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Happiness Is Everything, or Is It Explorations on the Meaning of Psychological Well-Being

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... The theory of SWB presented herein is innovative in that it is integrative, interdisciplinary, and describes SWB in terms of its causal structure. It complements existing statistical studies of SWB as an outcome variable (Ryff 1989b, Van Dierendonck 2004, Diener et al. 2010, Hupert and So 2013 with a sophisticated theoretical account of how different aspects of SWB interact in the process by which SWB is achieved. In so doing, it clarifies (i) why certain variables overlap in correlational analysis while others do not, (ii) the nature of apparent two-way causal relationships between SWB variables, and (iii) how the many seemingly divergent conceptions of wellbeing in philosophy, psychology, and economics can be harmonised in a manner that brings clarity rather than merely added complexity. ...
... Among the first papers in psychology claiming that affect and satisfaction were insufficient concepts to capture holistic wellbeing were Ryff (1989aRyff ( , 1989b. She argued, as I did in chapters 1 and 2, that SW-B research had proceeded in the absence of theory and that this had caused that literature to miss important dimensions of wellbeing (1989b, p. 1069): ...
... It included the following: selfacceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. She then conducted a statistical analysis, the results of which suggested that these dimensions were important aspects of wellbeing and that affect and life satisfaction were insufficient to capture them (Ryff 1989b). Three of the dimensions emphasised by ...
Book
The study of “subjective wellbeing” has seen explosive growth in recent decades, opening important new discourses in personality and social psychology, happiness economics, and moral philosophy. Now it is moving into the policy domain. In this it has arguably overstepped its limits. The shallow theoretical base of subjective wellbeing research, the limitations of its measurement instruments, and its ethical naivety make policymaking on the basis of its findings a risky venture. The present volume is an attempt to shore up these weaknesses and set subjective wellbeing scholarship on a course for several more decades of growth and maturation. It presents a theory of subjective wellbeing in two parts. The first is the subjective wellbeing production function—a model of wellbeing as outcome. The second is the coalescence of being—a model of the self-actualization process by which wellbeing is achieved. This two-part model integrates ideas from subjective wellbeing studies with complementary ideas in analytical and continental philosophy, clinical, moral, and developmental psychology, and welfare economics. Importantly, this theory is ethically sensitive, bridging the gap between the philosophical and psychological perspectives on wellbeing in a way that illuminates the complexities facing the application of subjective wellbeing in public policy. The book also provides a thorough review of various ways in which subjective wellbeing can be studied empirically, and the hard trade-offs we face between long surveys that capture the richness of the concept and the parsimony required by social surveys and policy analysis.
... The theory of SWB presented herein is innovative in that it is integrative, interdisciplinary, and describes SWB in terms of its causal structure. It complements existing statistical studies of SWB as an outcome variable (Ryff 1989b, Van Dierendonck 2004, Diener et al. 2010, Hupert and So 2013 with a sophisticated theoretical account of how different aspects of SWB interact in the process by which SWB is achieved. In so doing, it clarifies (i) why certain variables overlap in correlational analysis while others do not, (ii) the nature of apparent two-way causal relationships between SWB variables, and (iii) how the many seemingly divergent conceptions of wellbeing in philosophy, psychology, and economics can be harmonised in a manner that brings clarity rather than merely added complexity. ...
... Among the first papers in psychology claiming that affect and satisfaction were insufficient concepts to capture holistic wellbeing were Ryff (1989aRyff ( , 1989b. She argued, as I did in chapters 1 and 2, that SW-B research had proceeded in the absence of theory and that this had caused that literature to miss important dimensions of wellbeing (1989b, p. 1069): ...
... It included the following: selfacceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. She then conducted a statistical analysis, the results of which suggested that these dimensions were important aspects of wellbeing and that affect and life satisfaction were insufficient to capture them (Ryff 1989b). Three of the dimensions emphasised by ...
Chapter
While subjective well-being scholarship has its merits, it is not without its weaknesses, and these are the subject of this chapter. While the definition and approach of the field were appropriate in its historical context, they are inappropriate and indeed problematic for applications in public policy. In particular, this chapter demonstrates that the field is naive about the normative implications of “wellbeing” theories and that its measurement instruments lack precision. Both of these faults find their origins in the field’s atheoretic inclinations and operationalist epistemology. It is time to replace this with a more realist epistemology. That requires a thorough theory of subjective wellbeing that engages extensively with normativity, which this book provides.
... Ryff Psychological well-being Scale (RSPWB-18): The Scale was designed by Ryff in 1989 andthen revised (2002). The main form consists of 120 questions, and in subsequent studies, shorter documents of 84 questions and 18 questions have been prepared. ...
... This scale measures six dimensions of autonomy, positive communication with others, mastery of the environment, personal growth, purposefulness, and self-acceptance. Ryff (1989) reported the internal consistency coefficient of the subscales of this scale between 0.86 and 0.93 and the retest reliability coefficient of 0.81 to 0.86 (Ryff, 1989). Reported a Cronbach's alpha coefficient between 0.83 and 0.91. ...
... This scale measures six dimensions of autonomy, positive communication with others, mastery of the environment, personal growth, purposefulness, and self-acceptance. Ryff (1989) reported the internal consistency coefficient of the subscales of this scale between 0.86 and 0.93 and the retest reliability coefficient of 0.81 to 0.86 (Ryff, 1989). Reported a Cronbach's alpha coefficient between 0.83 and 0.91. ...
... The theory of SWB presented herein is innovative in that it is integrative, interdisciplinary, and describes SWB in terms of its causal structure. It complements existing statistical studies of SWB as an outcome variable (Ryff 1989b, Van Dierendonck 2004, Diener et al. 2010, Hupert and So 2013 with a sophisticated theoretical account of how different aspects of SWB interact in the process by which SWB is achieved. In so doing, it clarifies (i) why certain variables overlap in correlational analysis while others do not, (ii) the nature of apparent two-way causal relationships between SWB variables, and (iii) how the many seemingly divergent conceptions of wellbeing in philosophy, psychology, and economics can be harmonised in a manner that brings clarity rather than merely added complexity. ...
... Among the first papers in psychology claiming that affect and satisfaction were insufficient concepts to capture holistic wellbeing were Ryff (1989aRyff ( , 1989b. She argued, as I did in chapters 1 and 2, that SW-B research had proceeded in the absence of theory and that this had caused that literature to miss important dimensions of wellbeing (1989b, p. 1069): ...
... It included the following: selfacceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. She then conducted a statistical analysis, the results of which suggested that these dimensions were important aspects of wellbeing and that affect and life satisfaction were insufficient to capture them (Ryff 1989b). Three of the dimensions emphasised by ...
Chapter
How do you measure a construct as complex as subjective wellbeing? The first part of this chapter reviews the many tools available for measuring each dimension of the construct, as well as the well-being profile—a new measure that holds some promise for capturing subjective wellbeing holistically in only fifteen questions. The second part of the chapter then explains why even fifteen questions is likely too long for many applications in policy and social science. Life satisfaction scales hold a great deal of promise as a unidimensional and sufficiently cardinal measure of subjective wellbeing for these applications. However, there are several concerns about these scales, notably inconsistent scale use across respondents or within respondents over time, that need to be investigated more thoroughly. The chapter provides a conceptual analysis of these concerns and uses them to differentiate adaptation, scale-norming, and reference point shifts.
... The psychological or subjective well-being of employees has been studied increasingly in the literature (e.g., Ryff, 1989;Wright & Cropanzano, 2000;Diener, 2000;Sonnentag, 2015), yet it can be noticed that the studies focusing on "employee well-being" in organizational context is scarce. Therefore, scholars suggest conducting such studies to understand employees' well-being at work. ...
... In the literature, Sonnentag (2015, s.261) defines it as "one's hedonic experience of feeling good and the experience of eudaimonic satisfaction and purpose". According to Ryff (1989), well-being means realizing one's true potential and existential struggles throughout their life. Similar to these definitions, Ryan and Deci (2001, s.142) underline that well-being focuses on individuals' self-realization, meaning of their lives, and happiness with their evaluations regarding their own lives. ...
... Parallel to its general definition, employee well-being is described as evaluations of employees in relation to their experience and self-realization at work (Warr, 1987). When we consider employee well-being within mental health and well-being literature, the concept consists of subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and workplace well-being (Ryff, 1989;Daniels, 2000;Page & Vella-Brodrick, 2009). Zheng et al. (2015) develop a model under a multiple measure approach, which is based on the employee mental health model ...
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Nowadays, employees' well-being has become an important subject of research since the concept of employee well-being is essential in terms of economic, social, and psychological levels for an organization and individuals. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship of employee well-being with perceived organizational virtuousness and socially responsible leadership while testing the mediating role of perceived social capital in these relationships. To rationalize the proposed model, an online survey is used to collect the data of 11 employees from various sectors in Istanbul/Turkey. Firstly, descriptive statistics, as well as factor and reliability analyzes are performed. Afterwards, correlation and regression analyses are run to test the model. According to the results, perceived organizational virtuousness and socially responsible leadership are positively associated with employee well-being. In addition, it is revealed that social capital has a mediating role in both relations. The recommendations for leaders and researchers are to give more importance to the concepts at the level of organization and leader to increase employees' well-being and to carry out practices for creating social capital in organizations.
... Consistent with past work, the present study represented the hedonic facet of PWB in terms of subjective happiness (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1999). Eudaimonic well-being underscores the value of existential meaning and self-actualization (Ryff, 1989). The present study represented the eudaimonic facet of PWB in terms of a sense of purpose and direction one has in life (i.e., purpose in life; Ryff, 1989). ...
... Eudaimonic well-being underscores the value of existential meaning and self-actualization (Ryff, 1989). The present study represented the eudaimonic facet of PWB in terms of a sense of purpose and direction one has in life (i.e., purpose in life; Ryff, 1989). While hedonic and eudaimonic facets of well-being are primarily concerned with one's private experience, social well-being broadly reflects perceptions of one's standing, value, and functioning within society (Keyes, 1998). ...
Article
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Background Most people who survive suicide attempts neither re-attempt suicide nor die by suicide. Research on suicide attempt survivors has primarily focused on negative endpoints (e.g., increased suicide risk) rather than positive outcomes. One important outcome is psychological well-being (PWB), defined as positive functioning across emotional, intrapersonal, and interpersonal domains. We compared PWB among US military veterans with (i.e., attempt survivors) and without (i.e., non-attempters) a history of suicide attempt(s) using data from three nationally representative cohorts. Methods Each US veteran cohort (Cohort1: N = 3148; Cohort2: N = 1474; Cohort3: N = 4042) completed measures of suicidality (e.g., attempt history), character strengths (e.g., curiosity, optimism), psychological symptoms (e.g., depression), and indicators of PWB (e.g., happiness). t-Tests were conducted to examine group differences in PWB; hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine suicide attempt status as a predictor of PWB controlling for symptoms and demographics. Multivariable regressions were conducted to identify predictors of PWB among attempt survivors. Results In each cohort, reported PWB was markedly lower among suicide attempt survivors than non-attempters (ds = 0.9–1.2), even after adjusting for mental health symptoms. Individual differences in PWB were observed, with a subset of suicide attempt survivors reporting higher PWB levels than non-attempters (1.4–7.4 %). Curiosity and optimism were positively associated with PWB among suicide attempt survivors (rs = 0.60–0.78). Limitations Data were cross-sectional, limiting inferences about causation and directionality of associations. Conclusions Findings highlight diminished PWB as an important and understudied concern among veteran attempt survivors. Collectively, our findings underscore the importance of considering PWB in the research, assessment, and treatment of suicidality.
... La autonomía individual es entendida como la capacidad de una persona para autodeterminarse, con independencia de factores ajenos a su voluntad, así como la posibilidad de comportarse según sus propios deseos, expectativas o necesidades (Ryff, 1989;Young, 1986), siempre que no suponga afectaciones a terceros. ...
... A efectos de la presente investigación, se entiende que el bienestar personal se integra por varias dimensiones de la vida de una persona como la autonomía, la auto-aceptación, el crecimiento personal, el control sobre el entorno, las relaciones positivas con los otros y el sentido o propósito en la vida (Ryff, 1989). ...
Thesis
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En las últimas décadas, varias jurisdicciones han implementado una categoría de mecanismos destinados a inhibir o suspender el proceso penal a cambio de que la persona imputada cumpla satisfactoriamente algunas obligaciones. Aunque en sus orígenes estas instituciones tenían por propósito la descriminalización de algunas conductas, actualmente tales mecanismos son vistos como vías para alcanzar otros objetivos como la reparación del daño, la mediación, la rehabilitación, la prevención de delito o una mayor eficiencia en la gestión de delitos. Tales mecanismos son presentados como sustitutivos de la pena y una forma no intrusiva de reacción ante delitos menores. No obstante, aquellos resultan ser verdaderas fuentes de castigo penal. Con base en una perspectiva multidisciplinaria, esta investigación defiende el carácter penal de estos mecanismos condicionales y visibiliza algunos aspectos estructurales y dinámicos de su diseño y práctica, en particular aquellos que contribuyen o promueven su aceptación por la persona sospechosa, independientemente de su culpabilidad o inocencia. Over the last decades, several jurisdictions have implemented a series of procedural mechanisms intended to avoid the criminal procedure. Such institutions halt the criminal process with the condition that the accused successfully complies with some obligations. Originally aimed to decriminalize some conducts, nowadays, those mechanisms are seen as instruments addressed to accomplish other goals, such as reparation, victim-offender mediation, rehabilitation, prevention, or greater efficiency to manage offenses. Regardless of purposes, the conditional disposal of prosecution is presented as a substitute for punishment. However, this type of mechanisms works as a real source of punishment. Based on a multidisciplinary perspective, this dissertation defends the penal nature of conditional disposal and draws attention to some structural and dynamic aspects of its design and practice, particularly those that contribute to or promote its acceptance by the accused, irrespective of his/her guilt or innocence.
... The question of defining wellbeing is still not completely resolved and therefore wellbeing is often defined broadly. For instance, Ryff (1989) believed that there has not been a completely inclusive definition of psychological well-being, whereas Thomas (2009) argues that well-being is an intangible concept and therefore difficult to measure and to bring it under a single unanimous definition. ...
... Reviewing the early works of literature on well-being revealed that, the question of defining well-being is still not completely resolved, and therefore well-being is often defined broadly. For instance, Ryff (1989) believed that there has not been a completely inclusive definition of psychological well-being, whereas Thomas (2009) argues that well-being is an intangible concept and therefore difficult to measure and to bring it under a single unanimous definition. Any single definition of well-being as objectively applied to the whole population tends to create a general discourse of well-being that lacks a contextual understanding of the well-being of a particular population under study. ...
Research
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Background: Migration is a process beginning with the migrants deciding to migrate, preparing themselves physically as well as mentally, and finally shifting themselves to the place of destination. Establishing themselves in a new environment with a different cultural, geographical and social setting is a challenging task mentally as well as emotionally and can have a significant impact on the wellbeing of the labourers. Aim & Objective: To explore the reason for migration, and factors affecting the well-being of migrant labourers. Methodology: A qualitative research design was adopted for data collection and interpretation. A sample of 10 migrant labourers was included who belonged to different districts of Bihar. The data collection methods included questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a focus group discussion. Results: Major factors that affect the well-being were revealed to be at different levels for labourers ranging from accommodating themselves, finding work, payment for work, dealing with the harsh weather, dealing with work-related stress, physical health, socialization with others. Conclusion: Favourable and convenient situations in the factors yield favourable outcomes and contribute positively to the wellbeing of migrant labourers. While on the other hand, unfavourable situations related to these factors lead to unhealthy or negative physical, emotional, mental, and social outcomes. Therefore, negatively affecting their well-being Keywords: Migration, Well-Being igration Everett S. Lee, believed that no matter how far or difficult the act of migration be, migration always has a place of origin, place of destination, and intervening obstacles. Distance of migration is no doubt one obstacle. He attaches different factors to the place of origin and destination that is, every area has certain virtues or attractions in it which hold people back in itself and other repelling factors which pushes them away and he explains it through Origin and destination factors and intervening obstacles chart, for example. He assigns (+) to attractive factors, (-) to repelling factors, and (0) to neutral factors i.e., which makes no difference to individuals and their behaviour (Lee, 1966).
... Both purpose and study engagement are central dimensions of wellbeing and important predictors of study success (Dahl et al., 2020;Martínez et al., 2019;Pizzolato et al., 2011;Widlund et al., 2018). Sense of purpose, or the extent to which students have long-term goals and a sense of direction in life (Ryff, 1989), is helpful in managing (study) behaviors (McKnight & Kashdan, 2009), and is positively associated with resilience and perseverance (Bronk et al., 2019a;Hill et al., 2016a), positive selfimage (Hill et al., 2016b), life satisfaction (Bronk et al., 2009;Bundick, 2011), and other benefits (Hill et al., 2013). Study engagement, a study-related state of mind that comprises levels of energy, dedication, and concentration while studying (Upadyaya & Salmela-Aro, 2013), has shown to predict numerous positive outcomes such as persistence in school (Ketonen et al., 2019), work and life satisfaction (Upadyaya & Salmela-Aro, 2015), more positive emotions (Ouweneel et al., 2011) and less depressive symptoms (Li & Lerner, 2011). ...
... Sense of purpose was measured with a Dutch version of the Purpose in Life subscale from the Scales of Psychological Wellbeing (PIL: Hudig et al., 2021;Ryff, 1989). Seven items (e.g., I enjoy making plans for the future and working to make them a reality) were rated on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree). ...
Article
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The motivational mindset model (MMM) is a new student-centered, multidimensional perspective on motivation in higher education and aims to better explain differences in wellbeing, study success and intervention effectiveness. The four types of mindsets within the model (high-impact, low-impact, social-impact, and self-impact) have proven to differ in two important dimensions of wellbeing and predictors of study success, namely a sense of purpose in life and study engagement. The present study expands the MMM by (1) examining the relationship between the mindsets and academic performance, (2) observing the mindset churn in the first year, and (3) exploring the role of the mindsets in the effectiveness of an online, narrative goal-setting intervention. To this end, the mindset of 748 first-year university students was measured at the beginning and the end of the first academic year. Results show that the mindset churn was considerable: on average 58% of the students had changed their mindset at follow-up. Results further show that students with a low-impact mindset at follow-up were more likely to drop out of the first year compared to the other three mindsets. Finally, a group of low-impact mindset students show an increased sense of purpose after participating in the goal-setting intervention and moved to a social-impact mindset during the year. This pattern provides preliminary support that the goal-setting intervention is a purpose-fostering intervention for students entering higher education with a low-impact mindset. A potential working mechanism of the goal-setting intervention is discussed as well as implications and directions for future research.
... Waterman (1993) smatra kako osobe mogu dostići istinsku sreću, odnosno eudaimoniju, onda kada su izrazito autentične i usmjerene na osobni rast i razvoj. U 80-im godinama prošlog stoljeća glavne kritike proučavanja dobrobiti su se odnosile na to da su se istraživali samo subjektivna dobrobit i zadovoljstvo životom, a da se malo pozornosti obraćalo na psihološku dobrobit (Ryff, 1989). Ryff (1989) je provela istraživanje o aspektima psihološke dobrobiti te je zaključila kako postoji šest dimenzija tog konstrukta: smisao života, osobni rast, pozitivni odnosi, autonomija, samo-prihvaćanje i upravljanje okolinom. ...
... U 80-im godinama prošlog stoljeća glavne kritike proučavanja dobrobiti su se odnosile na to da su se istraživali samo subjektivna dobrobit i zadovoljstvo životom, a da se malo pozornosti obraćalo na psihološku dobrobit (Ryff, 1989). Ryff (1989) je provela istraživanje o aspektima psihološke dobrobiti te je zaključila kako postoji šest dimenzija tog konstrukta: smisao života, osobni rast, pozitivni odnosi, autonomija, samo-prihvaćanje i upravljanje okolinom. Iz tog je istraživanja nastala Skala psihološke dobrobiti koja se danas najčešće koristi za mjerenje razine psihološke dobrobiti pojedinca. ...
Thesis
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Often, LGB people experience violence and discrimination (Milković, 2013) which lowers their psychological wellbeing and life satisfaction (Mays & Cochran, 2001). The goal of this research was to investigate the association between resilience to stress and psychological wellbeing in LGB people, and if there were any differences in that association regarding the level of outness, concealment and authenticity. Participants in this research were 408 LGB persons. In order to investigate these research goals, the following questionnaires were used: Psychological Wellbeing Scale (Ryff, 2013), Brief Resilience Scale (Smith et al., 2008), Concealment Scale (Pikić & Jugović, 2006), Outness Inventory (Mohr & Fassinger, 2000) and Authenticity Scale (Riggle et al., 2014). For the needs of this research, certain sociodemographic measures were used. Results showed that psychological wellbeing has medium positive correlation with resilience to stress and low positive correlation with outness and authenticity, while having low negative correlation with concealment. Regression analysis with all variables included has accounted for 40,3 % of variance of psychological wellbeing with resilience to stress as the best predictor. Gender identity, education level, concealment and authenticity were significant predictors, while age, size of place of residence and outness were not significant. Higher resilience to stress, authenticity, education level and female gender positively predicted psychological wellbeing, while concealment predicted it negatively. Finally, moderator effects of outness, concealment and authenticity on the relationship between resilience to stress and psychological wellbeing were tested, but all three of them were found as non-significant.
... Following Diener's (1984) Subjective Wellbeing (SWB) Model, researchers have attempted to develop additional models to capture kinds or aspects of wellbeing that are not captured by SWB. Ryff's (1989) model of psychological wellbeing (PWB) contains six components that are believed to encourage good functioning, providing a more comprehensive approach. Compton (2001) proposed three sorts of happiness, labeling them SWB, personal progress, and religion, and using vocabulary similar to Diener and Ryff but with distinct implications. ...
Article
Linking Relational Coordination and Employees’ Wellbeing through Psychological Capital Abid Ahmad, Cedric Aimal Edwin†, Dave Bamber‡ Abstract This research examines the impact of relational coordination on employees’ wellbeing through mediating effect of psychological capital. The study employed a cross-sectional, explanatory, and non-experimental design. Data were collected from employees of a private sector higher education institution through simple random sampling. Overall 229 observations are analyzed via partial least square structural equation modeling. The results indicated relational coordination to be a significant antecedent of psychological capital which leads to enhanced employees' wellbeing. With insight from the conservation of resource theory, the findings suggest that coordinating work systems results in higher psychological capital which ultimately leads to employees' wellbeing. By employing the positive organizational behavior framework and devising working mechanisms that support enhanced coordination in the context of educational institutes, managers can enhance employees’ wellbeing in the process. Researchers have studied several antecedents and consequences of psychological capital; however, its mediating role is relatively understudied. This research addresses this research gap and provides valuable insights.
... affective (Diener et al., 2018), functional (Ryff, 1989), and social (Keyes, 1998) components. However, constrained by the availability of the items in the Pew survey, only life satisfaction was included in this study. ...
Article
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Modern social science suggests that fatalistic beliefs are generally detrimental to mental well-being because these beliefs reflect a lack of perceived efficacy and control. However, many religions downplay the role of personal agency and emphasize the importance of external factors that determine people's lives (e.g., God's will and fate). Thus, individual and cross-cultural differences in the links between fatalism and well-being are to be expected. Using a sample of 38,426 individuals from 34 countries and Bayesian multilevel modeling, this study shows that personal and national religiosity moderate the relationship between fatalism and life satisfaction. Whereas fatalism is negatively associated with life satisfaction in more secular countries and among less religious individuals, it is unrelated to life satisfaction in more religious countries and among highly religious individuals.
... Es por ello que también se requiere la inclusión de variables propias de la llamada psicología positiva, tales como la autoestima, el bienestar subjetivo y la resiliencia, en el tratamiento de síntomas depresivos. Una de esas variables es el bienestar, que ha sido definido desde diversas disciplinas y campos de la psicología, el cual generalmente se relaciona con bajos niveles de estrés, felicidad, calidad de vida, satisfacción, salud mental y resiliencia (Bradburn, 1969;Ryff, 1989;Vaillant, 2000). ...
... A total of 272 participants were selected by means of multistage cluster sampling among Shiraz university undergraduate students. The data were gathered by using 3 measures: Adult Attachment Scale (Collins & Reid,1996), Scale Psychological Well-Being (Ryff, 1989) and Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010). Using Pearson's correlation coefficient and path analysis with software, SPSS 20 and Amos 22, the data were analyzed. ...
Article
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The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between attachment styles (secure, insecure) and psychological well-being, mediated by the role of cognitive flexibility. This research was a correla-tional study. A total of 272 participants were selected by means of multistage cluster sampling among Shi-raz university undergraduate students. The data were gathered by using 3 measures: Adult Attachment Scale (Collins & Reid,1996), Scale Psychological Well-Being (Ryff, 1989) and Cognitive Flexibility Inventory (Dennis & Vander Wal, 2010). Using Pearson's correlation coefficient and path analysis with software, SPSS 20 and Amos 22, the data were analyzed. The results of path analysis indicated that the model had a good fit to the data. The secure attachment styles had a significant positive direct effect on psychological well-being. And insecure (avoidance, ambivalence) attachment style had a significant negative direct effect on psychological well-being. Also attachment style had predicted psychological well-being stronger by mediating cognitive flexibility. The results of the prediction showed that, when people with a secure attachment style have more cognitive flexibility, they experience a higher psychological well-being.
... Kesejahteraan merupakan satu konsep yang menunjukkan kepada sifat yang multidimensi kerana mempunyai sifat-sifat yang unik (Bolier, Haverman, Westehof, Riper, & Smith, 2013). Kesejahteraan hidup seseorang dapat diperoleh melalui elemen-elemen utama iaitu hubungan positif, autonomi, penguasaan persekitaran, matlamat kehidupan, pertumbuhan personal dan penerimaan kendiri (Ryff & Keyes, 1989). Elemen tersebut merupakan pengukuran kepada seseorang untuk membawa diri ke arah kesejahteraan. ...
Article
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Tujuan kajian ini adalah untuk memahami strategi yang diperoleh daripada golongan gelandangan dalam meningkatkan kesejahteraan hidup. Kajian ini telah menggunakan reka bentuk kajian kes instrumental (Stake, 1995). Seramai 10 orang daripada golongan gelandangan telah diambil sebagai responden kajian. Data yang telah dikumpul dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis tematik. Sebanyak lima tema keseluruhan berkaitan dengan strategi yang dimiliki oleh golongan gelandangan untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan hidup. Tema strategi yang telah dibentuk ialah, (a) berfikiran positif, (b) komunikasi interpersonal, (c) hubungan sosial, (d) penetapan kendiri, dan (e) pengurusan rohani. Kajian ini membolehkan golongan gelandangan, institusi keluarga, pemegang taruh dan masyarakat dapat memahami bagaimana untuk membantu dalam meningkatkan kesejahteraan hidup terutamanya dalam kalangan gelandangan. Golongan ini juga ingin berdikari, menyumbang kepada masyarakat, justeru menghapuskan stigma terhadap golongan gelandangan. Kajian ini diharapkan dapat memberikan gambaran awal berkaitan dengan isu kesejahteraan hidup dalam kalangan gelandangan. Implikasi dan cadangan turut dibincangkan di akhir penulisan ini untuk pengkaji di masa akan datang dapat menjalankan kajian dalam bidang psikologi khususnya subjek dalam kalangan gelandangan. Kata kunci: kesejahteraan hidup, kajian kes, gelandangan, analisis tematik The study is to understand the strategies obtained from the homeless in improving the well-being of life. This study has used an instrumental case study design (Stake, 1995). A total of 10 homeless people was recruited as study respondents. Data were collected and analyzed using thematic analysis. Overall, there are five themes related to the strategies that obtain to improve the homeless well-being of the homeless. The themes that have been formed are (a) positive thinking, (b) interpersonal communication, (c) social relationships, (d) self-determination, and (e) spiritual management. This study allows homeless people, family institutions, stakeholders, and the community to understand how to help improve the well-being of life, especially the homeless. These people also want to be independent and contribute to society. Thus, eliminating the stigma of the homeless. This study is expected to provide an initial overview related to the issue of well-being among homeless people. Implications and suggestions are also discussed at the end of this writing so that future researchers can research the psychology field, especially subjects among homeless people.
... Garg and Rastogi (2009) also stated that psychological well-being is related to an individual's enjoyment of his/her mental and physical health, lifetime, job, and judgment of one's contentment in life. Ryff (1989) proposed a model for psychological well-being including numerous components like autonomy, environmental domination, personal growth, positive relationship, purposes in life, and accepting the self. They stated that autonomy is related to freedom, self-regulation, self-determination, and concentration on one's internal control. ...
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Positive emotions are regarded as vital issues in English as a foreign language (EFL) instruction. This study attempted to consider the relationships between Chinese EFL teachers’ psychological well-being, loving Pedagogy, and work engagement as the constructs of positive psychology in academic contexts. It also tried to examine the contribution of psychological well-being and loving pedagogy in work engagement. To this end, 414 Chinese EFL teachers including participated in this study. The three questionnaires called Dispositions toward Loving Pedagogy Scale, Index of Psychological Well-Being at Work, and Self-report Engagement Questionnaire were distributed among learners. The findings showed significant relationships between well-being, loving pedagogy, and work engagement. Moreover, the results indicated that teachers’ psychological well-being significantly predicted their work engagement. This study provided some implications for teachers, teacher educators, and educational policy-makers to raise their awareness of adopting loving pedagogy and boosting teacher well-being for the enhancement of teacher involvement in academic contexts.
... Clinically, demoralization is a new diagnostic concept when they discovered that patients with affective disorders and patients with schizophrenia showed the same psychological condition: loss of meaning, goals, and hope in life; a pessimistic attitude toward the future; alienation and lack of support; and lack of motivation to navigate through life [12]. Previous studies have purposed a various psychological well-being dimensions which are associated with an individual's development of optimal functioning: positive evaluation of one's self, the belief that life is purposeful and meaningful, the possession of quality relationships with others, a sense of continued growth and development, a sense of mastery over one's environment, and a sense of self-determination [11,13]. However, demoralization is opposed to psychological well-being. ...
Article
Demoralization has become increasingly prevalent among college students who have lost motivation in life and feel hopeless about their future. Many college students who demonstrate symptoms of demoralization are neglected because they might fail to typical symptoms of depression. Taiwanese college students are simultaneously influenced by bicultural-self system, such as individual- and social-oriented views of self, which vary considerably in the view of self, achievement motivation, and the value of self-realization, and may even create contradictory expectations and behavioral standard. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of the relationship between attitude towards demoralization, individual- and social-oriented views of self. Three-hundred fifty-six college students completed the online questionnaire, which was designed to explore their demoralization status and cultural differences. Four groups were divided into bicultural self, individual-oriented self, social-oriented self, and unintegrated self. Bicultural group demonstrated significantly lower demoralization overall scores than other groups. Moreover, the five dimensions of demoralization in college students were mostly significantly and negatively correlated with individual- and social-oriented views of self, indicating that college students' bicultural views of self may contribute to or prevent demoralization.
... W celu oszacowania dobrostanu psychicznego badanych osób zastosowano Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWB), opracowaną przez Ryff [43]. Narzędzie to opiera się na koncepcji eudajmonistycznego dobrostanu. ...
... El concepto de Bienestar subjetivo de Diener (1984de Diener ( , 2000 representa una concepción hedónica de la felicidad (Bienestar centrado en el placer compuesto por la presencia de afectos positivos, ausencia de afectos negativos y satisfacción con la vida). Carol Ryff (1989) formuló el concepto de Bienestar psicológico, el cual plantea la felicidad como el resultado de un funcionamiento psicológico óptimo. Mientras que desde la tradición hedónica el Bienestar se entiende en términos de satisfacción general de la vida y la felicidad, en la tradición eudaemónica el Bienestar se basa en las formulaciones del desarrollo humano y los retos existenciales de la vida (Keyes, Shmotkin y Ryff, 2002). ...
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El poder evaluar las motivaciones vocacionales-ocupacionales y el florecimiento en los estudiantes de diversas carreras es un tema clave para la orientación vocacional. El determinar perfiles motivacionales y niveles de florecimiento por carrera puede ayudar a un mejor acompañamiento en el proceso de elección vocacional. En este estudio de campo nos centramos en dos carreras universitarias: Psicología e Ingeniería. Metodología. Es un estudio descriptivo y correlacional de tipo transversal. La muestra fue de tipo no probabilística de carácter intencional y estuvo conformada por 565 estudiantes de primer y segundo año. Instrumentos. Se administraron el Cuestionario de Motivaciones Ocupacionales (CUMO) y la Escala de Florecimiento Multidimensional. Resultados. Los datos obtenidos indican que los alumnos de la carrera de Psicología presentan motivaciones más de tipo altruista y de satisfacción a la hora de elegir la carrera, mientras que los alumnos de Ingeniería estarían motivados más por el Futuro y el Éxito y el prestigio en la elección de su carrera. La motivación altruista en la elección de la carrera de grado es el mejor predictor del Bienestar social en los alumnos de ambas carreras. La motivación Satisfacción predice el Bienestar psicológico de los estudiantes de Ingeniería, mientras que el Altruismo es el mejor predictor del Bienestar psicológico de los estudiantes de Psicología. Por último, la Dependencia inhibe el Bienestar emocional de los estudiantes de Ingeniería, sin embargo, ningún tipo de motivación estuvo asociada al Bienestar emocional de los estudiantes de Psicología.
... Procedures and instruments. The key psychodiagnostic method is the questionnaire "The Scales of Psychological Well-being" ("SPW") (Ryff, 1989). The questionnaire was adapted by T. Shevelenkova and P. Fesenko, (2005). ...
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The purpose of the article is to theoretically substantiate and empirically establish that health-preserving technologies, such as play sports, may improve the mental health of student youth. Respondents were first-year students who, on their initiative, participated in a university program to implement health technologies, regularly attending sectional trainings in play sports (males-football; females-volleyball). The ascertaining stage of the experimental study was attended by n = 122 respondents aged 18 to 20 years (M = 18.6), and the formative stage was attended by n = 72 respondents. Football EGF (n = 24) and volleyball EGV (n = 12) were formed as experimental groups, and football CGF (n = 24) and volleyball CGV (n = 12) as control groups. Research methods: analysis, generalization; targeted observation using data recording protocols; valid methods with standard questionnaires. Results. It was revealed that respondents' psychological well-being (PW), which was measured in the coordinates of positive self-esteem (.227; p≤.01), the general mood background (.321; p≤.01) and the life satisfaction index (.301; p≤.01), was a predictor of mental health. Psychological well-being (PW) was shown to have the greatest statistically significant correlation (p≤.05; p≤.01) with the self-regulation and life satisfaction characteristics of student youth. The parameters "Self-acceptance" (р˂.01), "Psychological well-being" (р˂.01), "Life Satisfaction Index" (р˂.01), "Evaluation of Performance" (р˂.01), "Integral Level of Self-Regulation" (р˂.01) showed positive significant changes in both experimental groups (EGF-football, EGV-volleyball). It is emphasized that positive changes in students' self-perception of themselves are, in our opinion, the most important positive changes that affect the general mood (.223; p≤.01) and is one of the most important parameters of mental health of respondents. Conclusions. It is generalized that regular training and competitions of student youth in football (males) and volleyball (females) during the academic year, contribute to statistically significant changes in mental health parameters. The implemented practice is an effective health-preserving technology that should be applied in college and higher education institutions' instructional processes.
... Se compone de seis dimensiones con direcciones negativas o positivas (Ryff, 2014): autoaceptación, vínculos sociales, autonomía, control de situaciones, proyecto de vida y crecimiento personal. Cada dimensión del bienestar psicológico implica retos que las personas enfrentan en su lucha por funcionar positivamente (Ryff, 1989a). Los individuos tratan de sentirse bien consigo mismos, incluso conscientes de sus propias limitaciones (autoaceptación). ...
... positive emotions), eudaimonia (e.g. meaning) and concepts of flourishing relating to a balance of both (Diener, 1984(Diener, , 2000Ryff, 1989;Ryff & Keyes, 1995;Seligman, 2012Seligman, , 2017. However, psychological models typically ignore wider contextual factors and societal challenges including structural inequities, environmental degradation and the climate crisis, and have been criticized accordingly (Carlisle et al., 2009;Davies, 2015;Frawley, 2015). ...
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This is a preprint of the following chapter: Kemp, A.H. & Edwards, D.J., ‘Chapter 1: An introduction to the complex construct of wellbeing, societal challenges and potential solutions’, to be published in Broadening the Scope of Wellbeing Science: Multidisciplinary and Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Human Flourishing and Wellbeing, edited by A.H. Kemp & D.J. Edwards, (forthcoming), Palgrave Macmillan, reproduced with permission of Springer Nature Switzerland AG. The final authenticated version will be made available online once published.
... Three 14-item Psychological Well-Being subscales (PWB; Ryff, 1989) assessed self-evaluations of close relationships, mastery, and autonomy. Positive Relations with ...
Thesis
p>This thesis examined the novel proposal that for insecure individuals, regulation of self-esteem is contingent on fulfilment of affect-regulation goals. Specifically, individuals with high attachment anxiety depend on interpersonal approval and affection, whereas those with high avoidance, although they defensively deny attachment needs, depend on validating their agency and self-reliance. Four studies examined the influence of attachment patterns on self-esteem regulation. Study 1 showed that for insecure compared to secure individuals, global self-esteem was more closely connected to specific interpersonal or agentic self-views. Study 2 and 3 examined feedback-seeking patterns. Secure individuals were more open to, and chose, positive over negative feedback. High-anxious individuals pursued interpersonal feedback but chose negative feedback when it was offered. Dismissing individuals (high avoidance, low anxiety) sought positive hypothetical feedback about self-reliance but negative feedback across all domains when it was offered. Study 4 examined day-to-day self-esteem regulation using daily diaries. High-anxious individuals exhibited the most fluctuation in self-esteem as a function of daily rejection and positive partner feedback, and reacted negatively to negative interpersonal feedback. High-avoidant individuals did not self-enhance by taking on board positive competence feedback. Instead, they exhibited the least boost to self-esteem after positive interpersonal feedback but lower self-esteem after daily rejection. Overall, findings supported high-anxious individuals’ reliance on interpersonal sources for self-esteem regulation. High-avoidant individuals’ reliance on agentic sources was inconsistently supported, but their vulnerability to acceptance and rejection implies incomplete defences. These findings have implications for relationship functioning, work performance, and vulnerability to depression. Attachment theory provides a valuable framework for understanding individual differences in self-esteem regulation.</p
... Well-being is persons' capability to compete so as to establish steadiness among their social benefits and life events [19]. Well-being is an integral consideration of taking advantage from mental health, life change and work environment. ...
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The current study investigated the effect of agreeableness, openness to experience, hope and well-being among university teachers. Data was collected from a sample of (N=440) university teachers comprising of (n=200) female and (n=240) male from universities of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Attock and Wah Cantt. Four scales were used including well-being scale, agreeableness scale, openness to experience scale and hope scale. Significant positive relationships of agreeableness, openness to experience and hope with well-being were found. Step-wise regression analysis revealed that agreeableness, openness to experience and hope were the significant predictors of well-being and hope was the strongest predictor of well-being among university teachers. Gender differences revealed that hope, well-being and openness to experience were more in male university teachers while agreeableness was more in female university teachers. The findings recommended that high traits of agreeableness and openness with high level of hope leads to high level of well-being. Also, female university teachers are more kind hearted while males are more creative and imaginative.
... Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) (Keyes, 2005;adaptación argentina Perugini et al., 2017). Este instrumento de 14 ítems evalúa el grado de: a) Bienestar emocional entendido en términos de afectos positivos y satisfacción con la vida (bienestar hedónico); b) Bienestar social (incluye las facetas de aceptación, actualización, contribución social, coherencia e integración social); c) Bienestar personal en términos de la teoría de Ryff (1989) (autonomía, control, crecimiento personal, relaciones personales, autoaceptación y propósito). Los estudios de validación de este instrumento en Argentina han confirmado la estructura de tres factores y su invarianza por sexo y edad. ...
... The positive psychology literature-to recall, e.g., Ryff (1989), Deci and Flaste (1996), Ryan and Deci (2001), Csikszentmihalyi (1990), Seligman (2002Seligman ( , 2004Seligman ( , 2011, Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi (2000)-extensively discusses studies of how people maintain mental health. To wit, as Crum and Salovey (in David et al. 2014) argue, at least some of the emotions that the DM adopts are crucial in motivating the DM to undertake challenging and aspiring goals. ...
Article
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Easterlin notes a contradiction in the data. While the cross-sectional data set shows that happiness is a positive monotonic function of income, the time-series data set of high income countries demonstrates that happiness does not rise with the rise of income. To solve the paradox, this paper proposes that each data set reveals a different facet of happiness. The cross-sectional data set asks people how they assess their current well-being in general. This question prompts people to contrast their current well-being with a well-being in the distant past. This explains why happiness tracks income. In comparison, the time-series data ask people how they feel at the moment. This question prompts people to contrast their current well-being with an aspired goal in the future. Their response is a function of the gap that exists between their current well-being and the aspired one. The gap is usually steady for high income countries and, hence, happiness is likewise steady, i.e., insensitive to the rise of income. The proposed solution highlights the operation of contextual assessment: we have two facets of happiness following the two kinds of context in operation.
... Hedonia is often referred to as subjective wellbeing (SWB) in the social sciences literature. Eudaimonia includes psychological (Ryff, 1989) and social (Keyes, 1998) wellbeing. Evidence that hedonia and eudaimonia are highly correlated (Kashdan et al., 2008) has been used to justify economists' preference for unidimensional measures. ...
Article
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Policy makers’ ultimate goal is to deliver the highest possible level of population welfare. Economists investigate the effect of socio-economic dimensions on wellbeing using unidimensional measures of life satisfaction or happiness as proxies for welfare. However, social psychologists have shown that wellbeing is a much broader construct and that an intervention may have opposite effects on its components. Unidimensional measures may hide these patterns. Most literature focuses on high-income countries. The growing evidence from low- and middle-income countries also largely relies on standard unidimensional measures. This study tests the validity of this reliance by exploring the wellbeing construct of South African women, quantitatively analysing textual data from focus group discussions to investigate whether unidimensional measures are appropriate in this context. It provides evidence against the indiscriminate use of unidimensional wellbeing measures. Cluster and correspondence analysis of the transcripts show that relevant domains of women’s wellbeing include relations with others, autonomy, and a perception of control over their environment (environmental mastery). Results also reveal that participants have a relational view of themselves, distinct from the individuated view predominant in the US and Europe and the collectivist view found in East Asia. Such relational self-perception modifies study participants’ wellbeing construct in ways that are important for policy implementation and evaluation. For example, women’s autonomy and environmental mastery rely on shared peer-identity to redefine rules and meet challenges. Wellbeing measures for policy evaluation would benefit from incorporating these insights to meaningfully measure progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3 on ‘good health and wellbeing’ in South Africa and other contexts that exhibit similar concepts of wellbeing.
... Öznel iyi oluşun değerlendirilmesi bilişsel ve duygusal bir içeriğe sahipken, mutluluğun değerlendirilmesi ise sadece duygusal bir içeriğe sahiptir (Pavot ve Diener, 1993 (Diener, 1984). İkinci olarak, eudaimonia yaklaşımını temel alan psikolojik iyi oluş kavramı, bireylerin, yeterlik, güçlü ilişkilere sahip olma ve kendini kabul etme gibi özellikleri ile değerlendirilir (Ryff, 1989 (Diener ve Suh, 1997). Bundan sonra öznel iyi oluşun bireyin yaşamına kattığı olumlu ve olumsuz sonuçlar ele alınacaktır. ...
... Next, well-being is diversely constructed, and most often discussed in terms of multiple dimensions or factors. These dimensions can range from broad, as in Diener's (1984) tripartite model, to highly specific, as in Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989). Finally, well-being is experienced by individuals in multiple domains of life and can be understood as a function of social and ecological contexts as much as individual attributes and behaviors (Kelly, 2000;McGregor et al., 2003). ...
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Mattering, defined as synergistic experiences of feeling valued and adding value, is a psychosocial construct with underappreciated pragmatic potential. It has explanatory relevance across disciplines, domains of life, and social contexts. It is also both parsimonious and far-reaching in uniting areas of concern relevant to community psychologists and the needs, values, and goals of diverse communities. Nevertheless, it has received limited attention in the community psychology (CP) literature. This dissertation will develop and provide empirical support for an ecological understanding of mattering suited to community research and practice. Empirical support is furnished in three studies using large, representative U.S. samples. The first evaluates a novel multidimensional measure of mattering (MIDLS), providing evidence of MIDLS’ validity as a bifactor measure of general and domain-specific mattering. The second study provides evidence of differences between demographic groups in domain-specific mattering. Finally, covariance-based structural equation modeling (CB-SEM) is used to assess the relationships between multidimensional mattering, fairness, and well-being in six life domains. Findings suggest that mattering fully mediates the relationship between fairness and well-being for all domains investigated except economic well-being. Taken together, these studies show that mattering can be conceived and assessed in multidimensional terms; that doing so can yield novel insights; and that mattering has unique value as an organizing construct which helps map the relationship between key community psychology values and outcomes. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of key limitations and implications as well as next steps for a program of research which can actualize the pragmatic potential of multidimensional mattering for community research and practice.
... 2013), Positive Relations Scale (by Ryff, 1989). ...
Conference Paper
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Amaç: Flash Emdr Tekniği, travmatik veya diğer rahatsız edici anılarla ilişkili psikopatolojik düzeyi azaltmak için yakın zamanda geliştirilmiş bir terapötik müdahaledir. Birçok geleneksel travma terapisi müdahalesinin aksine, Flash Emdr Tekniği, danışanın travmatik hafızayla bilinçli olarak meşgul olmasını gerektirmeyen minimal düzeyde müdahaleci bir yöntemdir. Bu, danışanın travmatik anıları sıkıntı hissetmeden işlemesine izin verir. Diğer bir deyişle travmatik anının yeniden işlemleyerek sonlandırmanın hızlı ve nispeten rahatsız edici olmayan bir yolu olarak kullanılmaktadır. Psikolojik iyi oluş, bireyin hayattaki anlamlı amaçları sürdürmesini, potansiyeline ilişkin farkındalığını ve çevresi ile geliştirdiği anlamlı ilişkilerini yönetme olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Ancak bireyin yaşadığı travmatik yaşantılar onun hayatla olan anlamlı ilişkilerini ve yaşam fonksiyonlarını sekteye uğratacağı düşünülmektedir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmada amaç; travmatik anılarda acısız iyileşme (travmaya maruz bırakmadan) sağlayan Flash Emdr Tekniğinin psikolojik iyi oluşu artırmada uygulanabilirliğinin ortaya konulmasıdır. Yöntem: Araştırmanın örneklemini belirlemek için Bingöl İlinde resmi bir okulda eğitimini lise 1. Sınıfta devam eden bir öğrenciye psikolojik iyi oluş ölçeği, travmatik yas ölçeği ve Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkileri Ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Katılımcı 7 yıl önce gaz yüklü bir tankerin patlaması sonucu annesini, babasını ve abisini kaybetmiş ve kendisinin de yüzü ve ellerinde 1. Dereceden yanıklardan ötürü 6 ay yoğun bakımda kalmıştır. Katılımcı son 6 ay içinde yoğun uyku problemi, kâbus görme, patlama anına ilişkin görüntüler, kaybettiklerini özleme, sosyal içe çekilme (özellikle yüz ve ellerdeki yanıklardan ötürü içine kapanma) ve hayattan zevk almadığını ifade etmiştir. Uygulanan ölçeklerin değerlendirilmesi sonucunda Psikolojik iyi oluş ölçeği puanı 27 (bu ölçekte alınabilecek en düşük puan 8), Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkileri Ölçeği puanı 31 (orta düzeyde TSSB belirtileri) ve travmatik yas ölçeği puanı 25 (bu ölçeğin kesim puanı 24) olarak tespit edilmiştir. Bulgular: Katılımcıya seanstan iki gün önce ve seanstan iki sonra uygulanan ölçeklerde; Psikolojik iyi oluş puanı 27’den 35’e yükseldi, Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkileri Ölçeği puanı 31’den 23’e düştü, Travmatik Yas puanı 25’ten 11’e düştü, SUD puanı ise 9’dan 1’e düştü. Bir seans Flash Emdr Tekniği uygulaması yapıldıktan sonra TSSB ve Travmatik yasın ön test ve son test puanları arasında düşüş olduğu, psikolojik iyi oluş puanlarında ise yükselme olduğu görülmektedir. Tartışma ve Sonuç: Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre, Flash Emdr Tekniğinin psikolojik iyi oluşu artırmada, Travmatik yas ve Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkilerini azaltmada etkili olduğu görülmektedir. Dolayısıyla psikoterapi sürecinde hem danışanın travmaya maruz bırakmadan acısız bir şekilde iyileşmesi sağlanacağı söylenebilir. Yanı sıra Flash Emdr Tekniğinin bir seansının en fazla 20 dakika sürmesi hem zaman yönünden hem de psikolojik iyi oluşu artırmada etkili olması açısından, tekniğin psikoterapilerde kullanılması önerilebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Psikolojik İyi Oluş, Flash Emdr Tekniği, Travmatik Yas
... En contraste, el bienestar psicológico se refiere a una conceptualización más amplia, incluyendo características del individuo que funciona óptimamente. En las últimas décadas, el bienestar psicológico se ha medido principalmente utilizando las seis dimensiones de bienestar incluidas en las escalas de Ryff (Ryff, 1989;Ryff y Keyes, 1995). Sin embargo, otras maneras de medir el bienestar psicológico cubren las fortalezas individuales relacionadas con la significación, como el sentido de coherencia (Antonovsky 1985(Antonovsky , 1987. ...
Chapter
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En la actualidad, la comida es fuente tanto de placer como de conflicto para las personas. Gracias a la proliferación de redes comerciales y de transporte, la alimentación actual se rige por una diversidad en sus mercados. Aunque existen algunas diferencias, el cierre en la brecha de la variedad de platillos, sabores y olores que pueden disfrutarse ahora tanto en un restaurante como en casa es cada vez más notorio. Si bien la elaboración de platillos ha existido desde tiempos remotos, así como el uso de técnicas y métodos para preparar alimentos, cada cultura a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad ha elaborado una gama de platillos con características específicas, rigiéndose mayormente por la disponibilidad de ingredientes y el medio ambiente en el que habitaban (Goody, 1995; Fischler, 1995). El acto natural de “comer” transciende la idea básica de “alimentarse por sobrevivir” a lo que actualmente se le conoce como “experiencia gastronómica” (Goody, 1997). Consumir un alimento no se limita a la ingesta de nutrientes, incluye también sabores, aromas, texturas, colores, así como otros estímulos, tales como la atmósfera, decoración, pistas visuales y auditivas, sin dejar de lado el contexto social. A diferencia del tratamiento que se le daba a los alimentos en la antigüedad, el arte culinario o la gastronomía implican no sólo la preservación histórica de recetas o fórmulas para realizar un platillo, sino también la innovación del uso de esas técnicas con los ingredientes que son cada vez más disponibles y variados, así como una colaboración con otras disciplinas. La gastronomía, en un sentido general, suele vincularse con diversos conceptos, tales como: cocinas, productos, alimentos, técnicas culinarias, identidades y cosmovisiones (Goody, J. 1995). Asimismo, se le ha vinculado con la hotelería, e industria de la restauración, el arte, el catering, lo gourmet y los chefs. Como disciplina, ha evolucionado de ser un mero arte sin métodos ni guías, a colocarse en una posición de carácter incluso “científico” (Hegarty, 2005). Cabe mencionar que en la actualidad la gastronomía se ha ido dejando de considerar como una línea de investigación que pueda partir de disciplinas tanto químicas y en su mayoría sociales. En ese artículo se presenta una breve historia de cómo se fue consolidando la gastronomía como disciplina a lo largo de los dos últimos siglos, así como algunas actualidades respecto a los estudios gastronómicos consolidados y su relación con otras disciplinas concernientes al comportamiento alimentario y a la nutrición.
... However, eudaimomia, in its most common conceptualization, refers to the pursuit of the distinct goals or growth, authenticity, meaning, and excellence. Eudaimonia purposes are particularly suited for times of crisis, because these goals are concerned with realizing one's potential despite setbacks and challenge (Ryff 1989). ...
Article
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In a fast-paced and interconnected global economy, a crisis is an eventuality for most organizations. Leading during a crisis can be particularly challenging because a crisis can disrupt a firm’s purpose, undermine the motivation of employees, and can encourage unethical behavior. In this article, I focus on managing a crisis of purpose. I articulate a framework that elaborates ways in which leaders find and pursue ethical purposes during times of crisis and why these specific purposes motivate employees and encourage organizational resilience. Drawing on modern scholars’ theory of eudaimonia, I propose that leaders can find ethical purposes by framing crisis as opportunities for growth, authenticity, meaning and excellence. When leaders establish and pursue ethical purposes, they can motivate individuals and promote organizational resilience.
... Wayment et al., 2015) This scale was used to measure self-identity that values growth and balanced concern for self and others. It has 14 items that are divided into four latent factors namely; detached awareness (Items 2, 6, 10) derived from Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (Brown & Ryan, 2003), inclusive identity (Item 3, 7, 12) derived from Allo-Inclusive Identity scale by Leary et al. (2008), perspective taking (Item 4, 8, 13, 11) derived from the perspective taking subscale of Davis (1983) Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and lastly Growth (Item 5, 9, 1, 14) derived from the personal growth subscale of the Ryff (1989) Psychological Well-Being Scale. The items are measured on a 5 point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). ...
Article
Background This research aimed to examine the relationship of quiet ego and perceived social support with the subjective well-being of mothers having children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and to find out the predictors of subjective well-being among these mothers. Where multiple resource factors beneficial for the well-being of these mothers are studied worldwide, this study investigates and highlights importance of the scarcely studied concept of quiet ego in a precisely defined study sample. Method Correlational research design was used and mothers (N = 70; Mage = 36.20, SD = 5.70) were selected using purposive sampling strategy from different special schools and centres of Lahore, Pakistan. The questionnaires used in the study were, Quiet Ego Scale (Wayment et al., 2015), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (Zimet et al., 1988), Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., 1985) and Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (Diener et al., 2009) Results Results showed a significant positive relationship of quiet ego, and all the aspects of social support, with subjective well-being. After controlling for the effect of control variables, social support from the significant other emerged as significant unique predictor of both cognitive and affective components of subjective well-being while friends’ support significantly predicted affect balance only Conclusions The importance of internal and external protective factors highlighted in this study can be employed by professionals as a part of their counselling or therapeutic interventions while dealing with such mothers, as well as for the awareness of their families and society, at large.
... QOL and MIL are two important determinants of psychological well-being. [13] QOL is defined as "individuals" perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns." [14] MIL is defined as "the sense made of, and significance felt regarding, the nature of one's being and existence." ...
Article
Context: India at present is experiencing a phenomenal increase in the number of older adults. Old age is marked by challenges across multiple domains of life. To overcome the challenges of old age, the focus should be on improving the quality of life (QOL) and meaning in life (MIL) of older adults. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of leisure activity on QOL and MIL of male and female older adults in old-age homes. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 male and female retired older adults (65–80 years), living in old-age homes of Hooghly district, West Bengal, using the Older People's Quality of Life Questionnaire (OPQOL-35) by Bowling and Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) by Steger, Frazier, Oishi, & Kaler. Results: Older adults who engaged in active leisure activities had higher QOL and MIL than those engaged in passive leisure activities. Male older adults had higher QOL and MIL than female older adults. Conclusion: Opportunities to pursue active leisure activities should be promoted among older adults in old-age homes.
... The arithmetic mean and the first component score was determined as composite indices. Cheng and Chan (2005) used the psychological well-being scale (Ryff, 1989) and applied it to an adult group between the ages of 18-86 in Hong Kong. Kern et al. (2015) tested the PERMA welfare model put forward by Seligman on 516 Australian male students and used factor analysis. ...
Chapter
There has been an increasing research on mindfulness in reducing psychological distress and promoting resilience and well-being. Mindfulness studies have primarily been conducted in the clinical and scientific settings, and research with university students is still in its infancy. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a preliminary review of empirical studies on trait mindfulness, and its associations with the Big Five personality traits and trait affect at the university level, which may contribute to better resilience in future workplace. Our review of 20 empirical papers suggests that trait mindfulness is positively related to certain personality traits – agreeableness and conscientiousness and negatively related to neuroticism; while its relationships with openness to experience and extraversion are non-conclusive. Additionally, trait mindfulness is also related to positive affect and resilience, and negatively related to negative affect. This chapter aims to provide insights on the role of trait mindfulness in promoting resilience in higher education and the future workplace.
Conference Paper
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The text focuses on the definition of substitute family care and its basic forms that are applied and used in the Czech Republic. The historical progression of substitute family care is also mentioned to demonstrate that this issue is a part of human society. An integral part of the text is the statistical information. Furthermore, the purpose of the text is to point out the need for experts and professionals who are engaged with this problem and are working with this targeted group. Last but not least is the need for reflection on those changes that had to be made because of the change in attitudes concerning substitute family care
Conference Paper
Une croissance du nombre de recherches menées sur la thématique du bien-être au travail (BET) chez les enseignant·e·s peut être observée depuis le début des années 2000 (Rusk et al., 2013) et celle-ci est désormais alimentée par le contexte pandémique. Alors qu’un travail de délimitation conceptuelle a été engagé par certains chercheur·euse·s en psychologie positive, le terme « bien-être » demeure polysémique et il est associé à des conceptions aussi équivoques qu’abondantes. Dans une perspective systémique qui s’appuie sur une proposition bipartite, où le « fardeau » du bien-être n’incombe pas seulement au travailleur·euse (Oades et Dulagil, 2017), mais aussi où l’étude du BET doit s’appuyer sur le contexte où évoluent les individus (Gilbert et al., 2011), nous proposerons des pistes de réflexion conceptuelles et méthodologiques afin de mieux cerner le BET chez les enseignant·e·s. En prenant appui sur des éléments issus de deux de nos recherches (qualitative et quantitative) qui abordent le BET dans une perspective alliant l’hédonisme et l’eudémonisme, mais surtout en examinant les modèles présents dans la littérature, nous discuterons, entre autres, des relations sociales, des perspectives d’avancement professionnel, mais aussi des rôles assumés par les enseignant·e·s au quotidien. La prise en considération de ces aspects, en plus de varier selon les perspectives théoriques, contribue à éloigner le concept de BET chez les enseignant·e·s des définitions plus « génériques ».
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Tujuan utama kajian ini dijalankan adalah untuk meneroka main concern dalam kalangan gelandangan yang tinggal di sekitar Bandaraya Kuala Lumpur. Seramai tujuh orang gelandangan yang berumur antara 33 tahun hingga 64 tahun dipilih menjadi peserta kajian. Pengkaji menggunakan teknik temu bual bagi mendapatkan data secara kualitatif. Protokol telah dibina berdasarkan isu yang telah dihadapi oleh golongan gelandangan. Tempoh masa pelaksanaan temu bual antara satu jam hingga dua jam. Data dianalisis menggunakan kaedah analisis tematik. Kajian mendapati main concern gelandangan adalah kesejahteraan. Terdapat tiga aspek kesejahteraan, iaitu kualiti hidup, emosi dan kebahagiaan. Selain itu, kajian mendapati terdapat tiga faktor yang mempunyai kaitan dengan kesejahteraan gelandangan, iaitu kesihatan fizikal, tekanan hidup dan penerimaan. Sementara itu tiga cabaran yang dihadapi oleh golongan gelandangan ini, iaitu pergantungan, hilang hala tuju dan tempat perlindungan. Akhir sekali, dapatan menunjukkan terdapat empat bentuk sumber sokongan sosial yang diterima oleh golongan gelandangan ini iaitu daripada pihak badan bukan kerajaan, kerajaan, individu dan rakan. Kajian ini diharapkan dapat memberi gambaran awal mengenai isu kesejahteraan dalam kalangan gelandangan. Implikasi dan cadangan kajian turut dibincangkan.
Article
Background: Over the last couple of decades, psychological wellbeing at work has increasingly received research attention, particularly in light of a rise in the prevalence of mental health issues in work sectors that present with high job demand levels. High levels of stress, anxiety and depression have been documented in the banking workforce too and have been associated with personal and organizational factors that can be detrimental to psychological wellbeing at work in various Western and Eastern countries. Within a positive psychology framework, the construct of Psychological Capital (PsyCap) has become pertinent to the study and reinforcement of mental wellbeing in the workplace in terms of its focus on the development of the four dimensions it comprises of, i.e., hope, optimism, resilience, and self-efficacy. While PsyCap as a personal resource has been found to improve psychological wellbeing at work, Perceived Organizational Support (POS) has also been shown to contribute to wellbeing at work as well as to work satisfaction and performance; however, the relationship among PsyCap, POS and psychological wellbeing in the banking sector in either Western or Eastern countries has been under-researched. Aim: This is the first study aimed to investigate the role of psychological wellbeing in the banking workforce in relation to a PsyCap framework that also considers the contributing role of POS in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological wellbeing. The study will also adopt a comparative approach, aiming to explore any cultural and/or gender differences in the nature of the relationship among PsyCap, psychological wellbeing and POS in bank employees at a Western, i.e., U.K. and an eastern, i.e., India, organization site. Method: Following a systematic narrative review into the literature on PsyCap, studied along with aspects of psychological wellbeing and POS in the occupational sector (inclusive of students) that informed the aims of the current investigation, a mixed methods approach was adopted to explore the nature of the relationship among PsyCap, psychological wellbeing and POS in the U.K. and the India banking sector. In the quantitative part, validated self-report scales were distributed through an online survey or manually for completion, i.e. psychological capital (PsyCap; Luthans, Avolio, Avey, & Norman, 2007), perceived organizational support (POS; Eisenberger, 1986) and psychological wellbeing (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995); the qualitative exploration employed semi-structured interviews with a subsample of those who participated in the quantitative part to enquire in more depth into factors associated with PsyCap, wellbeing and POS as well as the nature of stressors at work and the coping strategies adopted to deal with these stressors. Results: Quantitative data findings showed PsyCap -and its dimensions to be negatively correlated with (poor) psychological wellbeing. POS was negatively correlated with (poor) psychological wellbeing and positively correlated to PsyCap & its dimensions. POS moderated the relationship between PsyCap and psychological wellbeing in the total combined sample of U.K and India based bank employees (n=475) and in the U.K. bank employee sample (n=230) per se but did not serve as a moderator in this relationship for the India bank employee sample (n=245). Further, significant gender differences were seen on the domains of hope and optimism of PsyCap as well as on POS and on the domains of stress and anxiety of psychological wellbeing, among the banking cohort at both sites. Qualitatively, emerged themes derived from thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke,2006) were common and/or site-specific and reflected: the importance of POS (e.g., support from colleagues/managers, recognition of work and well-defined work parameters) in effective work performance; the link between PsyCap (e.g., optimism) and work performance; the link between POS (e.g., recognition of work) and PsyCap (e.g., self-efficacy) in effective work performance; the link between POS (e.g., provision of wellbeing programs) and work performance as well as psychological wellbeing; the link between stressors and various coping strategies with psychological wellbeing; and the importance of positive psychology approaches in stress reduction and improved work performance. Notably, managerial support and wellbeing program provision were found lacking at the India bank site. Conclusion: The combined pattern of findings suggests that PsyCap can be a vital personal resource for improving wellbeing at work as well as work performance that can be further developed, along with take-up of organizational support. Future research needs to further investigate the synergistic contribution of PsyCap and POS as personal and organizational sources for improving psychological wellbeing at work while Western practice can potentially inform India bank sites on the implementation of beneficial organizational support sources at work.
Thesis
p>There is an urgent need to understand the factors that can influence health and well-being in later years; one such factor is the level of unfavourability adults associate with their own ageing and future old age. Given the potential for age-associated attitudes to impact adversely on health, particularly when negative, it was surprising that so little research has been carried out in this field. This thesis contributes to current knowledge in three main ways: by exploring, measuring and explaining adults’ attitudes to potentially negative and threatening aspects of their own ageing and future old age. Empirical research is reported from four main studies involving more than 3000 participants, including samples recruited personally from major cities in both the UK and the US. In exploring age-associated attitudes, results suggest: a) that negative attitudes can be understood in relation to the level of threat adults associate with their own future old age, b) that those threats cross physical, social and psychological aspects of later life, and c) that such threats can be further understood in terms of the ability of the individual to minimise losses, manage constraints and create positive gains. Replicated across sample groups, results also indicate that the ten new measures developed through this thesis do make a valuable contribution to the current field because: 1) a number of researchers have noted the paucity and inadequacy of measures in this field (e.g. Wullschleger et al, 1996), 2) the newly developed measures are short, easy to score and simple to interpret, and 3) replicated across sample groups, these measures have good psychometric properties, including good internal reliability and validity. Finally, results indicate that attachment-related variables provided the best explanation for age-associated attitudes; specifically, a model is proposed consistent with the view that experiences in early relationships influence current representations of self and others and current coping strategies, which in turn influence negative age-associated attitudes. Rival variables such as neuroticism and expected financial status did not add to the fit of the model.</p
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Objective: University and polytechnic students undergo a period of transition from adolescents to adulthood. Their health may be adversely affected by transition-related changes, contributing to poorer psychological well-being. This study aimed to examine the predicting factors of psychological well-being among the students. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive correlational research and convenience sampling was utilised. Self-report questionnaires gathered research data in two ways: online-based and paper-based forms. Main outcome measures: Psychological well-being was the main outcome of this research. It was measured with the 18-items Psychological Well-being Scale. Stress was measured with the 10-question Perceived Stress Scale, mindfulness was measured with the 15-item Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale, social support was measured with the 12-item multidimensional scale of Perceived Social Support, resilience was measured with the shorter-version Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, while self-efficacy was measured using the 10-item General Self Efficacy Scale. Results: Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analyses. In total, 621 students participated in this study, with most participants being Singaporean, Chinese, female and year 1 students. Social support, resilience, mindfulness, and self-efficacy had positive effects on psychological well-being, whereas stress had a negative effect on psychological wellbeing. Resilience had the strongest predicting effect, followed by self-efficacy, social support and mindfulness. Among research variables, stress had the weakness relationship with psychological-wellbeing. Conclusion: There is a role for nurses to offer early preventive interventions to enhance psychological wellbeing among undergraduate and polytechnic students in Singapore.
Article
Well‐being is transversal to different urban‐related challenges such as increasing urbanization or adaptation to the effects of climate change. One possible response to these challenges is the use of nature in cities. The aim of this study is to investigate how the objective quantity of natural space near the home, the perception of these natural elements, and their perceived availability, moderated by the effect of connectedness to nature, could explain levels of well‐being. A survey was conducted among a sample of 1343 participants living in seven European cities. Data were collected online via a questionnaire. Indicators of the objective quantity of urban natural space based on remotely sensed satellite imagery were also used. Regression models highlight the association between well‐being and perceived amount of nature, accessibility to a community garden, and level of connectedness to nature. A moderating and negative effect of connectedness to nature on the association between the perceived quantity of nature and well‐being was also identified. Perception of nature seems to be a better indicator of well‐being than the objective one. Results highlight the importance of the social dimension of collective gardens in enhancing well‐being. Connectedness to nature could facilitate appropriation of natural elements and its effects on well‐being.
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Background: People are holding stronger materialistic belief than before, especially in some developed regions in the world. Materialism refers to beliefs that equate materialistic possessions with happiness, success, and make it central to life. Extant research has widely shown that materialism threatens people’s well-being. Nevertheless, the evidence on how materialism influences meaning in life is less well-established. Within the realm of this area, we examined the relationship between materialism and meaning in life, as well as its potential mechanisms, under the framework of Self-Determination Theory.Methods: Two cross-sectional online survey studies have been conducted to test the hypothesized serial double mediation model. In this model, we measured four constructs including people’s materialistic values, basic psychological needs satisfaction, subjective well-being, and meaning in life. In Study 1, we collected data from a Chinese sample (N=190). In Study 2, we tried to replicate the findings from Study 1 by collecting a non-Chinese different-age Prolific sample (N=767).Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 are consistent. We found that the relationship between materialistic happiness and meaning in life is serially mediated by basic psychological needs satisfaction and subjective well-being. The results confirm that materialistic happiness frustrates basic psychological needs, which threatens people’s subjective well-being then meaning in life. Nonetheless, same serial multiple mediation model is not observed from other two materialistic dimensions including materialistic centrality and materialistic success.Conclusions: Materialistic happiness threatens people’s sense of meaning in life. This relationship can be explained under the framework of Self-Determination Theory. Issues such as how different types of happiness facilitate the constitution of meaning in life, and new investigation directions on materialism and meaning in life research have been discussed.
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The main objective of the study was to examine the relationship between occupational stress and the psychological wellbeing of the criminal law practitioners in Kampala Capital City, Uganda with a major aim of contributing to the knowledge gap that currently exists. The study used mainly quantitative method and supplemented it with and qualitative methods to collect data. Data was collected from 151 respondents and 11 key informants using a questionnaire and key informant interview through quota and purposive sampling techniques. The study revealed low levels of occupational stress (Mean 2.45 and SD 0.82), high levels of psychological wellbeing (Mean 3.4 and SD, 0.66), moderate level of use of coping mechanism (Mean 2.86 and SD 0.85). The study results also indicated a negative linear relationship (r = -0.170, p = 0.037) between psychological strain and psychological wellbeing of criminal law practitioners in Kampala Capital City; a negative linear relationship (r = -0.182, p = 0.025) between behavioral strain and psychological wellbeing; no significant relationship (r = -0.102, p = 0.211) between physical health strain and psychological wellbeing. From the study coping mechanisms have a moderating effect (p=0.006) on physical health strain and psychological wellbeing and no moderating effect on psychological strain (p=0.836) and behavioral strain (p=0.789) on psychological wellbeing. The first hypothesis was accepted that there is a relationship (r = -0.170, p = 0.037) between psychological strain and psychological wellbeing. The second hypothesis was accepted in the findings that there is a relationship (r =-0.182, p = 0.025) between behavioral strain and psychological wellbeing. The third alternative hypothesis was rejected since the findings showed that there is no significant relationship (r = -0.102, p = 0.211) between physical health strain and psychological wellbeing. The study also accepted the fourth hypothesis that showed that coping mechanisms have a significant moderating effect (0.006) on physical health strain and psychological wellbeing (p = 0.006 < 0.05) and rejected the null hypothesis that coping mechanism have no moderating effect on psychological wellbeing in connection with psychological strain (p=0.836 >0.05) and behavioral strain (p=0.789>0.05).The study recommended to the ULS to consider the aspect of psychological wellbeing as part of continuing legal education. The study recommended that ULS should establish a wellbeing Program for criminal law practitioners so as to offer strategies and techniques of ensuring improved psychological wellbeing. Finally, the office of the Director of Public Prosecution should consider employing an in-house counselor to provide professional counselling services to affected members. This will help in improving the psychological wellbeing of the criminal law practitioners
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Usually exceptional children and adults have abilities and characteristics which are different from normal population. Individuals with Visual Impairment (VI) and Hearing Impairment (HI) however experience significant cognitive, emotional, occupational and social problems. Hence, these people have problems in mental health and affect the quality their life. The study aims at assessing Mental Health and Quality of Life of individuals with VI and HI using appropriate tools. This study consisted of 3 groups of 30 individuals in VI, HI and normal individuals. The VI and HI groups are compared with normal sample. The findings are analysed using appropriate statistical methods, namely F-test and T-test. Findings suggest that VI and HI individuals experience significant mental health problems compared to normal sample. There is no statistically significant difference between VI and HI groups. However the mean values of VI and HI groups of the above sample varies.
Poster
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Objectives: Theory and prior research suggest that improving self-esteem is a promising way to improve students’ academic performance and mental health. This study employed a mixed-method approach to empirically examine the mediating effect of psychological well-being and positive emotion on the relationship between self-compassion, mindfulness, stress as independent variables and self-esteem as a dependent variable. Methods: An explanatory sequential mixed-method design was employed by combining an initial quantitative phase and a follow-up qualitative phase. Quantitative data collected through a two-wave survey from 654 Vietnamese students were performed to test the hypotheses using SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 24.0, and information in the quantitative phase was understood and explained in 19 in-depth interviews for exploring students’ experience in doing mindfulness and compassion practices. Results: Findings stated that positive emotion and psychological well-being fully mediated the relationship between mindfulness, self-compassion, stress, and selfesteem. Conclusions: Results of this study highlight the importance of psychological well-being and positive emotion in the self-compassion, mindfulness, stress, and self-esteem relationship in support of the Monitor and Acceptance Theory, as well as explain a possible process by which factors help university students achieve and sustain a sense of high self-esteem. Ultimately, this study has identified several potential targets for intervention strategies in mental health, such as mindfulness and self-compassion among university students. Limitations and implications are thoroughly discussed.
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