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... External transparency should not just be a one-way-street but there is evidence that active involvement of stakeholders in the decision-making process can generate true benefits for effective fisheries management, including by: triggering two-way social learning and contributing to improved information for assessments; encouraging creative approaches; increasing the support by stakeholders of management decisions; and fostering a sense of partnership among scientists, managers, and stakeholders from different backgrounds [30][31][32][33]. Today, the involvement of stakeholders in the management process is considered a key element in modern ocean governance (e.g. ...
... This is only possible if the secretariat has a sufficient level of autonomy that ensures its operations without undue interference by members including chairpersons. 33 The relations between staff and members are sensitive and characterized by an unequal distribution of power. A code of ethics that describes organizational expectations regarding the conduct of elected officials (and, indeed, of all institutional actors) could be a helpful tool to provide clarity about the dos and don'ts befitting these positions but has yet to be adopted by any of the RFMOs. ...
... High standards of transparency within RFMOs can contribute to a meaningful participation and empowerment of developing coastal states if developed fishing nations continue their high engagement in RFMOs [7]. Conversely, transparency 33 Chairpersons are honorary positions, usually filled by employees of member governments. 34 Scientific Advisory Committee on Fisheries. ...
Article
Transparency has been recognized as a key factor for successful resource management, and in view of the continuing decline of marine fishery resources demands for improved transparency in fisheries governance have been growing. RFMOs have responded to these calls and successfully implemented basic transparency requirements imposed by UNFSA, namely free access to most reports, documents and data, and admittance of IGOs and NGOs as observers at their meetings. The article examines RFMO legal regimes, procedures, and practices related to external and internal transparency. It considers the sharing of information, openness of the decision-making process, level of participation of external and internal actors in policymaking and the role of RFMO secretariats in supporting transparency. The study finds that RFMOs could improve their openness by introducing a process of formal consultation with external stakeholders, as required by the ecosystem approach to fisheries. Furthermore, the participation and influence of developing coastal states in RFMOs is often lacking due to insufficient funds and human resources, and intransparent practices in RFMO decision-making can exacerbate this problem. The study recognizes that well-resourced and independent RFMO secretariats can significantly promote transparency (or intransparency if staff are not neutral). RFMOs are key instruments to address the fisheries dilemma that the conservation of marine resources depends on the cooperation of states although almost all fish are caught in areas under national jurisdiction. Thus, they carry a high responsibility for promoting transparency, best practices, and a fair participation of all members in their activities and decisions.
... Present costs of all three phases (planning, implementation, and follow-up) of the proposed FLE to justify comprehensive support from funders. Stress that the FLE is part of a larger program (See [26] for justification). ...
... "share bycatch challenges" or "build support for protected areas"). If objectives are specified, ensure they fit within the broader purpose and that they are flexible (See [26] for examples of FLE purposes). ...
... Select participants who are leaders in their home communities. Carefully select a diverse group of participants (unless FLE purpose requires only certain stakeholder groups be present, see [26]). ○ Aim for a range of professions, such as fishers, managers, government officials, NGO practitioners, and possibly donor representatives. ...
... It will offer a formal definition of FLEs, describe different configurations of FLEs, discuss the utility, common objectives, and common outcomes of FLEs, and outline a research agenda for future work on FLEs. This paper also serves as an introduction to the other articles in this special issue which include: 1) a comparative case study that elucidates "Key characteristics of successful fisheries learning exchanges" [30], 2) guidelines for consideration when organizing a FLE [31], and illustrative examples of how FLEs have 3) yielded intended and unintended consequences in community-based fisheries in Madagascar [32], 4) addressed sea turtle conservation during a tri-lateral exchange between the United States, Mexico, and Cuba [33], and 5) created a transpacific sea turtle conservation network between Japan, Mexico, and the United States [34]. ...
... Through the questionnaires and discussions at the workshop, the experts developed a shared understanding of what defines a fishermen learning exchange. Subsequent research showed that exchange participants need not be fishers and in fact, successful exchanges often include non-fishers [30]. To reflect this, the term was refined to become "fisheries learning exchange" (FLE), highlighting the centrality of the topic of learning rather than the profession of the learners. ...
... However, this latter requirement to focus primarily on fishers could be an artifact of the original prompt to define fishermen learning exchanges. It is justifiable to expand the focus beyond fishers to those involved with fisheries, in light of the findings of Thompson et al. [30] that it is often warranted to expand participants to include those with professions other than fishing that are still relevant to the exchange topic. Furthermore, the key components of this definition for FLE might hold true for learning exchanges for natural resource management, in general. ...
... By including MSE participants that are active members of the fishing or conservation community, there will be increased opportunities for stakeholders to better understand how the resource is managed and, thus, provide new (and feasible) perspectives on alternative management options. Similarly, representatives that have a broad peer base or are trusted leaders can often more readily negotiate on behalf of a stakeholder group, which can help ensure support of the final MSE product (Duggan et al. 2013;Thompson et al. 2017a;Jordan et al. 2018). ...
... For herring and Atlantic tuna, the broader geographic scale of management issues caused inherent difficulty in narrowing participation while still maintaining an open and transparent process, which demonstrated that limiting participation is not always feasible or recommended. However, as MSE group size increased, it became even more imperative for professional facilitation that aided clear and open communication along Note: These basic traits were identified through analysis of the example MSE processes for Atlantic tunas, Atlantic herring, and eastern oyster and were supplemented by similar suggestions from the participatory modeling literature (e.g., Reed 2008;Duggan et al. 2013;Thompson et al. 2017a;Jordan et al. 2018). Not all stakeholders will possess each characteristic, and many will be learned or improved during the MSE process (through associated education and experience). ...
... Although no management approach will satisfy all stakeholder objectives or resolve conflicts among all user groups, engaging in open dialogue, clear communication, and group decision-making can often produce management procedures that "satisfice" the needs of all MSE participants (Miller and Shelton 2010) and reduce user group conflicts (Davis 2008;Msomphora 2016;Curseu and Schruijer 2017). Outreach and engagement Provide stipend to participants to cover attendance costs Interactive and positive meeting facilitator Note: These issues were identified through analysis of the example MSE processes for Atlantic tunas, Atlantic herring, and eastern oyster and were supplemented by similar suggestions from the participatory modeling and MSE literature (e.g., Kolody et al. 2008;Reed 2008;Punt et al. 2016;Voinov et al. 2016;Thompson et al. 2017aThompson et al. , 2017bJordan et al. 2018). ...
Article
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Management strategy evaluation (MSE) is a simulation-based approach to examine the efficacy of management options in achieving fishery-, ecosystem-, and socioeconomic-related objectives while integrating over system uncertainties. As a form of structured decision analysis, MSE is amenable to stakeholder involvement, which can reduce implementation barriers associated with non-transparent decision-making procedures. Based on analysis of three MSE processes (Atlantic tunas, Atlantic herring, and eastern oysters), we provide suggestions for improving stakeholder engagement in MSE. By assembling a workgroup and modeling team with diverse backgrounds, including professional facilitators, communication liaisons, and social scientists, dialogue can be improved and an atmosphere of mutual learning fostered. Communication further benefits from clearly defining roles, responsibilities, and terms of engagement for all involved; explicitly and transparently identifying goals and objectives of the MSE before modeling has begun; and, when appropriate, revisiting goals and objectives throughout the MSE process. Although MSEs are not without limitations, the participatory modeling framework, wherein stakeholders are actively engaged at each stage of MSE development, provides a useful mechanism to support fisheries management.
... Diversos autores han observado que los pescadores diversifican las estrategias de pesca cuando perciben un aumento de la incertidumbre en sus capturas y ganancias, especialmente cuando aumenta la competencia (Smith & McKelvey, 1986;Salas et al., 2004;Saldaña et al., 2017;Thompson et al., 2017). En el caso de las PPE tipo 2, la diversificación se observó por una combinación de especies objetivo, incluidas especies de alto valor (langosta y pulpo) y de bajo valor (principalmente escama). ...
... Algunas de las políticas públicas en la región también podrían estar orientadas a apoyar la estructura actual y el tipo de organización que opera en comunidades con características tipo 1. Estos casos podrían presentarse como ejemplos para promover el intercambio de conocimientos entre los pescadores a través de reunión entre pares para la difusión y promoción de prácticas pesqueras sostenibles, como lo sugieren Thompson et al. (2017). ...
Thesis
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Las pesquerías de pequeña escala (PPE) integran sistemas naturales y socio-económicos altamente complejos, diversos y dinámicos; estas características han dificultado históricamente la evaluación y gestión de este sector. Aunque las PPE han recibido mayor atención en años recientes a través de iniciativas internacionales que promueven evaluaciones y manejo integral, estas prácticas aun no son comunes globalmente, especialmente en países en vías de desarrollo. En un intento por abordar dicha complejidad, esta tesis tiene como objetivo analizar las PPE de la Península de Yucatán (PY), México, bajo un enfoque transdisciplinario en el contexto de actividades de pre-captura, captura y pos-captura teniendo como objetivos: a) identificar la complejidad de las PPE y contrastar a través de una tipología diferencias entre comunidades, b) identificar actores y sus interacciones dentro de la cadena de valor (CV) de la pesquería de pulpo y c) identificar las características que influencian la gobernabilidad del sistema pesquero. La estrategia de investigación usada en esta tesis fue dividir el estudio en tres secciones abordando las siguientes preguntas: i) ¿Existen atributos heterogéneos de las PPE en las comunidades pesqueras que comparten recursos y formas de manejo semejantes?; ii) ¿cómo se estructura la CV de la pesquería de pulpo de la YP y qué tipo de arreglos sociales y de mercado existen? y iii) ¿qué factores definen la gobernabilidad de las PPE en la PY? Las preguntas se atendieron usando tres marcos analíticos: análisis tipológico de las pesquerías en 22 comunidades pesqueras, análisis de cadena de valor de la pesquería del pulpo y evaluación de gobernabilidad de las PPE de la PY. Los resultados se reportan en capítulos auto contenidos. Las fuentes de información usados en esta investigación provienen de datos oficiales de dependencias locales, nacionales e internacionales, entrevistas con actores del sector pesquero y observación participativa no intrusiva en 7 comunidades pesqueras. La información contiene datos de 2006-2017. Los resultados muestran que las PPE reportan 142 especies, que contribuyen con el 70% del volumen de la producción total en la región. Estas especies se integran en nueve pesquerías, donde operan el 85% de pescadores y embarcaciones de la PY. La tipología clasificó tres “tipos” de PPE diferenciados por su producción pesquera, las especies desembarcadas (destacando el pulpo), el esfuerzo de pesca y los ingresos económicos de los pescadores, mostrando la heterogeneidad y complejidad del sistema de PPE en la PY. Este análisis permitió analizar el sistema pesquero en grupos de comunidades diferenciados por perfiles, los contrastes observados entre los grupos demandan atención adecuada a sus características en cuanto a implementación de estrategias de manejo en estas pesquerías. La estructura de la cadena de valor de la pesquería de pulpo mostró alta complejidad con diversidad de actores desde el ámbito comunitario hasta la exportación. Se identificaron diversos actores, formales e informarles, interconectados a través de complejos acuerdos económicos y sociales. Se destaca el poder económico y de comercialización de las empresas exportadoras a lo largo de toda la cadena y la participación de actores no reconocidos oficialmente, principalmente mujeres y niños. Dada la alta demanda internacional de pulpo y su relevancia pesquera a nivel regional, es fundamental comprender la estructura y dinámica de su cadena de valor para promover prácticas de mercado sostenibles. La complejidad reflejada en los recursos, las operaciones de pesca y los mercados, es manifiesta en el sistema de PPE. A esto se agrega una complejidad biogeográfica que cambia entre estados a lo largo de la región. Esta alta diversidad de especies, usuarios, distribuidores y comercializadores, y una limitada interacción entre usuarios e instituciones parece limitar la gobernabilidad de las PPE. El esquema de gestión actual opera bajo un enfoque de arriba hacia abajo (control gubernamental), prestando poca atención al componente socio-económico, cultural y de género de los sistemas pesqueros, limitando por tanto la participación de los usuarios en procesos de decisiones y la definición de políticas pesqueras. Este contexto demanda un involucramiento de los usuarios dentro de procesos adaptativos de gestión acordes a la complejidad que se enfrenta. La presente tesis ofrece un marco analítico para comprender la complejidad, diversidad y heterogeneidad de un sistema de PPE. Además, contribuye con un cambio de visión de los paradigmas de investigación tradicionales, ofreciendo propuestas metodológicas replicables en otros sistemas que integren PPE. Se espera que el conocimiento generando facilite procedimientos de monitoreo, promueva la interacción entre instituciones y usuarios y un cambio de perspectivas dirigidas a enfoques transdisciplinarios que integren conocimiento técnico y local para abordar las complejidades de las PPE. Se espera que esto ayude en la búsqueda de mejores prácticas de pesca, mercados y finalmente en el manejo sostenible de las PPE.
... Fisher exchanges have proven effective particularly in more isolated, small-scale fisheries where management is limited, such as on the Isla de la Juventud. Additionally, through these exchanges, fishers facing similar biological and political challenges exchange perspectives and strategies that can help in reducing sea turtle bycatch [10,11]. ...
... This model of a floating workshop has since been repeated by the Environmental Defense Fund in 2011 to share information regarding catch shares in Cuba [13]. Additionally, organizers of other fisher learning exchanges perceive flexibility, as demonstrated in this exchange, as important to an exchange's success [11]. ...
... Several authors report diversification in fisheries strategies by fishers who perceive an increase in uncertainty in their catches and profits, especially when competition increases (Salas et al., 2004;Saldaña et al., 2017;Smith and McKelvey, 1986;Thompson et al., 2017), like is the case the SSF type 2. In this case, diversification is defined by a mix of species targeted, including high-value (lobster and octopus) and low-value species (mainly finfish). However, given a large number of fishers that operate in this cluster, in comparison with SSF type 1, overall benefits spread among fishers affect the economic performance of the members of the group. ...
... Some of the public policies in the region could also be oriented to supporting the current structure and type of organization that operates in communities with features in the profile of SSF type 1. These cases could be presented as examples to promote knowledge sharing among fishers through peer-to-peer gathering for the diffusion and promotion of sustainable fishing practices, as suggested by Thompson et al. (2017). ...
Article
Small-scale fisheries (SSF) are highly heterogeneous, complex, and dynamic. The natural and socio-economic components associated with these fishery systems are subject to different drivers, issues, and challenges. Understanding SSF complexity requires an exercise to unpack the systems into manageable clusters that are easier to analyze and understand, and that can generate sound information to support management decision-making. Under this premise, we propose the use of fisheries typology to classify SSF, using 22 coastal communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, as illustrations. Although operating under the same official regulations, the SSF in these communities are different in contexts and face different challenges. The study uses multivariate analysis to identify and classify SSF into types, and afterward analyzes differences and commonalities in their features. The analysis shows three types of SSF, differentiated by fishing production, landing composition, fishing effort, and economic characteristics, suggesting different levels of sustainability of the resources targeted. The typology approach enables an organization and integration of numerous fisheries attributes, helps identify gaps in information and knowledge, as well as enhances overall understanding of SSF complexity. It also offers an opportunity to set new research questions regarding monitoring systems and management interventions, taking into consideration the differences and similarities in the identified SSF types.
... An example of this type of collaborative learning was a fisher learning exchange (FLE) among fishermen, non-governmental organizations, and government agencies for the diffusion and adoption of management strategies concerning fishing. Thompson (2015) carried out a multiple case study to examine characteristics of successful FLEs; she found a clear purpose and flexible objectives; careful selection of members with diverse professions; mixed activities, from presentations to site visits to local fisheries; and follow-up support in terms of logistics and finances were key drivers for success. ...
... Learning processes, aligned with programme goals, produced outputs. Common elements to successful interventions gleaned from the data included: (a) a safe environment for practicing (conflict management) skills and encouraging ongoing learning and continuous development (Clark, 2008;Clarke, 2003;Davalovsky, 2003;Smith, 2000); (b) a structure that provides dedicated time, tools, and language for the work (Clarke, 2003;Ng, 2011); (c) facilitative processes, such as ground rules and inclusivity (Clark, 2008); (d) a facilitator to help lead the way (Ng, 2011); and (e) flexibility in objectives and delivery of the training, careful selection of participants, and follow-up support after an event or activity, including information dissemination about lessons learned and next steps (Thompson, 2015); Individual learning outputs resulted in new knowledge, skills, and abilities (e.g., problemsolving and decision-making) (Braithwaite, 2014;Ghaffarzadegan, 2011;Hinchcliffe, 1999;Yates, 2011). Examples of group-level outputs were interpersonal skills and communication skills, as individuals also learned from socially constructed experiences (Gillis, 2011). ...
... Fisheries learning exchanges (FLEs), in which representatives of fisher communities are brought together to exchange knowledge and experiences, are recognised as a valuable tool for improving fisheries management, in particular for sharing management challenges and solutions, empowering fisher leaders, building social capital and communities of practice, and developing conservation solutions [11,12]. However, the effectiveness of the approach has thus far received minimal assessment and few guidelines for practitioners to maximise the utility of such exchanges exist [6,19]. To help address this, a research collaboration led by the University of Washington and SmartFish International entitled FLExCELL (Fishermen Learning Exchanges for Conservation: an Evaluation of Lessons Learned) was launched in 2013. ...
... At a broader level, opportunities for different groups across countries and regions to come together and for women to share their voices, knowledge, and experiences should be encouraged 167 . Studies have shown the benefits of fisher knowledge exchange programs, highlighting their effectiveness for sharing fisheries challenges and solutions; empowering fisherfolk; creating communities of practice and building social capital; and developing solutions 281,282 . ...
Technical Report
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Both fisheries and tourism have been highlighted as pivotal sectors to achieving the SDGs. Women play important roles across fisheries value chains and throughout the tourism sector. Yet women’s roles, contributions, priorities and interests tend to be overlooked and undervalued across sectors as well as in policy and management. In addition, because of restrictive social-cultural norms women are underrepresented in policy and decision-making. Gender discrimination threatens to increase women’s vulnerability to ocean risks. Advancing gender equality benefits women and girls through improved welfare and agency. These benefits extend beyond the individual to women’s households and communities, helping countries realise their full development potential, especially within the context of a Blue Economy. Through a synthesis of peer-reviewed and grey literature, and numerous case studies from SIDS and LDCs, this report highlights gender roles in two key sectors of the ocean economy (small-scale fisheries and coastal tourism), describes the gendered dimensions of ocean risks, and summarizes efforts across SIDS and LDCs for gender equitable approaches to building resilience to ocean risks.
... Numerous informants shared this view that flexibility is essential to a network's success and to ensuring the network has the best-suited structure for tackling issues related to the marine environment. Defining an overarching and cohesive purpose while also creating space for flexibility and adaptability allows the network to meet the needs of participants under changing conditions (Thompson et al., 2017). Flexibility, reflexivity, and learning are critical to the successful management and governance of marine resources and those who depend on them (Österblom and Folke, 2013). ...
Article
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Formal and semi-formal networks are emerging as effective, collaborative, and adaptable approaches for addressing complex, rapidly evolving ocean governance issues. One such group of networks, which we refer to as marine-related learning networks, play multifaceted roles within ocean governance systems by facilitating knowledge creation, exchange, and dissemination, and by building the capacity of individuals and institutions to address problems and improve coastal and ocean governance. This study investigates the emergence, key attributes, and outcomes of marine-related networks using semi-structured interview data from 40 key informants representing 16 different networks that operate around the world at local, national, regional, and global scales. Our findings indicate that marine-related learning networks form in response to knowledge and action gaps and the specific needs of network members, and they function to inform policy and improve ocean management. Their success depends on attributes such as having a distinct purpose, building trust and relationships, emphasizing equitable participation, and supporting clear, sustained leadership. Marine-related learning networks are uniquely positioned to act as catalyzers and conduits to build capacity and develop solutions in response to governance needs through inclusive and collaborative responses to ongoing and emerging marine issues. As such, a broader understanding of their growing significance and the effective practices they employ is warranted. © Copyright © 2020 Dalton, Skrobe, Bell, Kantner, Berndtson, Gerhardinger and Christie.
... International conservation NGOs have already, in some cases, formed partnerships with these organizations, and are well placed to increase the reach of their human rights awareness programs by bringing them to remote small-scale fishing communities that are less frequently prioritized in development work [117]. Another option to raise awareness is exchange programs between more rights-aware fishing communities and others [118]. Raising awareness of rights will also require increasing knowledge of human rights amongst NGO staff, especially field staff. ...
... Given the strong cultural importance of sea turtles in Japan, Hawaii, and Mexico combined with strong interest in loggerheads' transpacific migrations [24], the authors hypothesized in 2006 that producing a trinational FLE could be highly effective for enabling fishers, conservationists, and managers to share bycatch problems and co-develop lasting mitigation solutions. In part as a result of this FLE, the authors and others have come to recognize FLEs as a practical, widely applicable tool for improving management of fisheries and fisher participation [14,38]. ...
Article
This paper identifies, critiques, and offers suggestions for successful fisheries change initiatives to reduce bycatch. Through analysis of interviews and a workshop with fisheries change agents, we identified six themes. The first theme is that definitions of success varied between change initiatives. The other five themes relate to perceptions of best practices for change initiatives. They are the importance of (1) engaging diverse, motivated stakeholders in the initiative, in addition to fishers, (2) identifying and articulating clear benefits to fishers, (3) communicating with fishers early and throughout the initiative, particularly through face-to-face interactions and videos, (4) demonstrating positive change agent qualities, and (5) executing an appropriate and well-timed project. These best practices are widely recognized but have not consistently yielded widespread change. We hypothesize this is partly due to fisheries change agents being financially constrained, not measuring outcomes, and not having the proper training, such as knowledge of change management and human behaviour theories. We highlight one especially promising theory, change readiness, which includes cognitive and affective change readiness. We discuss the need to develop affective change readiness among fishers, given that change management research shows that emotions play an important role in the uptake of new ideas and changes.
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Aligning the ecological and social dimensions of the connections present between users that harvest a shared natural resource is a necessary step toward sustainable management. However, contrasting estimates of connectivity across disciplines is a challenging task and few empirical studies have focused on population dynamics within fish species with a complex life history. We used a collaborative approach merging citizen science, population genetics, oceanographic modeling, and interviews to collect empirical connectivity data of individual fish, fishing sites, and fishers. We integrated the data within a multilevel social-ecological network framework describing the interactions between two communities of small-scale fishers (Bahia Kino and Puerto Libertad, Sonora, Mexico) targeting leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea). We identified two types of social-ecological links, including the use of specific fishing sites by individual fishers and the harvest of individual fish by individual fishers. Despite their fishing zones not overlapping, the ecological links between two communities located ~150 km apart were consistent and reciprocal where fishing grounds from each community acted as a source of fish to the other during the larval or juvenile/adult stages, respectively. As a result, fishers from the two communities frequently captured fish that were second-degree relatives. In contrast, the probability of social ties among fishers changed significantly depending on the type of connection and was considerably low for leadership and kinship although some communication was present. Our study highlighted how local actions (e.g., recovery from marine reserves or overfishing) are likely to impact the neighboring community as much as locally. The geographic scale and strength of key ecological process supporting fish stocks through the fish life cycle seem to be larger than those of social connections among fishers. Fishers and managers could benefit from a broader regional perspective that strengthens connections between communities about shared goals and activities. We examine some insights learned on the constraints of connectivity given different attributes of each ecological and social component and methodological challenges identified. We also discuss ways to improve collaborative management between the two communities.
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Access to science-based environmental education is critical to improve rural coastal communities’ adaptive capacity and resilience. Based on research in two rural, underprivileged schools in South Africa’s southern Cape coastal region, we describe the process and lessons learnt in developing and deploying a series of integrated teaching modules for middle school (Gr 7-9) learners. The modules’ structure was informed by integrated curriculum design, and lessons were developed to augment the existing syllabus. Social and situated learning paradigms also informed the modules’ development, with lessons and practical exercises drawn from the surrounding environment and community, as well as incorporating data from ongoing regional marine science research. In a context of rural isolation, limited resources and a mistrust of outsiders amongst adult community members, the findings suggest that the modules may serve as building blocks of intentional learning to bolster adaptive capacity amongst both learners and the broader local community.
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Both global and local environmental problems call for the transformation of many contemporary and unsustainable governance approaches. Therefore, recent interest has sprung up around factors that facilitate and hinder societies from transforming governance of natural resources. Using a social-network approach, we study links between informal power structures and knowledge sharing and consensus building. We examine how this interaction may have affected the (in) ability of a community to move from open-access to some form of collective action for resource management. Individuals occupying central positions in a knowledge network can be instrumental in determining which knowledge and interpretation of ecological signals is most dominant. If the same individuals are also influential in other areas, they are highly likely to become opinion leaders. We use this notion of opinion leaders to frame our study. The study is set in a rural fishing community in East Africa where access to fishing equipment is of utmost importance for generating household income, but such gear ownership is not evenly distributed in the village. Hence, we use gear-exchange networks to explore power. Our results show a clear and strong relationship between centrality in the knowledge network and in-degree centrality (reflecting gear-lending capacity) in the gear-exchange network, supporting the idea that opinion leaders exist. We also indicate that a majority of these potential opinion leaders demonstrate little recognition of declining fisheries. We relate our findings to existing theories of influence and governance transformability at the community level, and explore ideas about how social networks can help identify potential change agents in communities experiencing inertia with respect to collective action for improved resource management.
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There is increasing emphasis on the need for effective ways of sharing knowledge to enhance environmental management and sustainability. Knowledge exchange (KE) are processes that generate, share and/or use knowledge through various methods appropriate to the context, purpose, and participants involved. KE includes concepts such as sharing, generation, coproduction, comanagement, and brokerage of knowledge. This paper elicits the expert knowledge of academics involved in research and practice of KE from different disciplines and backgrounds to review research themes, identify gaps and questions, and develop a research agenda for furthering understanding about KE. Results include 80 research questions prefaced by a review of research themes. Key conclusions are: (1) there is a diverse range of questions relating to KE that require attention; (2) there is a particular need for research on understanding the process of KE and how KE can be evaluated; and (3) given the strong interdependency of research questions, an integrated approach to understanding KE is required. To improve understanding of KE, action research methodologies and embedding evaluation as a normal part of KE research and practice need to be encouraged. This will foster more adaptive approaches to learning about KE and enhance effectiveness of environmental management.
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One of the challenges of collaborative governance is fostering learning among diverse stakeholders who have very different views on disputed topics of science and policy. Collaborative partnerships are often touted as a type of decision-making forum that generates more learning than typically occurs in more adversarial forums. This study develops and tests hypotheses from the collaborative learning literature, using survey data from 121 participants in 10 partnerships that focus on marine aquaculture in the United States. As one of the fastest growing natural resource-based industries, aquaculture is also one of the most controversial. We find that two types of learning-belief change and knowledge acquisition-are fairly common in the studied partnerships, occurring for 56%-87% of participants. Regression models indicate that new knowledge is correlated with traits of the partnership, including procedural fairness, trustworthiness of other participants, level of scientific certainty, and diverse participation as well as with traits of the individual learner, including norms of consensus and scientific or technical competence. Contrary to expectations, knowledge acquisition is greater when the available science is uncertain and when stakeholders have lower technical competence. Our findings also challenge the idea that new information mainly reinforces existing beliefs. Instead we find that new knowledge acquired through the collaborative process primes participants to change their opinions on scientific or policy issues.
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Fisheries worldwide are facing overexploitation, yet the social dimensions of fishers' behavior remain under-studied, and there is demand for an improved understanding of social processes that influence fisheries' dynamics. Fishers draw on social relationships to acquire information relating to fishing opportunities, contributing to knowledge that underpins decision making and behavior. In this study we use quantitative social network analysis (SNA) to compare the structure of information-sharing networks and explore links between information flow and fishing success at four ports in the Northumberland (UK) potting fishery. In our results we describe the different information-sharing networks existing at each port, and show the following: a high proportion of fishers reported sharing information, though fewer than a third of reported ties were reciprocated; subgroups existed in which greater information sharing occurred; and networks displayed varying levels of cohesiveness. Fishers commonly shared information with others whom they perceived to be successful, and reciprocal relationships were more common among fishers of similar success. Furthermore, fishers more central in networks had more sources of incoming information through social relationships, shared information with fewer peers, and were more successful than those who were less central. We conclude that engaging in information-sharing networks can provide benefits for Northumberland fishers, although advantages gained through social networks may not be equally distributed. Although information-sharing networks may contribute to fishing success, i.e., high lobster landings, these outcomes may not be compatible with long-term fisheries management objectives. Nevertheless, understanding the social dynamics of information sharing can help inform management strategies by identifying central fishers in information-sharing networks, who have access to a range of information on others' fishing behavior. Such fishers may be able to assist managers in collecting information on the distribution of fishing opportunities, the state of the fishery, and the ways in which fishers use their knowledge to adapt to change and management interventions.
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Social learning is increasingly becoming a normative goal in natural resource management and policy. However, there remains little consensus over its meaning or theoretical basis. There are still considerable differences in understanding of the concept in the literature, including a number of articles published in Ecology & Society. Social learning is often conflated with other concepts such as participation and proenvironmental behavior, and there is often little distinction made between individual and wider social learning. Many unsubstantiated claims for social learning exist, and there is frequently confusion between the concept itself and its potential outcomes. This lack of conceptual clarity has limited our capacity to assess whether social learning has occurred, and if so, what kind of learning has taken place, to what extent, between whom, when, and how. This response attempts to provide greater clarity on the conceptual basis for social learning. We argue that to be considered social learning, a process must: (1) demonstrate that a change in understanding has taken place in the individuals involved; (2) demonstrate that this change goes beyond the individual and becomes situated within wider social units or communities of practice; and (3) occur through social interactions and processes between actors within a social network. A clearer picture of what we mean by social learning could enhance our ability to critically evaluate outcomes and better understand the processes through which social learning occurs. In this way, it may be possible to better facilitate the desired outcomes of social learning processes.
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There is increasing emphasis on the need for effective ways of sharing knowledge to enhance environmental management and sustainability. Knowledge exchange (KE) are processes that generate, share and/or use knowledge through various methods appropriate to the context, purpose, and participants involved. KE includes concepts such as sharing, generation, coproduction, comanagement, and brokerage of knowledge. This paper elicits the expert knowledge of academics involved in research and practice of KE from different disciplines and backgrounds to review research themes, identify gaps and questions, and develop a research agenda for furthering understanding about KE. Results include 80 research questions prefaced by a review of research themes. Key conclusions are: (1) there is a diverse range of questions relating to KE that require attention; (2) there is a particular need for research on understanding the process of KE and how KE can be evaluated; and (3) given the strong interdependency of research questions, an integrated approach to understanding KE is required. To improve understanding of KE, action research methodologies and embedding evaluation as a normal part of KE research and practice need to be encouraged. This will foster more adaptive approaches to learning about KE and enhance effectiveness of environmental management.
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In order to strengthen biological and social success of community-based marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Philippines, many organizations have begun instituting MPA networks. In the Central Visayas Region, Coastal Conservation and Education Foundation and Fisheries for Improved Sustainable Harvest are implementing socioecological networking initiatives. Educational programs, employing diverse methods such as cross visits and community MPA monitoring, are integral components of these projects. This article analyzes the relationship between education, information diffusion, and standard measures of MPA success (e.g., MPA rule compliance and fish abundance) in communities participating in these networks. Surveys were conducted with 13 individuals per community in 36 communities. Statistical tests reveal that the presence of a clear MPA leader, participation in cross visits, and presence of community environmental education programs were the strongest predictors of social and biological MPA success. Formal education programs (e.g., management committee member trainings) independent of other processes did not demonstrate strong statistical relationships with MPA success. Overall, the findings of this study demonstrate the current and potential benefits and efficacy of education programs for communities in MPA networks. When linked to a strong infrastructure for information diffusion, education programs have the potential to increase both biological and social MPA success.
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This article contributes to understanding about the potential and limitations of social learning for collaborative natural resource management. Participants in a deliberative planning process involving a state agency and local communities developed common purpose and collaborative relationships, two requisites of comanagement. Eight process characteristics fostered social learning: open communication, diverse participation, unrestrained thinking, constructive conflict, democratic structure, multiple sources of knowledge, extended engagement, and facilitation. Social learning is necessary but not sufficient for collaborative management. Other requisites for comanagement, including capacity, appropriate processes, appropriate structures, and supportive policies, are necessary to sustain joint action.
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Various management approaches have been proposed to address the alarming depletion of marine coastal resources. Prominent among them are community-based management and the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). The overall poor performance of MPAs can be traced to a failure to effectively include local communities in the design and implementation of relevant measures. Recent efforts have incorporated aspects of community-based management into a hybrid form of management, which ideally builds upon existing local management practices. A key challenge lies in the development of appropriate frameworks that allow for the successful participation of local communities in management. A review of studies on MPA design and community-based marine resource management and fieldwork observations provides suggestions on how to address current socioeconomic shortcomings in MPA design and implementation, successfully involving local communities in order to provide a better local basis for effective larger MPA networks. A combination of MPA tools as the formal frame and community-based natural resource management as the adaptive core that recognizes local communities as allies, not aliens, is needed to develop successful conservation approaches.
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We describe five examples of how, by ignoring fishers’ ecological knowledge (FEK), marine researchers and resource managers may put fishery resources at risk, or unnecessarily compromise the welfare of resource users. Fishers can provide critical information on such things as interannual, seasonal, lunar, diel, tide-related and habitat-related differences in behaviour and abundance of target species, and on how these influence fishing strategies. Where long-term data sets are unavailable, older fishers are also often the only source of information on historical changes in local marine stocks and in marine environmental conditions. FEK can thus help improve management of target stocks and rebuild marine ecosystems. It can play important roles in the siting of marine protected areas and in environmental impact assessment. The fact that studying FEK does not meet criteria for acceptable research advanced by some marine biologists highlights the inadequacy of those criteria.
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Social learning approaches have become a prominent focus in studies related to sustainable agriculture. In order to better understand the potential of social learning for more sustainable development, the present study assessed the processes, effects and facilitating elements of interaction related to social learning in the context of Swiss soil protection and the innovative ‘From Farmer - To Farmer’ project. The study reveals that social learning contributes to fundamental transformations of patterns of interactions. However, the study also demonstrates that a learning-oriented understanding of sustainable development implies including analysis of the institutional environments in which the organizations of the individual representatives of face-to-face-based social learning processes are operating. This has shown to be a decisive element when face-to-face-based learning processes of the organisations’ representatives are translated into organisational learning. Moreover, the study revealed that this was achieved not directly through formalisation of new lines of institutionalised cooperation but by establishing links in a ‘boundary space’ trying out new forms of collaboration, aiming at social learning and co-production of knowledge. It is argued that further research on social learning processes should give greater emphasis to this intermediary level of ‘boundary spaces’.
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Emerging evidence for the success on farms of resource-conserving technologies and practices must not tempt agricultural professionals into making prescriptions about what constitutes sustainable agriculture. Sustainability is a complex and contested concept, and so precise definitions are impossible. The dominant scientific paradigm of positivism has served us well over three to four centuries, but it is not well suited to contexts where uncertainties are high, and problems are open to interpretation. Many methodological and philosophical alternatives to positivism have arisen from both the “hard” and “soft” sciences. These indicate that new understanding and solutions can only arise with wide public and scientific participation. But the term “participation” has become fashionable with many different interpretations, some hindering rather than supporting sustainability. New systems of learning are needed, using participatory methods and criteria for trustworthiness. These have profound implications for agricultural professionals, who must now actively create a whole new professionalism.
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Anecdotally it is often said that fishers are the best inventors of marine conservation technologies. In this paper I describe case studies of Turtle Excluder Devices (TEDs) and dolphin conservation technology, offering empirical evidence that fishers are successful inventors of marine conservation technology. I describe the Local Inventor Effect, in which adoption of a technology is disproportionately high in the geographic area near the inventor’s home. In one case, the adoption of a local invention was 600% higher than that of the next most popular device. Further, I present the Successful Inventor Profile for inventors of marine conservation technologies. This profile consists of three characteristics (1) a successful conservation technology inventor will have extensive experience relevant to the problem and potential solutions, (2) he or she will have extensive experience in fabrication, and (3) he or she will have the ability and tendency to employ mental and/or physical models, to assemble and refine inventions.
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One billion people depend on seafood as their primary source of protein and 25% of the world's total animal protein comes from fisheries. Yet a third of fish stocks worldwide are overexploited or depleted. Using individual case studies, many have argued that community-based co-management should prevent the tragedy of the commons because cooperative management by fishers, managers and scientists often results in sustainable fisheries. However, general and multidisciplinary evaluations of co-management regimes and the conditions for social, economic and ecological success within such regimes are lacking. Here we examine 130 co-managed fisheries in a wide range of countries with different degrees of development, ecosystems, fishing sectors and type of resources. We identified strong leadership as the most important attribute contributing to success, followed by individual or community quotas, social cohesion and protected areas. Less important conditions included enforcement mechanisms, long-term management policies and life history of the resources. Fisheries were most successful when at least eight co-management attributes were present, showing a strong positive relationship between the number of these attributes and success, owing to redundancy in management regulations. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of prominent community leaders and robust social capital, combined with clear incentives through catch shares and conservation benefits derived from protected areas, for successfully managing aquatic resources and securing the livelihoods of communities depending on them. Our study offers hope that co-management, the only realistic solution for the majority of the world's fisheries, can solve many of the problems facing global fisheries.
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Collaborative learning is an innovation in public participation theory and practice. It is designed to address the complexity and controversy inherent in public land management by combining elements of systems methods and mediation/dispute management. Collaborative learning activities put more emphasis on experiential learning theory, systemic improvement, and constructive discourse than do typical public participation programs. Collaborative learning was used in a series of public meetings held as part of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area land management planning process. The final plan incorporated several ideas that emerged from the process, and a follow-up survey of participants found favorable impressions of the collaborative learning framework.
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"In this article, we focus on adaptive governance of social-ecological systems (SES) and, more specifically, on social factors that can enhance the fit between governance systems and ecosystems. The challenge lies in matching multilevel governance system, often characterized by fragmented organizational and institutional structures and compartmentalized and sectorized decision-making processes, with ecosystems characterized by complex interactions in time and space. The ability to create the right links, at the right time, around the right issues in multilevel governance systems is crucial for fostering responses that build social-ecological resilience and maintain the capacity of complex and dynamic ecosystems to generate services for human well-being. This is especially true in the face of uncertainty and during periods of abrupt change and reorganization. We draw on our earlier work in the Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR), in southern Sweden, to provide new insights on factors that can improve such linking. We focus especially on the bridging function in SES and the factors that constrain bridging in multilevel governance systems, and strategies used to overcome these. We present two features that seem critical for linking organizations dynamically across multiple levels: 1) the role of bridging organizations and 2) the importance of leadership. Bridging organizations and the bridging function can be vulnerable to disturbance, but there are sources of resilience for securing these key structures and functions in SES. These include social mechanisms for combining multiple sources of knowledge, building moral and political support in social networks, and having legal and financial support as part of the adaptive governance structure."
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"Fishers often rely on their social capital to cope with resource fluctuations by sharing information on the abundance and location of fish. Drawing on research in seven coastal fishing communities in Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico, we examine the effect of resource scarcity on the bonding, bridging, and linking social-capital patterns of fishers information-sharing networks. We found that: (1) fishers information sharing is activated in response to varying ecological conditions; (2) resource scarcity is an ambiguous indicator of the extent to which fishers share information on the abundance and location of fish within and between communities; (3) information sharing is based on trust and occurs through kinship, friendship, and acquaintance social relations; (4) friendship ties play a key and flexible role in fishers social networks within and between communities; (5) overall, the composition of fishers social networks follows a friendship>kinship>acquaintance order of importance; and (6) the function of social ties, internal conflict, and settlement histories moderate the effects of resource scarcity on fishers social capital. We conclude by arguing that the livelihoods of fishers from Loreto have adaptive capacity for dealing with fish fluctuations but little or no proactive resilience to address resource-management issues."
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"Meeting the desires of individuals while sustaining ecological 'public goods' is a central challenge in natural resources conservation. Indigenous communities routinely make common property decisions balancing benefits to individuals with benefits to their communities. Such traditional knowledge offers insight for conservation. Using surveys and field observations, this case study examines aspects of indigenous institutions and ecological knowledge used by rural Ecuadorians to manage a forest commons before and after interacting with two U.S.-based conservation NGOs: Earthwatch Institute and People Allied for Nature. The rural farming community of Loma Alta has legal property rights to a 6842-ha watershed in western Ecuador. This self-governing community curtailed destruction of their moist forest commons, but not without the influence of modern scientific ecological knowledge. When Earthwatch Institute scientists provided evidence that forest clearing would reduce water supply to the community, villagers quickly modified land allocation patterns and set rules of use in the forest establishing the first community-owned forest reserve in western Ecuador. This case demonstrates that synergy between traditional knowledge and western knowledge can result in sustaining both ecosystem services and biodiversity in a forest commons."
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Understanding the nature and role of experiential knowledge for environmental conservation is a necessary step towards understanding if it should be used and how it might be applied with other types of knowledge in an evidence-based approach. This paper describes the nature of experiential and expert knowledge. It then discusses the role of experiential knowledge as a complement to scientific knowledge and explains the interplay between experiential knowledge with conservation research and practice using a simple conceptual model of how individuals learn. There are five main conclusions: (1) because experiential knowledge will always play a role in decision-making, enhancing ability to learn from experiences (including research) will have a significant influence on the effectiveness of conservation outcomes; (2) while experiential knowledge is qualitatively very different from quantitative information, both are important and complementary; (3) some experiential knowledge can be expressed quantitatively, but experiential knowledge can be difficult to isolate as single facts or propositions and qualitative methods will therefore often be required to elicit experiential knowledge; (4) because each person's expertise is unique, when using experiential knowledge the extent of a person's experience and its relevance to a particular problem need to be specified; and (5) as with any form of knowledge, there are limitations to that derived from personal experience. Synthesis and communication of research is therefore essential to help prevent erroneous thinking and, where possible, experiential knowledge should be used in conjunction with other types of information to guide conservation actions. Endowment for Excellence Scholarship from The Australian National University.
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Systematic conservation assessment and conservation planning are two distinct fields of conservation science often confused as one and the same. Systematic conservation assessment is the technical, often computer-based, identification of priority areas for conservation. Conservation planning is composed of a systematic conservation assessment coupled with processes for development of an implementation strategy and stakeholder collaboration. The peer-reviewed conservation biology literature abounds with studies analyzing the performance of assessments (e.g., area-selection techniques). This information alone, however can never deliver effective conservation action; it informs conservation planning. Examples of how to translate systematic assessment outputs into knowledge and then use them for "doing" conservation are rare. South Africa has received generous international and domestic funding for regional conservation planning since the mid-1990s. We reviewed eight South African conservation planning processes and identified key ingredients of best practice for undertaking systematic conservation assessments in a way that facilitates implementing conservation action. These key ingredients include the design of conservation planning processes, skills for conservation assessment teams, collaboration with stakeholders, and interpretation and mainstreaming of products (e.g., maps) for stakeholders. Social learning institutions are critical to the successful operationalization of assessments within broader conservation planning processes and should include not only conservation planners but also diverse interest groups, including rural landowners, politicians, and government employees.
Article
International conservation organisations have invested considerable resources in fostering biodiversity conservation programs in the humid tropics, the most biologically diverse areas on earth. Recent approaches to conservation have centered on integrated conservation and development projects and participatory resource management programs, co-managed between governments and local communities. But these programs have had only mixed success and often suffer from insufficient quantity or quality of participation by local communities. We pose that participatory resource management is more likely to succeed when community members, 1) gain a global perspective on how their social, economic and environmental conditions compare with peer communities in other similar areas of the world, and thus better understand issues of relative scarcity and the benefits of sustainable resource management, and 2) engage as decision-makers at every stage of the conservation process up to reflective program evaluation. This paper examines the role of South-South exchanges as a tool to achieve these intermediate goals that ultimately foster more effective and participatory conservation and support sustainable local livelihoods. The data are extracted from the initiatives of the authors in two different environments - marine and coastal communities in Central America and the Caribbean, and lowland rainforest communities in the western Amazon of South America. We conclude that the exchanges are effective ways to build stakeholder comprehension about, and meaningful engagement in, resource management. South-South exchanges may also help build multi-local coalitions from various remote areas that together support biodiversity conservation at regional and global scales.
Article
Although inland and marine environments, their fisheries, fishery managers, and the realm-specific management approaches are often different, there are a surprising number of similarities that frequently go unrecognized. We contend that there is much to be gained by greater cross-fertilization and exchange of ideas and strategies between realms and the people who manage them. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of the potential or demonstrated benefits of working across aquatic boundaries for enhanced sustainable management of the world's fisheries resources. Examples include the need to (1) engage in habitat management and protection as the foundation for fisheries, (2) rethink institutional arrangements and management for open-access fisheries systems, (3) establish "reference points" and harvest control rules, (4) engage in integrated management approaches, (5) reap conservation benefits from the link to fish as food, and (6) reframe conservation and management of fish to better engage the public and industry. Cross-fertilization and knowledge transfer between realms could be realized using environment-independent curricula and symposia, joint scientific advisory councils for management, integrated development projects, and cross-realm policy dialogue. Given the interdependence of marine and inland fisheries, promoting discussion between the realms has the potential to promote meaningful advances in managing global fisheries.
Article
Community-based fisheries management (CBFM) strategies have been adopted in a variety of small-scale fisheries around the world. Within these management structures, leaders are increasingly regarded as essential for viable CBFM yet systematic analysis into the intricate mechanisms of leadership are limited. This paper aims to identify key knowledge gaps of leadership in CBFM by strategically reviewing research from fisheries and natural resource management, and from other sectors. The focus is on the interaction between leaders, their connections with and beyond their communities, and the context within which leaders function. Insights from over 30 case studies suggest previous work on leaders and leadership generally focused on relatively coarse-scale characteristics of leadership and the functions that leaders perform. Ecological and social context influence leaders׳ ability to help deliver successful CBFM. The personal and professional attributes of leaders themselves may be beneficial or inhibitory for CBFM depending on that context. It is therefore essential that future research builds on current insight in order to decipher the implications of contextual influences on local leadership and, by extension, the level of CBFM success.
Article
Experiential learning refers to contextually relevant knowledge acquired through "hands-on" problem solving, critical reflection, discussion, and decision-making. Experiential learning broadens, extends, and deepens the intellectual content of instruction by integrating theory and practice, increasing student motivation through the experience of applying knowledge, and encouraging students to develop their skills as independent scholars. In wildlife science there is growing recognition that wildlife professionals must retain basic theory and application of concepts while being capable of assimilating and critically processing information. In this paper we explore the role of experiential learning in helping students acquire these necessary skills and the mechanics of experiential learning. We describe the inherent benefits and limitations, lessons learned, assessment techniques, and recommendations for use. We also demonstrate how to incorporate experiential learning into a wildlife curriculum using a classroom concept from 2 Wildlife Techniques courses. Students responded favorably to experiential learning opportunities and rated these experiences highly. Although experiential learning might not be appropriate in all wildlife classes, if applied correctly it could improve retention, problem solving, and decision-making: skills necessary to succeed in wildlife management.
Article
Why pursue a social rather than a more familiar psychological theory of learning? 'To the extent that being human is a relational matter, generated in social living, historically, in social formations whose participants engage with each other as a condition and precondition for their existence, theories that conceive of learning as a special universal mental process impoverish and misrecognize it. My colleagues and I have been trying to convey out understanding of this claim for some years (e.g., Lave, 1988; Lave & Wenger, 1991) and I will try to develop the argument a little further here. There is another sort of reason for pursuing a theoretical perspective on the social nature of learning. Theories that reduce learning to individual mental capacity/activity in the last instance blame marginalized people for being marginal. Common theories of learning begin and end with individuals (though these days they often nod at "the social" or "the environment" in. between). Such theories are deeply concerned with individual differences, with notions of better and worse, more and less learning, and with comparison of these things across groups-of-individuals. Psychological theories of learning prescribe ideals and paths to excellence and identify the kinds of individuals (by no means all) who should arrive; the absence of movement away from some putatively common starting point becomes grounds for labeling others sub-normal. The logic that makes success exceptional but nonetheless characterizes lack of success as not normal won't do. It reflects and contributes to a politics by which disinherited and disenfranchised individuals, whether taken one at a time or in masses, are identified as the disabled, and thereby made responsible for their "plight" (e.g., McDermott, 1993). It seems imperative to explore ways of understanding learning that do not naturalize and underwrite divisions of social inequality in our society. A reconsideration of learning as a social, collective, rather than individual, psychological phenomenon offers the only way beyond the current state of affairs that I can envision at the present time.
Article
Calls for the increasing involvement of the industry in the governance of fisheries come at a time when fishermen feel estranged from the decision making process and confidence in the outcomes of policy making is low. Against the background of changing perspectives on fisheries management and an increasing emphasis on interactive learning as a social process, this paper examines the role of stakeholder forums in stimulating shared understanding of the issues confronting a range of stakeholders. Using four case studies from the UK, the analysis suggests that while interactive learning is almost always beneficial in terms of promoting better understanding, the achievement of tangible outcomes is likely to depend on duration of the exercise, the extent to which relations are close knit or at arms length, together with success in closing the gap between the early stages of reflection and the emergence of a shared forward vision.
Article
This article reports on the Learning Exchange Programme (LEP) model of capacity building for Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) professionals. The LEP model of capacity building involves international group-based exchange visits during which a structured program of experiential learning events is undertaken to meet specific capacity gaps. An application of the LEP model in Japan and the United Kingdom is presented and evaluated, which shows that while refinements could be identified, a group-based, tailored exchange model focused on filling specific capacity gaps is an effective model of capacity building for ICM.
Article
We describe the certification of the red rock lobster fishery of Mexico and the resulting empowerment of the fishing cooperatives. The Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification program recognizes sustainable fishing; the Mexican lobster is the first community-based fishery to be certified. Lobster is harvested by fishermen cooperatives that have limited access rights, organizational incentives, self-management ability, and investment in fixed and social capital. The lobster fishery represents effective co-management by government and cooperatives and MSC certification that leads to non-economic benefits, especially empowerment and community strengthening. MSC certification has had a positive impact on fishermen's cooperatives and gained international recognition for the Mexican fishery policy, with the possibility of increased renewal of fishermen's access rights. We argue that co-management and community-based decision-making addresses the issue of fish sustainability. The benefits of MSC certification could not be repeated in other fisheries in Mexico, where fishermen do not share strong management and community identity.
Article
To address biodiversity loss and secure livelihoods reliant on natural resources, environmental governance is increasingly focused on connecting local management to higher scales of policy and planning. Governance networks can foster cross-scale relations between actors for collective purposes. We examine a governance network of non-governmental organizations, government agencies, and local communities involved in adaptive co-management of coastal ecosystems in Solomon Islands. We use quantitative social network analysis to examine patterns of collaborative and knowledge-exchange relations among agencies. We examine network structure alongside qualitative data to understand the potential of the network to facilitate coordination and learning among management actors. We identify social networks that transcend the formal membership of the governance network. Cross-scale analysis highlights that network members are the only functional pathway for cross-scale knowledge-exchange and higher-level representation of local issues. We find midscale managers (e.g., provincial governments) are poorly connected. The governance network also provides the primary means for knowledge-exchange between agencies and is important for multi-actor learning about best practice for conservation. Yet, we identify geographic, logistical, and institutional barriers and tradeoffs to multi-actor and cross-scale coordination and learning.
Article
The social and economic importance of small-scale fisheries is frequently under-valued, and they are rarely effectively managed. There is now growing consensus on how these fisheries could be managed for sustainability and to minimize the risks of crossing undesirable thresholds. Using a concept developed in health care, these approaches have been referred to as primary fisheries management. By encouraging the use of best-available information in a precautionary way, the approaches will facilitate sustainable use and should therefore be encouraged, but they accept high scientific and implementation uncertainties as unavoidable because of limited management and enforcement resources and capacity. It is important to recognize that this limitation will result in social costs, because application of a precautionary approach in the face of high uncertainties will require forgoing potential sustainable benefits. Acceptance of primary fisheries management as a final and sufficient goal could therefore add a further constraint on the possibility of fishing communities escaping the poverty trap. Primary fisheries management should be seen as a first and minimum target for fisheries where there is currently no or inadequate management, but the longer-term goal should still be well informed and adaptive management that strives for optimal benefits, referred to here as tertiary management.
Article
Over a period of some 20 years, different aspects of co-management (the sharing of power and responsibility between the government and local resource users) have come to the forefront. The paper focuses on a selection of these: knowledge generation, bridging organizations, social learning, and the emergence of adaptive co-management. Co-management can be considered a knowledge partnership. Different levels of organization, from local to international, have comparative advantages in the generation and mobilization of knowledge acquired at different scales. Bridging organizations provide a forum for the interaction of these different kinds of knowledge, and the coordination of other tasks that enable co-operation: accessing resources, bringing together different actors, building trust, resolving conflict, and networking. Social learning is one of these tasks, essential both for the co-operation of partners and an outcome of the co-operation of partners. It occurs most efficiently through joint problem solving and reflection within learning networks. Through successive rounds of learning and problem solving, learning networks can incorporate new knowledge to deal with problems at increasingly larger scales, with the result that maturing co-management arrangements become adaptive co-management in time.
Book
Most writing on sociological method has been concerned with how accurate facts can be obtained and how theory can thereby be more rigorously tested. In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss address the equally Important enterprise of how the discovery of theory from data--systematically obtained and analyzed in social research--can be furthered. The discovery of theory from data--grounded theory--is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. In Part I of the book, "Generation Theory by Comparative Analysis," the authors present a strategy whereby sociologists can facilitate the discovery of grounded theory, both substantive and formal. This strategy involves the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups. In Part II, The Flexible Use of Data," the generation of theory from qualitative, especially documentary, and quantitative data Is considered. In Part III, "Implications of Grounded Theory," Glaser and Strauss examine the credibility of grounded theory. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is directed toward improving social scientists' capacity for generating theory that will be relevant to their research. While aimed primarily at sociologists, it will be useful to anyone Interested In studying social phenomena--political, educational, economic, industrial-- especially If their studies are based on qualitative data.
Article
Summary Social capital and leadership characteristics are important in resource management. We present a case study of a fishing community showing high levels of social capital quantified through social network analysis, but low willingness to report rule breaking. Furthermore, identified key individuals possess few links to financial institutions and important markets. These findings may, individually or in combination, explain the lack of common initiatives to deal with the overexploitation of fisheries. Alternative hypotheses are also discussed and include homogeneity among key individuals leading to poor recognition of the problem of changing ecological conditions, and the structural characteristics of their relational network, which reveal one person in a very influential position.
Article
The world's grasslands and large migratory populations of wildlife have been disproportionately lost or disrupted by human activities, yet are poorly represented in protected areas. The major threats they face are land subdivision and the loss of large-scale dynamic processes such as wildlife migrations and fire. The large-scale dynamical processes and ubiquity of livestock economies and cultures across the grasslands calls for an integrated ecosystem approach to conservation to make up the shortfall in protected-area coverage. Ranchers and pastoralists will be more inclined to adopt an integrated landscape approach to conservation if they also see the threats to wildlife and grassland ecosystems as affecting their livelihoods and way of life. We arranged a series of learning exchanges between African and American pastoralists, ranchers, scientists, and conservationists aimed at building the collaboration and consensus needed to conserve grasslands at a landscape level. There was broad agreement on the threat of land fragmentation to livelihoods, wildlife, and grasslands. The exchanges also identified weaknesses in prevailing public, private, and community modes of ownership in halting fragmentation. New collaborative approaches were explored to attain the benefits of privatization while keeping the landscape open. The African-U.S. exchanges showed that learning exchanges can anticipate over-the-horizon problems and speed up the feedback loops that underlie adaptive management and build social and ecological resilience.
The scope of fisheries learning exchanges for natural resources management
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N. Pilcher, Malaysian Fisheries Delegation on TEDs Site Visit to US. Retrieved March 31, 2013, (from) 〈http://saveourseas.com/projects/sea_turtles_my/ma laysian_fisheries_delegation_on_teds_site_visit_to_us〉 2012.