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Toward “One Health” Promotion

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Abstract

The One Health agenda comprises efforts across multiple sectors and disciplines to coordinate the interdependence of human existence with nonhuman animals and within ecosystems. Thus far, however, One Health has mainly been construed as an ecological approach to the prevention and control of infectious diseases, especially those which are zoonotic, meaning that they can be transmitted from non-human animals to humans. Yet the conceptual underpinnings of One Health remain ambiguous and ill-defined, especially as the concept explicitly extends the notion of ‘health’ to non-human animals and environments. Furthermore, the implications of the One Health concept for emotional and social well-being have received little attention, implying that ‘health’ consists merely of an absence of physical disease, injury or illness. Anthropologists are among those who are well-positioned to lending depth and nuance to One Health research and practice, and in doing so, environmental anthropology, medical anthropology and science and technology studies (STS) may become more integrated. To that end, and against the background of a comparative analysis of central policies adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), this chapter contributes to the conceptualisation of One Health promotion.

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The concept of animal welfare in confinement agriculture—and an ethical theory based upon this concept—necessitates an idea of what kind of being it is that fares well and what “well” is for this being. This double-question is at the heart of understanding and adequately defining welfare as qualitatively embedded in the experiencing subject. The notion of telos derives (philosophically) from Aristotle and is a way of accounting for the good life of an animal from the unique speciesness of the animal in question. The first part of the article will address the contemporary philosophical and ethical analysis of animals based upon this Aristotelian idea (Rollin in Animal rights and human morality (1st ed. 1981). Prometheus Books, New York, 2006b). Telos is here employed to illustrate the dimensions of what matters in welfare assessment and ethical evaluation. The second half of the article addresses some of the welfare problems in modern animal agriculture and how they relate to the telos concept. Two main examples are dealt with: Boredom (Wemelsfelder in Mental health and well-being in animals. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2005) is argued as being the suffering of choicelessness in animals that are inherently beings that choose—and loneliness is the suffering of social isolation in animals for whom standing in active relations to others is part of what they are.
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La construction del saber entre los cazadores Cree : metaforas y comprension literal.Hace tiempo que la anthropologia insiste sobre los aspectos magicos y miticos del saber en las sociedades no-occidentales, al que opone la racionalidad, considerada literal y empirica, de la ciencia occidental. Esta oposicion sobrevive, bien que de manera indirecta, en la teoria contemporanea de la cultura. Este articulo analiza el saber cinegetico de los Cree y muestra que tanto el mito como la elaboracion de la forma literal de la experiencia empirica son momentos de una transformacion en la construcccion del saber. Ninguno de esos momentos es privilegiado о independiente ; las premisas de la comunicacion y de la reciprocidad entre humanos y animales crean un saber empiricamente sofisticado.
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This article takes a first step in linking anthropological analyses of the body in space (embodied space), the global/local power relations embedded in space (transnational/translocal space), the role of language and discourse in the transformation of space into place (meaning), and the material and metaphorical importance of architecture and urban design (the built environment). Embodied space, language and discourse, and transnational/translocal spaces are discussed based on a brief review of the literature and then combined with the co-production (social production and social construction) model of space. A preliminary theory of space and place developed for contemporary settings is explored and illustrated with examples drawn from ethnographic studies of gated communities in the United States and the plaza in Latin America.
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In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that work in the social studies of science and technology can be appropriated, or consciously deployed, to serve political ends. Correspondingly, pressure has risen on scholars in this field to choose sides in controversies involving science and technology. This paper argues that 'co-production' - the simultaneous production of knowledge and social order - provides a more satisfying conceptual framework than 'controversy' for understanding the relationship between science and society, and she scholar's role in that relationship. Political engagement is better achieved through reflexive, critical scholarship than through identification with apparent 'winners' or 'losers' in well-defined but contingent controversies. Reflexivity is especially desirable when selecting sites for research, styles of explanation, and methods of articulating normative positions.
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Having described and accounted for the rapid growth of interest in medical anthropology over the last decade, the author illustrates how social forces and relations permeate medical anthropology's field. When social conditions are ignored, or deferred, knowledge of medical events, including what happens in the clinic, is distorted. -after Author
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Both material culture studies and ecological anthropology are concerned with the material conditions of social and cultural life. Yet despite advances in each of these fields that have eroded traditional divisions between humanistic and science-based approaches, their respective practitioners continue to talk past one another in largely incommensurate theoretical languages. This review of recent trends in the study of material culture finds the reasons for this in (a) a conception of the material world and the nonhuman that leaves no space for living organisms, (b) an emphasis on materiality that prioritizes finished artifacts over the properties of materials, and (c) a conflation of things with objects that stops up the flows of energy and circulations of materials on which life depends. To overcome these limitations, the review proposes an ecology of materials that focuses on their enrollment in form-making processes. It concludes with some observations on materials, mind, and time.
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Public discourses have influence on policymaking for emerging health issues. Media representations of unfolding events, scientific uncertainty, and real and perceived risks shape public acceptance of health policy and therefore policy outcomes. To characterize and track views in popular circulation on the causes, consequences and appropriate policy responses to the emergence of Hendra virus as a zoonotic risk, this study examines coverage of this issue in Australian mass media for the period 2007-2011. Results demonstrate the predominant explanation for the emergence of Hendra became the encroachment of flying fox populations on human settlement. Depictions of scientific uncertainty as to whom and what was at risk from Hendra virus promoted the view that flying foxes were a direct risk to human health. Descriptions of the best strategy to address Hendra have become polarized between recognized health authorities advocating individualized behaviour changes to limit risk exposure; versus populist calls for flying fox control and eradication. Less than a quarter of news reports describe the ecological determinants of emerging infectious disease or upstream policy solutions. Because flying foxes rather than horses were increasingly represented as the proximal source of human infection, existing policies of flying fox protection became equated with government inaction; the plight of those affected by flying foxes representative of a moral failure. These findings illustrate the potential for health communications for emerging infectious disease risks to become entangled in other political agendas, with implications for the public's likelihood of supporting public policy and risk management strategies that require behavioural change or seek to address the ecological drivers of incidence.
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This article considers contemporary developments in public health intelligence (PHI), especially their focus on health events of pandemic potential. It argues that the sociological study of PHI can yield important insights for the sociology of pandemics. PHI aims to detect health events as (or even before) they unfold. Whilst its apparatuses envelope traditional public health activities, such as epidemiological surveillance, they increasingly extend to non-traditional public health activities such as data-mining in electronically mediated social networks. With a focus on non-traditional PHI activities, the article first situates the study of PHI in relation to the sociology of public health. It then discusses the conceptualisation and actualisation of pandemics, reflecting on how public health professionals and organisations must equip themselves with diverse allies in order to realise the claims they make about pandemic phenomena. Finally, using the analytic tools of actor-network theory, sites for future empirical research that can contribute to the sociology of pandemics are suggested.