect the data from a total of 495
students, in multiple sessions. We relied on well-established existing instruments to
collect the data. However, we adopted these instruments with the help of ten members
focus group, which comprised faculty members and doctoral students of the university.
We provided them the definition of constructs and question items of each construct.
They did not identify any issue in adopting these instruments in context of the current
study. Following Raja et al. (2004), the survey was administered in the English
language as the medium of instruction of business students at Masters level in
Pakistan was English. Thus, it was not needed to translate the instrument into the local
language (Raja et al., 2004). We visited the classrooms at the start of each session to
describe the purpose and background of the study and distributed questionnaires.
Furthermore, these students had also previously qualified the course of
entrepreneurship in their study program. For further clarification about the meaning
of entrepreneurship, we demonstrated to them the definition of entrepreneurship as
owning and managing a business on ones own account and risk(Sternberg and
Wennekers, 2005) during questionnaire distribution. Questionnaires were collected at
the end of each session. We received 392 questionnaires; following preliminary
scrutiny, we selected 371 useable responses. We adopted the Hotdeck method (Ford,
1983) for the imputation of missing values resulting from partial non-responses. Our
total sample (371 cases) consisted of 222 male respondents and 149 female respondents.
Most respondents were 21-25 years old.
Measures
We relied on existing instruments for data collection. Responses were measured on a
five-point Likert scale (1 ¼strongly agree,5¼strongly disagree).
EIs were measured by six items adopted from Liñán and Chen (2009). Example
items were: Im ready to make anything to be an entrepreneurand I have very
seriously thought of starting a business.Attitude toward entrepreneurship was
measured by five items adopted from Liñán and Chen (2009). Example items included,
If I had the opportunity and resources, I would love to start a businessand Amongst
various options, I would prefer to be an entrepreneur.Perceived social norms were
measured by eight items selected from Liñán and Chen (2006). Some example items
were: My closest family thinks that I should start my own businessand My closest
friends think that I should start my own business.Perceived entrepreneurial
self-efficacy was measured by six items adopted from Wilson et al. (2007), such as
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I am able to make decisions in business related mattersand I am able to solve
problems of business-related matters.
Respondents were also asked to report their gender. Men were coded as 1and
women as 1.
Analysis techniques
We performed the data analysis in three steps. First, we measured the convergent
validity, discriminant validity, and reliability of the instruments with confirmatory
factor analysis (CFA) (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988). We used the model re-
specification technique to establish convergent validity and discriminant validity
(Anderson and Gerbing, 1988). Second, we tested the hypothesized model using the
SEM technique (Kline, 2011), calculating direct and indirect effects. Third, we
calculated the moderation effect using the Hayes (2014) PROCESS macro.
Data analysis
CFA
Because we used existing instruments in a new setting (South Asia), it was necessary to
assess the validity and reliability of the full set of measures. Therefore, we performed
CFA to measure the convergent validity, discriminant validity, and reliability of all
variables. We used an analysis of moment structures technique (AMOS 22). The four-
factor CFA showed good fit with data (χ
2
¼804.44; df ¼266; χ
2
/df ¼3.02; root mean
square error of approximation (RMSEA) ¼0.074; goodness-of-fit index (GFI) ¼0.85;
Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) ¼0.89, confirmatory fit index (CFI) ¼0.90). In comparison,
a model in which all items loaded on a single factor provided poor fit with the data
(χ
2
¼2,606.36; df ¼275; χ
2
/df ¼9.48; RMSEA ¼0.15; GFI ¼0.55; TLI ¼0.52;
CFI ¼0.56). A χ
2
difference test further established that the four-factor model was
better than the single-factor CFA model (po0.05). Within the four-factor model, the
standardized loadings of all items were reasonably high and above the recommended
value of 0.50 (0.60-0.94; Kline, 2011). Because the model fit indices in the four-factor
model were good (Table I) and factor loadings were greater than 0.50 on their respective
factors, these instruments were adequate for use in the South Asian context.
We also examined the convergent validity of four factors by computing their
average variance extracted (AVE) for each factor; all estimates were greater than the
recommended value of 0.50 (Fornell and Larcker, 1981). For the discriminant validity
analysis, we used the method proposed by Fornell and Larcker (1981); the AVEs of all
factors were compared with the squared correlations of all factors, and the AVE values
were greater than their squared correlations (Table II). Finally, we assessed the internal
consistency of all variables; the Cronbachsαvalues were greater than 0.70 (Nunally
and Bernstein, 1978). Table II presents the Cronbachsαvalues, AVEs, and squared
correlations among variables.
Model fit indices
Model no. Description of model χ
2
df χ
2
/df GFI TLI CFI RMSEA
Model 1 Single-factor CFA 2,606.36 275 9.48 0.55 0.52 0.56 0.15
Model 2 Four-factor CFA 804.44 266 3.02 0.85 0.89 0.90 0.074
Table I.
Model fit of CFA
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Common method bias (CMB)
Data were collected with the same questionnaire during one period with a cross-
sectional design; this approach has the potential to cause CMB (Podsakoff et al., 2003).
To test this likelihood, we used multiple methods, including Harmans one-factor
method, one-factor CFA, and common latent factors. Harmons one-factor test yielded
only a 37 percent variance, extracted by the single factor. Principal component analysis
on all items produced four distinct factors, in which the first factor accounted for only
18.35 percent of total variance and all factors together accounted for 62.64 percent.
Similarly, single-factor CFA produced poor model fit (see Table II). When we tested
CMB by using the common latent factor in SEM as prescribed by Podsakoff et al.
(2003). In common latent factor analysis, marker variables were also included to control
the threat of CMB as proposed by Lindell and Whitney (2001). We used personal
autonomy (measured by seven items of Deci et al., 2001) as marker variable as it seems
to be theoretically uncorrelated with our study variables (Lindell and Whitney, 2001).
Common latent factor produced only 19 percent variance. We concluded that CMB was
not a serious threat to our data.
Descriptive statistics
Table III displays the means, standard deviations, and correlations between the all
variables used in this study. This table provides insight into the relationships of the
variables for this study.
Direct and indirect effects
We tested the hypothesized model in SEM. The fit of our hypothesized model (Table IV:
Model 1) was acceptable and better than the alternative model (Table IV: Model 2)
in which we changed the position of mediator before the independent variables
Latent variables 1234α
Attitude toward entrepreneurship 0.58 0.87
Entrepreneurial self-efficacy 0.34 0.54 0.87
Social norms 0.22 0.15 0.52 0.90
Entrepreneurial intention 0.27 0.27 0.16 0.50 0.85
Notes: The italic values on the diagonal represent convergent validities (AVE). Values in the columns
are the squared inter item correlations (discriminant validities when compared to the AVEs). Italic
values in the last column present Cronbachsαinternal consistency reliability estimates
Table II.
Reliability,
convergent validity,
and test of
discriminant validity
for all study
variables
Variables Mean SD 1 2 3 4 5 6
Gender
a
0.20 0.98
Age
b
1.71 0.52 0.37**
Attitude toward entrepreneurship 2.14 0.91 0.11* 0.01
Entrepreneurial self-efficacy 2.22 0.77 0.05 0.01 0.58**
Social norms 2.54 0.83 0.08 0.09 0.47** 0.39**
Entrepreneurial intention 2.61 0.91 0.19** 0.04 0.52** 0.52** 0.40**
Notes: n¼371.
a
1¼male; 1 ¼female;
b
1¼15-20 years; 2 ¼21-25 years; 3 ¼26-30 years; 4 ¼31-35
years; 5 ¼36-40 years; 6 ¼more than 40 years. *po0.05; **po0.01
Table III.
Descriptive statistics:
mean, standard
deviation, and
correlations
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(Anderson and Gerbing, 1988). We further performed χ
2
difference test to compare
alternative model with hypothesized model and found that hypothesized model was
better than alternative model at po0.001. By following the guidelines of Anderson and
Gerbing (1988) and Iacobucci et al. (2007), we drew the direct paths from independent
variables to the dependent variable to examine full or partial mediation. During the
re-specification process of our hypothesized model, we found significant direct effect of
self-efficacy and EIs. Although it was not hypothesized, we retained it in our final
model chosen for this study (Kline, 2011; Iacobucci et al., 2007). As a result of this
optimization process (Anderson and Gerbing, 1988), the model fit was further improved
(see Table IV: Model 3). The results of this final optimized model are presented
in Figure 2 and Table IV.
To measure indirect effects, we used the bootstrap method in SEM with 5,000
bootstrap samples, as proposed by Hayes (2014). The results supported H1:
entrepreneurial self-efficacy positively influences EIs via the mediating mechanism of
attitude toward entrepreneurship. Partial mediation of attitude toward entrepreneurship
appeared in the relationship of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and EIs. The direct effect of
entrepreneurial self-efficacy on EIs was significant and positive (0.31, po0.001); the
magnitude of the indirect effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on EIs through attitude
toward entrepreneurship (0.24, po0.001) was also significant (Table V).
In H2, we proposed a positive indirect effect of social norms on EIs through attitude
toward entrepreneurship, and the results confirm this hypothesis, because the indirect
effect of social norms on EIs through attitude toward entrepreneurship was significant
and positive (0.11, po0.001), whereas the direct effect was insignificant (0.045,
pW0.05). These results demonstrate full mediation.
Model fit indices
Model no. Description of model χ
2
df χ
2
/df GFI TLI CFI RMSEA
Model 1 Hypothesized model 824.37 268 3.08 0.84 0.88 0.90 0.075
Model 2 Mediatorindependentdependent
variable 865.59 268 3.23 0.84 0.88 0.89 0.078
Model 3
(final model)
Hypothesized model plus retained direct
effect of self-efficacy on EIs 805.21 267 3.02 0.85 0.89 0.90 0.074
Table IV.
Model fit of
hypothesized and
alternative models
Attitude Toward
Entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurial
Intentions
Entrepreneurial
Self
-
Efficacy
Social Norms
0.57***
0.26***
0.41***
0.31***
Notes: Solid lines show the hypothesized relationships; dashed lines represent the
non-hypothesized relationships among the independent and dependent variables.
The values are standardized regression weights. ***Significant at 0.001
Figure 2.
Final model with
standardized
regression weights
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Moderation of gender
To test the moderation of gender in the relationship of the independent variable with
the dependent variable, we used the PROCESS macro developed by Hayes (2014). The
analysis was performed with 5,000 bootstrap samples. H3 is supported by the data; the
impact of social norms on attitude toward entrepreneurship is moderated by gender
(interaction ¼0.16, po0.001; Table VI), such that the positive effect of social norms on
attitude toward entrepreneurship is stronger in females (male ¼0.22, po0.001;
female ¼0.54, po0.001; Table VII) as compared to males (see Figure 3).
Dependent variables
Attitude toward
entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial intention
Independent variable
Direct
effects
Direct
effects
Indirect
effects
Total
effects Remarks
Proportion
mediation
Entrepreneurial
self-efficacy 0.57*** 0.31*** 0.24*** 0.55** Partial mediation 44%
Social norms 0.26*** ns 0.11*** 0.11** Full mediation
Attitude toward
entrepreneurship 0.41***
Notes: n¼371. ns, not significant. The cell values are standardized regression weights.
*,**,***Significant at 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001 levels, respectively
Table V.
Direct effects and
indirect effects of
independent
variables on
dependent
Model no. Independent variables Attitude toward entrepreneurship
Model 1 Constant 0.01
Gender
a
0.30*
Social norms 0.38***
Social norms ×gender
a
0.16***
Entrepreneurial self-efficacy 0.55***
Model 2 Constant 0.17
Gender
a
0.35**
Entrepreneurial self-efficacy 0.51***
Entrepreneurial self-efficacy ×gender
a
0.11*
Social norms 0.34***
Notes: n¼371; Male ¼222; Female ¼149.
a
1¼male; 1 ¼female. The cell values are unstandardized
regression weights. *,**,***Significant at 0.05, 0.01 and 0.001 levels, respectively
Table VI.
Moderation of
gender on the
relationship of
independent variable
with dependent
variable
Moderator Dependent variable
Independent variable Gender Attitude toward entrepreneurship
Social norms Male 0.22***
Female 0.54***
Entrepreneurial self-efficacy Male 0.62***
Female 0.40***
Notes: The cell values are unstandardized regression weights. *,**,***Significant at 0.05, 0.01 and
0.001 levels, respectively
Table VII.
Differential
indirect effects of
self-efficacy and
social norms on EIs
across male and
female individuals
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H4 was also fully supported, because we found a significant moderation of gender
(interaction ¼0.11, po0.05; Table VI); the positive effect of entrepreneurial
self-efficacy on attitude toward entrepreneurship is stronger in males (male ¼0.62,
po0.001; female ¼0.40, po0.001; Table VII) as compared to females (see Figure 4).
For further understanding about the role of gender as a moderator in the
relationship of social norms and self-efficacy with the attitude toward
entrepreneurship, we also drew plots of significant interactions (see Figures 3 and 4).
Our proposition that social norms and entrepreneurial self-efficacy positively
influence EIs via attitude toward entrepreneurship was also confirmed by results.
Therefore, it is necessary to examine the differentiated indirect effect of social norms
and self-efficacy on the EIs of males and females. For this purpose, we also used the
PROCESS macro of Hayes (2014). The magnitude of the indirect effect of social norms
on EIs via attitude toward entrepreneurship was different for males and females
(male: 0.06, po0.05; female: 0.14, po0.05). Similarly, the magnitude of the indirect
effect of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on EIs via attitude toward entrepreneurship also
varied with gender (male: 0.16, po0.05; female: 0.10, po0.05) (see Table VIII).
Discussion
Academic contribution
Our study contributes to entrepreneurship literature at two levels. First, we introduce
the mediation of attitude toward entrepreneurship in the relationships among social
3
2.5
2
Attitude Toward Entrepreneurship
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.00 5.00
Social Norms
Male
Female
Figure 3.
Gender as a
moderator in the
relationship between
Social norms and
attitude toward
entrepreneurship
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.00 5.00
Self-Efficacy
Famale
Male
Attitude Toward Entrepreneurship
Figure 4.
Gender as moderator
in the relationship of
self-efficacy and
attitude toward
entrepreneurship
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norms, self-efficacy, and EIs; many social psychologists suggest that individuals
beliefs (self-efficacy) and external stimuli (social norms) affect their attitude toward
behavior, and in turn, these attitude determine behavioral intentions (Lee and Peterson,
2000; Gefen and Straub, 1997; Bang et al., 2000; Chuttur, 2009). TRA also supports the
role of attitude as mediator between the individuals beliefs and behavioral intentions
(Bang et al., 2000; Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). Although existing studies have examined
the direct effects of social norms, attitude toward entrepreneurship, and self-efficacy on
individualsEIs (Engle et al., 2010; Kolvereid, 1996; Van Gelderen et al., 2008), our
results demonstrate that entrepreneurial self-efficacy and social norms influence EIs
through the mediation of attitude toward entrepreneurship. Therefore, our results
extend the findings of previous studies that show a direct effect of social norms and
self-efficacy on EIs (Chen et al., 1998; De Noble et al., 1999; Krueger et al., 2000; Scott
and Twomey, 1988; Wang et al., 2002).
Our study also demonstrates the indirect effect of self-efficacy on EIs via attitude
toward entrepreneurship. It confirms the results of Tsai et al. (2016) who established the
indirect relationship of self-efficacy with EI via attitude toward entrepreneurship but
ignored the indirect effect of social norms with EIs via attitude. Kolvereids (1996)
finding, that the direct impact of social norms is positive on EIs, is disconfirmed by our
study. In addition, our results show social norms do not directly impact EIs; rather,
they have an indirect impact via attitude toward entrepreneurship. We explain the
mechanism by which entrepreneurial self-efficacy and social norms influence EIs and
thereby provide further academic understanding of the chain of effects of social norms
and self-efficacy on EIs via attitude toward entrepreneurship.
Our results highlight the direct positive effect of attitude toward entrepreneurship
on EIs. They support Autio et al.s (2001) finding of a positive relationship between
attitude and EIs in a US setting, though Siu and Lo (2013) find an insignificant
relationship between attitude and EIs in China. Therefore, it appears that the
relationship between attitude and EIs is inconsistent and may vary by country.
We propose that scholars explore other moderating factors that may change the
relationship between attitude toward entrepreneurship and EIs across different
cultures. Our study suggests the TPB (Ajzen, 1991) provides a good theoretical
framework for understanding individualsEIs in developing countries and confirms
that attitude toward entrepreneurship, perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and
social norms are the antecedents of individualsEIs (Engle et al., 2010; Kolvereid, 1996).
Second, we examine the moderating role of gender by studying the determinants of
individualsattitude toward entrepreneurship in developing countries.
Entrepreneurship has become important to developing countries because it opens
Indirect effect on entrepreneurial intention via attitude
toward entrepreneurship
BCCI
Independent variable Moderator Estimates Lower Upper
Social norms Male 0.06* 0.022 0.109
Female 0.14* 0.073 0.221
Entrepreneurial self-efficacy Male 0.16* 0.089 0.249
Female 0.10* 0.052 0.177
Notes: BCCI, bias-corrected confidence intervals. *po0.05
Table VIII.
Moderated mediation
results for social
norms and
entrepreneurial self-
efficacy across male
and female
entrepreneurial
intention
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the way to progress and economic development (Romer, 1994; Schumpeter, 1934).
The study of EIs in developing countries helps us understand the reasons for less
positive EIs in these countries. Because the inclination of women toward
entrepreneurship was low, compared with that of men ( Jonathan and Mark, 2011;
Cañizares and García, 2010; Santos et al., 2016), it is necessary to identify the factors
that are different for males and females. We conducted our study in South Asia, where
the economy and culture contrasts sharply with western countries. To study the
moderating role of gender in South Asia, we integrated the gender schema theory (Bem,
1981) with the TPB (Ajzen, 1991) and proposed that social norms are more important
for females in determining their attitude toward entrepreneurship. According to our
findings, the positive impact of social norms on male attitude toward entrepreneurship
is less than it is on female attitude. For females, the positive relationship between social
norms and attitude toward entrepreneurship is stronger; when social pressures
encourage females to start their own businesses, they are more likely to develop a
positive attitude. We found that females in South Asia are more inclined to follow the
social norms. There are multiple plausible explanations for such findings. In South
Asia, majority of females are provided social and economic support by their household/
family (Agarwal, 1994). For this reason, they might not be in a position to take decisions
on their own to start businesses without obtaining prior support from their families.
In the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor report, Qureshi and Sarfraz (2012) reported
that there is very low participation of women in business. Additionally, they also
suggested that entrepreneurship is predominantly considered as a male domain in
Pakistan. Therefore, it seems that there is little social support and pressure for females
to initiate new businesses. It appears that lower social norms is also an important
reason of less entrepreneurial activity among females in Pakistan. Our findings also
suggest that once social pressures are placed on females in South Asia, they develop
relatively strong positive attitude toward entrepreneurship as compared to their male
counterpart. Díaz-García and Jiménez-Moreno (2010) have also found that the gender
moderates the relationship between subjective norms and EIs in such a way that
impact of social norm on EIs is high for females as compared to males. We, however,
extended their findings by explaining the underlying mechanism linking social norm
and EIs. Our results demonstrate, impact of social norms on entrepreneurial attitude
(not on EIs) is stronger for females. Second, Díaz-García and Jiménez-Moreno (2010)
also conducted the study in a western context (Spain); thus, our findings present a
different perspective from that of developing countries characterized with different
cultural and economic settings.
We proposed that entrepreneurial self-efficacy is more important for males in
determining attitude toward entrepreneurship in the South Asian region. According to
our findings, the positive impact of self-efficacy on the attitude of males toward
entrepreneurship is greater; men focus more on self-efficacy in developing attitude
toward starting their own businesses. Wilson et al. (2007) also found moderating impact
gender on the relationship of self-efficacy and EIs. They found that the impact of self-
efficacy on EIs is stronger for women as compared to men. Their study was conducted
in USA, which presents a different cultural setting. We extend their work by
incorporating social norms along with self-efficacy in predicting EIs of men and
women. Moreover, they did not include attitude as mediator and did not explain the
underlying mechanism linking self-efficacy with EIs.
Male individuals in Pakistan rely more on their self-efficacy due to multiple reasons.
Qureshi and Sarfraz (2012) reported that 53.6 percent of male population knows those
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individuals who started their own businesses in the past two years, on the other hand
only 20 percent females were aware about this information. Moreover, they also
demonstrated that males are more vigilant in observing successful entrepreneurs
(54 percent) as compared to females (47 percent) and have shown higher
entrepreneurial efficacy by reporting higher level of knowledge, skills, experience to
start their own business (male ¼61.2 percent; female ¼36 percent) (Qureshi and
Sarfraz, 2012). Furthermore, the male individuals also have more control over economic
resources in South Asia (Agarwal, 1994). Therefore, they rely more on their self-efficacy
in the development of their EIs.
Our study also tests the moderated mediation of gender and attitude toward
entrepreneurship when the independent variables affect the dependent variable. The
indirect effect of social norms on EIs via attitude toward entrepreneurship is higher in
females. In contrast, the indirect effect of self-efficacy on EIs via attitude toward
entrepreneurship is higher in males.
Implications for public policy
Our results have implications for the public policy of developing countries.
Entrepreneurial self-efficacy is a main driver of entrepreneurial attitude and
intentions of males. Governments can increase entrepreneurial activity at the
national level by improving the entrepreneurial self-efficacy of males. It was found that
the self-efficacy is also important for females in the development of their attitude and
intention toward entrepreneurship. However, the extant studies have demonstrated
that females have lower entrepreneurial self-efficacy (Wilson et al., 2007; Mueller and
Dato-On, 2008). Since, females constitute one-half of the population and can contribute
significantly toward the economic development, the government should take initiatives
to enhance their entrepreneurial self-efficacy. The research demonstrates that the role
modeling (BarNir et al., 2011) and education (Schunk, 1995) increase the self-efficacy of
the individuals. The government could introduce the programs in which successful
female entrepreneurs are presented as role models to increase the self-efficacy of
females. The government could also launch the entrepreneurship-related education and
training programs for females to develop their entrepreneurial efficacy (Schunk, 1995).
For females, social norms are more important in developing positive attitude toward
new business creation, which in turn develop EIs. Therefore, the government should
promote entrepreneurial culture among female entrepreneurs, to increase peer group
pressure on females to develop entrepreneurial attitude and intentions.
Limitations and research directions
These results include some contextual limitations. Generalizability is limited, because
this study is based on a sample of university graduates in Pakistan. The findings
of this study should be validated through further research in other countries, because
entrepreneurial activity varies in different contexts (Fernández-Serrano and Romero,
2014). We used a one-dimensional construct of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and
perceived social norms, but further research could apply multidimensional constructs
(Tsai et al., 2016). Although our study established that social norms and self-efficacy
affect EIs via attitude, other researchers show that attitude toward entrepreneurship
has an insignificant impact on EIs (Siu and Lo, 2013). This inconsistency shows that
there is a need for a moderating variable that can explain the conditions in which
attitude toward entrepreneurship more strongly affects EIs.
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A further limitation is that the data were collected from university students. For a
comprehensive understanding of EIs, it is necessary to include individuals from other
occupations. Because our study focussed on the TPB and did not include other factors
related to EIs, it did not provide a complete picture of EIs. We compare our results with
those of other studies and conclude that the relationship of antecedent adopted by the
TPB with EIs varies across different countries. Further research should include
cultural factors of entrepreneurship.
Conclusion
Our paper demonstrates the EIs of males and females are triggered by different stimuli,
particularly in the context of developing countries. It shows entrepreneurial self-
efficacy and social norms positively influence individualsentrepreneurial attitude,
which in turn determine EIs. However, these effects are moderated by gender in such a
way that the effect of self-efficacy is greater on the entrepreneurial attitude of males
than on females. Conversely, females are more induced by social norms to develop
positive attitude toward entrepreneurship. These findings suggest that the
endorsement and support of society is necessary for the promotion of EIs of females
in developing countries. For this reason, enlightenment of the masseswith regard to
female entrepreneurship is necessary to achieve positive effects, in that societal
admiration of female entrepreneurs increases female EIs. At the same time, males
should be provided with sufficient training and expertise to develop the self-efficacy
required to run their own businesses.
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Corresponding author
Omer Farooq can be contacted at: omer.farooq@kedgebs.com
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... Ajzen, in attempting to explain the entrepreneurial motivation of an individual, establishes three concepts viz., entrepreneurial personal attitude (EPA), entrepreneurial perceived behavioural control (PBC), and subjective/societal norm (SN). Various studies like Haus, et al., (2013) ;Datta, (2020) ;Arshad, et al., (2016) examined if an entrepreneur's gender influences entrepreneurial motivation by using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The results of these studies show that compared to women, men usually have a higher motivation towards entrepreneurship because subjective/societal norms play a pivotal part in influencing entrepreneurial motivations for women ...
... Such strong association exemplifies that gender has always been the most influential demographic factor on entrepreneurial motivations, be it in any part of the world. Thus, we can rightly sum up the existence of a strong significant association between entrepreneur's gender and the entrepreneurial motivations in line with previous studies like Haus, et al., (2013); Datta, (2020); Arshad, et al., (2016). ...
... With SGD-5 as its backdrop, the study envisaged knowing the association between entrepreneur's gender and entrepreneurial motivations and secondly to examine if entrepreneurial motivations vary on the grounds of entrepreneur's gender. We refuted the first null hypothesis, there exists no association between entrepreneur's gender and the entrepreneurial motivation and established a strong, positive, and significant association between entrepreneur's gender and their motivations Haus, et al., (2013); Datta, (2020); Arshad, et al., (2016). With a strong and significant association it is needless to say that an entrepreneur's gender has an indomitable influence in implanting entrepreneurial motivations. ...
... The authors concluded that PA and SE affect EI directly and positively but were unable to provide evidence for the hypothesis that SN has a significant effect on EI. The conclusion that SE affects EI directly and positively is also supported by the research of Arshad et al. (2016). Examining the effects of PA, PBC and SN on EI in Finland, Sweden and the USA, with cross-country comparison, Autio et al. (2001) found support for all hypotheses except SN. ...
... Our analyses revealed that the PA and PBC variables directly affect the EIA. These findings support H1 and H2, and our results are consistent with previous research (Al-Mamary et al., 2020;Gonz alez-Serrano et al., 2018;Arshad et al., 2016;Autio et al., 2001). We also determined that NFA directly affects EIA and found support for H3. ...
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... Nonetheless, this research study also considered the demographic factor specifically gender as various researchers state that there is disparity among gender for the adoption of an entrepreneurial career. Individuals take initiatives for owing their entrepreneurial careers by focusing on the above-mentioned approaches and according to Arshad et al. (2016), gender makes such decisions differently and women show less interest comparative to males. Several environmental actors are taken into account in this research that specifically includes the access to numerous recourses such as social media sites are considered as most reliable and easily accessible source nowadays and regulations of government. ...
... Notably, the troubles that females face for running their own ventures are the capital for financing business operations, low profits and growth, less work experience, and human capital. According to Arshad et al. (2016), another hazard in this field of selfemployment is the stereotyping that restrict female to participate in such tasks. Other researchers consider this phenomenon that only males have a tendency to become business visionary. ...
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... Sarwar and Imran (2019) discussed various multi-level barriers towards women's career prospects in Pakistan, amongst which a major one was gender segregation. Social mingling of opposite sexes is considered inappropriate in Pakistan (Sarwar and Imran, 2019), which might create problems for women to socialize and build relations with significant others, usually males (Sarwar et al., 2021), who have the power to positively affect their career (Arshad et al., 2016). With the use of SM, women can break this barrier and improve their social capital for career enhancement. ...
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Presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive experiences. Persistence in activities that are subjectively threatening but in fact relatively safe produces, through experiences of mastery, further enhancement of self-efficacy and corresponding reductions in defensive behavior. In the proposed model, expectations of personal efficacy are derived from 4 principal sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Factors influencing the cognitive processing of efficacy information arise from enactive, vicarious, exhortative, and emotive sources. The differential power of diverse therapeutic procedures is analyzed in terms of the postulated cognitive mechanism of operation. Findings are reported from microanalyses of enactive, vicarious, and emotive modes of treatment that support the hypothesized relationship between perceived self-efficacy and behavioral changes. (21/2 p ref)
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The statistical tests used in the analysis of structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error are examined. A drawback of the commonly applied chi square test, in addition to the known problems related to sample size and power, is that it may indicate an increasing correspondence between the hypothesized model and the observed data as both the measurement properties and the relationship between constructs decline. Further, and contrary to common assertion, the risk of making a Type II error can be substantial even when the sample size is large. Moreover, the present testing methods are unable to assess a model's explanatory power. To overcome these problems, the authors develop and apply a testing system based on measures of shared variance within the structural model, measurement model, and overall model.
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