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The effects of integrated transformational leadership on achievement

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Abstract

Purpose – Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 5,392 students provided data on student engagement, and 569 teachers provided survey data on principal leadership and the collective teacher efficacy (CTE) and extra effort of their colleagues. Data were analyzed at the school level (n=51) using mediation analysis with the PROCESS macro to calculate the direct and indirect effects of all of the variables in the serial multiple mediator model. Findings – The model explained a significant amount of variance in both reading (38 percent) and mathematics (35 percent). CTE and student engagement mediated all of the leadership effects, demonstrating the importance of teacher and student relations in school improvement. The combined effect sizes are significantly greater than the effects of earlier TL models. Originality/value – This study contributes to “leadership for learning” research by demonstrating that refining transformational leadership behaviors to include instructional management can enhance a leader’s impact on achievement. As one of the few studies to examine student engagement as a mediator along with teacher mediators, the current study highlights the importance of teacher-student relations in school improvement. While collective efficacy mediated all of the effects of leadership on achievement, student emotional engagement also contributed to mathematics achievement. The study’s findings advance research into mutual influence processes, indicating that reciprocity may extend throughout the leader-teacher-student loop.

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... (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016;Caraway, Tucker, Reinke, & Hall, 2003;Finn & Rock, 1997) that appears essential to academic success in terms of both higher grades and higher scores on standardized tests (Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Paris, 2004;Marks, 2000). Exploring one possible antecedent of that success, Klem and Connell (2004) found that engaged students were more likely to exhibit effective learning behaviors than their less engaged peers, and Reyes, Brackett, Rivers, White, and Salovey (2012) found that student engagement mediated the relationship between the classroom's emotional climate and year-end grades. ...
... While some engagement researchers continue to adopt global measures (e.g., Ten Bruggencate, Luyten, Scheerens, & Sleegers, 2012), these single-factor measures can mask the effects of more complex models that include all three types of engagement (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016). In contrast, associates (2004, 2005) adopted a three-dimensional meta-construct of engagement that includes behavioral, emotional, and cognitive components. ...
... Although the construct of cognitive engagement has been shown to be reliable (.55 ≤ α ≤ .82) at a satisfactory level in quantitative analyses (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016;Fredricks et al., 2005), it has limitations because it focuses on the presence of specific student behaviors, but sheds no light on the "the energization and direction" (Deci & Ryan, 1985, p. 3) of those behaviors. Only through a contextual understanding of motivational factors can we tease out why students are disengaged, and how the process of disengagement developed. ...
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A substantial body of research has shown that academic intrinsic motivation/cognitive engagement decreases from grades three through eight (Lepper, Corpus, & Iyengar, 2005). This phenomenon is troubling if education is to be viewed as a process through which learning goals become gradually internalized and connected with one’s sense of self. Although substantial research addresses motivational means through which achievement can be increased, few studies problematize the unintended consequences of these approaches. From a larger quantitative study of the relationship between engagement and achievement (5,392 students in grades 3–12), eight high-achieving, cognitively disengaged middle-school students were interviewed to understand their motivation toward learning. Classroom observations, teacher/principal interviews, and parent surveys contextualized the findings. Thematic analysis was organized according to the subscales of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as described in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Findings suggest that the student participants experienced a single-minded focus upon grades, which manifested itself through rigorous homework routines and academic competitiveness. In alignment with Baumrind’s (1966) construct of authoritative parenting, participants described a gradual removal of parental supervision with respect to the students’ academic responsibilities. This emergent trust in the students was based upon measurable academic success, rather than upon evidence of self-endorsed learning.
... 1. TSL scale (TSLS) developed (or informed) by Leithwood and Jantzi (2006) was used in five studies (n = 5) (e.g. Boberg and Bourgeois, 2016;Day et al., 2016;Dutta and Sahney, 2016;Leithwood and Jantzi, 2006;Valentine and Prater, 2011). Bass and Avolio (1994) found in five studies (n = 5) (e.g. ...
... • Four studies (n = 4) used students' test scores in different subjects as the measurement of student achievement (e.g. Boberg and Bourgeois, 2016;Dutta and Sahney, 2016;Nash, 2010;Nir and Hameiri, 2014). • Three studies (n = 3) adopted the percentage of students' performance on certain examinations (e.g. ...
... • Five (n = 5) studies reported indirect positive impact (e.g. Adams et al., 2017;Boberg and Bourgeois, 2016;Dutta and Sahney, 2016;Nir and Hameiri, 2014;Ross and Gray, 2006). • Three (n = 3) studies reported neither direct nor indirect effect of TL on student outcomes (e.g. ...
This systematic literature review critically evaluates 14 empirical studies published over a 14 years span (2006–2019) to answer questions about the models and the effects of transformational school leadership on student academic achievement. The analysis of the related literature utilized vote counting and narrative synthesis to delineate the status quo of the current research field. It was found that the majority of these studies were conducted in Western and English- speaking countries and these studies utilizing different research methods and models reported mixed results. Recommendations for future research directions include use of an integrated leadership framework and complexity in the study of leadership in schools.
... While the genealogy of this School traces back to the transformational leadership model (e.g., see Bass and Avolio in this cluster), over time this School evolved in response to research findings that highlighted the importance of 'instructional leadership' for student learning outcomes (e.g., Heck 1996, 1998;Robinson et al. 2008). Thus, scholars within this School began to include an instructional leadership component in new 'integrated models' of school leadership (Boberg and Bourgeois, 2016;Goddard et al. 2015;Hoy and Hoy 2006;Leithwood et al. 2010;Marks and Printy 2003;Murphy et al. 2007). For example, Leithwood et al. (2010) conceptualized an 'integrated model' of school leadership that incorporated dimensions of 'instructional leadership' and 'transformational leadership'. ...
... These themes highlight trends in recent research on instructional leadership. The patterns revealed in this map offer further support for the conclusion that instructional leadership literature is moving towards the adoption of integrated models (e.g., Boberg and Bourgeois 2016;Boyce and Bower 2018;Murphy et al. 2007;Neumerski 2013;Printy et al. 2009). This further suggests that instructional leadership should not be viewed as the preeminent form of school leadership, but rather as one essential component of effective school leadership. ...
... Concurrently, this analysis also highlights the growing use of multi-factor statistical tests (e.g., SEM, HLM, factor analysis) in order to unpack complex interactions between context factors, leadership practices, mediating factors, and learning outcomes. This review identified a rapidly growing body of recent scholarship that illustrates this approach (Boberg and Bourgeois 2016;Goddard et al. 2015;Leithwood et al. 2010;Supovitz et al. 2010;Thoonen et al. 2012;Wahlstrom and Louis 2008). This research has enabled scholars to develop increasingly refined models of how leadership impacts teaching and learning. ...
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Full text can be read online for free! https://rdcu.be/b0ZGK In the 1980s when research on effective schools surfaced the importance of ‘instructional leadership’ in the United States, skeptics wondered if this would be just another educational fad. Yet, 40 years later, the expectation for school principals to be ‘instructional leaders’ has become ubiquitous throughout much of the world. This systematic review of research used science mapping to gain insights into the growth and geographic distribution of this literature, as well as to identify key documents, authors, and topics. The authors used a variety of quantitative bibliometric analyses to examine 1206 Scopus-indexed journal articles on instructional leadership published between 1940 and 2018. The results affirm that the knowledge base on instructional leadership has not only increased in size, but also geographic scope. Contrary to expectations during the 1980s, instructional leadership has demonstrated remarkable staying power, growing into one of the most powerful models guiding research, policy and practice in school leadership. Despite this finding, both author co-citation and co-word analyses revealed the emergence of ‘integrated models of school leadership’ in which instructional leadership is enacted in concert with dimensions drawn from complementary leadership approaches. Key themes in the recent literature include studies of leadership effects on teachers and students, contexts for leadership practice, and means of developing instructional leaders.
... Effective leadership is a key requirement for the creation of a conducive school culture in strengthening the school system that tends to fade and be more difficult to control. School is on the verge of collapse (Ali & Ngang, 2011;Eric, Steven, & Boberg, 2016). ...
... A success of an institution or organization depends not only on the role of its leader but also on other contributing factors, such as advisors, patrons, auxiliary staff and teachers, and even an external support that is capable of distributing leadership values to some internal sources of the organization. Therefore, the reinforcement of school organizational culture should be done through the enforcement of school leadership by utilizing various strategies, namely, direct and indirect strategies, which are referred to by some experts as direct and indirect effects of the strategies (Eric et al., 2016;Kaparou & Bush, 2016;Orphanos & Orr, 2013). Direct leadership strategy is a leadership strategy that is implemented directly by the leader himself or herself and has a direct impact on the development of the school organization. ...
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This study aimed to describe nyantri (Islamic crash course) program as a leadership strategy adopted by school principals in strengthening the school organizational culture. This study used a qualitative approach via theoretical phenomenology orientation and a multicase design. The data collection was done through observation, documentation, and in-depth interviews. The validity of the data was measured by data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The results of this study found three models of Islamic crash course performed: tashih, that is, Al-Qur’an reading competence, taushiyah (Islamic lecture) of leadership values, and apprenticeship for the application of a santri’s (Islamic crash course student) character values. The benefits for the teachers are the preservation of their Al-Qur’an reading competence and the improved intensity of the leadership and application of Islamic values, which form the school organizational culture. An integration of values rooted from the three models into the institutional vision could strengthen the school organizational culture to improve school achievement.
... While Oplatka is not alone in criticizing school leadership for its stunted development of leadership theory, to be fair, we can still point to tangible theoretical advancements in school leadership. Transformational leadership (Bass, 2008;Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016;Leithwood & Jantzi, 2008;Menon, 2014;Ross & Gray, 2006) and distributive leadership (Harris, 2008;Hartley, 2010;Hulpia, Devos, & Van Keer, 2011;Robinson, 2008;Spillane, 2006;Spillane et al., 2008) are two fairly robust theories of leadership that have emerged in the past two decades. These two theories of leadership were simultaneously developed conceptually and empirically; further, they are theories that address both the leader's behavior and ways to lead others that positively influence school outcomes. ...
... Contrast this with the emergent phenomenon of instructional leadership (Hallinger & Murphy, 1986; © 2 0 1 9 I A P A l l r i g h t s r e s e r v e d Epistemic Drift  365 Murphy, 1990;Southworth, 2002), which from our perspective is more about emphasizing where and how leaders should spend their time and focus organizational priorities-than necessarily about how they behave or lead others. Others might debate this contention and some have tried to address how instructional leadership fits with transformational leadership by combining the two (Aas & Brandmo, 2016;Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016;Marks & Printy, 2003) but primarily as a means of accounting for and distilling specific leader behaviors that are associated with school outcomes. Similarly, there is the emergence of culturally responsive, critical, or social justice leadership (Berkovich, 2014;Khalifa, Gooden, & Davis, 2016;Sharona, 2016) which some describe as a set of leader practices that best achieve specific outcomes for minoritized youth: "The ability of school leaders to create school contexts and curriculum that responds effectively to the educational, social, political, and cultural needs of students" (Khalifa et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to evaluate the knowledge development gains around educational leadership and leadership effectiveness, focusing on the theory-building efforts and the research methods used to study our field. In this chapter, we examine contemporary scholarship in educational leadership to assess how and the degree to which theory is being advanced in our field. As a point of comparison and direction, we also examined reviews of research in the broader leadership field. We focus on reviews of research and their account of how scholarship has contributed to theory and theory building, and how research methods have informed and advanced theory and knowledge development generally. Among studies on leadership and leadership effectiveness in the fields of educational leadership and leadership generally, we note how leadership is defined or measured, the degree to which research is building on prior work, and how it has been informed by more discipline-based theory and research. By explicitly examining recent reviews of educational leadership and leadership effectiveness research, we seek to determine the extent to which and in what ways knowledge development is advancing in our field.
... The investigators suggested that this form of integrated leadership created a synergy among principals and teachers around instructional innovation and improvement. Researchers have extended the work of Marks and Printy, finding that principals' leadership styles vary depending on their background and school context and needs, and that principals may simultaneously practice different leadership behaviors accordingly to address these factors (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016;Bruggencate, Luyten, Scheerens, & Sleegers, 2012;Day et al., 2016;Urick & Bowers, 2014). For example, Hallinger (2018) identified several types of contexts that shape leadership practice, including cultural, economic, community, political, and school improvement contexts. ...
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Several major school leadership models have served to identify and organize the research literature regarding what is known about the competencies and characteristics of effective school leaders to enhance understanding and inform practice. Instructional leadership, which considers how school leaders influence teaching and learning and includes functions such as developing the school’s mission/vision/goals, managing every facet of the instructional program, and ensuring a positive school climate, has been consistently shown to influence teaching quality and student outcomes through several decades of research. The most recent models of instructional leadership have broadened to include examination of how factors, such as school context and teacher leadership, moderate the influence of instructional leadership. Distributed or shared leadership has also emerged as a leading model, with research suggesting that principals cannot “do it alone,” but must share leadership responsibilities among staff. Distributed leadership research has yielded positive associations between this style and a variety of teacher and student outcomes, but also suggests that effectiveness depends on allocating leadership tasks based on patterns of staff expertise to optimize outcomes. Transformational leadership, which stresses school leaders as change agents that inspire and motivate staff to improve collective efficacy and a positive school trajectory, has shown to be influential to teacher outcomes, but somewhat less influential for student outcomes than other types of leadership. Today, integrated models of leadership, which include elements of instructional, distributed, and transformation leadership are most common, and reflect how school leaders use different types of leadership in different situations and coordinate with teachers to influence instructional and learning. Also emerging are leadership frameworks for equity, such as culturally responsive leadership, that focus on how school leaders foster or inhibit equitable educational systems and student outcomes.
... Es importante igualmente que en virtual los tutores de negocios internacionales manejen y utilicen adecuadamente el lenguaje escrito y hagan uso adecuado de los planteamientos del negociador, el tutor debe contar con experiencia profesional para que haga uso de la misma y aporte su vivencia , contextualice con ejemplos reales casos, hechos, situaciones y aporte su práctica , sus logros y recomiende desde sus desaciertos (John Eric Boberg, 2016). ...
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p>Este artículo de revisión presenta un análisis sobre el desarrollo de las competencias en la educación superior en el Politécnico Grancolombiano en los estudiantes de Negocios Internacionales desde una perspectiva ontológica y una visión de la nueva sociedad enfocada a la inmediatez, la competencia agresiva y la globalización que desaparece al otro como ser y como negociador. La metodología empleada es una revisión sistemática de literatura realizada en bases bibliográficas como Google Académico, Scopus, Emerald, Redalyc y SciELO, donde se ubicaron artículos válidos para la discusión, se muestra de manera concreta el caso de negocios internacionales virtual y la función del tutor. La educación cobra validez si se formalizan procesos de calidad claros, al interior de las instituciones, con constantes actividades didácticas y métodos de enseñanza- aprendizaje, que incluyan procesos de gestión y trabajo en equipo, que valide la experiencia y ajuste los procesos. Es imprescindible el uso de tecnologías de información y la vinculación de redes sociales para la apropiación de las nuevas herramientas virtuales de aprendizaje. </p
... Major principal leadership models include transformational leadership (e.g. Boberg and Bourgeois 2016;Hallinger 2003;Jantzi 2005, 2006;Marks and Printy 2003;Rafferty and Griffin 2004), instructional leadership (e.g. Blase 1999, 2000;Hallinger 2003;Marks and Printy 2003;O'Donnell and White 2005;Shatzer et al. 2013), collegial leadership (e.g. ...
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In this study, we developed and validated an instrument that researchers can use to measure the collective effort of principals and teachers who excise their own unique leadership to generate (integrated) school leadership. Based on 644 teachers, we found sound psychometric properties of the scales of the instrument and the instrument as a whole. We also explored the predictive properties of the instrument in predicting student achievement at the school level. Based on 53 schools, we found that the instrument can indeed measure the kind of school leadership that really matters to student achievement. When predicting student achievement (at the school level), the instrument tends to be more sensitive to more difficult school subjects (e.g. mathematics), implying that improvement in school leadership would lead to larger improvement in student achievement (at the school level) in more difficult school subjects.
... As postulated, leadership is one of the key factors behind the successes and failures of SMEs (Quan 2015). Transformational leadership adopts an effective combination of holistic and individualistic approaches to meet the collective goals and ambitions of a group, as well as to appraise the follower's motivation (Boberg and Bourgeois 2016;Cheng and Sheu 2017;Muralidharan and Pathak 2018). Moreover, transformational leadership is identified by its ability to bring about significant changes in the organization's strategy, vision, attitude, and culture while advancing creativity and innovation in products, services, and technologies (Cheung and Wong 2011;Chen 2017;Choi et al. 2016). ...
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This study aims to analyze the nexus between transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship through an integration of dispersed scholarly work on transformational leadership, absorptive capacity, and corporate entrepreneurship under one framework. A survey method was employed for the collection of data from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of Pakistan. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique to empirically test the hypotheses. The results demonstrate that transformational leadership positively affects corporate entrepreneurship and its dimensions—namely, innovation, new business venturing, self-renewal, proactivity, and risk-taking—both directly and through absorptive capacity. The potential of transformational leadership to influence corporate entrepreneurship via absorptive capacity added additional interesting substitutes. Future studies may produce novel insights by examining different leadership styles, settings, or utilizing qualitative technique. Firms should invest to initiate transformational leadership training programs for their managers. Additionally, if these firms are aiming to promote corporate entrepreneurship, they should focus on hiring managers that have attributes of transformational leadership. Furthermore, they should also invest in absorptive capacity to utilize outside knowledge for the enhancement of entrepreneurial activities. This study exploits research work on the relationship between transformational leadership and corporate entrepreneurship in a novel way; it investigates the dimensions of entrepreneurship individually, as well as unidimensionally, and includes the mediating role of absorptive capacity and tests several other hypotheses that previously have been ignored. This study, compared to the existing research, contributes to the impact of transformational leadership on corporate entrepreneurship and absorptive capacity, especially in Pakistan’s business settings.
... Gomez-Mejia (2008) observes that transformational leadership is a type of leadership that inspires organizational success by profoundly affecting followers' beliefs in what an organization should be, as well as their values, such as justice and integrity. This style of leadership creates a sense of duty within an organization, encourages new ways of handling problems and promotes learning for all organization members, (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016;Cheng & Sheu, 2017;Muralidharan & Pathak, 2018). ...
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The strategic management literature has laid emphasis on the role of leadership at several phases of the strategic management process. The literature has however not addressed the construct of leadership strategy as well as integrating it into the mainstream literature on strategic management. Researches already done to link leadership with performance have been biased in terms of the scope of focus on the dimension of performance and at the same time have registered methodological and conceptual challenges affecting the generalization of findings. In this paper, the authors integrate the extant literature on leadership with that on leadership strategy and identify issues that call for an expanded scope on the construct of leadership. The paper reviews extant conceptual, theoretical and empirical literature and raises diverse issues that present a case for a new theoretical model suitable to extend the current understanding on leadership and the phenomenon it brings about in organization into new frontiers in management. This paper proposes an integrated theoretical model for linking leadership strategies and firm performance while providing for the role of leadership paradigms, leadership behavioural focus and firm capabilities. The emerging theoretical propositions and implications for future research are discussed.
... As Boberg and Bourgeois (2016) discuss, teachers' behavior will be influenced by leaders' behavior, and they can be motivated, encouraged, and inspired by the examples their leaders set. Collaboration and participation are critical, but students should be part of this process as well (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016), and Leithwood and Sun (2012) argue that a shared vision inspires both teachers and students. ...
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This literature review aims to understand transformational leadership as a theory and its application, especially in the field of education. This study reviews nine qualitative works on the use of transformational leadership theory in education and identifies three major themes: 1.) globalization and multiculturalism, 2.) behaviour and preparedness, and 3.) achievement. In reviewing these works, the authors focus on how transformational leadership influences the behaviour and practice of leaders in an effort to improve student achievement. The authors also examine limitations to the application of transformational leadership. Ultimately, the researchers determine that transformational leadership requires leaders to demonstrate specific skills focused on the equitable implementation of major reforms.
... Babo & Postma 2017;Boberg & Bourgeois 2016;Branch, Hanushek & Rivkin 2013;Brockmeier, Starr, Green, Pate & Leech 2013;Coelli & Green 2012; Day, Gu & Sammons 2016; Dumay, Boonen & Van Damme 2013; Egodawatte 2012; Finnigan 2012; Fletcher, Grimley, Greenwood & Parkhill 2013; Kythreotis, Pashiardis & Kyriakides 2010; Leithwood & Azah 2017; Leithwood, Seashore-Louis, Anderson & Wahlstrom 2004; Marzano, Waters & McNulty 2005; Miller 2013; Mulford & Silins 2011; Palmer, Hermond & Gardiner 2014; Sebastian & Allensworth 2012; Sebastian, Huang & Allensworth 2017; Silva, White & Yoshida 2011; Supovitz, Sirinides & May 2010; Supriadi & Yusof 2015; Wahyuddin 2017; Waters, Marzano & McNulty 2003; Woods & Martin 2016). In their book School Leadership that Works: From research to results, Marzano et al. (2005) quantified this impact, concluding from their review of research that the leadership behavior of the principal accounts for 25 percent of the academic achievement of the students in the school. ...
... There are several challenges that school leaders in Greece face. Training in human resources management skills may have potential benefits on several parameters of effective school management, including motivation and job satisfaction, students' success, team building, and commitment [46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53]. ...
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There are few options available for school managers who wish to effectively tackle school conflicts. The aim of the present work was to assess the issue of school conflict, its sources, and the effectiveness of different conflict management styles in Secondary Education school units in Greece. Teachers (n = 128) from twelve randomly selected schools in the region of Epirus, NW Greece, participated in the present work. Teachers’ views on their school Principals’ leadership style as well as the sources, the type(s), and the severity of conflict in their school unit were surveyed. Conflict appeared to be a frequent issue in schools. Frequent sources of conflict included interpersonal and organizational parameters. School leaders exhibited a range of conflict management styles. Compromise and Collaborative styles were frequently observed, followed by Smoothing and Forcing. Avoidance was less frequently exhibited by school leaders. The transformational and transactional leadership styles exhibited were equally effective in successful conflict resolution, whereas a laissezfaire leadership style was not. The results indicate that leadership and conflict management style can be associated with the effectiveness of conflict management.
... Positive consequences attributed to collective teacher efficacy Boberg and Bourgeois (2016) Educators promote higher levels of student emotional engagement Caprara et al. (2003) Klassen (2010) Viel-Ruma et al. (2010) Ware and Kitsantas (2007) Teachers express greater job satisfaction, experience less stress, and have greater commitment to the teaching profession Chong et al. (2010) Teachers hold higher expectations and greater academic press Ciani et al. (2008) Teachers design more mastery experiences for students and have less predominant performance goal orientations Derrington and Angelle (2013) There is a greater extent of teacher leadership Gibbs and Powell (2011) Exclusion is less widely used as a sanction for problem behavior Goddard and Goddard (2001) Teachers have higher individual teacher efficacy Kirby and DiPaola (2011) Lyons et al. (2016) Wilcox et al. (2014 Teachers engage parents and communities and make a concentrated effort to involve parents in authentic ways Lee et al. (2011) Teachers show greater commitment to students Rauf et al. (2012) Teachers have more positive attitudes toward professional development Tiplic et al. (2015) Beginning teachers are less likely to leave the profession Urton et al. (2014) Teachers have more positive attitudes toward remedial education Wilcox et al. (2014) Better qualities of academic goals, expectations, and learning opportunities Greater quality interventions for students at -risk of dropping out Conditions for collective teacher efficacy sources identified by Bandura. They found that contextual predictors of collective efficacy influenced teachers' analysis of the teaching task, lending empirical support for the "theoretical proposition that contextual factors are sources of collective efficacy beliefs" (p. ...
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Purpose High levels of collective teacher efficacy (CTE) within a school is known to be associated with improved student learning. CTE is a marker of the level of shared efficacy among teachers within a school. Knowledge of the levels of CTE within a school does not, though, support its development. To properly support school leaders in nurturing CTE, knowledge of the status of the enabling conditions for CTE within their schools is necessary to identify areas of strength and opportunities for improvement. Armed with such knowledge, school leaders can then begin the journey of cultivating CTE within their schools. Design/methodology/approach Drawing upon previous research, contextual predictors of collective efficacy were identified and a questionnaire was created. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the proposed factor structure. Necessary revisions were completed and in phase 2 of the field test, a new instrument was validated using factor analysis. Findings The preliminary validation of the Enabling Conditions for Collective Efficacy Scale (EC-CTES) is presented in this paper. This study provides evidence in support of a factor model with five related first-order factors that describe the enabling conditions for CTE, which include: Empowered Teachers, Embedded Reflective Practices, Cohesive Teacher Knowledge, Goal Consensus, and Supportive Leadership. A conceptual framework for “Leading Collective Teacher Efficacy” is provided. Research limitations/implications The identification and measurement of the malleable, contextual factors that contribute to the formation of CTE has been lacking in previous research. While most of the previous research focused on the remote sources of CTE, very few studies have examined the proximate sources. Correlations between some factors were high, in particular Empowered Teachers and Supportive Leadership. Although there is evidence these factors can be seen as making unique contributions, future work will focus on the inclusion of additional items to more clearly make the distinction between the factors. In addition, there were limitations based on the sample in this study and future research should focus on a broader sample of participants. Practical implications While there are currently several CTE scales widely used in research, contextual factors that serve to enhance CTE in schools have not been captured in existing instruments. The identification of the contextual antecedents of CTE will be useful to system and school leaders because this information can be used to help inform their leadership practice as they work to help instill a greater sense of collective efficacy among the teaching faculty in their schools. Social implications CTE is of great interest to system and school leaders because it predicts teachers' willingness to invest the time and energy required to attain educational goals and results in greater effort. The productive behavior on the part of the adults in schools characterized by high levels of CTE leads to improved student outcomes. Originality/value This study detailed the design and validation of a teacher perception survey to capture information related to the dimensions associated with the enabling conditions of CTE.
... There were significant effects of teacher invitations on some dimensions of parental involvement. Our non-significant findings of transformational leadership on parental involvement seem in line with the findings of a study by Boberg and Bourgeois (2016). They revealed that there was no direct link between transformational leadership and student outcomes, but the school leaders could influence student emotional engagement and achievement by strengthening their teachers' collective capabilities and optimism about their roles in their students' lives. ...
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School leaders and teachers are two important agents within the school organisation to promote parental involvement. The aim of the study was to investigate how school leaders and teachers foster parents' involvement in their children's education. It was hypothesised that both transformational school leadership for the support of parental involvement and inviting behaviour from the part of teachers encourage parents to become more strongly involved with their child's education. Surveys were administered to 2,151 parents and 90 teachers of 18 elementary schools spread across Java, Indonesia and analysed using multilevel regression analyses. Results showed that transformational leadership did not have significant direct effects on parental involvement. Significant effects were found of teacher invitations on parental involvement. In particular, teacher invitations contributed to school-based parental involvement, such as recruiting parents as volunteers and involvement in decision-making at school. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Despite some unclear findings about how principals influence student achievement or school performance (e.g. Hattie, 2009;Hochbein & Cunningham, 2013), many more studies have shown that principals have an important effect on student achievement (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016;Chiang et al., 2016;Cotton, 2003;Dempster, 2001;Grissom et al., 2015;Hallinger & Heck, 1998;Hattie, 2015;McCullough et al., 2016;Pelfrey, 2006;Stronge et al., 2008;Tan, 2018). One intermediary explanation for this relationship may be that principals influence teachers; this is valid since many studies have confirmed that principals' instructional leadership affects teacher practices (Lambersky, 2016;Mangin, 2007;Proffitt-White, 2017;Quinn, 2002;Rigby et al., 2017;Supovitz et al., 2010). ...
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This study presents a case of a problem that did not originate in theory but rather ended in theory. It addresses the issue of the prevalent, traditional public view of the nature of mathematics and that of its teaching and learning that might hamper mathematics reform. In this study, we present a five-day professional development programme that was designed and conducted within the context of practice-oriented research to help elementary school principals to enrich their views of mathematics in order to see mathematics in a different way, more aligned with mathematics reform. Data was generated before, during, and at the end of this programme, and results showed significant enrichment in participants’ views of mathematics. By using the Variation Theory of Learning, this study aimed to understand how this programme of short duration can make a difference. The core tenet of Variation Theory is that people learn through experiencing differences and similarities (in this order). The Variation Theory of Learning is used as a lens to see the programme's framework, its activities, and outcomes. The analysis clarified that principals’ ways of seeing mathematics were enriched when they experienced patterns of variations and invariance, in particular, the pattern of contrast.
... For this purpose, teachers must be a reference for their students, valuing their views when making decisions, and reinforcing their behaviors and actions based on their needs and skills (Bass, 1995). This leadership style has been linked to students' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral improvements (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016;Heck & Hallinger, 2014;Wilson et al., 2012). Specifically, several investigations have found that teachers' transformational leadership, for instance, increases students' motivation (Beauchamp et al., 2011;Noland & Richards, 2014;Yang & Dong, 2017). ...
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This study aimed to determine the association between students' perception of teacher leadership (i.e., transformational, transactional, and passive) and students' psychological needs (i.e., need satisfaction and need frustration) in Mathematics, English as a foreign language, Spanish Language and Literature, and Physical Education. Participants were 858 students (346 boys and 512 girls), who completed questionnaire measures at three temporal points over an academic course. They were aged between 13 and 17 years (M = 14.83, SD = 0.74) from 118 different classes and 32 secondary schools of southwestern Spain. We conducted multilevel modeling analysis (MLM), using the linear mixed modeling procedure for each dependent variable (i.e., need satisfaction and need frustration), including the different subjects, the three measurements over the academic course (i.e., Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3), and the leadership styles (i.e., transformational, transactional, and passive leadership) as independent variables. The results showed that transformational leadership was positively related to students' need satisfaction and negatively to their need frustration. Transactional leadership was positively associated with students' need frustration, and passive leadership negatively predicted students' need satisfaction and positively predicted need frustration. Differences were found as a function of the time and the subject in the associations between variables. These findings suggest that teachers should adopt transformational behaviors to satisfy the students’ psychological needs.
... Louis, Dretzke, and Wahlstrom (2010) investigated the effect of leadership on student achievement and found that shared and instructional leadership styles increased the student achievement. Moreover, the study by Boberg and Bourgeois (2016) revealed that transformational leadership affected the student performance in courses. In his meta-analysis study, Sarıer (2013) found a high correlation between supportive leadership and academic achievement of student. ...
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Administration and governance of schools in Turkey have a complex structure and process. Within the centralized structure, the procedures in educational activities are managed by school principals. In the Turkish literature, there are studies showing leadership styles of school leaders based on the leadership theories borrowed from different contexts. Furthermore, these leadership styles are linked to school outcomes like academic achievement and teacher motivation. Thus, catching compatible sides of leadership theories may serve to improve this kind of school outcomes. In these respects, the current study aimed to investigate which leadership styles have more effect on academic achievement and teacher motivation. Exclusion and inclusion criteria were determined in order to identify the studies to be analyzed. A meta-analysis study including 21 studies in Turkish context was conducted to achieve the purpose of the study. The meta-analysis results showed that the leadership styles were highly related with the school outcomes. Overall, laissez-faire, transactional, instructional, and transformational leadership styles had a high and positive relation with the school outcomes. The laissez-faire and spiritual leadership styles showed more effect on the teacher motivation while the positive and transformational style had more effect on the academic achievement. Considering the conclusions of the study, it is recommended that future studies develop a leadership theory specific to the educational settings in Turkey.
... Although school leaders seem to be capable of influencing the whole academic context, teacher performance seems to be the most important factor while seeking learner performance improvements (Leithwood, Day, Sammons, Harris & Hopkins, 2006). In this regard, Boberg and Bourgeois (2016) assert that teacher performance is likely to be influenced by school leaders, as teachers tend to be motivated, encouraged, and inspired by the examples of their leaders. As a result, teacher performance, including teaching practices adopted in the classroom, are likely to be influenced by school leaders (Leithwood & Jantzi, 2006;Rhodes, Camic, Millburn & Lowe, 2009). ...
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Adopting learner-centred teaching approaches is important to advance student performance in Mexican rural communities, which have historically been disadvantaged. Yet, little research exists on the factors that might promote the use of this teaching approach. In the study reported on here we examined the associations between principals’ transformational leadership, school climate, teacher commitment to learners, and learner-centred teaching practices. In total, 174 teachers were selected from 26 tele-secondaries in the state of Tabasco, Mexico. A structural equation model was calculated. Results do not provide evidence to support a direct association between transformational leadership and the use of learner-centred teaching. However, an indirect relationship was found between the effects of school climate and teacher commitment. These findings indicate that enhancing school climate and teachers’ commitment through a transformational leadership style are key to foster an environment for learner-centred teaching.
... The higher education sector has been facing increased pressure to adopt and cultivate innovative leadership cultures. Moreover, due to dynamic shifts and changes in leadership and management in other areas, such as business and government, the education sector has also faced a rise in demand for innovative and transformational leadership (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016). Although transformational leadership is an effective indicator for determining the level of innovation, there has been limited research on the correlation between transformational knowledge and knowledge sharing (Al-Husseini et al., 2019). ...
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Innovation in higher education management and leadership has experienced a continuous increase in demand, worldwide. The emergence of global events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, has accelerated the adoption and implementation of this innovation. Furthermore, technological advancement can be attributed to changes in educational management and leadership. The use of business models, theories, and methods such as the Education Management Information System (EMIS) has improved the collection, analysis, interpretation, storage, and retrieval of data to increase how they make well-informed decisions. Therefore, the strategies employed in higher education management and leadership have undergone many changes and updates. However, further research is required to ensure that best practices, evidence, and data-driven methods are used to improve staff/follower satisfaction and high performance of students and teachers in higher education institutions. This study explores the impact of innovation on management and leadership in higher education institutions. Findings from several countries show a strong positive correlation between increase in innovation and better educational management and leadership. Additionally, openness to change and happiness of stakeholders in higher education institutions increases when leaders and educational management are trained through conferences and benchmarking activities. Hence, using emerging technology and openness to change through education, awareness creation, and training, the level of innovation in universities and other higher education institutions increases, which in turn promotes performance and productivity. Received: 11 August 2021 / Accepted: 3 October 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021
... The next significant finding is that transformational leadership has a positive relationship and high correlation with teacher quality. This finding is in line with several past studies (Boberg & Bourgeois, 2016;Eyal & Roth, 2011;Geijsel, Sleegers, Leithwood & Janzi, 2006;Menon, 2014;Pounder, 2014;Rao, 2014;Yu, Leithwood & Jantzi, 2002) that demonstrated the impact of transformational leadership relationship to teachers' quality in schools. In this regard, transformational leadership can positively transform teachers' attitude and behaviour, and subsequently, improves teachers' quality through principal's charisma, motivation and inspiration, increasing intellectual engagement and making individual judgments appropriate to the situation. ...
... The link between an integrated form of transformational leadership (in combination with instructional leadership) was explored in a study by Boberg and Bourgeois (2016). Even though the authors found no evidence of a direct link between leadership and student outcomes, they reported that school leaders can have an impact on student emotional engagement and achievement. ...
... Τhe sustainability and development of organizations largely depends on leadership and leadership style they adopt (Boberg, 2016). Blair (2018) points out the importance of leadership in a school system influenced by the increasing expectations of its internal and external environment. ...
... Τhe sustainability and development of organizations largely depends on leadership and leadership style they adopt (Boberg, 2016). Blair (2018) points out the importance of leadership in a school system influenced by the increasing expectations of its internal and external environment. ...
... By utilizing this model, leaders can effectively progress and advance their skills and empower the team to achieve more. In education, Boberg and Bourgeois (2016) also concluded an integrated model of transformational leadership that focused on the capacity and commitment of the teachers on instructional practices and strengthened the teacher-student relationship to promote the emotional engagement of the students to enhance student learning. ...
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... Transformational leadership is a highly effective and valued type of leadership. It positively influences job satisfaction and motivation of employees, builds collaboration and a culture of innovation in organisations, provides a sense of purpose and mission, reduces feelings of stress, and stimulates commitment and engagement to the organisation (Avolio, Walumbwa, and Weber 2009;Leithwood and Sun 2012;Boberg and Bourgeois 2016). What is unknown is how one becomes a transformational leader. ...
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Transformational leaders are leaders who ‘transform and inspire followers to perform beyond expectations while transcending self-interest for the good of the organisation’. ‘Discernment’ is defined as the individual and communal practice of decision-making that is oriented on the future (educational aims), conditioned by the personal qualities of leaders (purity of heart), and which emphasises teleological ethics as source of reliance. In line with this concept, a scale of discernment was constructed and tested in a research study on 198 leaders of the Catholic schools of Don Bosco in India. Transformational leadership was measured with an existing scale which is part of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. The results show that discernment (as measured) is the strongest predictor of transformational leadership, while controlling for background variables (such as age, gender, religious background, leadership position, type of school, and private or government-aided schools).
... These areas have been identified by Ainscow (2017) as determining factors in the development of an inclusive school and for success for all and among all. In addition, some authors have analysed the components of leadership necessary for the critical-democratic engagement of students in their learning (Boberg and Bourgeois 2016). ...
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This article present a case study of a principal who successfully leads a disadvantaged school in Spain. Through his life story, we investigate the personal and professional factors that have shaped his current professional identity, and we identify the main successful educational practices that the principal has implemented in order to achieve improvements in educational outcomes. Findings reveal a set of professional practices that have been invigorated from his leadership for the improvement of education. In short, he is committed to leading by appreciating the voice of the child and having respect for the children and it is this that forms part of the collective ideology of the school and is the most outstanding role of his professional identity.
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Collective teacher efficacy (CTE) beliefs serve to encourage certain behaviours and constrain others. Bandura (Educ Psychol 28(2):117–148, 1993) was the first to generate interest in this area by demonstrating that the effect of perceived CTE on student achievement was stronger than the link between socio-economic status and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the productive patterns of behaviour and other consequences resulting from educators’ shared sense of efficacy. Studies showed that CTE was associated with a number of productive behaviours including implementation of school improvement strategies, increased teacher leadership, communication of high expectations, and a strong focus on academic pursuits. In addition, CTE was associated with other positive factors including greater job satisfaction, commitment to students and the teaching profession, and positive attitudes toward teaching students with special education needs and professional development. Collective efficacy was negatively related to performance goal orientations and positively related to students’ emotional engagement. Finally, there were a number of studies that established the relationship between CTE and individual teacher efficacy. It is important to acknowledge that the relationship between CTE and other variables included in the studies contained within this review are most likely bidirectional. Policy makers, system and school leaders, and staff developers’ efforts toward successful education reforms might be better served by strategically and intentionally considering how to foster collective efficacy throughout the conceptualization, design, delivery, and assessment of change initiatives. Suggestions for future research and limitations including potential measurement problems of included studies are shared.
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The purpose of this study is to present an analysis of recent scientific literature on the principal’s transformational leadership role within professional learning communities. To do so, the article provides an overview of different leadership styles in order to provide a frame of reference for integrating the idea of transformational leadership into a broader notional network. Then it defines and describes the characteristics of the professional learning community. The article then compares the concept of transformational leadership to that of the professional learning community to analyse the latest scientific literature on the principal’s transformational leadership role within professional learning communities. In conclusion, research opportunities are emerging for researchers and principals who wish to better understand and exercise transformational leadership within professional learning communities.
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Using a multilevel multiset time-series model, the present study aimed to examine whether changes in teacher perceived principal leadership practices were associated with the change in school academic performance. Teacher perceived principal leadership practices tapped into various aspects of school process and principal leadership. School academic performance was measured as a school’s average in reading and mathematics at a certain grade level (Grades 5–8) in a certain calendar year (2013–2017). Change in teachers’ perceptions regarding principals’ efforts to improve parent involvement was identified as the single most important teacher perceived principal leadership practice for growth in both school reading and school mathematics performance across grade levels (moderate effect size of .481 in reading and small effect size of .254 in mathematics). Implications were discussed, including the hypothesis of “growth” factors in principal leadership practice.
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Recent research work in school leadership highlighting the importance of principals’ organizational management skills has prompted scholars to consider their importance in relation to instructional leadership skills. However, there is limited empirical work that directly compares these leadership skills and their importance for school outcomes. In this study, we use principals’ self-ratings to construct typologies of effectiveness in both domains and compare their relationship to student achievement. Our results show that principals view themselves as either strong or weak on instructional leadership and organizational management skills simultaneously. We also find that learning gains vary significantly across the principal profiles.
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This study examines the relationship between principals’ leadership and student achievement. Based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 United States data, a two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) with students nested within principals and schools was applied. The findings showed (a) that principals’ rating of their own overall leadership was statistically negatively related to student achievement, (b) that among the four subscales of principal self-rated leadership, instructional leadership was statistically positively related to student achievement, while leadership for teacher development was negatively related to student achievement and (c) that principal leadership’s effect on student achievement was moderated by school contextual variables. Implications of the findings were discussed.
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The present study, situated in a large urban public school district, explores the relationship of teacher perceptions of principal leadership and teacher commitment to students’ academic success and social well-being, as well as whether organizational trust and collective efficacy mediate this association. Structural equation analysis revealed that principal transformational leadership was uniquely associated with organizational trust and efficacy but not with teacher commitment. Transactional leadership behaviors of a principal were directly related to teacher commitment. Findings complicate understandings about the influence of TL on teacher commitment in a district and about conceptions of organizational setting, suggesting that urban school leaders maintaining high performance expectations may foster teacher commitment to students. More significantly, the study highlights the need for further exploration of contingency approaches in understanding leadership within specific school contexts.
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There is a strong evidence that transformational leadership gives rise to loftier motivation among the teaching staff, creative school innovation, enhanced learning results among students and critical openness to diversity in society. Little is known how school leaders can become better transformational leaders. Our research among school leaders of the Salesian schools in India seeks to verify if higher performance of transformational leadership is influenced by spiritual determinants (spiritual discernment, spiritual traits, spiritual capital, and spiritual experience), besides situational contingencies pertaining to personal profile and institutional features. The findings reveal that the prevalent leadership style in Salesian schools is transformational, and that it is strongly predicted by a combined spiritual trait of self-directed-cooperativeness and spiritual discernment, and moderately predicted by the situational contingencies of schools being private and having lesser student strength.
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Policy makers, school practitioners, and scholars around the world have been searching for better school improvement models. The purpose of this study was to understand how an instrument we developed, Orientation to School Renewal, can be used to predict school-level academic achievement. We used the instrument to predict the academic performance of 83 schools as measured by the Michigan Student Test of Educational Progress (M-STEP) and the Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) for mathematics and language. We found our instrument was more sensitive to M-STEP. We found that school renewal efforts were able to predict school academic performance with M-STEP in both mathematics and language. The three leading dimensions for predicting achievement on M-STEP were (a) focus on students and their achievement, (b) internal responsibility, and (c) continuous improvement. The renewal model provides a new perspective on school improvement, and future studies in other countries and international settings are recommended.
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This article explored the different clusters of leadership styles and the relationship between principal leadership style and student academic achievement in domains of mathematics, reading, science, and collaborative problem-solving in Germany and China. We used PISA 2015 data covering 6,504 students and 256 school principals from German schools and 9,841 students and 268 school leaders from Chinese schools. Results identified three leadership styles in Germany, namely, transformational (23.4%), instructional (41.3%), and integrated (35.3%) leadership, and two leadership styles in China, namely, transformational (38.6%) and instructional (61.4%) principals. Principals with instructional and integrated leadership had higher student achievements in Germany, whereas only principals with transformational leadership had slightly higher student achievements in China. Moreover, three leadership styles in Germany and two in China showed their relationships with each domain of student achievement. In conclusion, principals in Germany and China had different priorities in leading schools. The differences that principal leadership made on student achievements highlighted the differences in principals’ situational context and leading characteristics between Germany and China.
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In this study we examined the relative importance of teachers' psychological states, school organizational conditions (teacher collaboration and participative decision making), and the leadership practices (vision, individual consideration, and intellectual stimulation) of principals at their schools in explaining variation in teachers' professional learning. We examined teachers' learning by focusing on their participation in the following professional learning activities: keeping up to date (or collecting new knowledge and information), experimentation, reflective practice, and innovation. The data we used came from the Dutch School Improvement Questionnaire consisting of 54 items administered to teachers from 18 Dutch primary schools (grades 1-8). To test our theoretical model, data from 328 teachers were analyzed using structural equation modeling. As expected, results showed that psychological factors (teachers' sense of self-efficacy and internalization of school goals into personal goals) had strong effects on teachers' participation in the professional learning activities. Furthermore, differential effects of leadership practices and organizational conditions on the 2 psychological factors and the professional learning activities were found. To better understand change mechanisms in schools and based on our findings, we stress the need to conduct research using models that contain factors at both the school and teacher levels.
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Researchers have persisted in framing leadership as the driver for change and performance improvement in schools despite convincing theoretical commentary that proposes leadership as a process of reciprocal interaction. Although conceptualizing leadership as a reciprocal process offers leverage for understanding leadership effects on learning, methodological constraints have limited empirical tests of this model. This report focuses on understanding the contribution that collaborative leadership and school capacity for improvement make to growth in student learning in elementary school mathematics. We compare unidirectional and reciprocaleffects models focusing on change in leadership and learning in 195 elementary schools over a 4-year period. The results support the efficacy of a reciprocal-effects model that conceptualizes leadership within a changing, mutually reinforcing system of organizational relationships.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test a multilevel, cross-classified model that seeks to illuminate the dynamic nature of relationships among leadership, teaching quality, and student learning in school improvement. The study’s primary goal is to shed light on the paths through which leadership influences student learning. At the school level, the model examines the mediating effect of the school’s instructional environment on leadership and student learning. At the classroom level, it examines how instructionally focussed leadership can moderate teacher effects on student learning. Then these multiple paths are examined in a single model that seeks to test and highlight the means by which leadership contributes to school improvement. Design/methodology/approach – The current study employed a multilevel longitudinal data set drawn from 60 primary schools in one state in the USA. Using a cross-classification approach to quantitative modeling, the research analyzes the complex cross-level interactions that characterize school-level and classroom level practices that contribute to school improvement and student learning. Findings – The results illustrate the utility of specifying multilevel relationships when examining the “paths” that link school leadership to student learning. First, leadership effects on student learning were fully mediated by the quality of the school’s instructional environment. Second, the findings indicated that the classroom-related paths examined in this study directly influenced the measures of student math achievement. Third, the research found that instructionally focussed school leadership moderated the effect of individual teachers on student learning. Fourth, the results suggest that school leaders can enhance student outcomes by creating conditions that lead to greater consistency in levels of effectiveness across teachers. Practical implications – The study makes substantive contributions to the global knowledge base on school improvement by testing and elaborating on the “paths” that link school leadership and student learning. More specifically, the findings offer insights into strategic targets that instructional leaders can employ to enhance teacher effectiveness and school improvement. Thus, these results both support and extend findings from prior cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of leadership and school improvement. Originality/value – This is the first study that has tested a conceptualization of leadership for learning in a single “cross-classified longitudinal model” capable of capturing interactions among leadership, classroom teaching processes and growth in student learning. The research illustrates one “state-of-the-art” methodological approach for analyzing longitudinal data collected at both the school and classroom levels when studying school improvement.
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This study compared PISA 2009 student reading literacy scores with principal perceptions across three countries with varying levels of student performance: Korea, Mexico, and the United States. Seventy-five countries participated in PISA 2009, which measured 15-year-old children’s reading achievement and principal perceptions. The study explored the relationship of principals’ perceived levels of leadership, school autonomy, and use of test results with student attainment of reading literacy. School variables were treated as covariates when each effect of principal leadership was interpreted. All variables were included in a multilevel model and analyzed simultaneously. The means and standard deviations of outcome variables and the explanatory and control variables for the model of the study were calculated by taking into account sampling weights, as well as plausible values for reading literacy scores. SAS PROC MIXED was used to fit hierarchical linear models for the study. There was a positive relationship between student achievement in reading literacy and testing to improve instruction in all three countries—Korea, Mexico, and the United States—and there was a negative relationship between student achievement and lack of resources. Social, economic, and cultural status showed a positive relationship with reading literacy. To be specific, testing to improve instruction can be beneficial in all three countries when it is defined as using tests to group students for instructional purposes and to identify aspects of instruction or the curriculum that could be improved. Results also indicate that students are likely to achieve better if principals perceive that there are no shortages of personnel and equipment.
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Although there has been sizable growth in the number of empirical studies of shared forms of leadership over the past decade, the bulk of this research has been descriptive. Relatively few published studies have investigated the impact of shared leadership on school improvement. This longitudinal study examines the effects of distributed leadership on school improvement and growth in student math achievement in 195 elementary schools in one state over a 4-year period. Using multilevel latent change analysis, the research found significant direct effects of distributed leadership on change in the schools' academic capacity and indirect effects on student growth rates in math. The study supports a perspective on distributed leadership that aims at building the academic capacity of schools as a means of improving student learning outcomes.
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Collective teacher efficacy (CTE) refers to the collective perception that teachers in a given school make an educational difference to their students over and above the educational impact of their homes and communities. Significant positive relationships were found between CTE and student achievement on the grade 8 math, writing, and English tests. In addition, significant relationships were found between the both the instruction and discipline subscales of CTE with all three tests of student achievement. When controlling for socioeconomic status, CTE made a significant independent contribution to the grade 8 writing scores; however it did not independently explain math and English achievement.
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All successful organizations, including successful high schools, have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give of their time and energy to succeed. Organ was the first to use the phrase "organizational citizenship behavior" (OCB) to denote organizationally beneficial behavior of workers that was not prescribed but occurred freely to help others achieve the task at hand (Bateman & Organ, 1983). The willingness of participants to exert effort beyond the formal obligations of their positions has long been recognized as an essential component of effective organizational performance.
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Within effective organizations employees often go beyond formal job responsibilities, performing nonmandatory tasks with no expectation of recognition or compensation. Therefore, it is important to learn more about how organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) can be cultivated. In this study a new measure of OCB, which is useful in exploring how this construct functions in K–12 schools, was developed. Data were collected in two separate samples and confirmed that this new measure was reasonably valid and reliable. Further testing explored whether the two-factor structure found in other organizational contexts held in public school settings. A significant relationship was found between OCB and school climate. Implications of these findings and directions for further research are discussed.
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Transformational leadership researchers have given little attention to teacher expectations that mediate between goals and actions. The most important of these expectations, teacher efficacy, refers to teacher beliefs that they will be able to bring about student learning. This study examined the mediating effects of teacher efficacy by comparing two models derived from Bandura's social-cognitive theory. Model A hypothesized that transformational leadership would contribute to teacher commitment to organizational values exclusively through collective teacher efficacy. Model B hypothesized that leadership would have direct effects on teacher commitment and indirect effects through teacher efficacy. Data from 3,074 teachers in 218 elementary schools in a cross-validation sample design provided greater support for Model B than Model A. Transformational leadership had an impact on the collective teacher efficacy of the school; teacher efficacy alone predicted teacher commitment to community partnerships; and transformational leadership had direct and indirect effects on teacher commitment to school mission and commitment to professional learning community.
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In this chapter we synthesize the themes that emerge from the other chapters. Additionally, we discuss future directions for inquiry on teachers’ emotions, as well as implications for classroom instruction, intervention, teachers’ professional development, teachers’ lives, and educational policy and leadership. Finally, we use the content of the chapters to discuss the variety, timeliness, and potential for transformation of the field, and the unique contributions of the chapters to our understanding of teachers’ emotions in education KeywordsFuture research agenda–Teacher emotions–Practical implications
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Incl. bibl., abstract This article examines the effects of transformational and transactional leadership on teachers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior in the context of schools in a specific developing country context, that of Tanzania. It does so by testing a model of such effects using a set of data collected from a sample of Tanzanian primary school teachers. Regression analyses show transformational leadership dimensions to have strong effects on teachers' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. Transformational leadership had significant add-on effects to transactional leadership in prediction of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior. Job satisfaction appears to be a mediator of the effects of transformational leadership on teachers' organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
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This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and curriculum improvement were linked to achievement. Within transformational leadership, the principal’s ability to identify a vision and provide an appropriate model had the greatest relationship to achievement. Principal educational level also positively correlated with each leadership factor.
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Improving student achievement through teacher collaboration networks is a current focus of schools in many countries. Yet, empirical evidence on the relationship between teacher networks and student achievement and mechanisms that may explain this relationship is limited. This study examined the relationship between teacher networks and student achievement and the mediating role of teachers’ collective efficacy beliefs. Data were collected from 53 Dutch elementary schools. Using social network analysis and multiple regression we analyzed teacher survey and student achievement data. Findings indicate that well-connected teacher networks were associated with strong teacher collective efficacy, which in turn supported student achievement.
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The concept of school engagement has attracted increasing attention as representing a possible antidote to declining academic motivation and achievement. Engagement is presumed to be malleable, responsive to contextual features, and amenable to environmental change. Researchers describe behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement and recommend studying engagement as a multifaceted construct. This article reviews definitions, measures, precursors, and outcomes of engagement; discusses limitations in the existing research; and suggests improvements. The authors conclude that, although much has been learned, the potential contribution of the concept of school engagement to research on student experience has yet to be realized. They call for richer characterizations of how students behave, feel, and think—research that could aid in the development of finely tuned interventions
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Purposes: This study aimed to improve our understanding of the nature, causes and consequence of school leader efficacy, including indirect influences on student learning. We asked about district contributions to school leader efficacy, whether leader self- and collective efficacy responded to the same or different district conditions and the effects of leader efficacy on conditions in the school and the learning of students. Methods: Evidence for the study was provided by 96 principal and 2,764 teacher respondents to two separate surveys, along with student achievement data in language and math averaged over 3 years. Path analytic techniques were used to address the objectives for the study. Findings: In this study, school leaders' collective efficacy was an important link between district conditions and both the conditions found in schools and their effects on student achievement. School leaders'sense of collective efficacy also had a strong, positive, relationship with leadership practices found to be effective in earlier studies. Implications: These results suggest that district leaders are most likely to build the confidence and sense of collective efficacy among principals by emphasizing the priority they attach to achievement and instruction, providing targeted and phased focus for school improvement efforts and by building cooperative working relationships with schools.
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This article examines the nature of organizational learning and the leadership practices and processes that foster organizational learning in Australian high schools. A path model is used to test the relationships between school-level factors and school outcome measures in terms of students'participation in and engagement with school. The importance of reconceptualizing schools as learning organizations to promote successful school change is discussed.
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This study examined the relationship between collective efficacy and high school student achievement in a state with an accountability system heavily focused on achievement, measured by mandatory assessments in multiple content areas. Using social cognitive theory, a theoretical model was developed linking school context and collective efficacy to differences among schools in 12th grader student achievement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the model to data drawn from students and teachers in 96 state high schools. Collective efficacy was positively influenced by past mastery experience and negatively related to school socioeconomic disadvantage. Additionally, after accounting for the influence of several aspects of school context, collective efficacy remained a significant positive predictor of student performance across all content areas tested by the state. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for social cognitive theory and school improvement in an era of school accountability for student performance on subject-specific achievement assessments.
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Collective teacher efficacy refers to teacher perceptions that they constitute an effective instructional team, capable of bringing about learning in students. Previous research demonstrates that a school staff with a strong sense of collective efficacy is likely to generate high student achievement. This study of 2,170 teachers in 141 elementary schools used structural equation modeling to examine the antecedents of collective teacher efficacy. The study found that prior student achievement in grade 6 mathematics predicted collective teacher efficacy, as expected by social cognition theory. The study also found that school processes that promoted teacher ownership of school directions (shared school goals, school-wide decision making, fit of plans with school needs, and empowering principal leadership) exerted an even stronger influence on collective teacher efficacy than prior student achievement. School cohesion and support contributed to collective teacher efficacy, but only in domains in which the school had control over its directions.
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This paper uses evidence about transformational forms of leadership in schools provided by 32 empirical studies published between 1996 and 2005 to answer questions about the nature of such leadership, its antecedents, and the variables that both moderate and mediate its effects on students. Results indicate significant, primarily indirect effects of this form of leadership on both student achievement and engagement in school. These effects are mediated by school culture, teachers’ commitment and job satisfaction, and a small number of other variables. Few studies have examined the antecedents or moderators of transformational school leadership.
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The present study reports on the development of a 12-item Likert-type measure of collective efficacy in schools. Designed to assess the extent to which a faculty believes in its conjoint capability to positively influence student learning, the scale is based on a social cognitive model that posits perceptions of collective efficacy develop from the cognitive processing of group members. Faculty perceptions of group competence and the level of difficulty inherent in the educational task faced by the school are tapped by the scale. The 12-item scale is more theoretically pure than an earlier 21-item scale to which the 12-item scale is compared. The internal consistency of scores on the 12-item scale is tested with Cronbach’s alpha, and a test of predictive validity using multilevel modeling is reported.
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This article examines the effects of transformational school leadership on the commitment of teachers to school reform, and the effort they are willing to devote to such reform. It does so by building on the knowledge from both educational and non-educational research into such effects. A model of such effects is tested using two approximately comparable sets of data collected from samples of Canadian and Dutch teachers. Structural equation modeling is applied to test the model within each data set. Results of the Canadian and Dutch studies are then compared. The findings show transformational leadership dimensions to affect both teachers’ commitment and extra effort. The effects of the dimension's vision building and intellectual stimulation appear to be significant in particular. Overall, the findings clearly indicate the importance of analyzing dimensions of transformational leadership for their separate effects on teacher commitment and extra effort within the context of educational reform.
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School restructuring creates new expectations of those who offer leadership to schools, expectations not well captured in images of instructional leadership. This article describes a 4-year program of research about transformational forms of leadership in schools responding to a variety of restructuring initiatives. Evidence is summarized about transformational leadership practices and behaviors in schools, their effects on a variety of school and teacher variables, and thought processes that give rise to such leadership practices. On the basis of this evidence, the author argues for the promise of transformational leadership in school-restructuring contexts.
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Using data from a larger 4-year evaluation of England's National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies, this study tested the effects of a school-specific model of transformational leadership on teachers (motivation, capacities, and work settings), their classroom practices, and gains in student achievement. Some 2,290 teachers from 655 primary schools responded to 2 forms of a survey (literacy and numeracy) measuring all variables in our framework. Our measure of student achievement was gains in the British government's own Key Stage 2 tests over either 2 (numeracy) or 3 (literacy) years. Path analytic techniques were used to analyze the several different versions of the results. Results indicate significant effects of leadership on teachers' classroom practices but not on student achievement.
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Collaborative school cultures have been associated with the achievement of a number of school reform objectives for both teachers and students. Little is known, however, about how such cultures develop and whether or how school administrators can facilitate that process. This study examined the practices of administrators in each of 12 schools which had developed highly collaborative professional relationships over a three year period in the context of school improvement initiatives. Results suggest the feasibility of developing more collaborative school cultures in a relatively brief period of time and clarify the role played by the larger context of school improvement for fostering collaboration. Specific strategies used by the administrators are described. These strategies are associated with a concept of leadership termed “transformational”.
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Most school restucturing initiatives assume significant capacity development on the part of individuals, as well as whole organizations; they also depend on high levels of motivation and commitment to solving the substantial problems associated with the implementation of restructuring initiatives. Transformational approaches to leadership have long been advocated as productive under these conditions, and evidence suggests that transformational practices do contribute to the development of capacity and commitment. Much less evidence is available, however, about whether these socio-psychological effects actually result in organizational change and enhanced organizational outcomes. Survey data from an achieved sample of 1,762 teachers and 9,941 students in one large school district were used to explore the relative effects of transformational leadership practices on selected organizational conditions and student engagement with school. Results demonstrated strong significant effects of such leadership on organizational conditions, and moderate but still significant total effects on student engagement.
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In the present study, the direct effect of principal transformational leadership to school staff turnover and school performance was examined, in addition to its indirect effect through school staff job satisfaction. Survey data were obtained from elementary school staff and students, and school-aggregated student achievement test scores were obtained from school archives. Results showed that staff reports of principal behaviors could be described in terms of the three components of transformational leadership: inspiration or charisma, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. Principal transformational leadership was not associated directly with either school staff turnover or school-aggregated student achievement progress. Rather, principal transformational leadership showed an indirect effect, through staff job satisfaction, on school staff turnover (negative) and on school-aggregated student achievement progress (positive). Finally, higher levels of school staff job satisfaction were associated with smaller achievement gaps between minority and non-minority students. This result was more evident among schools having higher levels of principal transformational leadership. Results are discussed in relation to the role of transformational leadership in school performance and in recruiting, training, and evaluating school principals.
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In this article, I review the diverse ways in which perceived self-efficacy contributes to cognitive development and functioning. Perceived self-efficacy exerts its influence through four major processes. They include cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes. There are three different levels at which perceived self-efficacy operates as an important contributor to academic development. Students' beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and to master academic activities determine their aspirations, level of motivation, and academic accomplishments. Teachers' beliefs in their personal efficacy to motivate and promote learning affect the types of learning environments they create and the level of academic progress their students achieve. Faculties' beliefs in their collective instructional efficacy contribute significantly to their schools' level of academic achievement. Student body characteristics influence school-level achievement more strongly by altering faculties' beliefs in their collective efficacy than through direct affects on school achievement.
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A theoretical analysis is advanced that discusses social cognitive theory at the group level to explain the formation and impact of collective efficacy. The study used student- and school-level data from a sample of urban elementary schools. Consistent with social cognitive theory, mastery experience was found to be a significant predictor of differences between schools in teachers' collective efficacy perceptions. In addition, after controlling for student demographic characteristics and prior achievement, collective efficacy was positively and significantly related to differences among schools in student achievement. Finally, the amount of consensus among faculty members regarding collective efficacy perceptions was not a significant predictor of student achievement, nor was it significantly related to school socioeconomic status or minority concentration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article investigates teacher enthusiasm and how it relates to instructional behaviours. We distinguished teachers' enthusiasm for the subject matter of mathematics from their enthusiasm for teaching mathematics. A total of 323 teachers and their 9th-grade classes participated in the study. Questionnaires were used to assess teachers' enthusiasm and instructional behaviours from both the teacher and the student perspective. Structural equation modelling revealed that teachers who were more enthusiastic about teaching showed higher quality instructional behaviour—both self-reported and student-rated. By contrast, enthusiasm for mathematics as a subject matter predicted teachers' self-reports, but not students' ratings, of instructional behaviour.
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Reliability coefficients often take the form of intraclass correlation coefficients. In this article, guidelines are given for choosing among 6 different forms of the intraclass correlation for reliability studies in which n targets are rated by k judges. Relevant to the choice of the coefficient are the appropriate statistical model for the reliability study and the applications to be made of the reliability results. Confidence intervals for each of the forms are reviewed. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
High school principal transformational leadership behaviors and teacher extra effort: the mediating role of teacher agency beliefs
  • J E Boberg
Boberg, J.E. (2013), "High school principal transformational leadership behaviors and teacher extra effort: the mediating role of teacher agency beliefs", PhD thesis, University of Texas at Arlington.
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Summary and conclusion: instructional leadership in schools as loosely coupled organizations
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