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ROLE OF PUGAI (FUMIGATION) IN SIDDHA SYSTEM

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www.siddhapapers.org Siddha Papers 2016 (1)(1)
ISSN 0974-2522 Review Article
ROLE OF PUGAI (FUMIGATION) IN SIDDHA SYSTEM
M. Dharani1, J. Alamelu1, K. Sabira Sherin1, S. Merish2, Thomas M. Walter*,
1Final BSMS, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tirunelveli.
dharanimurugesan1995@yahoo.in, alamelusekar18@yahoo.in, sherinsabira@gmail.com
2CRRI, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, Tirunelveli, merish@siddhawalter.org
*Asst. Professor, Department of Gunapadam, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai,
Tirunelveli. drthomaswalter@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Pugai (Fumigation)” is one among the various methods of treatment available in Siddha
system of medicine. In ancient times people used fumigation as a preventive measure to protect
themselves from epidemic diseases. It is usually prepared from herbal products, minerals and
animal by-products. Nowadays people are more attracted towards the words “herb” and herbal
process” because of its easy availability, less side effects and marvelous results. This paper
gives an overview of ‘Pugai’, methods of application, mechanism of action, Specialties, herbs
used etc.
KEYWORDS
Pugai-Fumigation, Akamarunthu (Internal medicine), Puramarunthu(external medicine)
INTRODUCTION
Our Siddhars established a lot of treatment methods to cure various types of diseases. It is
mainly classified in to two types namely
(1) Akamarunthu (Internal medicine)
(2) Puramarunthu (External Medicine)
External medicines are 32 in number. Fumigation is one among them. In Siddha system it is
called as “PUGAI”. Fumigation has the efficacy to cure both physical and mental diseases. Apart
from therapeutic purposes, it also acts as sterilizing agent. Diseases arising out of the
derangement of Kapham are easily cured by this treatment.
Methods of Application
Method (1):
Herbs in the form of juice (or) paste are placed over a piece of cloth. The cloth is rolled
as stick and it is allowed to burn. The smoke coming from this wick is subjected to be inhaled by
the patient through nose and exhale by mouth. If they inhale through mouth and exhale by nose it
will cause head related diseases.
Method (2):
In this method, we have to collect the needed herbals in a vessel and allow it burn in that
vessel using a burner. The fume coming from the burned herbals are used to sterilize the place.
I. Specialty of Fumigation
The specialty of fumigation lies in:
Both Prophylactic and therapeutic in nature.
Also used for effective sterilizing purpose
Fumigation has got marked effect in 18 types of psychiatric diseases (kiriyai in Siddha)
Serves as a Stand-alone product.
II. Fumigation for Various Diseases
i. Fumigation for Head Ache
Ingredients
Common Name
Botanical Name
Manjal
Turmeric
Curcuma longa
Santhanam
Sandal
Santalum alba
Milagu
Pepper
Pipper nigrum
Venkodiveli
Leadwort
Plumbago zeylanica
Sengkodiveli
Plumbago rosea
The above drugs are taken in equal quantities and grinded with the juice of
Elavagapathiri (Cinamomum tamala) leaves. Then this is to be applied in a clean cloth and
fumigated. This relieves head ache.
The extracted juice of Naipagal leaves is poured in a clean cloth and make the cloth as a
roll, then fumigates it. The smoke from it cures Head ache.
ii. Fumigation for Eczema
Fumigating the smoke of burnt coconut cures Vadha Karappan.
iii. Fumigation for Severe Cold
Good Pepper, pinned in a sharp needle when fumigated is a effective remedy for severe
cold.
iv. Fumigation for Migraine
The grinded mixture of Cardamom and Turmeric is mixed along with the extracted juice
of Madar (Calotropis gigantea) and fumigated. This smoke cures Migraine.
v. Fumigation for Cough
Ingredients
Common Name
Botanical Name
Sambirani
Benzoin
Styrax benzoin
Sukku
Dried Ginger
Zingiber officinale
Manjal
Turmeric
Curcuma longa
Val Milagu
Long Pepper
Piper cubebas
The above drugs are taken in an equal amount and grinded it with the juice of Kavilthumbai
(Trichodesma indicum) and made in to dry cakes. These cakes, when fumigated cure Mandhara
Kaasam.
III. Herbs used for Fumigation
Name
Botanical
Name/ Family
Phyto
Chemistry
Use
In Siddha
Reference
Kungiliyam
(Sal tree)
Shorea
robusta/
Dipterocarpace
ae
Fischinidol,
afzetechin
tannins
Deodorant,
eliminate
toxic gases
Medicinal Plant
of India Vol-2-
TamilNadu
Kudiyotti
poondu
(The
maxicanpoppy)
Argemone
mexicana
/ Papaveraceae
Oxyhydrastini
ne
corydine,mexi
canol,mexicani
Tooth ache,
dental
caries
Indian Materia
Medica Vol -2
c acid
Kottam
(costus tree)
Costus
specious
/ Costaceae
Cycloartenol,
diosgenin
lupeol
Piles
Medicinal
Plants in India
Vol-1&2
Sadakuppai
(The Dill)
Anethum
graveolens
/ Apiaceae
Scopoletin
Umbelliferone,
flavanoids
Deodarant
for in-
patient ward
Indian Materia
Medica Vol-2
Kuntharikkam
(Resin of
olibanum)
Boswellia
serrata
/ Burseraceae
β– Sitosterol
α thujene
Expectorant
,Deodarant
Gunapadam-1
(vegetable
section)
Siddha Materia
Medica(medici
nal plants
division)
Santhanum
(sandal wood)
Santalum
album
/ Santalaceae
Tycycloeksant
olol nuciferol,
α
Curcumone
Deodarant
Textbook of
Pharmacognosy
Thuthi
(The country
mallow)
Abutilon
indicum
/ malvaceae
Gossypetin ,
vanillic acid,
β– Sitosterol
worm
infestation
in
children,con
stipation
Medicinal
Plants of India
Vol-2
TamilNadu
Devadaru
(Himalayan
cedar)
Cedrus
deodara
/Pinaceae
Deodarin,cede
odarincedrusin
Deodorant
Indian Materia
Medica Vol-2
Pugayilai
(tobacco)
Nicotiana
tobaccum/
Solanaceae
Ssolavetivone,
nor-nicotine,
13 lactone
Asthma,Co
ugh,
Insomnia
Medicinal
Plants in India
Vol-1&2
Manjal
(turmeric)
Curcuma
longa
Turmeron--e,
zingiberene,cu
Sinusitis
Textbook of
Pharmacognosy
/
Zingeberaceae
rcurmin
Ma
(Manga tree)
Mangifera
indica
/
Anacardiaceae
Galactose
Mangiferin
Fisetin
Hoarseness
of
voice,Hiccu
p,
mosquito
repellant
Gunapadam-1
(vegetable
section)
Siddha Materia
Medica(Medici
nal Pants
division)
Vidamoongil
(Poison bulbe)
Crinum
asiaticum
/
Amaryllidacea
e
Lycorine,
Isocraugsodine
,
Criasbetaine
Aromatic,m
osquito
repellant
Medicinal
Plants in India
Vol-1&2
Vembu
(margosa tree)
Azadirachta
indica
/ Meliaceae
Solanin,
Nimbin,
Azadirone
Allergic
rhinitis,
Head ache
Indian Materia
Medica Vol-2
Akil
(Eagle wood)
Aquilaria
agallocha
/
Thymeleaceae
Aromatic oil
Vomiting,
tiredness,
Loss of
taste
sensation.
Textbook of
Pharmacognosy
Alavanam
(Henna plant)
Lawsonia
inermis/
Lythraceae
Lawsone,
Scopoletin
Esculetin
Evil effects
Medicinal
Plants of India
Vol-2
TamilNadu
Aruvatha
(Garden rue)
Ruta
chalepensis/
Rutaceae
Chalepin,
Graveoline
Arborinine
Cough
Gunapadam-1
(vegetable
section)
Siddha Materia
Medica(Medici
nal plants
division)
Adathodaai
(malabar nut)
Justicia
beddomei/
Acanthaceae
Vasicine,
Vasicinone,
β - Sitosterol
Asthma
Indian Materia
Medica Vol-2
Illupai
(The Mohua
tree)
Madhuca
longifolia/
Sapotaceae
α
Spinasterol,
Betulinic
acids,
Saponins.
Insecticide,
pesticide
Medicinal
Plants In India
Vol-1&2
Oomathai
(Dhatura)
Datura metal/
Solanaceae
Tropane
alkaloid,
Daturilinol
Atropine
shortness of
breath
Textbook of
Pharmacognosy
Kandangathiri
(yellow berried
night shade)
Solanum
surattense/
Solanaceae
Solasonine
Solamargine,es
culin
Tooth ache
Medicinal
Plants of India
Vol-2
TamiNadu
Karumbu
(Sugarcane)
Saccharum
officinarum/
Poaceae
Apigenin,
Orientin,
Ferulic acid
Disinfectant
Indian Materia
Medica Vol-2
Karkadaka singi
(The Galls)
Rhus
succedanea
Anacardaceae
Aromatic oil,
tannin
Bleeding
piles,Chroni
c ulcer
Textbook of
Pharmacognosy
FUMIGATION FOR 18 TYPES OF PSYCHIATRIC DISEASES
S.No
Name
Botanical Name
and Family
Parts
Used
Phytochemistry
Reference
1
Athimadhuram
(liquorice)
Glycyrrhiza glabra/
Fabaceae
Root
Glycyrrhizin,
isoliguiritin
Siddha
maruthuvam
sirappu
2
Kuppaimeni
(Indian acalypha)
Acalypha indica/
Euphorbiaceae
Leaves
Stigmasturol,
Cyanoglucoside
siddha
maruthuvam
sirappu
3
Kirambu(Cloves
tree)
Syzygium
aromaticum/
Myrtaceae
Buds
Euginol, gallotonic
acid,eugenin,
Oleanolic acid
Siddha
maruthuvam
sirappu
4
Seenthil(Tinospora)
Tinospora
cordifolia/
Papilionaceae
Leaves
Quercetin,
monocrotolaine
Siddha
maruthuvam
sirappu
5
Thumbai(Thumbe)
Leucas Aspera/
Menispermaceae
Leaves
Jatrorrhizine,
tembestarine
Siddha
maruthuvam
sirappu
6
Kilukilupai(Rattle
Wort )
Crotalaria retusa/
Lamiaceae
Leaves
Oleanolic acid, β -
Sitosterol
Siddha
maruthuvam
sirapu
Eligibility for the Procedure:
Siddha systems of medicine, always carries some special criteria for this type of
procedures. Not only for this fumigation, this systems of medicine gives separate eligibility
criteria to the patient based on their body condition/healthy/ etc.
As per the text, patients with
Eye Disease,
Head Disease,
Anaemia,
Bleeding Disorder,
Diabetes Mellitus
are not advisable to follow this procedure.
CONCLUSION:
Fumigation has high efficacy and lowered side effects when compared with other
medicines. It can be used by the patients themselves and hence User-friendly. This method also
establishes the supremacy of the external therapies of Siddha system of Medicine. More
research are to be done to explore the wonderful therapeutic and prophylactic properties of this
treatment method.
Acknowledgement
We would like to express our gratitude to our Parents and Team members of Walters’
Siddha Research Center.
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Gunapadam Siddha Materia Medica' ninth edition
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Dr.K.S.Murugesa Mudhaliyar, 'Gunapadam Siddha Materia Medica' ninth edition, published by Department of Indian Medicine & Homeopathy
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K.S.Uthamarayan,H.P.I.M, Siddhar Aruvai Maruthuvam Published by Directorate of Indian Medicine & Homeopathy, Chennai.