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To a good part, well-being depends on individual engagement in beneficial activities. The present paper draws attention to the potential of encouraging and shaping well-being-enhancing activities through interaction with everyday objects and technology. Our case study started from the activity of keeping ‘small’ secrets as a way to experience autonomy and privacy. We situated this activity in an office and ‘materialized’ it through a digital picture frame, holding a secret picture. Inspired by seven interviewees’ detailed descriptions of interacting with secrets, we designed an especially secretive interaction to consume the picture and compared it to a more technical interaction. In a first empirical exploration, using video prototypes (N = 276), the secretive interaction was rated as more positive and providing more intense feelings of privacy and autonomy. This hints at the potential of objects and the careful design of interaction with this objects to intensify the positive experiences gained from mundane activities.
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The Journal of Positive Psychology
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Designing for well-being: A case study of keeping
small secrets
Sarah Diefenbach, Marc Hassenzahl, Kai Eckoldt, Lena Hartung, Eva Lenz &
Matthias Laschke
To cite this article: Sarah Diefenbach, Marc Hassenzahl, Kai Eckoldt, Lena Hartung, Eva Lenz &
Matthias Laschke (2016): Designing for well-being: A case study of keeping small secrets, The
Journal of Positive Psychology, DOI: 10.1080/17439760.2016.1163405
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1163405
Published online: 18 Apr 2016.
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THE JOURNAL OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, 2016
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2016.1163405
Designing for well-being: A case study of keeping small secrets
Sarah Diefenbacha, Marc Hassenzahlb, Kai Eckoldtb, Lena Hartungc, Eva Lenzb and Matthias Laschkeb
aDepartment of Psychology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany; bExperience and Interaction, Department of Design,
Folkwang University of the Arts, Essen, Germany; cInstitute of Psychology, Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany
ABSTRACT
To a good part, well-being depends on individual engagement in benecial activities. The present
paper draws attention to the potential of encouraging and shaping well-being-enhancing activities
through interaction with everyday objects and technology. Our case study started from the activity
of keeping ‘small’ secrets as a way to experience autonomy and privacy. We situated this activity
in an oce and ‘materialized’ it through a digital picture frame, holding a secret picture. Inspired
by seven interviewees’ detailed descriptions of interacting with secrets, we designed an especially
secretive interaction to consume the picture and compared it to a more technical interaction. In
a rst empirical exploration, using video prototypes (N= 276), the secretive interaction was rated
as more positive and providing more intense feelings of privacy and autonomy. This hints at the
potential of objects and the careful design of interaction with this objects to intensify the positive
experiences gained from mundane activities.
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
KEYWORDS
Well-being; positive
psychology; experience
design; object interaction;
psychological needs;
interaction attributes
ARTICLE HISTORY
Received 12 June 2015
Accepted 8 February 2016
CONTACT Sarah Diefenbach sarah.diefenbach@lmu.de
Introduction
Happiness and well-being crucially depend on the activ-
ities we engage in. About 40% of variance in chronic
happiness scores can be explained by activity, i.e. ‘the
wide variety of things people do and think in their daily
lives’ (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, & Schkade, 2005, p. 118).
As well-being is a multifaceted construct, activities can
impact well-being through increasing positive emotions,
behaviors, thoughts, and fullling important psychologi-
cal needs (Layous & Lyubomirsky, 2012). Given this, a crit-
ical question is how to involve and keep people engaged
in well-being-enhancing activities. A popular approach
in positive psychology is devising special well-being-
enhancing activities, trainings and interventions
(e.g. Seligman, Steen, Park, & Peterson, 2005). In contrast,
this study investigates the impact of objects and mundane,
everyday activities as creators and mediators of well-being.
Many of our activities are profoundly shaped by objects.
For example, morning rituals depend on the coeemaker
used, or intimate communication on the apps installed
on smartphones. Therefore, product design enables delib-
erately encouraging and shaping people’s activities, and,
in turn provides a chance for enhancing their well-being.
The object-mediated nature of activity is at the heart
of Human-Computer Interaction and Interaction Design
(HCI/ID). Activity is understood as inseparable from
materiality (Dourish, 2001). Humans are ‘acting with tech-
nology’ (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2006), and each activity is
inevitably shaped by the opportunities and limitations
imposed by the designed objects (Dunne, 2005, p. 69). In
other words, objects can create and mediate positive and
meaningful experiences and those experiences become
explicit objectives of design (e.g. experience-driven design’
(Hekkert, Mostert, & Stomp, 2003), ‘experience-centered
design’ (Wright & McCarthy, 2010; Wright, Wallace, &
McCarthy, 2008), ‘experience design’ (Hassenzahl, 2010;
Hassenzahl et al., 2013). While psychological research on
well-being started from the need to better understand
and improve well-being and then identied activity as
a viable means, HCI/ID started from the need to design
object-mediated activities and only later identied posi-
tive and meaningful experience and ultimately well-being
as a viable design objective (Calvo & Peters, 2014; Desmet
& Pohlmeyer, 2013; Hassenzahl et al., 2013).
Of course, there are eorts within positive psychology
to exploit the power of objects (i.e. technology, interac-
tive devices), such as behavioral intervention technolo-
gies (Schueller, 2014); see Parks (2014) for an overview.
However, computer-based multimedia stress management
and resilience trainings (Rose, 2014), for example, use tech-
nology foremost as an alternative way of delivering and
distributing content, but it essentially remains a training. In
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2 S. DIEFENBACH ET AL.
phenomenon (Frijns, Finkenauer, Vermulst, & Engels,
2005; Kelly, 2002). Most psychological research refers to
serious secrets, such as extramarital aairs or suicides in
families, and the negative consequences of secrecy (e.g.
A & Caughlin, 2006; Richards & Sillars, 2012; Vangelisti,
1994). However, less serious, ‘small’ secrets may have
benecial eects. As Frijns et al. (2005, p. 138) argued:
‘Because secrecy, by nature, separates those who know
from those who do not know, it may promote independ-
ence and autonomy. Autonomy, in turn, is a crucial psy-
chological need, essential to well-being (Ryan & Deci,
2001). Thus we considered experiences of mundane
secrecy (e.g. sneaking out for contemplation, taking
breaks from work, secretly indulging in soap operas) as a
potential source for everyday well-being. The purpose of
‘small’ secrets is not to conceal the extremely delicate, but
to create a moment just for oneself, a brief retreat from
the rest of the world. Besides autonomy, small secrets
may thus promote additional facets of privacy (Pedersen,
1997, 1999), such as contemplation (self-discovery, feel-
ing free to express oneself) and rejuvenation (moments
of reection for oneself).
Context
After choosing an activity (‘keeping a secret’ to fulll auton-
omy needs), we looked for a context to situate the activity
and decided for an oce setting. Autonomy and privacy
in the oce are recurrent themes, especially in open plan
oces (Kim & de Dear, 2013). Oce environments further
oer limited opportunities to surround oneself with pri-
vate objects in the sense of personalization.
contrast, JuicyMo, a centrifugal juicer, which aims at inten-
sifying the positivity and meaning derived from the mun-
dane activity of juicing (Grosse-Hering, Mason, Aliakseyeu,
Bakker, & Desmet, 2013), is an HCI/ID example of how the
power of an object can be used to shape an activity and
the consequent experience. Overall, the opportunities of
technology with respect to well-being seem twofold: On
the one hand, carefully designed objects can establish
novel, well-being-enhancing everyday activities, thereby
increasing the likelihood of experiencing positive and
meaningful moments throughout the day. On the other
hand, objects and interactions can be carefully designed
to intensify the experiential outcome gained from existing
activities (such as juicing).
The present paper explores the latter. We focus on
the interaction with an object and explore the possibil-
ity of deliberately designing the interaction to intensify
the experience. Specically, we present an empirical case
study of ‘keeping secrets’ as a way to support autonomy
needs in daily life.
Design praxis: from well-being and needs to
activities, contexts, objects, and interaction
Designing for well-being by shaping activities through
objects is a multilayered endeavor. It involves choosing
an activity, a context for the activity to take place, and an
object, which plays a central role in the activity and acts
as a mediator or ‘carrier’. Having claried these aspect,
detailed interaction design addresses the questions of
how to access the functionality provided by the object. The
present research focuses on the nal step, that is, the par-
ticular interaction. Specically, we suggest that the inter-
action needs to t the intended activity and experience.
An interaction can be described with some basic attrib-
utes, such as slow/fast or gentle/powerful (Diefenbach,
Lenz, & Hassenzahl, 2013). In the present design case, we
rst conducted an interview study to reveal interaction
attributes, which particularly t the intended experience.
These insights then inspired the interaction design. In the
following, we rst describe the chosen activity, its context,
and the involved object. We then discuss the interaction
design in more detail.
Activity, context, and object: keeping and
consuming secret digital pictures in an oce
Activity
We start from the idea of creating well-being through
the activity of keeping and consuming ‘small secrets.
Keeping secrets, that is, the intentional concealment of
personal information from others, is a ubiquitous social
Figure 1.A picture frame holding a secret (source: Hassenzahl,
2010).
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THE JOURNAL OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 3
Object
Finally, we chose a digital picture frame as mediator of the
activity. Specically, we created the concept of a digital
picture frame, which holds a secret picture, only revealed
by a particular, secretive interaction (see Figure 1, see also
(Hassenzahl, 2010, p. 71)).
Interaction: designing a secretive interaction with a
digital picture
For the interaction design, we rst explored the phenom-
enology of interacting with a secret and derived typical
interaction attributes. We carried out semi-structured
interviews with seven participants (ve female, two male;
age: 24–65 years) about their consumption of autono-
my-supporting, ‘small’ secrets in daily life. A convenience
sample was recruited via email and personal communi-
cation. To collect a wide variety of secrecy examples, not
tied to a particular profession or workplace, we accepted
participants from diverse professional backgrounds (e.g.
doctor, actor, advertising, lm business).
The interview sessions started with brieng the par-
ticipants about our particular interest in ‘small’ secrets
(as opposed to serious, self-threatening secrets) by short
examples, such as secretly spending a lunch break in a
café in another district, just to get some private time away
from colleagues. In the remaining session time, partic-
ipants reported about their personal ‘small’ secrets. The
interview focused on related practices, objects and inter-
action, and participants’ feelings about what constitutes
a ‘good’, ‘enjoyable’, secretive way of revealing, consuming
and concealing a tangible secret (e.g. How do you open the
secret chocolate box? How do you sneak into the kitchen
to steal the last ice cream from the fridge?).
Data analysis included a clustering of general reec-
tions about small secrets and their value in daily life by
inductive category formation (Mayring, 2004) and an anal-
ysis of relevant interaction attributes. The latter built the
basis for the here presented interaction design. In the raw
transcripts, we rst marked all descriptions of interacting
with the secrets for further elaboration. We summarized
synonyms and attributes with similar connotation (e.g.
gentle, tender, moderate, soft) into categories. It showed
that despite the variety of secrets presented, specic
interaction attributes and related associations were fre-
quently mentioned. As such, approaching the secret was
repeatedly described as a slow, gentle, and continuously,
a moment of anticipating the secret, before nally con-
suming it. Directness and physical contact/tangibility was
mentioned frequently, emphasizing the keepers’ full atten-
tion and complete appreciation of the object of secrecy.
While from the secret keepers’ perspective, the interaction
should feel focused and targeted, for others, the interac-
tion should appear incidental and natural, hopefully not
attracting any attention. Participants further emphasized
that the secret must be easily covered and concealed to
guarantee that there are no cues or visible tracks left for
others. Another important insight was the general dif-
ference between interaction attributes for approaching/
uncovering vs. covering the secret. While the former asks
Table 1.Secrecy-related interaction attributes, related associations, and examples.
Interaction attributes Associations, given reasons Examples, sample statements
Slow, gentle, continuously Something valuable, to be handled with respect
and care
Grabbing the last ice cream from the fridge and then eating it privately
in one's room: ‘Behind the closed door, I slowly opened the package. An
extra boost of anticipation. I ate with much pleasure and all the time of
the world’ (P4)
Using a special salad bowl brought from Turkey, hiding it from the flat
mates: ‘I always place some other dishes in front, like a barrier. In fact, I
feel a little guilty about wanting to keep it for myself …. But I also really
appreciate it and handle it very gently.’ (P1)
Direct, physical contact/
tangibility
Full attention and complete appreciation for the
object of secrecy; connectedness to thoughts or
memories
Opening secret memory box: ‘It already starts with opening that box,
lifting the lid, touching it. It makes me feel in direct contact with all that
memories’ (P1)
Writing a secret diary: ‘The diary is like a secret room … the moment the
pen touches the paper, thoughts enter directly into that room.’ (P3)
Focused, targeted Importance, value for the secret keeper (external
perspective: natural, incidental)
Flipping a sheet of paper as if it was some irrelevant work-related docu-
ment and not a secret planning list for holidays
A tension between outward appearance and inner state, e.g., ‘When
someone enters the room I try to act natural, seemingly fully relaxed.
But in fact it is the opposite. Of course my full attention is on covering
that list and making it disappear between the other documents lying on
my desk.’ (P3)
Covered, concealed, invisible Easily concealable, no cues or visible tracks for
others
Eating spoons full of chocolate spread and then covering the tracks of
indulgence: ‘Directly from the glass – totally forbidden – nobody must see
me … after that, nobody would think any spoon had ever entered that
glass of Nutella.’ (P4)
Covering non-work related activities at the office: ‘As soon as I hear the
door is opened, I quickly click on something work-related – and not –
ehm – eBay’ (P1)
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4 S. DIEFENBACH ET AL.
Preliminary comparison of two interactions:
stroking vs. remote interaction
For a rst empirical exploration of dierent ways to inter-
act with the picture frame and the assumed relevance
for experience, we compared the ‘stroking’ interaction
outlined above with an alternative, presumably less
secretive interaction. In a second variant, the secret pic-
ture was revealed and concealed by pressing the button
of a tiny remote control (see Figure 3 and https://vimeo.
com/103700137). Compared to the stroking interaction,
whose design was led by interaction attributes expressing
secrecy, the remote interaction was deliberately designed
to contradict this (e.g. stepwise rather than uent, powerful
rather than gentle, instant rather than delayed response,
spatially separated rather than ‘tangible’).
Our preliminary comparison explored three questions:
First, will participants perceive the attributes of the strok-
ing interaction as intended by the designer (e.g. slow,
delayed)? Second, will the dierences between stroking
and remote interaction be reected in ratings on the level
of interaction attributes? Third, will there be dierences
between the two interactions on the level of experience
ratings? More specically, we were interested in ratings on
general positive experience and facets of privacy experi-
ence, as targeted by the design of the stroking interaction.
Method
Participants and procedure
Two-hundred and seventy-six individuals (148 female, 128
male) aged between 18 and 49 (mean age=24years) took
part in the study. The study was conducted online with
SurveyMonkey (www.surveymonkey.com). All materials
were in German. A link to the study was distributed via
students union representatives of various universities in
Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Ten 30€ gift vouchers
were raed as an incentive. The two alternative interactions
(stroking, remote) were presented as video prototypes, fea-
turing a scene in an oce and showing the detailed interac-
tion with the picture frame (stroking interaction: see Figure 2
and https://vimeo.com/103701159, remote interaction: see
Figure 3 and https://vimeo.com/103700137). All participants
were confronted with both interactions in counterbalanced
order. Note, that the use of online video prototypes instead
of functional prototypes has certain limitations, especially
with regard to perspective (third person vs. rst person) and
for slow interaction, allowing the secret keeper to antici-
pate and celebrate the secret in private, the latter is also
a protection of the secret from others. Hence, covering
the secret should be either fast, or slow but incidental, to
be performed ‘invisibly’ before the eyes of others. Table 1
gives an overview of associations, examples and sample
statements for the dierent interaction attributes related
to interaction with secrets. In sum, an interaction should
appear slow, gentle, direct, precise, and focused for the
secret keeper, but rather incidental and inconspicuous for
others.
We assume that the interactions described in the inter-
views subsumes the way that interaction feels ‘right’ in the
context of small secrets. We thus used this information as
a ‘blueprint’ for the design of an interaction to reveal, con-
sume, and conceal the secret picture in the digital picture
frame (see Figure 2(a) and (b)). Touching the visible ‘public’
picture reveals the underlying hidden picture at the place
of the nger. By moving the nger to other parts of the
picture, it is revealed further, bit by bit. As soon as one
removes the nger from the display, the secret picture con
-
tracts back to the initial point of touch and disappears,
like an elastic strap. This ‘stroking’ interaction suppor ts the
gentle revealing of the secret, further intensied by the
necessity to ‘touch’ it. The revealing further emphasizes
familiarity. In a way, the keeper of the secret picture may
already ‘see’ the secret picture ‘through the public picture
on display. Concealing is fast and instantaneous. Quickly
drawing back the hand is a typical gesture, when in danger
to be caught in the act.
Figure 3.Remote interaction to reveal the secret picture.
Figure 2.(a) A ‘stroking’ interaction to reveal the secret picture
(conceptual sketch) and (b) stroking interaction to reveal
the secret picture (stills from video prototype, https://vimeo.
com/103701159).
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THE JOURNAL OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 5
Privacy experience
Adapted from the privacy function rating scale (Pedersen,
1997, 1999), we assessed the three privacy facets auton-
omy, contemplation, and rejuvenation, each one com-
prised of four items, on a ve-point scale (1= not at all,
5=extremely). Sample items are ‘I felt that I could’… do
things that don’t t my usual role (autonomy), ‘ … take ref-
uge from the outside world’ (rejuvenation), or ‘ … meditate
and reect’ (contemplation). Scale values were computed
by averaging the according item values. Cronbach’s Alpha
ranged from .79 (rejuvenation) to .82 (contemplation).
Findings
Interaction
Figure 4 shows the participants’ perception of the ‘stroking’
and the ‘remote’ interaction as compared to the designer’s
intended impression. For the stroking interaction, the pro-
le correlation between participants’ ratings and design-
er’s intended impression was positive and signicant, r(9)
= .72, p<.05. The perception of the ‘remote’ interaction
was clearly dierent from ‘stroking’, r(9) = .18, p > .05,
and uncorrelated to the designer’s intentions, r(9) = −.03,
p > .05. This indicates that participants perceived the
‘stroking’ interaction the way we intended, whereas the
alternative interaction (i.e. ‘remote’) created a substantially
dierent impression.
Additional t-tests revealed signicant dierences
between the two interactions for nine of the eleven attrib-
utes. The ‘stroking’ interaction was perceived as slower
(t(274) = 5.39, p<.001, d=.33), more uent (t(274) = 7.67,
p<.001, d=.46), more delayed (t(274) = 5.48, p <.001,
d=.33), more uniform (t(274) = 2.82, p<.001, d=.17), more
inconstant (t(274) = 4.06, p<.001, d=.24), spatially more
proximate (t (274) = 8.39, p<.001, d=.51), more approxi-
mate (t(274) = 6.15, p<.001, d=.37), more gentle (t(274)
= 12.18, p<.001, d=.73), and more covered (t(274) = 7.20,
p<.001, d=.43) than the ‘remote’ interaction; according
to Bonferroni correction, only p-values<.004 were inter-
preted as signicant.
Experience
A 2 × 2 analysis of variance with interaction (stroking,
remote) as within-subjects factor, order (stroking-remote,
remote-stroking) as between-subjects factor, and posi-
tive experience as the measure revealed a highly signi-
cant main eect for interaction, F(1265) = 22.05, p<.001,
η2=.08. Experience ratings for the ‘stroking’ interaction
were more positive (M=2.70) than for the ‘remote’ interac-
tion (M=2.37). There was neither a signicant main eect
of order nor an interaction x order interaction.
We then analyzed participants’ ratings for privacy
experience in terms of autonomy, rejuvenation, and
haptic sensations (no sensations vs. the actual experience
of touch). To counteract the rst, we asked participants to
image themselves as vividly as possible being the main
protagonist (see experimental vignette methodology, (e.g.
Aguinis & Bradley, 2014). The lack of haptic sensation seems
less problematic, given the fact that touch-based interac-
tion (i.e. with tablet computers) is common nowadays. After
each video, participants provided ratings on interaction and
experience.
Measures
Perceived interaction attributes
We used the Interaction Vocabulary (Diefenbach et al.,
2013) to measure perceived interaction attributes. It consists
of 11 seven-point semantic dierential items to describe
interaction: slow-fast, stepwise-uent, instant-delayed,
uniform-diverging, constant-inconstant, mediated-direct,
spatial separation-spatial proximity, approximate-precise,
gentle-powerful, incidental-targeted, apparent-covered.
Since the interaction designer (third author) used the
vocabulary to specify the stroking and the remote inter-
action, this provided a comparison between the designer’s
intentions and participants’ actual perceptions.
Positive experience
A single rating on a ve-point scale (‘positive’, 1=not at all,
5=extremely) served as measure of positive experience.
Figure 4.Participants’ perceptions of the ‘stroking’ and the ‘remote’
interaction as compared to the designer’s intended impression.
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6 S. DIEFENBACH ET AL.
Objects provide particular promising opportunities
to engage people in (well-being-enhancing) activities.
Through their material presence in daily life and their inher-
ent relation to activities, objects can trigger new healthy
activities or bring back activities that people already expe-
rienced as benecial, but failed to remember and maintain
in daily life. For example, we can carry a secret picture in
our wallet and occasionally peek at it during the oce
hours. However, the wallet does not explicitly suggest this.
It requires us to appropriate the wallet accordingly, to gain
well-being from secret pictures. By deliberately ‘inscribing’
this activity into an object, just as we did with the picture
frame, the activity becomes constantly available, even to
people, who have not thought about it before. Hence,
objects can make benecial activities more accessible
through the mere fact that they explicitly provide corre-
sponding functionality. Furthermore, objects provide the
opportunity to shape the activity itself, through designing
a particular way of interaction. As our research revealed,
there are more or less secrecy tting interaction attributes,
and the same may be applicable for other needs and expe-
riences. Designing objects to deliver well-being requires
not only thinking about the right functions, but also about
the right interaction.
Our interview study and the comparison of the stroking
interaction with a less experientially designed interaction
reected the general relevance of the way of interaction
for the consequent experiences, and, in turn, illustrates the
possible starting points for design. Participants’ percep-
tion of the designed secretive interaction (i.e. ‘stroking’)
corresponded to the intended interaction prole, whereas
the remote interaction was uncorrelated. Moreover, the
‘stroking’ interaction was rated as oering the overall more
positive experience. Within the positive psychology para-
digm and well-being, our research highlights the poten-
tial subtleties of how artifacts create and mediate positive
experiences through interaction and the responsibility of
careful interaction design.
contemplation. A 2 × 3 × 2 analysis of variance with inter-
action (stroking, remote) and privacy facet (autonomy, reju-
venation, contemplation) as within-subjects factors, order
(stroking-remote, remote-stroking) as between-subjects
factor, and intensity as the measure revealed a signicant
main eect of interaction, F(1542)=25.28, p<.001, η
2
=.09.
Overall, the experience of privacy was more intense for the
‘stroking’ interaction (M=4.58) compared to the ‘remote’
interaction (M= 4.42). However, there was a signicant
interaction × order interaction, F(1542) = 12.40, p< .001,
η2=.07. Only if the ‘stroking’ interaction had been the rst
presented concept, and thus introduced as a standard of
comparison, ratings for all three privacy facets were signif-
icantly higher for the stroking than for the remote interac-
tion (autonomy: t(134)=4.58, p<.001, d=.39; rejuvenation:
t(134)=5.78, p<.001, d=.50); contemplation: t(134)=4.99,
p<.001, d=.43). Figure 5 shows mean values of privacy
experience in the two order conditions. There was no main
eect or interaction of privacy facet.
Discussion
Summary and contributions
Primarily, the present research wants to draw attention to
objects as a starting point for increasing people’s every-
day well-being. Our study forms an example of how ‘stu
shapes activities and experiences through interaction, and
oers the opportunity to deliberately design for more need
fulllment and ultimately well-being. We understand this
as an extension of positive psychological interventions:
Lyubomirsky and colleagues (Lyubomirsky & Layous, 2013;
Lyubomirsky et al., 2005) just as others already drew atten-
tion to the general importance of ‘healthy practices’ and
activities as well-being-enhancing interventions. Based
on the philosophy of Experience design (e.g. Desmet &
Pohlmeyer, 2013; Hassenzahl et al., 2013), the present
research directs attention to the potential of objects as
an additional opportunity to increase well-being.
Figure 5.Mean values of privacy experience for stroking interaction and remote interaction for the two order conditions stroking-remote
(left) and remote-stroking (right).
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THE JOURNAL OF POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 7
an oce environment), and, even more subtly, through
interaction, that feels private and secretive. Quite naturally,
psychological research rarely considers the profound role
‘stu’ could play in mediating activities and creating posi-
tive experience. By taking the best of both elds, the desire
to make, the need to prove, and the urge to change, we
hope to unlock the powers of ‘stu ’ to enhance happiness
and well-being.
Disclosure statement
No potential conict of interest was reported by the authors.
Funding
This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Ed-
ucation and Research (BMBF) [grant number 01 IS12010F].
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Limitations and future work
The present study has a number of limitations to be
addressed in future research. Obviously, the present con-
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