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Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview

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... Nel costruire la versione italiana dello strumento si è scelto, analogamente all'ECR, di alternare gli item relativi alla scala dell'Evitamento (item dispari) con quelli relativi all'Ansietà (item pari). I sette livelli della scala sono stati graduati utilizzando lo stesso criterio di Brennan et al. (1998) per l'ECR, ossia: 1 = Forte disaccordo, 4 = Neutrale/Misto, 7 = Forte accordo, criterio utilizzato anche da Agostoni e Manzoni (2007) nella loro versione italiana dell'ECR ma non da Picardi et al. (2000), i quali invece hanno preferito un altro tipo di graduazione (1 = Completamente falso, 2 = Abbastanza falso, 3 = Un po' falso, 4 = Né vero né falso, 5 = Un po' vero, 6 = Abbastanza vero, 7 = Completamente vero). Infine, una versione preliminare dell'ECR-R è stata somministrata ad alcuni soggetti di scolarità media per identificare eventuali problemi di comprensibilità degli item. ...
... La struttura fattoriale del questionario, analizzata in modo esplorativo tramite l'analisi delle componenti principali, si è rivelata solo in parte congruente con le attese. Questi primi risultati, infatti, sembrano indicare che i vari item dello strumento sottendono alcune dimensioni fattoriali che possono essere coerentemente interpretate come diverse "sfaccettature" dei costrutti teorici di Ansietà ed Evitamento (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998); per contro, le analisi fattoriali di secondo oridine non hanno permesso di evidenziare due costrutti teorici chiaramente distinti fra loro ed ortogonali, così come presupposto dal modello avanzato dagli autori. Questo dato è in linea con quanto giù riscontrato da Agostoni e Manzoni (2007), relativamente all'ECR, che hanno constatato la multicomponenzialità dei due fattori e l'esistenza di zone di overlapping fra le dimensioni di Ansietà e di Evitamento. ...
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Introduzione Nel corso degli anni la letteratura scientifica ha proposto molti strumenti di self-report per la valutazione dell'attaccamento adulto (Barone & Del Corno, 2007). Fra questi, il questionario Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR, Brennan, Clark & Shaker, 1998) è uno dei più utilizzati e validati, anche in ambito italiano (Picardi et al., 2000, 2002; Agostoni & Manzoni, 2007). Alcuni anni dopo la pubblicazione dell'ECR, Fraley, Waller e Brennan (2000), hanno studiato nell'ottica dell'Item Response Theory le proprietà psicometriche di tale strumento, insieme a quelle di altre tre misure di autovalutazione dell'attaccamento adulto; lo scopo era di verificare se le misure di attaccamento fossero adeguate rispetto alla prospettiva IRT e se fosse possibile sviluppare nuove misure con caratteristiche psicometriche più adeguate. Gli autori hanno riscontrato che le misure prese in esame presentavano un basso livello di precisione nella misurazione e che non sempre erano in grado di misurare in modo affidabile l'intero continuum del costrutto considerato. Ciononostante, è risultato che l'ECR era la migliore fra le misure in questione e che poteva essere ulteriormente affinata, utilizzando l'Item Response Theory, al fine di selezionare item con proprietà psicometriche ottimali (Fraley, Waller & Brennan, 2000). Da tale lavoro di analisi, dunque, è derivata una versione riveduta del questionario, denominata Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), che secondo gli autori ha permesso di migliorare la precisione di misurazione dello strumento dal 50% al 100%, senza aumentare il numero totale degli item (Fraley, Waller & Brennan, 2000). Per questa ragione, ci è sembrato importate proporre una versione italiana dell'ECR-R e mettere a verifica alcune caratteristiche psicometriche dello strumento applicato ad un gruppo di soggetti adulti appartenenti alla popolazione italiana. Metodo Descrizione dello strumento L'Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) presenta la stessa struttura e lo stesso numero di item del questionario dal quale deriva. Nel complesso, è formato da due sottoscale di 18 item ciascuna che valutano rispettivamente l'Evitamento e l'Ansietà riferiti all'attaccamento nelle relazioni con i partner sentimentali. Tredici item su 18 (72%) erano già presenti nella scala originale dell'Evitamento proposta dall'ECR, mentre 6 su 18 (33%) nella scala originale dell'Ansietà. Traduzione e adattamento della scala L'ECR-R è stato tradotto in lingua italiana ed è stata verificata la rispondenza con l'originale tramite la procedura della back-translation. Le istruzioni per la compilazione dello strumento sono state ampliate rispetto alla versione originale, impiegando la stessa formulazione utilizzata da Picardi et al. (2000) per l'ECR, al fine di rendere meglio comprensibile il significato di alcuni termini impiegati negli item. Le istruzioni per la compilazione, dunque, erano le seguenti: "Le seguenti affermazioni si riferiscono a come lei si sente nelle relazioni sentimentali. Siamo interessati al modo in cui lei generalmente vive le relazioni, e non soltanto a ciò che sta succedendo in una relazione attualmente in corso. Risponda ad
... In keeping with recent research, we explored the anxious and avoidant tendencies as separate continuous variables, rather than categorizing individuals into discrete groups. Psychometric research has demonstrated that variation in adult attachment styles is operationalized more powerfully by viewing anxiety and avoidance as dimensions, rather than by assigning individuals to attachment categories (Brennan et al., 1998;Fraley & Waller, 1998). ...
... Mothers' attachment style was assessed by the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R), designed to measure attachment functioning in adult romantic relationships (Fraley et al., 2000). Although the present study is interested in parent-child attachment, adult romantic relationship functioning is commonly used to measure adult attachment functioning in other relationships; it is believed that an adult's attachment to others, including their romantic partner or child, is derived from their relationship schemas formed early in their own childhood (Brennan et al., 1998). The ECR-R is comprised of two subscales (18 items each), one measuring attachment anxiety and one measuring attachment avoidance. ...
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Previous research has demonstrated the importance of maternal attachment style to children’s well-being, but the mediators of this relationship are understudied. Parental affect is one potential mediator. Previous research has documented the relationship between parental attachment and parental affect, and between parental affect and parental behaviors, but maternal affect has not yet been established as a mechanism through which attachment influences parenting behaviors. We hypothesized that parental affect would mediate the relationship between parental attachment and parental behaviors in mothers. A community-based sample of 132 mothers of at least one child between the ages of 2 and 12 completed questionnaires on maternal attachment, maternal affect, and parenting behaviors. Confirming previous research, significant relationships were found between maternal attachment and affect, maternal attachment and parenting behaviors, and maternal affect and parenting behaviors. As predicted, maternal affect mediated the relationship between maternal attachment style and parenting behavior. Specifically, positive affect mediated the relationship between maternal attachment and nurturance, secure base, safe haven, and companionship parenting behaviors. Negative affect mediated the relationship between maternal attachment and nurturance. Implications include acknowledging differential roles of positive and negative affect in their influence on parental behaviors.
... Attachment is one aspect of close social bonds (see Fraley & Shaver, 2000). It is a psychological 451 manifestation of a biological system that serves multiple evolutionary functions (see Barbaro, 2020 Anxious attachment styles are associated with anxiety and vigilance concerning rejection and 458 abandonment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998). Individuals with this attachment style may 459 experience elevated BIS sensitivity to inputs associated with rejection by a potential partner, risk of 460 abandonment by an existing partner, or abandonment by a former partner. ...
... Avoidant attachment styles are associated with discomfort with closeness and dependency or 468 reluctance to be intimate with others (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998). Individuals with this 469 attachment style may interpret aspects of courtship or romantic relationships, such as obtrusive 470 thoughts or commitment, as aversive, meaning they are receiving increased BIS inputs. ...
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This article presents a model to explain why individuals experiencing romantic love have greater depression symptoms scores. We start by defining romantic love and providing a narrative review of studies investigating depression symptoms in people experiencing romantic love. We then present data from Finnish adolescents which shows higher depression symptoms scores in groups experiencing romantic love. Some tests indicate a small effect of romantic love on depression symptoms scores. We outline biological mechanisms that may play a role in generating depression symptoms in people experiencing romantic love before proposing a hypothetical model to explain the association. This article concludes with a discussion that provides further information about the causes and functions of depression symptoms in adolescents experiencing romantic love.
... Developmental psychology has shown that attachment styles are best conceptualized and measured along two quasi-orthogonal continuous dimensions, the attachment anxiety and the attachment avoidance (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991;Brennan & Shaver, 1998;Fraley et al., 2015), which have been applied recently as moderators in consumer research studies by, e.g., Mende and Bolton (2011), Mende et al. (2013), Swaminathan et al. (2008), and Thomson et al. (2012). ...
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We propose that the positive effect of coming‐of‐age songs on ad effectiveness arises from a mediation process where the music‐evoked interpersonal memories of growing up stored in the brain and their accompanying emotions inevitably play a role, but not so straightforwardly as previously suggested. Rather, their effects work through the heightened familiarity of and peaked preferences for coming‐of‐age songs. We also propose that these sequentially mediated effects are moderated by viewers' developmental attachment styles. We test and find support for these propositions in three multimethod studies with more than 1200 participants born between the 40s and the mid‐70s and almost 60 popular songs released between the 60s and the 2010s. We discuss the implications of our findings, namely for age‐segmented video ads, and suggest future research directions.
... Attachment in romantic relationships was measured with the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR; Brennan et al., 1998). Insecure attachment is a well-established vulnerability factor (Conradi et al., 2011). ...
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In recent years it has been discussed whether high-risk couples benefit more from Couple Relationship Education programs (CREs) than low-risk couples due to larger room for improvement, or profit less due to greater vulnerability. Pertinent response prediction studies yielded inconclusive results. Careful review suggests this may be due to: statistical handling (not disentangling room for improvement and vulnerability effects), time frame analyzed (not disentangling opposing effects during intervention and follow-up), sampling, and selection of risk factors. We used an analytic strategy that maximized odds for replicability and tested two hypotheses: (1) room for improvement: pre-intervention relationship dissatisfaction predicts gain in satisfaction during intervention, and decline during follow up, and (2) vulnerability: when adjusted for room for improvement (pre-intervention relationship dissatisfaction), risk factors show negative or negligible, but no positive associations with gain in satisfaction. Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling (APIM) was employed in 79 self-referred (SR) couples and 50 clinician-referred (CR) couples who had completed the 'Hold me Tight' program, a CRE based on Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy. Our findings supported both the room for improvement hypothesis, with pre-intervention dissatisfaction predicting more gain during intervention (both samples) and decline during follow-up (SR sample, for the CR sample the effect was negligible), and the vulnerability hypothesis, as several negative, but no positive effects of risk factors were observed during intervention and follow-up. Specific risk factors did not replicate between samples. To promote replicable results in future research, we advocate disentangling room for improvement and vulnerability effects, separately testing effects during intervention and follow-up, purposeful sampling, and studying a large set of risk factors including partner variables.
... Attachment-related avoidance is characterized by chronic attempts to inhibit attachment-system activation in an effort to minimize distress expressions (Edelstein and Shaver, 2004). Individuals with higher avoidance scores generally dislike intimacy and are less likely to provide emotional support to romantic partners (Brennan et al., 1998;Li and Chan, 2012). Individuals reporting low scores on both dimensions are generally considered secure. ...
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Many asexual individuals are in long-term satisfying romantic relationships. However, the contributors to relational commitment among asexual individuals have received little attention. How do investment model characteristics and attachment orientations predict relationship commitment among asexual individuals? Our study looked at a sample of 485 self-identified asexual individuals currently in a romantic relationship (Mage = 25.61, SD = 6.24; MRelationshipLength = 4.42 years, SD = 4.74). Individuals reported on Investment Model characteristics (i.e., their relationship satisfaction, investment, alternatives, and commitment) and their attachment orientations. Satisfaction, investment, and fewer alternatives were associated with greater commitment. Attachment orientations only occasionally moderated the results: for people low in anxiety, satisfaction and investment were more strongly related to commitment compared to people high in anxiety. The current study provided an extension of the Investment Model to describe romantic relationships among asexual individuals.
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Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between attachment styles and marital adjustment of mothers and fathers with children between the ages of 6-18 and behavioral problems observed in their children. Methods: The sample of the study consists of 105 married individuals, 105 mothers and 105 fathers, who have children between the ages of 6-18, living in the central districts of Bursa, Turkey. Socio-demographic Information Form, Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory-II, Marrital Adjustment Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist for Children and Adolescents aged 6-18 were used as data collection tools in the study. Results: According to the results of the correlation analysis, it was observed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the anxious and avoidant attachment style dimensions of mothers and fathers and the behavioral problems of their children. It was observed that there was a negative significant relationship between the marital adjustment of mothers and fathers and the behavioral problems of their children. According to the results of the regression analysis, it was seen that Anxiety/Depression and Attention Problems, which are the sub-dimensions of the Child Behavior Checklist, predicted the anxious and avoidant attachment dimensions of the mothers positively and significantly, and predicted the marital adjustment negatively and significantly. Anxiety/Depression and Attention Problems, which are sub-dimensions of the Child Behavior Checklist, were found to positively predict fathers' anxious attachment, while Anxiety/Depression, Aggressive Behaviors and Social Problems positively predicted fathers' avoidant attachment. Attention Problems, on the other hand, predicted the marital adjustment of fathers at a significant level in a negative way. Conclusion: As a result, the importance of individuals' attachment styles and marital harmony in preventing the development of behavioral problems in children is remarkable. Preventive studies can focus on this issue.
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30 сентября-1 октября 2022 г. Иваново Издательство «Ивановский государственный университет» 2022
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