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Advanced Skills for Communication in English: Book I

  • Bharath University, Associate Professor in English


“Advanced Skills for Communication in English: Book I” is a textbook intended for the second language learners who wish to learn English but have a less environment in conversing with others in English. To make them face the competitive world, each chapter of this book is clearly structured with a strategic approach to learn the target language through all the skill areas – Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing from the basic level. It also prepares the learners in Business English for effective communication not only as students during their collegiate days but also as employees after being employed. English is, infact, a world language now. So, the objective of this text is to provide crucial support for English language learners in enhancing and equipping them with the basic communication skills which in turn will help them to converse effectively in the target language and be employable. As per the statement “Action is the language of commitment; it speaks louder than words”, the book with its worksheet is based on learning process followed by the functional application in the classroom. The book includes a lot of exercises which enables precious language practice; of course an immense help for the learners in learning English. We thank our Management, our Principal and Director (S.F.Courses) for granting us permission and providing us an opportunity in bringing out the textbook. V.JEYA SANTHI Dr.R.SELVAM M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.
Learning the Second Language is important as it is essential to every aspect and
interaction in our everyday lives. Every sentence we use has the purpose of enabling second
language learners to move beyond vocabulary and grammar to the functional aspect of
communication. Being able to communicate with each other form bonds, teamwork, and
it’s what separates humans from other animal species. Communication drives our lives
and better ourselves.
The topics and the exercises of this text aim at enhancement of the learners’
communication skill. Let’s begin with ‘Self-introduction’ as “You only get one chance to
create a first and best impression”.
The arrival of a new academic year brings a lot of energy and enthusiasm to students,
teachers and parents (although in a different way) and it is high time to practise self
introductions. Here, two ways of introducing oneself - in educational atmosphere and for
career, are presented for practice as both are indispensable in one’s life.
1.1. Introducing oneself – in an educational atmosphere
Take the following communication as an example.
Model 1: Here, Shiva is introducing himself at a volleyball camp:
Hi! My name is Shiva. I am 19 years old. I live in Sattur with my parents and brothers. I am a
first year Computer Science student. I am pursuing a Certificate Course in Communicative
and Functional English after my college hours to improve my language skills. I like
Programming and Mathematics. During weekends, I take dancing lessons, swimming and
veena. I like puppies. My favorite colour is pink. My favourite food is masala dosa. I want to
learn how to play volleyball better. Thank you.
Each of the sentences in this self introduction has a grammatical structure. But, the message of
Shiva is more than just subjects, verbs and objects. Each sentence has a purpose or topic.
The topics are:
My name is Shiva. – NAME
I am 19 years old. - AGE
I live in Sattur with my parents and brothers – WHERE YOU LIVE & FAMILY
I am a first year Computer Science student.
I am pursuing a Certificate Course in Communicative and Functional English after my
college hours to improve my language skills – CLASS & DISCIPLINE
I like Programming and Mathematics. – SUBJECTS
During weekends, I take dancing lessons, swimming and veena. – HOBBIES
I like puppies. – ANIMALS
My favorite colour is pink- COLOUR
My favorite food is masala dosa. - FOOD
I want to learn how to play volleyball better. – PURPOSE FOR BEING AT CAMP
Thank you.- CLOSING
Once the students are clear about the purpose or topic of each sentence, they can choose which
words to say by using the topic as cues to CHOOSE their own words to deliver the message.
Some cues for each topic are given below for your use.
Hello Hi
Good day Good morning Good afternoon Good evening
I am __________________________. (I am in my twenties / I am nineteen.)
I live in I am from I come from
I like I enjoy I am fond of
I love I find _____________________ enjoyable
My favorite food is ____________________________
I like I enjoy I am fond of
I love I find ___________________ enjoyable
My favorite colour is ________________________
Thank you. I hope to talk with you soon (or) I hope to meet you again soon.
Self introductions can also be expanded into other activities throughout the year so that this
vocabulary is recycled and new vocabulary integrated. Students can talk about: greeting, name,
age, where they are from, food, animal, music, hobbies/sports, family, closing with more
confidence and speed. It gives them a chance to reveal how much they can say about
themselves at one time.
Model 2: Most of the self introduction is in the “I” form. By using each topic cue to make
a question, the series can easily be converted into an interview.
i. Student A asks the question encouraged by the topic cue and Student B answers the
ii. From the information collected during the introductory session in a college, Student A can
now introduce Student B to another student C (and vice versa).
For example: Introducing one’s friend
(Student A) Ammu: Hi Praveena. This is Rita. She is 19 years old. She is a first year Maths
student. She likes curd rice and vegetable biriyani. She loves pet animals. Her mother gifted a
puppy for her birthday. Her favorite colour is green.
(Student B) Praveena: Nice to meet you, Rita.
1.2. Self-introduction – for career
Self-introduction during an interview is a crucial one in any networking situation. It is
both a personal and professional communication skill that is needed in your everyday life.
Think about how you can use this short period of time to not only introduce yourself but
also convey something about who you are and what you do.
When you introduce yourself, it is not for anyone else's benefit but YOURS! In
brief, self-introduction is marketing your skills. First impressions count a great deal in an
A job interview is a tough competition with one or a few winners. And the manner in
which you introduce yourself in an interview will be remembered so much so that it might be
the deal breaker. Self introductions are a natural oral form that help to assess the workers’
confidence, vocabulary, grammar and attitude, and also help the employers get to know them.
Here are some tips for introducing yourself.
1. Dress appropriately and be perfectly groomed. These are things over which one can have
control, so make the most of them. Since first impressions count, introduce yourself with style
before you even open your mouth.
2. Walk into an interview confidently. Avoid slouching, slumping or crossing your body with
your arms. You are going to win, so face them with confidence.
3. Greet your interviewers immediately. Offer your hand for a handshake, make eye contact
and smile.
4. Open your interview with a comment about being pleased to have the opportunity to be
interviewed by the firm or organization. Thank the interviewers for the opportunity. This
should be brief, genuine and not flowery.
5. When asked to sum up who you are, be ready for such a question.
How would you describe yourself? Write a list now and remove non-job related qualities
to arrive at your list for a job interview. Craft this into a neat, short reply that sums up who you
truly are.
When asked questions at the start about why you want the job, be prepared with
an interesting and genuine statement.
6. Enjoy the rest of your interview. If you've made a good impression by this point, the rest is
simply about displaying your knowledge and your confidence level should be boosted.
Points to remember before you attend this interview question i.e. introducing yourself:
Assume, now you are sitting in front of the HR manager.
Take the initiative to attend this question and tell your real answers.
Prepare your answer as per THE USUAL PROCEDURE –
1. Your name (spell out your name clearly) and place (where you are living)
2. Your current educational status (PG / UG with the name of the institution and
percentage you have scored)
3. Your Plus Two and Tenth (place where you studied) with percentage
4. Your co-curricular activities (related to your Subject)
5. Your extra-curricular activities (apart from regular class hours)
6. Awards / trophies / distinctions won by you for academic excellence if any
7. Reasons for choosing the discipline in your education
8. Your interests and hobbies
9. Family particulars (Father, Mother, Brothers, Sisters, Spouse, Children)
10. Employment history and reasons for leaving each employment.
11. Achievements in each employment.
12. Reason for quitting employment now.
13. The languages you know (speak, read and write)
Answer 9 only if asked (Details of family). If you are asked to tell them about your
family, then say about your family members. Otherwise, there is no need.
Answer 10 to 12, only if you have previous working experience.
1. Do not talk ill of your family members, faculties in institutions, past employers.
2. Do not sit on the edge of the chair while answering.
3. Look into the eyes of the interviewer while answering.
4. Remember to say ‘sorry’ if your opinions or answers are rejected.
5. Don’t say anything about the field which you are not interested. For example, if you have
no interest in technical skills, don’t make a mention of it in self-introduction.
6. If you have finished your presentation, just hang up. Do not answer beyond what you
have already said even if the interviewer has not shot his next question.
7. Say ‘Thank you’ at the last part of the interview to every interviewer before leaving the
8. Don’t look back and walk out confidently after shutting the door gently behind you.
Before you attend the interview, thoroughly make enquiries of the organization, their
business, special matters etc. as they may ask for what you know about their company. Just
feel free and be at ease. Display assertiveness while introducing yourself. Do not use very
difficult English words. Make it plain and simple. Be honest and truthful because you can be
grilled on any word uttered by you.
Rehearse "self-introduction" in front of mirror everyday till you achieve mastery.
Model Self-introduction
Some samples are given below for the learners’ reference. Go through each and every sample
and prepare a self-introduction highlighting your abilities and skills.
SAMPLE 1 : Introduce yourself briefly.
Good morning Sir.
My name is Seenu; I am from Madurai.
I completed my PG and UG Micro-biology in GT College, Madurai.
I completed my schooling in T.V.S. Hr. Sec. School, Madurai.
My hobbies are drawing, painting and listening music.
My aim is to do a good job in Micro-biology industry and I would like to help my
country to develop economically.
Thank you Sir.
SAMPLE 2: May I know something about you and your family?
Good morning Madam.
I am Nita from Chennai.
I have completed M.A., History from Loyola College, Chennai.
In my family, there are 4 members including me. My father is a retired Clerk and my
mother is a home maker. I have one elder brother.
My hobbies are cricket, listening songs and surfing net.
My strength is - I’ m a self- confident quick learner and I don’t give up easily.
My weakness is – I am somewhat lazy but I am trying to do my work faster now.
My aim is to place in any organization where I can upgrade my knowledge.
Thank you Madam.
SAMPLE 3: Introducing you and your family
It's my pleasure to introduce myself and thank you for giving this golden opportunity to me.
I'm N.Sandeep from Visakhapatnam.
About my academic qualification:
Now I am doing B-Tech final year.
I completed my +II from Palayamkottai with 85% marks.
I did my tenth in Government High School from Tirunelveli with 95%.
About my family:
My family consists of 5 members including me. I am the eldest. My father is a Government
employee and my mother is a home maker. My brother and sister are busy with their studies.
My hobbies are listening to music, painting, and reading books.
About my strength:
Positive thinking, being optimistic, and self-confidence boost me up always.
My weakness:
I am believing people very easily and I never feel happy until I finish my work.
My short term goal is to complete my degree.
My long term goal is I want to become a great programmer.
Thank you very much Sir.
SAMPLE 4: Introducing yourself
Good morning Madam,
Firstly I would like to thank you for giving me an opportunity to introduce myself.
My name is Anu. My native place is Jaipur.
Now, I am pursuing (doing) B.A., Economics in M T N College, Madurai.
I did my schooling from M. L. Higher Secondary School in my native place.
My strength is self confidence. I am a positive thinker.
My weakness is I never feel comfortable until I finish my work.
I am a fresher so you can melt me as your requirement.
My goal is to work in a group where I can get knowledge related to my field and my
skill is useful for the organization.
Thank you Madam.
SAMPLE 5: Tell me about yourself and your family.
Good morning Sir.
It's my pleasure to introduce myself.
My name is Albert Suresh. My native is Chennai. I am a fresher.
About my qualification:
I have completed my M.A., English with aggregate of 65% in 2012. I did my schooling
with 66% in 12th standard and 65% in 10th standard in N M V Higher Secondary School,
My technical skills are C, C++, HTML and XML.
About my family,
My family consists of 4 members including me, my father - a Business man, my mother –
a Dentist and my elder brother - a worker in Sutherland Global Service.
Coming to my hobbies,
My hobbies are like playing table tennis, making new friends, watching movies a lot and
listening to songs. I have done some short films too.
To say about my Working Experience,
I worked as a Part-Time Educational consultant in a Consultancy, when I was doing my
under graduation (UG).
My greatest strength is I don't give up easily. I am cool, calm and very friendly. I am
very broad minded and hardworking too. I'm also a quick learner.
My weakness is my laziness, and believing others easily.
I never feel comfortable until I finish my work in time.
About my professional interest:
My short term goal is to complete my degree and to get a good job in a famous company
like yours, where I can upgrade my skills and knowledge efficiently.
My long term goal is to reach a respectable position in a company where I am working, in
which they never want to lose me at any cost.
Regarding languages
I know English and Tamil very well. I can read Hindi.
Thank you Sir.
If your educational qualification is one discipline, but you attend interview for
another related discipline, what to do?
For example, your educational qualification is IT based one. But you are attending an
interview for BPO.
They may ask, “Why do you prefer BPO to IT?
At such occasions, reply like this:
I believe in this quote. "The real success is in finding a work which you love.”
I love working in BPO. So I am here and I believe that here I can upgrade and
enhance my knowledge.
Other related questions such as –
i. What are your goals?
ii. How do you feel about working nights and weekends?
iii. Tell me honestly about your strong points and weak points. Sometimes, the strong and
weak points of your previous working place (your boss, management team etc.) might
be asked.
iv. What was the toughest challenge you have ever faced?
v. Why did you resign from your previous job?
are also to be prepared and answered with care.
Self- introduction is really necessary for any job and this text will help you to prepare yourself
for any kind of interview and it also shows you the shortest and smartest way to build up your
self- introduction and gives you confidence.
1.4. Introducing oneself in a Telephonic Conversation: Start any telephonic conversation
by introducing yourself. The person who makes a call is referred to as ‘caller’ and the other
person who attends the call is mentioned as ‘receiver’ here.
Sample 1: When the receiver attends and answers the caller directly:
Caller : Hello! This is John (or) It’s John calling.
Receiver: Good morning John.
Maya speaking. Is there any news?
Caller : Yes. This is just a reminding call.
Receiver: For what?
Caller : Today at 4 p.m., we have a meeting in our conference hall.
Receiver: Don’t worry. I remember it. I will be there sharply at 4 p.m.
Caller : Okay. Would you make a call when you go there?
Receiver: Certainly. Any other…..?
Caller : No, please.
Receiver: Okay. Thanks for calling.
Bye for now.
Sample 2: The caller doesn’t introduce himself. The person whom the caller wants to
speak is not there. When some other person attends the call:
Caller : Hello!
Receiver : This is Raj.
May I ask / know who is calling please?
Caller : Oh, I’m Suresh.
Your brother Vivek’s friend.
Receiver : Hello. Vivek is not here at the moment. Any message for him?
Caller : No, thanks. Please inform him about my call. I will call him again in the afternoon.
Receiver : Oh, yes. May I hang up now?
Caller : Okay. Thank you.
Receiver : You’re welcome.
1. Assume you are attending an interview for a famous company in a city. Introduce yourself
to your employer highlighting your skills.
2. Introduce yourself to your class teacher on the first day of your college studies.
3. Draft a telephonic conversation in which the receiver attends and answers the call directly.
4. Draft a telephonic conversation in which the caller’s call is attended by some other person.
“What is the purpose of (formal) communication?”
Before entering any institution or organization, certain communicative abilities are
looked for in the learners by the higher authorities and employers. Ability to speak, conduct
oneself properly in an interview, get along with others, listen carefully and accurately, make
effective presentation, prepare good yet brief report, make proposals, sell ideas, convince and
influence others are some of the qualities looked for in the learners before they are appointed.
All these activities require effective communication skills.
So, communicative abilities are to be mastered or trained by each and every individual
in his / her learning period itself to achieve in career.
In this chapter, we will look at samples of some common functions in English and the
language used to perform them. You can practice the expressions both alone and with your
classmates in order to use them with skill and confidence when speaking English. Let’s start
with different ways of introducing oneself and others. Whether you are at college, with
friends, or in business, introducing oneself is an everyday occurrence and it is an important
skill to master.
Here are some easy steps on how to greet the people you meet in a sincere and open way.
Some of the common expressions of greeting are given below:
1. Hi, Megha! How’re you? /
2. Hi, how do you do?
3. Hello, Ram! Nice to meet you again.
4. Hello Ram! Nice to meet you after so long.
5. How / Very nice to see you again!
6. Good morning / afternoon / evening.
7. Hi / hello, everybody.
8. Good morning, everybody.
9. How’re you getting on?
10. How’s life?
11. What’s the latest?
12. What’s up?
13. I hope you’re keeping well.
14. I hope all goes well with you.
Expressions like ‘Hi’ (pronounced ‘hai’) and ‘Hello’ are used in informal contexts with
friends and equals. ‘Hello’ is used with colleagues and other acquaintances also.
The last two are very formal and can be used with people who are senior in age, position, etc.
The different use of expressions depends on the degree of intimacy with the person you are
talking to.
Look at some expressions used to greet people and to take leave of them. Read each of them
and repeat it. Note the use of contracted forms such as ‘I’m’ for ‘I am’ and ‘you’ll’ for ‘you
Communication Activity: Greeting and taking leave - Groupwork
Practise the following Pattern in Pairs till you are familiar with words / sentences in bold
Model 1: Informal: Casual talk between friends
Madhavan : Hi, Ram!
Ram : Hello, Madhava! Nice to meet you after so long! How are you?
Madhavan : Fine, thank you. How’s life with you?
Ram : Just the same. By the way, when is your college reopening?
Madhavan : After two weeks. Do you have any plans?
Ram : Nothing in particular. What about going to film?
Madhavan : That’s fine. Let’s go for the first show. We’ll call Raju and Seenu also.
I must hurry now, or I’ll miss my bus. We’ll meet at the theatre. Bye.
Ram : Bye, bye ! Have a nice day.
Model 2: Informal: Two friends meeting on the way and leaving without delay
A: Good morning, how are you?
B: I’m very well, thank you. What about you?
A: I’m fine. Shall we have a cup of coffee?
B: No, thanks. I am on my way to pick up my sister waiting at her school gate.
See you later.
A: When?
B: Tomorrow evening.
A: Okay, bye.
Model 3: Formal: Two Colleagues meeting on the way and parting instantly
A: Good morning. We haven’t met for quite some time, have we?
B: Yes. Indeed, it’s a pleasure to see you.
A: I was nice meeting you, but I’m afraid I have to go now.
I must leave. I hope you’ll excuse me.
B: That’s quite all right. I hope we can meet again soon.
A: Yes, we must.
B: Yes, I hope so too.
A: Yes, please do come over.
B: Bye, bye.
Model 4: Formal: Mr.Anand meets Anita, a teacher in his neighbourhood at a
Anita : Good morning Sir. How’re you?
Mr.Anand : Good morning Anita. I’m very well, thanks. What about you?
Anita : I’m fine, thank you.
Mr.Anand : How is your new college?
Anita : It’s good sir. I enjoy teaching there. This college has proper classrooms,
laboratories and a good library.
It is totally different from my previous working place.
Mr.Anand : At last, you’ve found a place where you would like to work.
Anita : Yes sir. I’m happy about that.
Mr.Anand : My wife wants to talk with you. Come to our home one day with your
Anita : Sure sir. It’s almost time for my coaching class.
Mr.Anand : Oh, it’s all right. See you later. Bye.
Anita : Bye sir.
1. Write five different ways of informal and formal greeting (each five).
2. Imagine that you and your classmates meet your Professor on the way to your class. He
/ She calls you to give some instructions. How will you greet him / her? How will you
take leave? (Write atleast two each).
The way you introduce and present yourself provides people with a first best impression
of you. Most people begin forming an opinion of you within 3 seconds and these judgements
can be difficult to change.
When we introduce ourselves to someone, we're saying we're interested in establishing
some sort of ongoing rapport for mutual benefit. There are 3 parts to our introductions:
the handshake (often, but not always)
introducing yourself
moving into conversation
The first impression can be the difference between starting a successful business relationship or
finishing with a one-off meeting. It is very easy to make a negative first impression on
someone, often without knowing we’ve done so. It’s much harder to make a positive
impression, so you must put some effort into your introductions.
Model 1: Introducing oneself
Some of the common ways of introducing oneself are given below
1. Good morning. I’m Rajesh from IIT, Chennai.
2. Excuse me. I’m ......................................from..................................
3. Excuse me. My name is ………….………… . I’m from ……….…………
4. I’m the new student ………….……. I’m from ……….…………
5. Good morning. I’m ………….…………from ……….…………
I have just joined this department of Micro-biology (mention your department).
Communication Activity: 4 students in each team
The team will introduce themselves first individually.
Karthik : I’m Karthik. I am a first year Computer Science student. I come from Sattur.
Ravi : I’m Ravi. I am a first year Literature student. I am a day-scholar.
Dheena : I’m Dheena. I’m a first year Economics student. I am a hostellite.
Deva : I’m Deva. I’m a first year Commerce student. I come from my grandpa’s
home in Virudhunagar.
The whole class should practice this Pattern individually with 4 students in each team.
They should tell about their name, their class, department and place of living when
introducing them to their team. It would be better if they start with a greeting like “Good
morning friends”.
Model 2: Introducing others
Some of the common ways of introducing others / someone else are the following:
1. This is Mr. / Ms………….
2. Meet my friend / brother / sister………..
3. Do you know my father…………?
4. Please meet Mr. / Ms…………. (Ms is pronounced ‘Miz’)
5. May I introduce my teacher…………….?
6. Let me introduce …………..
7. I’d like to introduce my mother ………..
8. I’m sure you’d like to meet …………
To introduce others, the same team will be given practice first by introducing them and
then others one by one.
Karthik : I’m Karthik. I am a first year Computer Science student. I come from Sattur.
Ravi : This is Karthik. He is a first year Computer Science student. He comes from
I’m Ravi. I am a first year Literature student. I am a day-scholar.
Dheena : This is Karthik. He is a first year Computer Science student. He comes from
That’s Ravi. He is a first year Literature student. He is a day-scholar.
I’m Dheena. I’m a first year Economics student. I am a hostellite.
Deva : This is Karthik. He is a first year Computer Science student. He comes from
That’s Ravi. He is a first year Literature student. He is a day-scholar.
He’s Dheena. He is a first year Economics student. He is a hostellite.
I’m Deva. I’m a first year Commerce student. I come from my grandpa’s
home in Virudhunagar.
The whole class should practice this Pattern in team.
Practise the following in Pairs
Introducing your friend to your mother:
Nita : Latha, this is my mother. Ma, meet my friend Latha.
Mother : Hello, Latha. How are you?
Latha : I’m fine, thank you.
Mother : Nita quite often talks about you. Why don’t you come home one day?
Latha : I’ll come on a holiday. Thank you, Aunty.
When two people are introduced to each other, mention the senior person first.
Model 3. Introducing the Chief Guest (who has come to honour the winners of the
departmental competition) to the audience: (Fill the needed details of the Guest for
the underlined words)
Friends, let me introduce (or I am glad to introduce) our Chief Guest of the evening
Ms.G.Thilakavathi. As you all know, she is the first woman Indian Police Service (IPS)
Officer from Tamilnadu. She is also a famous short story writer. Her short story
Arasigal aluvathillai won the Government of Tamil Nadu 's best short story prize for
1988-89. She was awarded Sahitya Academi Award for Tamil for her novel ‘Kalmaram”
in 2005. She has been promoted to Director General of Police and is currently the
chairperson of the Uniformed Services Recruitment Board. We feel highly elated and
privileged to welcome you Madam to our Programme.
Model 4. Introducing yourself to a VIP who has come to inaugurate Sports Meet:
(Write about you in the place of underlined words)
Good morning Sir. I’m Rita, a final year PG Mathematics student of
V.H.N.Senthikumara Nadar College (Autonomous), Virudhunagar. I am also the Student
Representative of our College. It is my pleasure to invite you to our College Sports Meet.
1. Assume your friends Jay and Allan has come to your home. Introduce them to your
2. Assume you are the representative of your class. Your department has arranged for UG
Literary Association Meet. Introduce the Chief Guest to the audience.
3. Presume you are the compere of Youth Festival 2015 in your college. You are one
among the group that welcomes the VIP who has come to deliver a lecture and
distribute the prizes. Introduce yourself to the VIP.
Congratulation is an expression of joy in the success or good fortune of another. The
prefix "con" means "with." When we congratulate someone, we are rejoicing "with" someone.
So, blessings overflow from them to us. So the person who congratulates is to be blessed
immeasurably; perhaps sometimes even more than the person you are congratulating.
When we congratulate others for their accomplishments, we too, will soon have
something to be congratulated for. Indirectly, we are investing in their success. We make
ourselves part of their celebration. When we congratulate them and give to their cause, we open
the windows for the success of our own cause. Congratulate and be "with" others in their
success. Then when it is your turn, people will be with you.
We congratulate and compliment people on various occasions such as marriage, getting
a rank or promotion, winning an election or a prize, etc.
The following are some common expressions to congratulate others.
1. Congratulations! / Congrats! / My hearty congratulations!
2. Hearty congratulations / Congrats on…!
3. It was nice to hear that you have got success in…………
4. What a wonderful / superb performance. Hearty congrats!
5. Let me congratulate you on……..
6. I’d like to congratulate you on …….
7. May I congratulate you on your …….
Some common expressions used for complimenting others are given below.
1. That’s a nice dress (you are wearing)
2. You look smart / You’re looking very smart.
3. The sweet you have made is absolutely delicious.
4. That’s nice.
5. My compliments on your delicious preparation.
6. Well done! / Very well done! Keep it up!
7. You really deserve this honour.
8. We are proud of you.
Respond Congratulations / Compliments with
1. Thank you (for saying so).
2. Oh, thanks, not really.
3. I am glad you like it.
4. It is very good of you to say so.
Communication Activity: Congratulating/Complimenting and responding-
Practise the following in Pairs
Model 1: Congratulating your friend on winning a championship:
Rakesh: Rajeev, I’ve won the championship in athletics. Here’s the cup.
Rajeev : Well done, my friend! You deserve it. Hearty congrats!
Model 2: The Principal congratulating a student for being one among the winners:
Principal : Divya, I’m happy to congratulate you for bagging the State Level Rank
in National Talent Search Examination.
Divya : Thank you, madam.
Principal :You’ve brought glory to your college. My heartiest congratulations!
Divya :Thank you very much, madam. Your constant encouragement helps me
a lot.
Model 3: Sathish’s article on ‘Conservation of Natural resources’ wins the first prize
in an international competition organised by UNESCO. His thesis Supervisor and
Coordinator Dr. Ranjan congratulates him on his achievement.
Dr. Ranjan: Sathish, I have just heard the wonderful news. Congratulations on your
remarkable achievement.
Sathish : Thank you very much Sir.
It’s all because of the encouragement and help that I have always got
from you.
Dr. Ranjan: Not entirely. It is the result of your own hard work. You really deserve
this honour. Everyone of our department is really proud of you. I’m
sure you will keep up the good work.
Sathish : Thank you, Sir. It’s very kind of you.
1. Congratulate your Boss on his promotion.
2. Congratulate your friend on winning the Best Student Award.
3. Compliment your sister’s new hair style.
4. Compliment your mother’s delicious preparation for the celebration of your birthday.
The common expressions of request are listed below:
1. Could you help me please?
2. Can I help you?
3. Can you please lend me your pen?
4. Can you do me a favour?
5. Do you mind helping please?
6. Will / Would you please help me?
7. I’m sorry to trouble you, but I need your help.
8. If you don’t mind, please help me?
The first four are informal, used when you talk with your friends and equals. The
rest are rather formal and polite, used when you talk with superiors.
Some samples are given below:
Model 1: In a Hotel
Keerthi : Can you please serve some more rice?
Server : Yes, Madam. Anything else?
Keerthi : Yes. Please get me a plate of mutton curry in a parcel.
Server : Okay, ma’am.
Model 2: In the classroom
Shiva : Could you please lend me a pen? Mine doesn’t write.
Raj : Sorry, I have only one pen with me.
Shiva : Do you have a pencil?
Raj : Sorry, I don’t have a pencil either.
The following are the expressions commonly used for inviting:
1. I would like to invite you for my birthday party.
2. Won’t you please accept my invitation for housewarming ceremony.
3. We are pleased to invite you for my wedding.
4. We are delighted if you attend the party.
5. Please accept our invitation for family get-together.
An invitation has to be graciously accepted or declined.
i) Accepting an invitation:
1. With pleasure.
2. Okay / All right.
3. Thank you. I would be happy to.
4. That’s nice idea. Thank you.
5. We would be delighted to.
6. We would love to. Thank you.
ii) Declining an invitation:
1. No, thank you.
2. Thank you very much, but I have some important work.
3. I am sorry. I can’t.
4. I wish I could, but I can’t.
5. I regret (feel sorry) that I’m unable to accept your invitation.
6. Unfortunately I’m not free. But, thank you very much for your invitation.
Model 1: Invitation to a birthday party (Accepted):
Riya : My baby’s birthday is on 16th. Please join us with your family for the
birthday party at 6 in the evening.
Reshma : With pleasure.
Model 2: Invitation to lunch (Declined):
Ravi : Please join us for lunch.
Raj : No, thank you. I just had my lunch.
1. You are in need of a pen. Write down five different expressions of request for a pen to
your friend.
2. Your friend has come to invite you for her birthday party. Write down 5 different
expressions of accepting and declining her invitation (each 5).
Expressions of gratitude are of great importance in our day to day life in many
The most common expressions of gratitude are:
1. Thanks. / Thanks a lot.
2. Thank you very much.
3. I am happy to express my thanks to you.
4. That is indeed nice / kind of you.
5. I’m really grateful / obliged to you for your help.
6. I really can’t find words to express my thanks.
7. I / We would like to express my / our gratitude for your kind help.
The first three are more informal and the rest are often used in formal speeches or
1. Welcome.
2. You’re welcome.
3. That’s okay. / all right.
4. Please don’t mention it.
5. No mention please.
6. My pleasure.
7. It was a pleasure.
8. Glad I was able to help.
Model 1:
Sita : Could anybody lend me a pen?
Reshma : Take this. I’ve an extra one.
Sita : Thanks, Reshma.
Reshma : That’s okay.
Model 2:
Ram : Time please.
Tom : Half past one.
Ram : Thank you.
Tom : You’re welcome.
It is good manners and courtesy to ask for apology during some occasions, for
example, when you are late to your work, unable to keep your word, forget some
important thing, etc.
Common expressions of apology and response are given below.
1. Sorry.
2. I’m so / really / very / extremely sorry for being late to the class.
3. Excuse / Pardon me for forgetting my ID card.
4. Please forgive me for not keeping up my promise.
5. Please accept my apology for my harsh words to you.
1. That’s okay / all right.
2. Please don’t worry.
3. It doesn’t matter at all.
4. Forget it. / Let us forget it.
5. Don’t feel bad about it please.
6. No need / reason to apologise.
Model 1: In the classroom of a college
Teacher : Vasu, read the first paragraph in Page 10.
Vasu : I’m really sorry Mam. I didn’t have the text book.
Teacher : Why?
Vasu : I gave the book for binding. They will give the book tomorrow only.
Pardon me Mam.
Teacher : All right. Bring the book tomorrow.
Model 2: Apologising for interrupting
Attender : Excuse me, madam. Phone call for you from a parent.
Teacher : (to the students) Excuse me.
(to the Attender) Ask them to phone me after this hour.
The common expressions for (a) Seeking permission, (b) Giving permission and (c)
Refusing permission are the following:
(a) Seeking permission:
1. May / Can / Could I go out please?
2. Do / Would you mind if I go out please?
3. Is it all right if I go out?
4. If you don’t mind, I would like to read newspaper now.
(b) Giving permission:
1. Certainly you may.
2. By all means.
3. Yes, of course.
4. Go ahead.
5. It is perfectly all right / okay.
6. You can / may if you want.
(c) Refusing permission:
1. I am sorry; I cannot allow you to go out.
2. I’m afraid it is not possible.
3. I’m sorry; I am not supposed to permit you.
4. No, you can’t / may not.
5. You are not allowed to read newspaper now.
6. Permission can’t / won’t be granted.
Model 1: Seeking and granting permission – formal
Divya : Good morning mam. May I take leave for three days?
Rita : Good morning. What! Leave for three days!
Divya : Mam, My mother has high fever. The doctor advised her to take complete
rest. I should take care of her. Please mam.
Rita : Okay. Take care of your mother.
Divya : Thank you, mam.
Model 2: Seeking and refusing permission – formal
Ravi : Good morning, sir.
Principal : Good morning Rakesh.
Ravi : Sir, we are first year literature students. Can we go on an excursion to
Kodaikanal this weekend?
Principal : I’m sorry. I can’t give you permission. The College Council has decided
that only during your final year, the students can go on an excursion.
Ravi : Would you please request the Council to reconsider its decision?
Principal : I’m afraid, I won’t.
Ravi : That’s okay. We will go on an excursion in our final year. Thank you, sir.
Model 3: Seeking, refusing and giving permission – informal
Tinku : Can I have an ice-cream please?
Anu : No, you can’t. You are advised to be on diet.
Tinku : Can I have a piece of cake?
Anu : That’s okay. But have a cake with no icing on it.
1. You have forgotten your ID. Your Head of the Department asks you to write an
apology letter. Draft an apology letter.
2. Write down five different expressions of gratitude and the following response (each 5).
3. Write down three different ways of seeking, giving and refusing permission (each 3).
A dialogue is a written piece of conversation. In other words, it is a written version of
something which is essentially spoken. Therefore, it has features of both speech and writing in
it. A dialogue should never turn into an artificial speech. The main purpose of a dialogue is to
convey the thoughts clearly, crisply, cogently and naturally.
Dialogue writing is a skill that helps us in developing both our speech and writing.
Since, dialogue is the most natural form of exchanging ideas, it may be looked upon as a
preparation for a conversation.
Essential Features of Dialogues / Conversations:
The essential features of dialogues and conversations are the same.
A dialogue should reflect the speaker listener’s point of view.
A dialogue must never be a monologue i.e. one person continue to speak endlessly.
In a dialogue, the speaker and the listener keep changing their roles.
(A speaker becomes a listener and a listener becomes a speaker). The shortest dialogue consists
of two utterances by two different speakers.
Example A: May I know your name, please?
B : I’m Rajendran.
Each speaker has his / her turn at speaking and each participant’s contribution is interesting and
relevant to the topic given for building up the dialogue. The dialogue may be formal or
Main factors:
The main factors that determine the formality or informality of a dialogue are:
a. Topic or subject matter:
i. The topic decides the style of the dialogue.
ii. If the topic of the dialogue is “Discussion on Annual Budget” or “How to make
a computer virus free “or official etc…., the conversation is likely to be formal.
iii. If the topic is “planning for a picnic” or preparing a dish” or personal etc., then
the conversation is likely to be informal
b. Purpose of Communication:
i. The formal style is usually associated with public purposes.
Example: Schedule of elections, television or radio
ii. The informal style is associated with private or personal purposes.
Example: The same ‘schedule of elections’ if given to a close friend, informal style
can be followed.
c. Relationship between participants:
Dialogues are based on relationships prevailing in a family or in a society.
2.1.The relationship can be formal, semi-formal or informal. They are categorized as
given below:
i) Strangers
ii) Officials- government and private organizations
iii) Superiors - working place
iv) Acquaintances(those whom you already met but not intimate)
i) Elders of the community / public figures
ii) Colleagues - work place - but not intimate
iii) Friends - not intimate
iv) Relatives - distant by relationship and contact
v) Relatives - immediate by relationship but distant by contact
vi) Neighbours - not intimate
i) Friends
ii) Relatives
iii) Neighbours intimate by contact
iv) Collegues
In formal conversations, speak only what is essential or unavoidable. The amount of
content will be minimal. The language should be polite and respectful.
In semi-formal conversations, the language should be limited and still be polite and
respectful as it is a conversation with colleagues, friends and neighbours whom we
may not feel free.
In informal conversations, the intimacy level is high. There is no need to be formal,
polite or respectful.
S.No. Purpose Formal Semi formal Informal
1. Greeting 1.Good morning Sir!
2.Good afternoon Sir!
3.Good evening Sir!
(Greet with respect)
1.Same as in formal
but there will be tonal
2.Casual Greeting
3.A smile
4.A wave of
the hand
2. Introductions 1.How d’ you do Mam?
(Question by Starter)
2.Fine. How d’ you do?
1.Glad to meet you.
2.So am I (Answer)
1.Hi! Hello!
2.Hai! Hello.
3. Thanking 1.Thank you so much.
2.I am grateful to you.
3.Not at all (or)
Don’t mention it
1.Thank you.
2.You’re welcome
1.Thanks a
2.Thanks a
3.It’s okay /
That’s okay
4. Parting/
Taking leave
1.Good night Sir!
2.Good bye Mam!
(With respect)
1.Same as in Formal
but with tonal
2.Casual Parting
2.See you
3.See you
4.Okay. Bye.
5. Asking for
(e.g. for
1.It would be in your
interest to meet the
2.If I were you, I
should meet the doctor.
Please meet the
Meet the
6. Leave the
Place (or)
person you
are talking
with, in the
middle for
some work.
Excuse me 1.Just a moment.
2.It won’t be long.
1.Be back in a
2.Be back in a
7. Requesting
for help
1.Would you help me?
2.I wonder if you could
help me.
3.You couldn’t help
me, could you?
Will you help me? Help me.
The level of intimacy between you and the other persons will shape what
you will say and how you will say it, be it oral or written communication.
8. Offering
someone else
comes to
your place.
1.What would you
like to drink?
2.I’d like a glass of
water. (Answer)
1.What will you
have / drink now?
2.Please get me a
glass of water.
1.A drink
2. Okay.
3.A glass of
Yah. (Ans.)
9. For closing
the window
1.Would you mind if I
close the window?
2.Would you mind
closing the window?
1.Please close the
2.Do you mind
closing the window?
3.Do you mind if I
close the window?
No permission
is taken.
Just say,
‘Close the
10. Asking the
other person
about their
week end
1.Would you be too
busy during the week
2.Would you be free
during the week end?
Will you be free this
week end?
1.What are
your plans for
week end?
2.Any plans
for week end?
11. You didn’t
what the
other person
is speaking.
How do you
ask for
1.I’m afraid I didn’t
2.Would you mind
explaining this
3.Could you possibly
say why you are
saying like this?
1.I don’t think I
2.Do you mind this
Sir? Please explain
3.Can you explain
1. I don’t
2.Will you
again explain?
3.Tell me
12. How do you
ask for
(e.g.) To
enter a place.
1.May I come in?
2.Could I have a word
with you?
3.Could I have a
moment with you?
4.I would (I’d) like a
word / moment with
1.Can I come in?
2.Can you spare a
moment for me?
permission is
1. I need to
talk to you.
2. I want to
talk to you.
13. Suggestions
to solve the
problem in
your class
1.May I suggest that
you meet the
2.You could probably
meet the H.O.D./
1. I suggest you meet
the H.O.D./Principal.
2.You can meet the
Meet the
1.Formal Conversation: (Between Strangers)
A: Excuse me. Which is the way to the post office?
B: Sorry, I am also a stranger.
A: Yes, Please.
B: You might try the chemist in the shop across the street.
A: Thank you so much.
2.Semi-Formal Conversation:
(In a conference (during lunch) between participants)
Participant A: Congratulations! You have raised disturbing questions in the session.
I’m Mrs.Deepika Chandran, Editor, Science Section, SCITECH,
Participant B: Thank you Mrs.Deepika. I wondered if any one listened at all.
I’m Dr.Chandrika, Professor in Economics, SIET, Mayiladuthurai.
3.Informal Conversation: (Between Friends)
A: Meet me this evening
B: No
A: Why?
B: Don’t you remember? I have a talk to give.
A: How about tomorrow morning then?
B: Okay.
Below are several dialogues. Read them carefully and write down to which category
(formal, semi-formal, informal) they belong. The first one is done for you.
1. A: Good morning Sir.
Could I meet Mr.Kadir?
B: Oh, you must be Mr.Taman.
I’m Kadir, please come in. I have been expecting you.
A: Nice to see you Sir.
Answer: Formal dialogue.
2. A: How are you Mrs.Sadhana?
B: I am fine doctor. But I want to talk about my son Siva’s problem with you.
A: Yes.
B: You see, he’s always complaining of headache.
3. A: Won’t you have another helping?
(‘Helping’ means ‘taking a dish more than once’)
B: No, thank you.
I don’t like to get any, mother.
4. A: We are all eating at the Taj Hotel tonight.
B: Really? That’s great.
A: Do you know why we are going?
B: No.
A: To celebrate your new appointment.
B: Oh, it’s nice.
All our friends have agreed or not.
A: Yes. All agreed.
Do you know who is paying the bill?
B: Who else? You.
A: Me? Oh, no!
5. A: Excuse me, May I come in?
B: Yes, come in.
Whom do you want to meet?
A: Sir, I want to meet our house owner.
B: Sir, my father has gone out now.
What is the problem?
A: Our phone is not working.
6. A: Ticket please.
B: Where?
A: To Anna Nagar.
B: Give me twelve rupees.
A: Do you have change for fifty rupees?
B: Give me a two rupee coin. I will give you forty rupees.
A: Okay.
We hope, now you have an idea on the concept “Dialogue”. Let’s move to the next
stage of filling the dialogues with suitable responses. The response may either be questions or
other forms of statements.
To complete the dialogue, it is necessary to learn ‘framing questions using specific/
open ended or Non-Specific/close - ended questions’.
Framing Questions:
Non-specific or close ended questions begin with the auxiliary verbs such as ‘am’ is
‘are’ was, were, do, does, did, have, has, had, can, could, will, would, shall, should,”. They will
have the short responses ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. The responses in both full and short form are accepted
The following table helps you to learn the format better.
a) ‘Yes’ or ‘No’- Question and Answer (Non-Specific or close-ended questions)
Sample questions and answer for each auxiliary verb is given below for your learning.
The answer should be in full form if the situation is formal. Short form is used for informal
No. Questions Responses
Affirmative Negative
1. Am I all right? 1. Yes, you are all right. (or)
Yes, you are. (short form)
1. No, you aren’t all right
(or) No, you aren’t (short
2. Is it your bag? 2. Yes, it is my bag. (or)
Yes, it is.
2. No, it is not my bag. (or)
No, it isn’t.
3. Are you a doctor? 3. Yes, I am a doctor. (or)
Yes, I am.
3. No, I am not a doctor.
(or) No, I am not.
4. Was she there? 4. Yes, she was there. (or)
Yes, she was.
4. No, she was not there.
(or) No, she wasn’t
5. Were you insulted? 5. Yes, I am insulted. (or)
Yes, I am.
5. No, I am not insulted.
(or) No, I am not.
6. Do you go to school
6.Yes, I go to school today. (or)
Yes, I did.
6. No, I don’t go to school
today. (or) No, I don’t.
7. Does this mango
taste sweet?
7. Yes, this mango tastes sweet.
(or) Yes, this mango does.
7. No, this mango doesn’t
taste sweet. (or)
No, this mango doesn’t.
8. Did you consult the
8. Yes, I consulted the doctor.
(or) Yes, I did.
8. No, I didn’t consulted
the doctor. (or)
No, I didn’t.
9. Have you had your
9. Yes, I have had my lunch.
(or) Yes, I have
9. No, I haven’t had my
lunch. (or) No, I haven’t.
10 Has she got her
10. Yes, she has got her book.
(or) Yes, she has.
10. No, she hasn’t got her
book. (or) No, she hasn’t.
11 Had you completed
the work?
11. Yes, I had completed my
work. (or) Yes, I had.
11. No, I hadn’t completed
my work. (or) No, I hadn’t.
12 Can you lend me
your pen?
12. Yes, I can lend you my pen.
(or) Yes, I can.
12. No, I cannot lend you
my pen. (or) No, I can’t.
13 Could you do that? 13. Yes, I could do that. (or)
Yes, I could.
13. No, I couldn’t do that.
(or) No, I couldn’t.
14. Shall I come with
14. Yes, you shall come with
me. (or) Yes, you shall.
14. No, you shall not come
with me. (or) No, you
15 Should you take the
15. Yes, I should take the pill.
(or) Yes, I should.
15. No, I should not take
the pill. (or)
No, I shouldn’t.
16 Will you help me? 16. Yes, I will help you. (or)
Yes, I will.
16. No, I will not help you.
(or) No, I won’t.
17 Would you like
17. Yes, I would like coffee.
(or) Yes, I would.
17. No, I wouldn’t like
coffee.(or) No, I wouldn’t.
This table helps you to know how to frame and answer ‘yes’ or ‘No’ questions. Already, you
have undergone similar grammar exercise in ‘ changing statement to Negative and
Interrogative’. From the ‘Yes - No’ answers given, you should frame questions beginning with
the auxiliary verbs; and by making change in the usage of pronouns. The pronoun chart given
below helps you to use correct pronouns at the right place.
I my me
We our us First Person
You your you
Second person
He his him
She her her
They their them Third Person
It its it
a) If the question has ‘first person’ pronoun, it should be changed to ‘second person’
pronoun in the answer.
Example: Question : Am I tired? (I- first person)
Answer : Yes, you are tired. (you – second person)
As the subject is ‘I’, the verb ‘am’ is used in the first sentence.
As the subject is ‘you’, the verb ‘are’ is used in the second sentence.
b) ‘Wh’ Questions and Answers / Statements:
Specific / Open - ended questions begin with the interrogatives such as ‘who, what when,
where, why, which, whose, whom, how’ etc…
‘Wh’ Questions Statements
1 Who is standing there? 1. Ravi is standing there
2 What is your father? 2. My father is a teacher
3 When did you go home? 3. I went home at 4.30 p.m
4 Where is he living? 4. He is living at Allampatti
5 Why are you sad? 5. I am sad because I lost my pen
6 Which is your native place? 6. Sivakasi is my native Place
7Whose bag is this? 7. This bag is mine.
8Whom do you want to meet? 8. I want to meet my English madam
9How old are you? 9. I am nineteen.
10. How far is your house from here? 10.My house is half-a-kilometre from
11 How long were you waiting? 11. I was waiting for one hour.
12 How many brothers do you have? 12. I have two brothers.
13 How much is the cost of 1kg of apples? 13. The cost of 1kg of apples is
14 How much does 1k.g apples cost? 14. 1kg apple costs Rs.200.
15 How tall is your friend? 15. My friend is 6 feet tall.
16 How high is the Eiffel tower? 16. The Eiffel tower is 986 feet.
Model: Complete the following dialogue: (The first one is done for you)
1. Between a tourist and a guide:
Tourist: 1. …………………………….?
Guide: Hotel Janakiram is the best hotel in this locality.
Tourist: 2. …………………………..?
Guide: No, the charges are moderate.
Do you need a single bed room or a double one?
Tourist: 3. …………………………………. as I have come alone.
Guide: 4……………………………………………….?
Tourist: Yes, I can pay hundred rupees per day.
5. ………………………………….. ?
Guide: Yes, it is a bath attached room.
Answers: Let’s practice questioning and answering now. Go through the dialogue and
understand the idea.
1. For framing question 1: Read the answer of that question. As the answer starts with
the name of the place ‘Hotel Janakiram’, use ‘which’ to start the question.
Question 1: Which is the best hotel in this locality?
2. The answer for the question 2, starts with ‘No’. So, the second question should start
with the auxiliary verb ‘Are’.
Question 2: Are the charges very high?
3. The third sentence has answer ‘partly’ i.e. ‘as I have come alone’ already.
So, you should guess the remaining part only from the question. As the question starts
with auxiliary verb, the answer should start with yes or No.
Answer 3: (Yes) I need a single bed room.
As the question has choice with or’ there is no need to write ‘yes or No’.
4. For the question 4, again start it with auxiliary verb can’ as the answer has the verb
‘can’ and ‘yes’.
Question 4: Can you pay hundred rupees per day?
5. The question 5 also starts with the auxiliary verb ‘is’ as the answer has the verb ‘is’ and
Question5: Is it a bath attached one?
Assume yourself to be in the given situation and fill the following with meaningful
questions and answers as required.
1. Rani has a severe head ache. She goes to an ENT specialist.
Doctor : ………………………………………………………………………..?
Rani : I have a severe headache.
Doctor : ………………………………………………………………………..?
Rani : For the past two days.
Doctor : You have cold as well. Did you drink anything cool?
Rani : ………………………………………………………………………?
Doctor : Did you take any pills?
Rani : ……………………………………………………………………….?
Doctor : You have sinus problem. Take this prescription.
Rani : ………………………………………………………………………?
Doctor : Please, come tomorrow.
2. Father and his son (talking about the son’s examination)
Father : ……………………………………………………………………?
Son : No, I have not answered all the questions.
Father : Were all the questions tough?
Son : No, ……………………………………………………………….
Father : …………………………………………………………………….?
Son : Yes, I will score more than 60%
Father : …………………………………………………………………….?
Son : Only 35% marks are required for a pass.
Father : ……………………………………………………………………..?
Son : Kumar has done well.
3. A Customer and a salesman
Salesman: …………………………………………………………… madam?
Customer: I want to buy a wet grinder.
Salesman: …………………………………………………………………….
Customer: I want the tilting type…………………………………………….?
Salesman: It costs about Rs.2500/- Do you like this one?
Customer: Yes, I do…………………………………………………………?
Salesman: Yes, it is ISI marked, Madam.
Customer: …………………………………………………………………….?
Salesman: The guarantee period is five years.
Customer: It’s okay. Make the bill and pack it.
4. Between the Principal and a student
Principal: Where did you study last year?
Student : …………………………………………………….…… School, Erode.
Principal: You have a college in Erode. ………………………………………….?
Student : I wish to study in your college because my father studied here.
Principal: ………………………………………………………………………….?
Student : My father’s name is E.V. Murthy.
Principal: Oh, Yes. I remember him. ……………………………………………?
Student : Yes, I wish to join the hostel.
Principal: Ok. Submit the certificates. …………………………………………?
Student : Yes sir, I have them here.
5. A villager and a photographer
Villager : ……………………………………………………………………..?
Photographer: Yes. I am the photographer.
Villager : What are your rates for taking photos?
Photographer: If it is a passport size photo, it will be 60 rupees.
Villager : How many …………….…………………………………………..?
Photographer: ……………………………………………………….. three copies.
Villager : When………………………………………………………………..?
Photographer: I will give you the photos in ……………………………………….
Villager : I shall come with money next month.
Photographer: !!!!!!!!!!!
Why do I need to ask for or give someone directions?
Everyone may be asked by someone for directions to a place where one hadn’t been
earlier. There will be times, when you need a place- especially when you are away for studies
or career and you ought to ask someone for directions.
A good way to start the conversation with a stranger is by saying “Excuse me” / “Hello”
with “Sir / Madam”. Use the word ‘please’ when you are asking for directions. It’s polite and
people are more likely to help you.
Some basic phrases you can ask for directions to go to a place.
Excuse me sir, can you give me directions to the nearest petrol station?
Can you please tell me how I can get to East Street?
Where is the nearest Supermarket?
How can I get to the local Market?
I’m trying to get to bazaar. Would you please help me?
What is the best way to get to your street form here?
Where can I find the nearest bakery?
Is there a supermarket near here?
Is there a sports shop around here?
Hello Madam. I’m looking for the dentist in this street. How can I get there from here?
What is the quickest way to get to the store from here?
What is the easiest way to get to the nearest bank from here?
Excuse me sir, I seemed to be lost. Could you help me to get to the local Mall?
When giving directions, you will often use landmarks as a way of giving directions
Excuse me sir, Is there a bank around here?
Yes, there is a bank next to Library.
Notable landmarks are given below for your usage.
Traffic lights
Cross roads
Level crossing
Sign post
Dead end
Fly over
Under pass
Round about
Pedestrian crossing
Zebra crossing
Motorway bridge
Railway bridge
If you don’t understand when they give directions, don’t be afraid of asking them to tell
you again. Most people will always do their best to help you. When you are speaking to
someone for giving directions, use your hands to demonstrate what you mean left, right or
straight on.
Stock Expressions used for directing someone to some destination or landmark, are given
Please go straight (or) Go straight ahead
Go straight on your left
Turn right / left
Pass two roads on your right
Walk past the bus stop
Walk along the Arch
Look for the Post office
Cross the first cutting / turning
Turn the second corner from …………….
It is on the third cut from ………………
It’s adjacent to ………………… / It is near ………………………………
It is in between …………………
It’s behind the ………………….
It is right in front of ………………..
It is on the way to …………………..
Don’t go beyond that …………………….
Make enquiries at ……………. (the nearest traffic constable / shop etc…)
Where the three roads meet, there is ………….
Better hire an auto to reach …………………
Keep going till you reach the Green Hotel. On your left, you will see the Park. You will
find a water tank near that Park. The Indian Bank is just opposite the Park.
Some samples are given below for your comprehension.
Sample: 1
A man approaches you to direct him to hospital nearby. Here, you find the road-
map. Write down instructions by way of helping him at least 5)
Vimal Jewellry
Main Road
Selvi Hospital Bus Stop X
You are here (your working place)
The Man: Sir, what is the quickest way to get to the nearby hospital?
You : Please go straight. As soon as you reach the main road, turn left. Walk past the
bus stop. Cross the first lane. Look for Selvi hospital. It is just opposite Vimal
The man: Thank you
Note :At the end, when you mention the destination, use it at the beginning of the
(e.g) Wrong : Vimal Jewellery is opposite Selvi hospital.
Right : Selvi hospital is opposite Vimal Jewellery.
Sample: 2
You are in Virudhunagar bus stand. A sranger approaches you to direct him to
VHNSN college. Help him by showing directions with your instructions.
Stranger: Excuse me sir, could you please tell me how to get to VHNSN College?
You : Please board a bus from virudhunagar to Aruppukottai.
The bus fare is five rupees in town bus and six rupees in city bus and seven
rupees in private bus. The bus will cross Meenambigai bungalow,
Aaththupaalam, M.G.R. Statue. bridge, Allampatti road. It’s just a straight road.
Then after a few minutes travel, you can see the Arch with VHNSN College
name on your left. After the bus stops, get down from the bus. Give your details
to the watchman at the entrance of the college He will guide you to the office or
department you want to go.
Stranger: Thank you a lot for your details.
Sample : 3
A lady riding in a two –wheeler asks you to direct to Sree petrol pump. Here you
find the road map. Help her to reach the petrol pump with your instructions.
You are
X here
Ram Restaurant
Fruit Stall
Ravi petrol pump
Main Road
Sree Petrol Pump
The lady : Sir, How do I get to Sree petrol pump?
You : Mam, Please ride straight and turn left. Cross past the first cutting on
your right.
Pass Meena cinema and Vysya Bank on your night.
Then take a turn at your right on the third cutting next to Vysya Bank.
Ride for a minute. Sree petrol Pump is on your left.
It’s just opposite Shopping Complex.
The lady : Thanks for your instructions and help.
1. You are in the vehicle shed of VHNSN College. A newly admitted student approaches
you and asks you directions to auditorium. Help him to reach auditorium with your
2. A tourist wants to go to the best hotel of your place. He seeks your help to direct him
there. Show him the directions by way of helping him.
3. A middle aged woman asks your help as she wants to go to the nearby temple. You are
also new to that place. How will you direct her?
4. Assume you are living near Virudhunagar bus station. You have Parents Teachers Meet
in your department the next day. Your elder sister who has come there for vacation
wants to attend the Meet. She asks you the way to your college. How will you direct her
to reach your college?
5.Writing Stories from Outline
Story Writing is an art. Each and every individual likes to listen to or read a good
story. From the old days to the present technologically developed world, there is no second
opinion and there is no variation in age in listening to stories with interest.
Developing the Hints
Writing stories from the outlines given is not merely filling up dashes but developing
Vysya Bank
Juicer Hall
the phrases into full sentences. Usually, students takedown hints or notes from various sources
in the form of an outline. This outline has been elaborated in the form of sentence for their
learning purpose during test or examination. So, the exercise on “Writing Stories from
Outline” prepares the learners to develop their skill in elaborating gists or points into
sentences and paragraphs.
What is a Story?
Before analyzing “How to write stories from the given outline”, it would be better to
know what a story is and what composes a story.
A story is a work of fiction or imagination that is usually written in easily
understandable grammatical structure with natural flow of speech. A story is meant to be read
at a single sitting and therefore it should be direct and brief as possible.
For developing the hints given, there is no need to cook the story as the outline of the
story is provided to the learners. It is a piece of composition which implies the techniques of
How to write stories from the outline given:
Read the hints given very carefully.
Understand all details given in the story.
Think of setting or background of the story.
Imagine the story in your mind’s eye.
Choose an apt title for the story. The title should be short and catchy. It is good to use
adjectives to describe important events or characters.
For eg. The honest farmer (or) The famous writer (or) The clever crow etc.
Begin the story with description of the background and the main characters. Take care
to make it an interesting one.
The next paragraph should deal with the details or the problem mentioned in the story.
The third paragraph should be the concluding part. It may end with solution to the
problem discussed. It should satisfy the readers’ interest.
Each new incident can also be written in a new paragraph.
Use only past tense when narrating the story.
The dialogues between characters make the story lively. For such dialogues, use
present tense in direct form.
There is no need to write rough draft.
It is very important to build upon the story with coherence from the beginning to the
The first paragraph should be the description of the place and characters as given in the
outline. The next paragraph should deal with the problem or the twist in the story. The
solution to the problem should form the concluding paragraph.
Revise the story after completing it.
If there is need, revise the title also.
The moral of the story is implied. It need not be written explicitly.
Some samples are given below for practice.
Two friends – pass through a forest – a bear comes out – one friend climbs up the tree
– the other lies on the ground – without movement – the bear sniffs – goes away – the friend
on the tree gets down – enquires the other friend what the bear said into his ears – moral.
Story: Two friends and a Bear
Once, there were two friends. They decided to go to the nearby town for their
business. On the way, they passed through a dense forest. Many wild animals lived in that
forest. So, they walked very fast.
When they were walking, they heard the growling of bear. Suddenly, they saw a black
bear coming towards them. One of the friends knew how to climb up a tree. So, he ran and
climbed up a tree. He thought he was safe. The other friend did not know how to climb up a
tree. So, he felt helpless. He thought for a while and he lay down on the ground without
movement. He pretended to be dead. The bear came near the man lying on the ground. He
sniffed him. Then he left the place thinking that the man was dead.
The man on the tree climbed down. He said to the other friend, “Get up. Let us
continue our journey. The bear has gone away.” He again asked “What did the bear whisper in
your ears?” The other friend replied that the bear whispered in his ears not to trust a false
2. Outlines:
A happy and rich family father, mother and two sons father’s plan about his
children’s studies sudden change in the younger son his bad habits dismissal from
college – his departure from home with his share of the family property – he foolishly spends
money on a new business – deceived by his friends – turns a beggar – chance meeting with his
father – the generous love of the father.
Story: The Return of the Prodigal Son
Once, a rich man named Keshav lived in a town. He was honest and good. So, people
liked him. He lived with his wife and two sons Ramu and Balu. Both of his sons were at
college. He had very high hopes about them. He wished his sons to join a foreign university
for higher studies. So, he told his wife about his desire.
When they were talking, Balu entered the room. He walked towards his parents
unsteadily. He was drunk. The mother cried, “Oh, my God! What happened Balu?” He told
them slowly that he had hit some of the students of his college in drunken state and he was
dismissed from the college by the principal. Balu’s parents understood that their son had been
keeping bad company. They were shocked when he demanded his share from his father’s
property. He said stubbornly that he wanted to start a business of his own. The father agreed
to divide the property with a broken heart.
Balu started ‘Balu Films’ with his friends. His friends misused his money. No film
was released. He understood lately that his friends had cheated him. They left him alone. He
had no money. Days, months and years passed. One day he was hungry and he walked slowly
on the road. On the way an old man asked him, “Could you bring this luggage to the
Restaurant?” He also agreed to carry the heavy luggage. But when he saw the old man’s face,
he was shocked. It was none other than his father. He cried, “Father” falling down on his
father’s feet and said “forgive me”. Keshav also wept in joy. He embraced his son and they
went back home.
Each and every one of the family welcomed him. The home was happy again after
many years.
Construct stories using the following outlines:
1. A boy falls into bad company his father feels sad wants to teach him a lesson gives
him a basket of good apples – places a rotten apple among them – some days pass – the rotten
apple spoils the good apples.
2. King Midas loves gold very much angel appears Midas says, “Everything I touch
should turn into gold” angel blesses he touches table becomes gold touches bed
becomes gold – touch coffee – becomes gold – he is unhappy – touches food – becomes gold
he is hungry and thirsty touches his daughter she becomes gold desperate prays to
angel – blesses Midas – everything back as original.
3. An old farmer – four sons – always quarrel – advice no use – farmer sad – falls ill – gives
them a bundle of sticks – tells them to break the stickstry in turnin vain – farmer unties
the bundle – they break them one by one – they have learnt a lesson.
4. A farmer – had a goose - laid a golden egg daily – the farmer became greedy – planned to
become rich soon – killed the goose cut it open to get golden eggs – no golden egg inside her
– disappointed.
5. Robert Bruce king of Scotland wanted to free his country from English but defeated
many times – to protect himself from enemies – hides in a cave - sees a spider – tries to climb
up many times fails it tries again succeeds at last the king gathers his armymen
another battle against English – fight and wins.
Letter writing is a skill. It is the commonest form of written communication. Today’s
computer age has superfast methods of communication such as e-mail, fax etc. So, writing
letters start losing its importance now-a-days.
While writing a letter, you may have the following questions in your mind.
How should I start the letter?
What information do I include?
Am I Communicating in the best way, needed for the situation?
Is my approach the most effective one?
Will the letter bring the action or reaction I want?
You may feel frustrated, aren’t you? Do you want to know how to make it easier?
Read on and learn now.
Letters can be categorized under two headings- Informal and Formal.
I. INFORMAL LETTERS - Personal Letters i.e. to parents, friends, and relatives fall under
informal category.
The Informal Letter has six parts.
1. Heading or Return address / Sender’s address with Date – the sender’s address – on the
right top.
Eg. Bangalore
February 5, 2015
2. Salutation
Dear / My dear ………… (relation / friend)
3. Body of the letter
4. Subscription - (Yours friendly / lovingly/affectionately)
5. Signature - Sender’s Signature / Name
6. Superscription - Receiver’s Address
1. Letter to a friend asking him to spend a week’s holiday with you.
(Heading or Return address with Date) 16, Fathima Nagar
II Street
6 March 2015
My dear Prema, (Salutation)
(Body of the letter)
Well and wish the same from you. I am sure you have done pretty well in your
Summative Examinations. Here, I have done my Papers well. I am satisfied with my
performance and I expect a good score with distinction.
My summer vacation starts at 18 May 2015 and our College reopens on 16 June only.
We plan to go on a tour to Kanyakumari on the 20th May morning and return back on the 22nd
May morning. If you have no other programme, please join us. It would be really a fun and I
will be happy to spend a week’s time with you during the vacation. My parents will talk to
your mother if you are willing to join us. We shall feel honoured if you come over here and
spend a week with us. My parents and I are eagerly waiting for your arrival and stay with us.
Convey my regards to your family members and kids. Awaiting your positive reply.
(Subscription) Yours lovingly
(Signature) R.Priya
Address on the envelope
To Stamp
Miss.S.Prema (Superscription)
D/O. Mr.T.Gopal
6, West Car Street,
2. Letter to uncle thanking him for the gift that he sent on your birthday.
12, R.K.Puram
12 March 2015
Dear Uncle,
Received your letter with the greetings and gift sent by you on my birthday. It is really a
pleasant surprise to me and my parents and brother liked it very much. I thank you so much
for your kindness and care.
You have sent me a real great gift. I am badly in need of a good watch and your present is
a timely act. Now, I can wake up early with the help of the alarm setting and prepare myself
well for my examinations and routine college work. I couldn’t find words to express my
Convey my regards to Aunty and kids.
Yours affectionately
Address on the envelope
To Stamp
Thiru. D.Rajesh
16, Town Hall Street
II. FORMAL LETTERS – The following letters fall under this category:
A. Business Letters - Letters regarding business dealings such as
Complaint / Claim letters, Adjustment letters (in response to a complaint letter),
Collective letters (reminding one to make a payment that is overdue),
Enquiry letters / Order letters (seeking information / asking for a quotation) and
Quotation reply (a reply to an enquiry)
B. Official letters - Letters to the Editors, Office …
C. Letter to the Staff / Head of the Department / Principal …
D. Job Application / Resume / Covering Letter [dealt in a separate chapter of this book].
In this text, let us have a detailed outlook on the format, form and elements of FORMAL
LETTER with examples and worksheet. It’s time to start your practice.
The business letter is the basic means of communication between two or more
companies or between two or more individuals. It has to be written with care because they
leave a lasting impression and they can build or spoil the relationship between the parties
concerned. Writing business letter is like any other technical communication. It has to convey
specific information to the reader.
Order letter is sometimes placed through letters. It follows the general format of
business correspondence. It gives a clear description of the items ordered, their quantities,
catalogue numbers and prices. It should also specify the date of delivery, the mode of transport
The General Format of Business Letter:
A good letter should be clear and concise with short sentences and simple
It should be straightforward and polite.
It is better if it is limited to one single - spaced typewritten page.
A business letter is often judged on the proper construction – format, content,
punctuation, openings and closings.
There is no place for fancy fonts in business letters.
The elements of a standard business letter and their functions are given below
Your address (or the address of the company you represent) forms the Heading.
Leave two blank lines after the return address. Always spell out the month and then the day, a
comma followed by the year.
Eg. August 2, 2014
3. INSIDE ADDRESS (Receiver’s Address)
Leave two blank lines after the date. Then type the address of the person or company to whom
you are writing.
The Manager
Nokia Service centre
15, Anna Salai
Type ‘Dear Sir’ (or) ‘Sir’, followed by the person’s name. End the line with a colon. If you
don’t know the name of the person, use
Dear Editor, (or) Dear Madam, (or) Dear Sir,
After the Salutation, mention about previous correspondence, if there is any.
Subject :
Reference :
Align your message on the left margin. Skip a line before starting a new paragraph. But do not
indent the paragraph’s first line. Make sure that each paragraph is clear and concise.
The first paragraph of letter should introduce your purpose of the letter.
The body of the letter should present the points to make clear your purpose. The points
could be covered in a bulleted or numbered list so that the information is easy to
Your concluding part should highlight your message. It should also clearly state what
action; the receiver of the letter needs to take, in order to achieve the purpose.
Leave two lines of space after your last paragraph. Then use a conventional closing, followed
by a comma.
Eg. Yours sincerely, /Yours respectfully, /Yours truly,
Your signature appears below your closing. Use both your first and last name.
Eg. Mrs.Radha Mathivanan (and not) Radha
Four lines after the closing, type your full name. Do not include a title (Mr. / Mrs. / Shri /
Smty). If you are writing on behalf of an organization, type your title on the next line.
If you send a copy of letter to someone other than the person addressed, write ‘cc:’ and the
person’s name. Use ‘Enc.’ or ‘Enclosure’, if you enclose something with the letter.
Enc : Copy of my sales receipt
1. Write a complaint letter to the Customer Sales Representative about the faulty mobile
phone that you have bought recently.
Mrs. Sita Rajendran
121, New Street (Return address)
January 11, 2015 (Date)
Customer Sales Representative
Sony Service Centre
15, Anna Salai (Inside address)
Sirs, (Salutation)
Sub.: Request for replacement of faulty mobile phone - reg
Ref.: Invoice No. 115 dated January 10, 2015
I recently bought one of your mobile phones (Model - Xperia Z) from one of your
branches in Chennai. After observing the product, I discovered that two of the parts were
missing, i.e. the Charger and the Headphone. The instruction booklet is not in English but in
I am writing this letter to replace the missing parts. Also I want a copy of the
instruction booklet in English for the model I bought. I hope arrangements will be made for
replacing the missing parts.
If I did not receive any reply within ten business days, I will return the handset to your
branch and I expect a full refund / repayment.
I include a copy of my sales receipt and a list of the missing parts for your kind
Yours sincerely, (Closing)
Mrs.Sita Rajendran (Signature)
Enc : Photocopy of my sales receipt (Enclosure)
2. Assume you are the Secretary of Taj Sports Club and write a letter to Mercury Sports
Club asking for quotation.
34, Anna Nagar, Chennai -600 040. PH: +91-44-66222552.
7th April 2015
M/S. Mercury Sports Club,
No. 15, New Road,
Thousand Lights,
Chennai – 6.
Sub : Supply of sports materials – Quotation called for.
We are leading sports club in Chennai. We are placing an order for the following items
with 20% discount for immediate purchase.
1. Volley ball (Practice) - 20
2. Volley ball (Tournament) - 15
3. Volley ball net (Practice) - 5
4. Volley ball net (Nylon) - 5
5. Basket ball - 15
Please take care to have the goods delivered carriage paid at the above address by 20th April
We look forward to your immediate reply.
Yours faithfully,
Secretary – Taj Sports Club
3. Order by post, some text books and guides from S.H.Book Depot, Chennai.
Letter to the Editor, Office (Municipality, Commissioner etc.) fall under this category.
Letter to the Editor is an explanatory letter about an issue or problem in the area known to the
sender. The matter should be precise. The format for the letter to the editor is same as business
letters. The Salutation should be ‘Sir’ and the ending should be ‘Yours truly’. The sender
should mention his/her complete address as anonymous letters are not published by the
newspapers. At times, the sender may refer himself / herself as “A sufferer” but with his / her
complete address.
4. Write a letter to the Editor of a daily paper, pointing out the need for immediate
improvements in the roads of your place of living.
The Councillor – Ward No. 24
24, Amman Koil Street
The Editor
The Hindu
Sub. : Complaint about the bad condition of roads – regarding
I wish to bring to your kind notice, the very bad condition of the roads in Sattur
locality. We have a rich Municipality but the badly broken roads are a dishonor to the town.
The buses which travel through Sattur are many in number. Sattur is the only route through
which people can travel from Sivakasi or Madurai to Kovilpatti, Tuticorin, Tirunelveli,
Nagerkoil etc.
Some of the roads are full of pits. They become nuisance during rainy days. The
journey troubles people dangerously at such times. Sometimes, it results in loss of life also.
Many of the roads need to be repaired.
I hope this letter will awaken the authorities concerned, to their sense of duty.
Sattur, Yours truly,
A sufferer.
5. Draft a letter to the Municipal Commissioner complaining of mosquito trouble in your
These letters fall under formal category and the format is same as the business letters.
6. Write a letter to the Principal of your College asking him for the testimonial.
D/O. Mr.K.Babu
16, Market Road
22 February 2015
The Principal
V.H.N.Senthikumara Nadar College (Autonomous)
Respected Sir,
Sub.: Requisition seeking for the issue of a testimonial – reg
I was a student of our College for the past five years. I passed M.Com., with distinction
last year. Last month, I applied for an American scholarship. Now I have been asked to appear
for an interview in Delhi with a certificate from my College Principal.
During my period of study, I was one of the best students of my class. I was awarded
the General Proficiency Prize. I was also the captain of our College Football team.
Kindly issue me the testimonial at the earliest.
Thanking you
Madurai Yours obediently
22 February 2015
7. Write a letter to the Head of the Department of your College, informing him that you
have secured a good job and thanking him for all that the College has done for you.
16, West Car Street
February 12, 2015
The Head
Department of English
VHN Senthikumara Nadar College (Autonomous)
Respected Sir,
I am happy to inform you that I got selected as the Probationary Officer in Indian Bank,
Chennai. I shall get Rs.25,000 as a basic pay.
I was your student (M.A., English) last year and it is my duty to offer my heartfelt
thanks to you and other faculty members of our department. You have taken pains to mould
our habits, characters and make us good citizens. The discipline that we learnt in the classroom
and the playground really guide us. Your words of advice and encouragement light our path in
life. I will never forget your effort in making us converse in English inside our college campus.
We can never forget your kindness and interest in building up our career. I have no
words to express my thanks for all your kindness.
Sattur Your most obedient
February 12, 2015
8. Write a leave letter to your Class – in – charge asking leave for three days.
A memorandum or memo for short is a means of conveying information within an
organization or a company. It is different from a letter which is meant for persons outside the
A MEMO is written in a simple matter - of - fact language. It has direct appeal and is
written in an unemotional tone. It maintains cordial relation among the employees.
The function of a memo is to establish accountability / responsibility. Memo forms a
permanent record of office information and decisions, which can be referred at later date. To
convey some official information to a person in the office without calling him, the authorities
can have the choice of memo writing.
It is meant for the following three purposes:
1. issued to a person / persons who is / are at fault and pulled up for his / her / their acts of
commission or omission.
2. to fix the responsibility on the employee / employees who has / have gone wrong in the
execution of an official work.
3. to convey some official information to the workers in the office without calling them.
In some companies, a memo has a specific protocol and format in a printed form. If there is no
such form, you can choose your own format. The word “MEMO” comes from the Latin
Memorandum, ‘a thing which must be remembered’.
1. HEADER: The Opening / Header Component consists of -
i. the Name of the Receiver and the Department that he belongs to
ii. the Name of the Sender and the department to which he belongs
iii. the Date.
iv. Reference number is needed if the action / enquiry takes a long period.
2. PURPOSE: A clear purpose statement (Subject) of the Memo.
3. DISCUSSION: A brief background of the subject of the Memo, the detailed information
about the Subject.
4. ACTION: The benefits / recommendations / actions taken, whichever is applicable.
5. SUMMARY: A clear concise statement, which stresses the purpose once again.
6. CC or BCC - to whom that Memo is meant and the name and signature of the sender.
SAMPLE MEMO I : (Reason 1: to a person / persons who is / are at fault and pulled up for
his / their acts of commission or omission)
As the Principal of a Private College, draft a Memo to an employee who always comes
late - issuing him a warning.
Inter office Memorandum
To : Dr.S.Keshav, Associate Professor of Bio-Chemistry
From :Principal Date : March 11, 2015
Sub : Warning for being late to the work
It is noticed that you have been always a late comer to the College mostly. You
belong to this place only and there is no genuine reason behind your act.
The information was taken to the Principal’s notice as it affects the normal
functioning of classes which you are handling. The Staff who are adjusting your classes find
it hard to fit in it as they have not been informed earlier about your absence. The students
also find it very difficult to cope with the situation as exams are nearing. Already many staff
are overworking and still they are adjusting the situation without even murmuring.
If you come late hereafter, it would be considered casual leave.
Hence, you are directed to handle your classes as per the time table allotted to you.
Hope you will be inside the college campus at the right time from tomorrow onwards.
CC : Head of the Department Dr. SABARISH.N
SAMPLE MEMO II : (Reason 2: to fix the responsibility on the employee / employees who
has / have gone wrong in the execution of an official work)
As the Managing Director of a reputed company, draft a memo to the employees who
spends more time in coffee break – issuing them a warning.
Inter office Memorandum
To : The Heads of all the Sections
From : Managing Director Date : January 8, 2015
Sub : Supply of tea during tea break
It is noticed that employees who go to canteen during tea break, stay there for more
than the specified break time of 15 minutes. It is learnt that some of the employees return to
work only after 30 - 40 minutes. It affects the normal functioning of the office work.
Hence, arrangement has been made to supply tea in their place of working itself
during tea breaks.
This will come into effect from January 10, 2015.
CC : The Heads of all the Sections ASHOK METHA
SAMPLE MEMO III : (Reason 3: to convey some official information to the workers in the
office without calling them)
As the Chief Executive Officer, draft a memo to the employees advising them to be more
economical in using stationery.
Inter office Memorandum
To : Department Staff
From : Chief Executive Officer Date : February 23, 2015
Sub : Economy measure in stationery items
The cost of the stationery has increased greatly. The budget provision has almost
Hence, it is proposed to strictly follow certain economic measures in the use of office
One side blank papers will be supplied to the Departments which may kindly be used
for the rough drafting of letters and routine office memos.
CC : Department Heads & Staff T.SURENDHAR
(Chief Executive Officer)
Draft the following Memos, inventing the details you think necessary.
1. To the employees of a company announcing a change in the working hours and explaining
the reasons for the change – announcing bonus as per their productivity.
2. As the Correspondent of a CBSE school, draft a memo to the faculties who have very poor
result of the classes they are handling.
A Notice is a piece of written communication announcing news about an event of the
future or past and is meant for a particular set of people. It may be in the printed, written, or
typed form. In newspapers we find various notices such as company notices to its shareholders,
legal notices to the people concerned, tender notices inviting tenders for different works etc. In
Schools and Colleges, we have Notices put up on the notice board and also those read out in
the classrooms. While writing a Notice, the following points should be borne in mind.
1. The message should be written in a clear, brief and precise way.
2. If you are writing one for the examination, limit the number of words to around fifty.
3. It is good to use sub headings if the notice is slightly longer.
4. Aim of drafting a notice should be to attract the attention of the people.
5. The sentences need not be complete and it should be brief.
6. Use proper punctuation marks.
7. Numbers and abbreviations may be used.
8. Generally, there is no need for any Salutation or Complimentary Close, which are
essential in a Circular.
9. The date should be written either below the caption to the right or below the message to
the right or left.
10. The caption should be in capital letters and the authority issuing the notice must be
mentioned at the beginning or end of the message.
11. The entire message may be boxed.
12. Always display the Notice in public places.
Notices can serve a number of purposes in a work place / an institution.
Report on matters of importance to Staff.
Advertise Posts for internal appointment.
Inform staff in new procedures and rules.
Convey growth in development of the company.
Announce social Programmes.
It is better to nominate a person to be in charge of the notice board. He would keep notice
board neat and tidy and also remove old and outdated notice.
The Notice will have the following parts:
Heading or Subject
Date of issue
Signature or name of issuing authority with designation, if any.
a) For the college Notice Board :
b) A Notice from IIIT, Chennai in a Daily Newspaper:
1. As the Headmaster of Vikas School, draft a notice to be displayed at the entrance and office,
giving details about the rescheduling of half-yearly examinations with the timetable and
syllabus for each class.
This is the third and final reminder for articles to be published in our college
Awake, arise, invoke the Muses and exercise your creative genius.
Last date for submission of articles: February 12, 2015.
January 30, 2015
Chennai, Tamilnadu
The last date for receipt of completed applications at Anna University, Chennai
(TN) is extended upto 15th April, 2015.
2. As the Secretary of your College Arts Club, draft a notice regarding inter-class cultural
competitions to select candidates for the University Youth Festival.
For holding a meeting, we issue a Notice with all the details to the people concerned.
There should be an Agenda for a meeting and the Minutes should be written after the meeting.
An Agenda is the programme of the list of items of business to be transacted at a
particular meeting. It gives the workers who will be attending a meeting, its planned
programme or an outline of the business that will be conducted during the meeting. It helps to
conduct the meeting in order, proceeding from one item to the next. Moreover, since it is often
circulated along with the Notice, the members will have an idea of what is going to be
discussed. If it is one of a series of meetings, the first item will be the reading of the Minutes of
the previous meeting.
Sample Agenda for a Valediction Programme
**Re-Accredited with ‘A’ Grade by NAAC**
Venue: Multimedia Hall Time: 4.15 p.m. Date: 3 /04/ 2012
1. Prayer
2. Welcome Address : Miss. Evelyn Lysander, Asst. Prof. in Computer Science
3. Honoring the Chief Guest
4. Presidential Address : Thiru S.A.S.Muralitharan, M.B.A., Secretary
V.H.N.S.N. College Managing Board
5. Felicitations : *Thiru.T.R.Kandasamy, M.A., President
V.H.N.S.N. College Managing Board
*Thiru. K.A.P.R.R.Chandrasekaran, B.Sc., B.A.,
Vice - President
V.H.N.S.N. College Managing Board,
* Tmty. K.V.R.P. Parimala Prabakaran
Vice - President
V.H.N.S.N. College Managing Board
* Thiru.S.S.P.S.Thangarajan, Treasurer
V.H.N.S.N. College Managing Board
* Dr.P.Sundara Pandian,
M.Com., M.B.A., M.A., M.Phil., PGDPM & IR,
Principal, V.H.N.S.N. College
* Dr.A.Shunmugasundaram, M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D.,
Director of S.F. Courses, V.H.N.S.N. College
6. Key Note Address: * Dr.R.Vairamuthuvel, Associate Prof. of Commerce
M.Com., M.Phil., M.B.A., PGDCA., Ph.D.
* Dr. R. Selvam, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D
Associate Professor of English
* Dr.N.Anandam, M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D.
Professor & Advisor of M.C.A.
7. Distribution of Certificates
8. Vote of Thanks : Ms.V.Jeya Santhi , Asst. Prof. in English.
9. National Anthem
[ Compere: Miss. P.Athirstalakshmi, Asst. Prof. in Computer Science]
2. MINUTES – Procedure
1. Reading the minutes of the previous meeting and approving it, is the first activity.
2. Next activity deals with the amount of progress on issues already discussed.
3. Refers to any resolutions in relation to the programs / issues already discussed.
4, 5, 6, 7. Related to matters discussed on agenda for this meeting and the resolutions regarding
8. Activity that is not dealt in the agenda but can be taken up for discussion and possible
15 January, 2015
The Annual Meeting of the Board of Studies in English (Under Graduate) will be held
at 11 a.m. on Friday 20, January 2015 at the Department of English, John’s College,
Madurai. Kindly attend the meeting.
The agenda for the meeting is enclosed.
Minutes of the annual meeting of the Board of Studies in English (UG) held at the
Department of English, John’s College, Madurai at 11.00 a.m. on 20 January 2015.
Members Present : 1. Dr. Suresh Chand (Chairman)
2. Dr. John
3. Prof. Shilpa
4. Prof. Das
5. Dr. Manoj Kumar
Members absent : 1.Prof. Uma Sankar
2. Dr. James
1. Syllabus
No change to be made for 2015-2016 admissions
2. Prescription of Text books
No change to be made for 2015-2016 admissions
3. Comments on question papers set for previous examinations
The following may be brought to the attention of the Controller of Examinations:
a. In Paper VI of November 2014, the following questions were asked from outside the
syllabus –
In Q.No.1 and Q. No. 4 both (a) and (b) were outside the syllabus.
Q. No.12 was too vague and general for a short answer.
Questions from outside the syllabus may be avoided in future.
1. Syllabus
2. Prescription of textbooks for 2015-2016
3. Comments on Question Papers set for previous examinations.
4. Preparation of Panel of question paper setters and examiners.
5. Restructuring of Courses to introduce job – oriented courses.
6. Any other item admitted by the Chair.
4. The Chairman has the authority to submit the panel of question paper setters and
Examiners to the Controller of Examinations.
5. Restructuring of Courses to introduce job – oriented courses.
The proposal by Dr. John and Prof. Das for Skill Based Programmes and Personality
Development Programmes for all the students to be conducted by the Department of English
was approved.
6. Any other item admitted by the Chair
The proposal by Dr. Manoj Kumar for a Certificate, Diploma and Advanced Diploma
Courses in Communicative and Functional English to be conducted by the Department of
English was approved.
The meeting came to a close at 1 p.m. with a vote of Thanks to the Chair.
Dr. Suresh Chand
1. Assume you are the Student Representative of your Department. Draft an Agenda for
the Inauguration of your Department Literary Association Meeting.
2. As an Office Bearer of your College Students ’ Association, you are assigned the job of
writing the minutes of your College Annual Literary Festival. The meeting has been
called to discuss the venue, date, time, the events and the budget for the annual literary
festival. Draft the Minutes of the meeting.
9. Designing a Resume
The term 'RESUME' is used in the United States. Its equivalent
'CURRICULUM VITAE'[CV] is preferred in England and European Countries. It is also used
in India but of late "RESUME" has gained higher frequency of use.
Resume writing is the first step in securing a job. It is a tool for obtaining an
interview, not a job. You may have excellent subject knowledge and wonderful skill and
talent. But unless you communicate them explicitly, you may not be able to reach the
interview stage. In the modern context, a resume should be considered a marketing tool. It
is the content of the resume that determines whether or not you should be called for an
interview. It is also your first indirect contact with your employer. The employers receive
hundred / thousands of resumes every day. If they look the same, it will be dull and dreary.
So, your resume should be different from that of others in all respects.
As a marketing tool, the main purpose of the resume is to sell yourself. Hence-
1. Find out what type of candidates, the employer has in his mind and you should
design your resume accordingly.
2. Find out whether your qualifications, experience, talents and personal skills match
the employment needs and job requirements.
3. The next step is to do a SWOT [strengths weakness opportunities threats]
analysis. Outline your skills, abilities, work experience and extracurricular
activities. What are your strong features and what makes you unique? Make sure
you convey this information in your resume.
So, start designing your resume that could be your ticket to the job of your dreams.
Let your resume speak for you even before you enter the interview hall.
What are you? Your education, experience and
personal skills
What have you done so far? Your past professional accomplishments
What can you do for us? Your plan for the development of the
What are your further plans? Your professional growth and its
contribution to the organization.
The above four items of information should form the ‘nuts and bolts’ of your resume.
Apart from the basic categories, you can add on details to make it more impressive. Always
make a rough resume with all the details before you finalize onto the fair one.
Here are some tips to help you in formatting your resume.
Keep the font size within 10 - 12.
Use white or off-white paper and a skilled looking font such as Times
Roman, Ariel or Helvetica.
Use non-decorative typefaces.
Choose one typeface and stick to it. Avoid italics, script and underlined
Do not use horizontal or vertical lines, graphics or shading.
Do not fold your resume.
If you must mail your resume, put it in a large envelope.
Resume is for freshers. So limit the length of your resume to 2 pages.
Curriculum Vitae (CV) is for experienced candidates. So it can be
formatted up to 4 or 5 pages.
It is advisable to use bulleted sentence format as it makes reading
Use action words, while framing sentences, to convey your work
experience. Bulleted sentences that begin with action words like
‘prepared’, ‘monitored’, and ‘presented’ are more impressive.
Proofread, proofread, and proofread. Be sure to catch all spelling
errors, grammatical weaknesses, unusual punctuation and inconsistent
Laser print it on plain, white paper.
Here are two examples of bulleted sentences with action words and figures.
Managed an academic department of 10 with an annual budget of Rs.1,00,000.
Increased sales by 15% in a 5-state territory of Western India.
Since a resume is typically reviewed in 30 seconds, take the time to determine which
bullets most strongly support your job search objective and put those first.
There is no standard format for preparing your resume. But, a resume should
summarize your education, skills, accomplishments and experiences. We can go through
the given basic categories, which help you to make a resume.
One has to give his / her permanent address with phone number if any. If you have an e-
mail address, include that too.
For example:
42, Geetanjali apartment
Kodampakkam High Road
Chennai – 16
Affix your recent passport size photo if there is need.
Mobile: 98462 38576
E – mail :
It should be brief and to the point. It must give the employer an idea about your work
preferences and where you want to be in your career in future.
For example:
Seeking a challenging position with opportunities for career advancement and
To have a long career in the (particular field), gain further skills and attain the
goal of the organization aiming at mutual growth.
To achieve a responsible position in your esteemed organization, where I can utilize
my skills and talent; and be a part of the team that works towards the success of the
Here, one has to include your degree, specialization, institutions attended, year of
graduation, subsidiary subjects studied, and any special workshops, seminars, related
courses or projects done. You can give your qualifications separately as professional
[PG/ Engineering], academic [your UG / +2 / S.S.L.C.] and technical [Computer
skills, typing, shorthand …]. Educational qualifications should be presented in the
reverse order. Your highest educational qualification should top the list of your
academic record.
For example:
M.B.A.: First class with distinction – 88% May 2014
PSG College of Engineering & Technology
B.B.A.: First class with distinction – 86% May, 2012
St.Xavier’s College of Arts & Science
42, Church gate Road
Mumbai – 400 020.
Standard XII: Mathematics & Science: First class 80% May
St.Xavier’s Hr.Sec. School,
S.S.L.C.: First class – 88% May 2007
St.Xavier’s High. School,
Computer Literacy: C, C++, Advanced java, Oracle
Good knowledge on Internet Security
E-Commerce transactions
System Analysis and any other technical skills you possess.
Here, you have to mention the projects done by you .
For example:
Title :
Team Size :
Language :
Software :
Objective :
Here, you have to mention your activities regarding Sports, Games…..
For example:
Won State level Trophy in Football conducted in Thiyagaraja
College, Madurai 20 November 2014.
Here, you have to mention your skills such as:
Positive attitude
Problem solving skill
Individual as well as Team work
Fluent in Tamil, English and Hindi
Here one must give the details regarding the place you have worked, the position you
held, your responsibilities and achievements (work projects done, targets achieved),
the dates or period you have served in the organization etc… Use action words to
describe your job duties. The work experience should begin with your present
position and move back to the entry level appointment.
Include the following information:
Title of position
Name of Organization
Location of work (town, state)
Dates of employment
Description of your work responsibilities with emphasis on achievements
Other information
You may also add:
Leadership experience in volunteer organizations
Participation in sports
For example:
May 2014 – till date: K.H.TEHNICAL SUPPORT INC, Sip cot, Ran pet
Sales Manager – senior.
Establish corporate Accounting systems and procedures with the design of a
computerized system for current Accounting practices.
Responsible for profit and loss projections, cash flow projections and cash
Prepare all Federal / State tax returns consistent with statuary requirements.
June 2011 – May 2013: IVANHOE EQUIPMENT CORPORATION, New Delhi
Accounting Conversation Staff.
Contracted assignment through the Technical Aid Corporation.
Performed accounting duties and functions during conversation of manual
accounts payable procedure to computerized systems.
Your personal details like Your name, your Father’s Name, Your date of birth,
permanent address and contact number, e-mail, passport details, hobbies, languages
known etc… should be given here. While writing ‘Languages Known’, you have to
mention whether you can “Read / Speak / Write’. For example
Languages Known:
Tamil : Read / Speak / Write
English : Read / Speak / Write
Hindi : Speak
There is absolutely no need to write about your family background, marital status and
health. Even hobbies like stamp and coin collecting is considered outdated.
The resume generally ends with a reference. It is the usual practice to cite three
persons two to certify your professional skills, managerial abilities and academic
records; and the third one to support your character and family background. Fresh
candidates can cite their professors, research guides and dept. heads. The senior persons
with several years of experience should make their superiors, colleagues and even
persons who worked with / for them as their referees.
References should be given with prior consent from the relevant people. This must
include their name, posting, address and phone number. It is not essential to give
reference in a resume. You can state that-
References: References can be furnished if needed.
References furnished on request.
Will be made available on request.
A resume should end with Declaration. The usual format is-
I hereby declare that the above given details are true to my knowledge and belief. If
given chance, I would do my duty sincerely and honestly.
(or) any other related format.
Thanking you / I thank you sir.
Place: Yours truly (or) sincerely,
Date : S/d
[Your Name]
Most of the companies have their own web page where they pay their application form
with details of job requirements. You can download the relevant form and fill in and send it by
post or even transmit it on line. The internet based resume has certain distinct features. It is the
computer that sorts out the electronic resumes. The computer is programmed to read keywords
like nouns or short phrases rather than action words. If the computer evaluates that there is a
match between job requirements and your skills, talents and education spot highlighted by
keywords, you are sure to be selected for interview. Repetition of keywords may not help you
in any way. Visual appeal like different fonts, italics, bold face, underlining etc.. may have no
effect on the computer and they are not required in an electronic resume.
Career Objective: To be associated with a firm which provides opportunities for career
development through my knowledge and skill.
Educational Qualification
Qualification University/Board Month-Year Percentage
B.C.A., Madurai Kamaraj University April 2003 58.08 %
H.S.C State Board – Govt. Hr. Sec. School,
March 2002 75.33 %
S.S.C State Board- Govt. Hr. Sec. School,
March 2000 76.00%
Computer Skills
1Basic of C Language
2Knowledge of AutoCAD with 2D & 3D Modeling.
3Knowledge of all editions of windows & MS Office.
Industrial Training
Organization: XXXX
THANE as trainee engineer.
Job experience: 20 days
“A Feasibility Study Of Modernisation Of Pump As Turbine And Motor As Generator”
“Electronically Controlled Road Sensing Suspension Technology”
Elective Subject
Personal Profile
Name : XXXXX
Father’s Name : XXX
Nationality : Indian
Date of Birth : 25th may 1985
Sex : Male
Address : AAAA-2
Telephone No : 12121, 11111
E-Mail Address :
Marital Status : Single
Hobbies : Playing Cricket & chess, watching TV
Languages Known: English, Hindi and Marathi
I hereby declare that the information given herewith is correct to my knowledge and I will be
responsible for any discrepancy.
Place: Yours sincerely
S/o YY
Pin -
Ph: 1111111111
To be a part of a progressive firm offering opportunity for career advancement
and Professional growth and which will help me gain sufficient knowledge
Course Institution
Board /
Year of
Completion Aggregate
Thiagarajar Engineering
Anna University
2006 70
B.Sc (IT) B.C.A.S.College
Anna University 2003 73
H.Sc., Rajus Hr. Sec. School
Board of Higher
Secondary Education 2000 66.3
SSC Sai High School,
Board of
1998 66.3
Duration: 5 months
Software Requirements: Visual Studio.Net, SQL Server 2000 / MSAccess
Poll Designer is a powerful .NET web control that will let you create any poll in
seconds. It is very easy to use and is composed of two key controls. The poll box web control
shows all answers of your poll in the specified format. This control can be used directly with
the VS.NET visual designer or web matrix, however real questions / answers of your poll will
only show up on a page served by IIS.
Languages : C, C++,C#.NET
Operating Systems : Windows XP, UNIX
RDBMS : Oracle (SQL, PL/SQL)
Markup & Scripting : HTML & Java Script
WebApplication : ASP.NET
Oops, D.B.M.S and O.S Concepts.
Date of Birth : 26-04-1983.
Father’s name : XXXXX
Languages Known : English and Telugu
Permanent Address : S/o. XAXAX,
Chennai, Tamilnadu
Pin- 522101
Phone No : 91245 65744
E-mail :
I hereby declare that the information furnished above is true to the best of my knowledge.
Place: Yours sincerely,
Date :
Ram K Mobile : +91 89905 42620
Mail me at :
Career Objective:
To become a ___________________ in your Esteemed Organization, where I can
utilize my skills and talent; and be a part of the team, that works towards the success of the
Academic Profile:
Pursuing M.A., English (Batch 2011 – 2013)
First class with distinction upto 3nd Semester – 88% : May 2011
PSG Arts and Science College
B..A.,English (Batch : 2008-2011), at XXX College, Madurai with 81 %
Finished Plus two at XXX Matric Hr. Sec. School, Sattur in 2008 with 81.5 %
Completed SSLC at XXX Hr.Sec. School, Sattur in 2006 with 84 %
Co-Curricular Activities :
Bagged 2nd prize in an Inter Collegiate meet “ZESTA 2010” in XXX College ,
Presented a Paper on “Indian Fiction: A Scrutiny” in SG College, Madurai on August 3,
Extra-Curricular Activities :
Obtained Grade A in Visual Basic course in SSS Infotech, Sattur
Completed a course on Computer Hardware in Topcon Computer Education , Sattur
Scored Centum in Mathematics in SSLC.
Bagged silver medal for scoring first mark (92.5%) in English in +2.
Skill sets :
Excellent communication skills
Positive Attitude
Individual as well as Teamwork
Problem Solving Skill
Inclination to make a career out of technology support
Technical Knowledge:
Languages : Basics of C, C++, VB
Mark up / Scripting Languages : HTML, Java Script
DBMS Related : MS Access
Date of Birth : 17 May 1992
Gender : Male
Father’s Name : Krishnamoorthy. M
Languages Known : English and Tamil.
Permanent Address : XX, YYY,
Sattur – zzzzzz.
I hereby declare that all the information above is true to the best of my knowledge.
Date : Yours sincerely,
Place : Sattur
[Name in CAPITALS]
Design your Resume in the above given format highlighting your skills.
10.Welcome Speech / Welcome Address
Welcome address is vital in any function because it heralds the commencement of the
programme or function and sets the feel of the function. A pleasing welcome speech has its effect
throughout the function from the beginning till the end. In English, it differs as per the occasion
demands; for example, a wedding welcome speech, a graduation welcome speech, a welcome
address in a seminar / conference etc will be totally different in the phrases and terms used. Giving
away a “welcome speech” and "vote of thanks" are some of the responsibilities bestowed on us if
we work in an organisation.
This chapter guides you with how to do a formal welcome speech.
Characteristics of a welcome speech:
Welcome speech should be brief. It should start with greeting the dignitaries on and off the
This is followed by a brief description about the objectives of the meet.
The chief guest of the formal function should be welcomed first; then the other important
guests on the dais should be addressed; it should be followed by guests on the front row and
then everybody down the hall.
On some occasions, if the chief guest is not a known person, a brief introduction of the chief
guest is also given by the person who gives the welcome speech.
A welcome speech should not be concluded by thanking. It should make the participants be
at ease and eagerly waiting for the upcoming events.
Maximum duration of welcome speech can be three to four minutes.
Care should be taken to make the speech livelier.
Some common "welcome quotes"
I extend a hearty welcome to________________
I offer a warm welcome to ____________________
I accord a genial welcome to __________________________
I am delighted to offer a happy welcome to _____________________
I request the members of the audience to join me in offering a warm - hearted welcome
to __________________
I salute him / her with a winsome welcome
I welcome ____________________with the loving hearts of all present
I welcome ________________ with my whole heart
I welcome ________________ with all my heart
Let me offer you a pleasant welcome
Please permit me to offer you a fraternal welcome
We feel honored in offering you a cheerful welcome
1. Opening Speech for UG Literary Association of your Department
Esteemed Head of the Department of __________________ , honourable Chief Guest of the
Programme Mr./Mrs./Dr.___________________, our most valued invited faculties and my sincere
student friends, Good afternoon everybody.
It gives me immense pleasure to welcome you all to this UG Literary Association Meet this year. I
am extremely grateful to you all for sparing some of your precious moments (valuable time) for us
and grace this occasion.
The presence of our Chief Guest in today’s programme inspite of his / her busy schedule is a
reflection of the importance that is attached to the commitment of our department to quality growth.
We are all inspired by your gracious presence Sir / Madam.
I would like to take this opportunity to express our hearty welcome to the Head of our Department
for the support and guidance he / she has extended to all the activities of our department.
I take immense joy in welcoming the President of this Association who encourages us with his
minute – to – minute guidance for the success of this programme.
I take this opportunity to welcome all the faculties who are dedicated and result-oriented.
We welcome all our student friends who are eagerly waiting for listening to our chief guest’s
motivational speech on __________________________.
I owe my greeting to all who are associated with the success of this Meet.
Once again I welcome you all.
2.Opening Speech for a Programme
Esteemed excellencies, distinguished delegates, honourable teaching and non-teaching faculties,
good morning to you all.
It gives me great pleasure to extend you all a very warm welcome on behalf of the
___________Name of the Department_________. We are grateful to the dignitaries who have
accepted our invitation to this ________________Name of the Programme________________ in
our College.
I am happy to note that the agenda of the Programme covers a wide range of very interesting topics
for discussion.
We are aware of the tremendous effort made by the Management and the faculties of the
Department for the success of this Programme. We wish them every success in their noble actions.
In concluding, I wish you success in your discussions and a very pleasant stay here.
3. Opening Speech in a Seminar
Mr. Chairman, Honourable Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen,
It is my privilege to address you, on behalf of the Department_Name____. We are happy to
welcome the dignitaries and the participants to this Seminar on ______Topic of the Seminar____.
First of all, we express our sincere thanks and gratitude to our Management for hosting this
Seminar; and for providing us with all the facilities which will undoubtedly contribute to the
success of this Seminar. This magnificent meeting room with all modern interpretation equipment is
but one example of these facilities.
I wish to take this opportunity to welcome the participants from our State as well as other States
like _____________________ who have joined this seminar for the first time.
I also wish to welcome ______________________________for financing the Seminar.
Mr. Chairman, Honourable Delegates, it should be pointed out that this Seminar was held in
accordance with the recommendation of the UGC. Therefore, it becomes essential to research and
discuss on the views on the topic ; and of course,
basically, the main purpose of the Seminar is to exchange ideas. We will have the opportunity to
listen to experts at this Seminar on this matter.
I am confident that the discussions held during the Seminar will lead us at the end to important
conclusions on the subject of __________________________________.
Before I close, I’d like to thank each of your for attending our Seminar and bringing your expertise
to our gathering. You, as organization leaders, have the vision, the knowledge, and the experience
to help us pave our way into the future. You are truly our greatest asset today and we could not
achieve in our future without your support and leadership. My personal respect and thanks goes out
to all of you.
In conclusion, I should like to wish each and every one of you with success in their work. You can
carry with you the best wishes of our College for a productive and successful Seminar, and a
pleasant stay amongst us.
Thank you
4. Opening Speech in an Association
Good morning Members,
We thank you all for coming and joining us here today. We are pleased to welcome those who have
been with us from the beginning and those who are new to our association.
Just before we get started, I would like to express my gratitude to all of you who generously helped
us to make this event successful, (mention names of individuals you wish to thank here). We
couldn't have done it without you!
In today's gathering I would like to focus on all our new volunteers who have joined us since
January 2015. You have all chosen to be a part of our association and we hope we can achieve our
individual as well as group goals. During the next few months, you will be getting to know more
about our planned activities and special events where you will be able to join in and get your very
own hands on experiences. I hope you will also be meeting lots of new people and making new
friends along the way.
Here at (name of association), we value and cherish the friendships we make which in turn last for
many many, years to come. So a very warm welcome to all of you, please come and find me in the
(Place) if you have any questions, suggestions or just want to meet and say hi!
Ladies and gentleman, and our (Coordinator Name) - ...Thank you.
5. Opening Speech for the Opening Day of a New School / College
Good evening to one and all who assemble here.
May I take this opportunity to welcome you all, and to extend a further word of welcome to
everyone here this evening?
The Opening Day of our new School / College Name is certainly a moment that we should all value
and enjoy. If you take a quick look around you, I'm sure you will all agree that our School College
has come a long way in the last few months.
It all started as a dream of establishing a world class educational institution; a School / College that
would mould and guide future generations of enlightened minds.
We would like to extend our gratitude and thanks to all those who made it possible for the dream to
become a reality. Tonight marks this occasion - the Opening and Commencement Ceremony of our
School / College.
However, our young ladies and gentlemen students too are beginning to realize the importance of
self-motivation and are prepared to help themselves to further their education. I have no doubt that
they will remain motivated in the classroom to achieve their goals. Their education is sound,
creative and innovative; and with their parents’ support they will make this a reality.
This year, the Parents Association will continue to tirelessly take action to help raise funds for
[name of school]. The Managing Board will plan and work towards an educationally sound and
innovative future for our School.
The teachers / faculties at [name of school / College ] will help the students to achieve academic,
sporting, cultural and life-long learning. May I take this opportunity to thank the teachers for their
continued professionalism, excellence and dedication? It is your motivation in the classroom that
helps to create a year that is bright with opportunities.
You will help the students to solve their problems through innovation and invention. And, you will
help the students to turn indifference into motivated, helpful action.
This is our goal as the year at [name of school / College] commences! Let's continue to work
together to do our best for the world!
You are all most welcome to stay here this evening. I hope you enjoy the rest of the evening's
program and thank you for sharing this special event with us.
10.2.Vote of Thanks
How to write "vote of thanks"?
Vote of thanks for a function is given during the end of function. It is a brief talk given on
behalf of the organization as group to a specific person or group of people.
For a formal function, the organizing secretary or an equivalent member who is involved
in the function from beginning till end is the best person to give away the vote of thanks.
Just like a welcome speech, vote of thanks should also be brief. As thanksgiving is the
concluding session, everyone including the person who is giving the "vote of thanks" may be tired
and bored especially if it is for the valedictory function. The aim of vote of thanks is not to
summarize the programme or to bore anyone else but to thank everyone who has made the show a
The order of speech for "vote of thanks"
As in welcome speech, there should be an order of thanking according to the importance.
For a formal function, it is best to thank the chief guest first, then the dignitaries on the dais, people
in the front row and then everybody down the hall.
While drafting the speech, thanks should be given to each individual who is responsible for
the arrangements, catering, setting up event, organizing the event etc. It ends with a call to applause
from the crowd for all the efforts taken for the successful organization of programme.
Think about people who are responsible for:
invitations stage * setting and lighting * catering
technical arrangements * musicians * the press and media contacts
To be avoided
Avoid too much of thanking own people from the organisation.
For example; when you deliver vote of thanks for an annual day or college day, one of the faculties
who was involved in the organisation may be given the responsibility to give away the vote of
thanks. It may not look appropriate to keep thanking the entire departmental faculty for their active
participation in the programme, because they might have done it as part of their job responsibility
and it may not look appropriate to pat our own shoulder in the public.
Take care not to be critical or evaluative about the day's events in thanks giving speech.
A vote of thanks speech is not an attempt at summarizing the events for the day.
Instead it should be a way of showing appreciation with heartfelt words of gratitude.
It can also be used as an opportunity to respond to the remarks, requests or promises made
by the chief guest.
Specify exactly what you are grateful for and it should be expressed in a sincere manner
using suitable words.
You will feel more confident if you have a small card with points written on who you want
to thank and which phrase or words to be used for a particular person.
Rehearsing the speech also helps in gaining confidence.
Have eye contact with the audience and talk to the audience.
Speak slowly with confidence and deliberately as you look around the hall.
Use body language and gestures to emphasize the sincerity of your words.
Smile on your face will enhance your appearance as well as leave the guests at ease.
Common expressions used for vote of thanks speech
I thank……
I am grateful to……
Let me express my gratitude to ….
I take this opportunity to thank…..
We remain grateful to…….
Our words may not be capable of communicating our sense of gratitude to….
We offer our sincere thanks to….
Permit me to mention our appreciation to …….
I bow my head in gratitude towards …..
May I take this occasion to salute him with a great applause.
We are happy to mention our obligation to….
We express our gratefulness to…
1. Vote of thanks for a Valedictory Programme
Well, Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, an event like this cannot happen overnight. The wheels
start rolling weeks ago. It requires planning and a bird’s eye for details. We have been fortunate
enough to be backed by a team of very motivated and dedicated colleagues of our [institute /
organization] who know their job and are result oriented.
I thank everyone for their involvement and their willingness to take on the completion of tasks
beyond their comfort zones!
Good morning everybody!
It gives me immense pleasure to welcome you all at this valedictory function of
the_________________________________________. I am extremely grateful to you all for
sparing some of your valuable time for us and grace this occasion.
I deem it a great privilege to extend a vote of thanks on this historic occasion. This day will be
remembered as a milestone in the history of our ______department_____as it is the first occasion.
We thank the Hon'ble __Chief Guest__in today's programme inspite of his extremely busy
schedule. Thank you a lot Sir.
I, on behalf of the entire organization extend a very hearty vote of thanks for gracing the function
and sharing with this august audience your vision of _____Topic________for our country.
I would like to take this opportunity to express our hearty thanks to _____(organizer)_____for
support and guidance he has extended to all of us in organizing this Programme.
We are very thankful to all the former Chairpersons & Vice-Chairpersons, Secretaries, Members for
their support & valuable guidance.
I take this opportunity to extend our most sincere thanks to all our guest invitees who have come
from different places for their immense support and cooperation.
I may also like to express our sincere thanks to media persons both print and electronic for giving
an excellent coverage to our programme.
Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, once again I want to state that we are all most grateful to all
speakers on this stage. We thank you for being with us this evening - it’s been a great pleasure.
Thank You Very Much! [applause]
2.Vote of thanks for the Valediction day of “Soft Skills Training Cell”
Good morning to one and all who assemble here.
We feel honoured and delighted to have our College Managing Board, our esteemed dynamic
Principal __________________________________, our beacon light ____________________, the
Director of SF Courses, the backbone of this programme our Co-ordinator
_________________________ who are with us here today.
On behalf of our Soft Skills Training Cell, I feel happy to deliver vote of thanks on this nice day.
It is a well-known fact that not only educational qualification but also the skills of the students that
matters in getting and maintaining a good job. First of all, we thank our Management for
establishing Soft Skills Training Cell in 2011.
I wish to recall the selection of the name “Elite Forum”, a branch of this Training Cell. Elite Forum
was named in honour of Evelyn Lysander Madam, who did her service as Assistant Professor in
Computer Science, tirelessly for the success of this Cell.
We convey our thanks to our Principal and Director of SF Courses for their august presence here
amidst their tight work schedule. We are happy to have their blessings also.
Together everyone achieves success this acronym for TEAM becomes true here again by the
Organizer’s hard effort in arranging this successful programme. From the beginning, he takes
effort in conducting coaching classes for Aptitude, Bank coaching examination and Group
We thank all the members of the cell for their cooperation and effective contribution.
We thank our senior professors for training us in handling bank coaching classes.
We thank all the student participants for their energetic and enthusiastic participation in learning
and enhancing their skills.
We thank our teaching and non-teaching faculties for their help in successful completion of all the
Finally, we express our thanks to God, the ever powerful immortal behind us for giving us such
great personalities and moral support for the success of this training cell.
Once again, I thank you all.
3. Vote of thanks for a Seminar / Conference
Esteemed………………………………………, Honorable…………………………………,
Respected………………………….. , our most valued invited guests, ladies and gentlemen!
It's my privilege to propose a vote of thanks on this occasion. I, on behalf of [name of the
organization of the event__________________________________] extend a very hearty vote of
thanks to all, for sharing with us your ideas and opinions today!
A big 'Thank You' to [name speaker 1] for her/his efforts towards [speech topic].
I must mention our deep sense of appreciation for [name speaker 2], for her/his explanation of
[speech topic].
Further, we are grateful to [speaker 3], for demonstrating her/his [speech topic].
I also extend my thanks to [ organiser’s name_], for their enormous cooperation in the organization
of this event.
I may like to express our sincere thanks to the media, press - both print and electronic, for giving an
excellent coverage to the Programme.
Finally, I would like to take this opportunity to place on record our hearty thanks to
………………………….for the support and guidance extended to all of us at
[occasion__________________________________]. We are all inspired by your great words!
Once again, thank you.
11. Group Discussion
( –website especially for fresher and final year students)
An interview can provide good data about an individual. Team work is important to make sure,
group and inter-personal qualities of an individual. Group discussion is a useful tool to make certain
these qualities; many organizations use GDs as a selection tool along with Personal Interviews,
Aptitude Tests etc. A GD is an activity where
Groups of 8-10 candidates are formed into a leaderless group, and are given a specific situation
to analyse and discuss within a given time limit, which may vary between twenty minutes and
forty-five minutes, or
They may be given a case study and asked to come out with a solution for a problem
They may be given a topic and are asked to discuss the same
GD Tips 1. Initiation Techniques 2.Body of the group discussion 3.Summarization/ Conclusion
Initiation Techniques
Initiating a GD is a high profit-high loss strategy.
When you initiate a GD, you not only grab the opportunity to speak, you also grab the attention
of the examiner and your fellow candidates.
When you start a GD, you are responsible for putting it into the right perspective or framework.
So initiate one only if you have in-depth knowledge about the topic at hand.
Body of the group discussion
Different techniques to initiate a GD and make a good first impression:
i. Quotes ii. Definition iii. Question iv. Shock statement
v. Facts, figures and statistics vi. Short story vii. General statement
Quotes are an effective way of initiating a GD.
If the topic of a GD is: Should the Censor Board be abolished? you could start with a quote like,
'Hidden apples are always sweet'.
For a GD topic like, Customer is King, you could quote Sam (Wall-mart) Walton's famous saying,
'There is only one boss: the customer. And he can fire everybody in the company -- from the chairman
on down, simply by spending his money somewhere else.'
ii. Definition
Start a GD by defining the topic or an important term in the topic.
For example, if the topic of the GD is Advertising is a Diplomatic Way of Telling a Lie, why not start
the GD by defining advertising as, 'Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas,
goods or services through mass media like newspapers, magazines, television or radio by an identified
iii. Question
Asking a question is an impact way of starting a GD.
It does not signify asking a question to any of the candidates in a GD so as to hamper the flow. It
implies asking a question, and answering it yourself.
Questions that promote a flow of ideas are always appreciated.
For a topic like, Should India go to war with Pakistan, you could start by asking, 'What does war
bring to the people of a nation? We have had four clashes with Pakistan. The important question is:
what have we achieved?'
iv. Shock statement
Initiating a GD with a shocking statement is the best way to capture immediate attention and put forth
your point.
If a GD topic is, The Impact of Population on the Indian Economy, you could start with, 'At the
centre of the Indian capital stands a population clock that ticks away relentlessly. It tracks 33 births a
minute, 2,000 an hour, 48,000 a day which calculates to about 12 million every year. That is roughly
the size of Australia. As a current political slogan puts it, 'Nothing's impossible when 1 billion Indians
work together'.'
v. Facts, figures and statistics
If you decide to initiate your GD with facts, figure and statistics, make sure to quote them accurately.
For example, you can say, approximately 70 per cent of the Indian population stays in rural areas
(macro figures, approximation allowed).
But you cannot say 30 states of India instead of 28 (micro figures, no approximations).
Stating wrong facts works to your disadvantage.
For a GD topic like, China, a Rising Tiger, you could start with, 'In 1983, when China was still in its
initial stages of reform and opening up, China's real use of Foreign Direct Investment only stood at
$636 million. China actually utilized $60 billion of FID in 2004, which is almost 100 times that of its
1983 statistics."
vi. Short story
Use a short story in a GD topic like, Attitude is Everything.
This can be initiated with, 'A child once asked a balloon vendor, who was selling helium gas-filled
balloons, whether a blue-colored balloon will go as high in the sky as a green-colored balloon. The
balloon vendor told the child, it is not the color of the balloon but what is inside it that makes it go
vii. General statement
Use a general statement to put the GD in proper perspective.
For example, if the topic is, Should Sonia Gandhi be the prime minister of India?, you could start by
saying, 'Before jumping to conclusions like, 'Yes, Sonia Gandhi should be', or 'No, Sonia Gandhi
should not be', let's first find out the qualities one needs to be a a good prime minister of India. Then we
can compare these qualities with those that Mrs. Gandhi possesses. This will help us reach the
conclusion in a more objective and effective manner.'
1. Preparing for a Group Discussion: While GD reflects the inherent qualities of an individual,
appearing for it unprepared may not foretell well for you. These tips would help you prepare for GDs:
Reading: This is the first and the most crucial step in preparation. While you may read anything to
everything, you must ensure that you are in good touch with current affairs, the debates and hot topics
of discussion and also with the latest in the IT industry. Also read multiple view points on the same
topic and then create your point of view with rationale. Also create answers for counter arguments for
your point of view.
Mocks: Create an informal GD group and meet regularly to discuss and exchange feedback. This is the
best way to prepare. This would give you a good idea about your thoughts and how well can you
convince. Remember, it is important that you are able to express your thoughts well. The better you
perform in these mocks the better would be you chances to perform on the final day. Also try to interact
and participate in other GD groups. This will develop in you a skill to discuss with unknown people as
2. During the Group Discussion:
What do the panelists assess: Some of the qualities assessed in a GD are:
Leadership Skills - Ability to take leadership roles and be able to lead, inspire and carry the team along
to help them achieve the group's objectives.
Communication Skills - Candidates will be assessed in terms of clarity of thought, expression and
aptness of language. One key aspect is listening. It indicates a willingness to accommodate others
Interpersonal Skills - People skills are an important aspect of any job. They are reflected in the ability
to interact with other members of the group in a brief situation. Emotional maturity and balance
promotes good interpersonal relationships. The person has to be more people centric and less self-
Persuasive Skills - The ability to analyze and persuade others to see the problem from multiple
GD is a test of your ability to think, your analytical capabilities and your ability to make your point in a
team-based environment.
Summarizing: If you have not been able to initiate the discussion, try to summarise and close
it. Good summarizing would get you good reward points. A conclusion is where the whole
group decides in favour or against the topic and most GDs do not have a closure. But every GD
can be summarized by putting forth what the group has discussed in a nutshell. Keep the
following points in mind while summarizing a discussion:
oAvoid raising new points.
oAvoid stating only your viewpoint.
oAvoid dwelling only on one aspect of the GD
oKeep it brief and concise.
oIt must include all the important points that came out during the GD
oIf you are asked to summarise a GD, it means the GD has come to an end.
oDo not add anything once the GD has been summarized.
Sample Mock GD
Aditya, Bindhu, Charu, Daisy and Elango are waiting for their group discussion to start. They do not
have a topic yet and are waiting for the moderator to make everybody comfortable. There, the
moderator looks at the clock and announces: “You have 5 minutes for this group discussion. And your
topic is ‘How to Succeed in Group Discussions.’ Please start.”
Bindhu: This should be interesting. A GD on GD! I think it is better if we should discuss the
importance of a GD first.
Charu: I find this very strange. How can you have a GD on GD? We should be discussing some current
topic to test our knowledge.
Elango: I agree that this is rather unusual. At the same time, our job is to conduct a meaningful
discussion regardless of the topic. Bindhu has suggested we start with the importance of GD. Today,
GD is a very important part of various selection procedures.
Aditya: GD is all about teamwork. That’s all.
Bindhu: Management is all about working with people. I suppose GD is one way of establishing one’s
ability to work with others. How we are able to lead and be led.
Elango: We have some interesting points here. Leadership and sharing knowledge. Perhaps, a GD is a
good tool to judge how well you are able to function within a group.
Daisy: I want to say something. Pardon if I make any wrong. I am from vernacular medium…
Aditya: Don’t waste our time talking about your background. The topic is GD. Talk about that.
Bindhu: Every subject has various angles. So, many heads can raise many ideas.
Charu: Also, too many cooks spoil the broth (laughs).
Elango: Yes, a group makes it possible to brainstorm any issue. Perhaps Daisy has something to add to
this thought.
Daisy: Thanks for giving me chance. A GD is good for ‘compromise.’ It is always better everybody
agree. Otherwise only one person is there.
Bindhu: But the question is how to succeed in GDs. I think the first prerequisite is patience. Some of us
must learn to shut up and let others talk (looks directly at Charu).
Elango: I suppose the point is to participate and give others also a chance to participate.
Daisy: Please can I speak?
Aditya: Come on! You don’t have to beg for permission to speak!
Daisy: I said that because I thought someone might have wanted to speak before me. Anyway, is it not
possible to only listen?
Moderator: Your time is up. Thank you everyone.
Moderator’s notes: Elango shows leadership skills and the ability to hold a group together. He
appears to have a good grasp of the subject. Bindhu also has some interesting ideas but she is
irritated easily. Charu is too sure and too full of herself to be able to contribute to a group. Aditya
is guilty of intolerance and rude interruptions. Daisy needs to work on her language and her
confidence, though she may have the right concept.
Sample Group Discussion Topics for Campus Recruitment
GD topics given for campus recruitments are normally fairly simple. You will be able to speak
on them comfortably with a moderate level of knowledge base. The focus here is on the logic
of the points that the participant puts forward, his communication skills and how well he is
able to mix with the group.
We strongly advise students to read an English Newspaper daily and be abreast of current
happenings and issues.
1. The future of Indian IT industry
2. BPO - a rising opportunity or a passing fad?
3. With the increasing use of IT in daily life, machines are controlling man.
4. India - an IT super power?
5. IT helps social integration
6. Increasing use of computers is de-humanizing society.
1. Is cricket hampering the growth of other sports in India?
2. What is wrong with Indian sports?
3. One billon people and only one Olympic medal!
4. How can we make India a sporting super power?
5. Sania Mirza - the Indian Kournikova
6. Are Indian cricketers over-rated?
7. Should the Indian cricket team have a foreign coach?
8. Cricket telecast is a waste of time.
1. Should euthanasia be legalized?
2. Capital punishment should be abolished.
3. Cloning of human beings should be allowed.
4. Is pocket money enough for the youth of today?
5. Love cannot be confined to Valentine’s Day.
6. A women’s place is at home.
7. Parents don’t understand children.
8. Are we raising a society of burnt out children?
9. Should we have job reservation in the private sector?
10. Beauty pageants are a waste of time and should be banned.
11. Is women empowerment a myth?
12.The biggest problem facing India is _________
13 Film awards are a farce and should be stopped.
14 Brain drain vs brain in the drain.
15. The media should be more socially responsible.
1. Politics is the root cause of all problems in India.
2. Politics of criminals vs criminalisation of politics.
3. For true democracy to happen, it must first happen within all political parties.
4. Women’s reservation in Parliament.
5. Should India give up Kashmir?
1. Should use of mobile phones be banned on campus?
2. Should college students wear uniforms?
3. Privatisation of professional education: Is it good or bad?
4. Should politics be allowed on campus?
5. We should shift to Open Book Policy for examinations.
6. Our education system should be revamped.
1. Is honesty the best policy for a citizen of India?
2. Profit is a bad word in business.
3. Ethics and business do not co-exist.
4. Advertising is all glitter and no truth.
1. The Sun always rises in the East.
2. The colour of the cat is not a matter of concern as long as it catches mice.
3. Green is better than red.
4. Life is like a box of chocolates.
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ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.