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Abstract

Cooperation is usually described as a human tendency to act jointly that involves helping, sharing, and acting prosocially. Nonetheless clues of cooperative actions can be found also in non-humans animals, as described in the first section of the present work. Even if such behaviors have been conventionally attributed to the research of immediate benefits within the animal world, some recent experimental evidence highlighted that, in highly social species, the effects of cooperative actions on others' wellbeing may constitute a reward per se, thus suggesting that a strictly economic perspective can't exhaust the meaning of cooperative decisions in animals. Here we propose, in the second section, that a deeper explanation concerning cognitive and emotional abilities in both humans and animals should be taken into account. Finally, the last part of the paper will be devoted to the description of synchronization patterns in humans within complex neuroscientific experimental paradigms, such as hyperscanning.

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... Indeed, a selfless gift is considered as representative of a specific prosocial behavior, able to strength individuals' sense of reciprocity and cooperative ties 20-25 , increases inter-agents' behavioral coordination through the implementation of specific neurophysiological modulation, such as brain-to-brain coupling mechanisms that occur when both individuals experience the same moods and perceptions [26][27][28][29][30] . As demonstrated by previous studies, joint action and prosocial conditions development increases inter-agents' inter-cerebral synchronization 31 , improving individuals' behavioral and cognitive efficiency 29,30,[32][33][34][35][36][37] . In particular, this increase of inter-cerebral synchronization occurs in specific cerebral areas, such as frontal regions that are the most implicated in social, prosocial and cooperative mechanisms 38-40 . ...
... In particular, functional connectivity gives information about the synchronic and diachronic aspects, measured by cross-correlations or coherence, underlying individuals' interaction 33 related to an increase of intra-brain and inter-brain connections that allow the creation of implicit coupling mechanisms 39,42,55 and interpersonal coupling dynamics 47 . The advantages of using hyperscanning technique to obtain information about inter-brain connectivity, interpersonal coupling and social understanding processes 32 have been demonstrated by different studies that have investigated individuals' cerebral synchronization underlying different joint actions moments such as cooperation 32,37 and empathic and prosocial behaviors 30,56 . ...
... In addition, concerning behavioral responses, we expected to observe an increase in accuracy following the gift exchange. Indeed, as shown by previous studies, the increase in cooperation, coordination and synchronization provided by the implementation of prosocial behavior improves behavioral and cognitive efficiency [31][32][33][59][60][61] . ...
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The gift exchange represents a moment that characterizes interpersonal interactions. In particular, research in psychological and neuroscientific fields aimed to observe the social function of gift exchange. Specifically, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of prosocial behavior, experienced during gift exchange, on individuals’ cognitive performance and brain activity. To this aim, behavioral performance and neural activity of 15 dyads of participants, with a consolidated friendship, were collected during the execution of an attentional cooperative task before or after a gift exchange. Individuals’ brain activity was recorded through the use of Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) in hyperscanning. Results showed an increase of perceived cooperation and cognitive performance, in terms of accuracy (ACC), after gift exchange. The increase of interpersonal tuning and cooperation was also shown by neural activity with an increase of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) intra-brain and inter-brain connectivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) following the gift exchange. Moreover, from ConIndex analysis emerged an increase of inter-brain connectivity compared to intra-brain in DLPFC area. The present study, therefore, highlights how prosocial behavior can have positive effects on cognitive performance improvement and interpersonal relationships and neural coordination strengthen, increasing intra and inter-brain connectivity mechanisms.
... Moreover, the fronto-parietal mirror neuron and other brain structures, such as the posterior inferior frontal gyrus, the precentral gyrus, and the rostral part of the inferior parietal lobule, appear to be involved in mirroring mechanisms, (Lepage & Théoret, 2006) and socially relevant functions and processes, such as empathy (Carr, Iacoboni, Dubeaut, Mazziotta, & Lenzi, 2003;Molnar-Szakacs et al., 2007), intention comprehension (Iacoboni et al., 2005;Molnar-Szakacs et al., 2007), and communication (Iacoboni et al., 2005;Molnar-Szakacs et al., 2007), leading individuals involved in the exchange to develop greater resonance and interbrain coupling mechanisms Lindenberger, Li, Gruber, & Müller, 2009;Vanutelli, Nandrino, & Balconi, 2016). Specifically, interbrain coupling or connectivity can be defined as the correlation between two time series (Friston, 2011) which reflects the agents' neuronal activations (Balconi, Crivelli, & Vanutelli, 2017;Chaudhary, Hall, DeCerce, Rey, & Godavarty, 2011) providing information about neuropsychological events spatially remote. ...
... Specifically, interbrain coupling or connectivity can be defined as the correlation between two time series (Friston, 2011) which reflects the agents' neuronal activations (Balconi, Crivelli, & Vanutelli, 2017;Chaudhary, Hall, DeCerce, Rey, & Godavarty, 2011) providing information about neuropsychological events spatially remote. In particular, interbrain connectivity, allowing the simultaneous recording of brain activity during joint actions execution, provides information about interpersonal coupling dynamics, mechanisms of social comprehension Knoblich, Butterfill, & Sebanz, 2011) and synchronic mechanisms underlying gestural communication (Balconi & Pagani, 2015;Hasson, Ghazanfar, Galantucci, Garrod, & Keysers, 2012;Liu, Saito, & Oi, 2015;Vanutelli et al., 2016). ...
... In light of this evidence, in the present study, in order to investigate the brain correlates underlying the observation of different positive and negative types of gestures (affective, social, and informative), the neural responses of encoders and decoders were recorded through the use of fNIRS in hyperscanning, that is a very effective neuroimaging technique for the recording of individuals' neural activity underlying emotional or social processes (Balconi & Cortesi, 2016;Balconi, Vanutelli, & Grippa, 2017;Crivelli et al., 2018) under natural or maximally ecological conditions (Balconi & Molteni, 2016;, providing information on interbrain tuning and "resonance" and implicit coupling mechanisms (Balconi, Gatti, & Vanutelli, 2018;Vanutelli et al., 2016). ...
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Introduction Gestures characterize individuals' nonverbal communicative exchanges, taking on different functions. Several types of research in the neuroscientific field have been interested in the investigation of the neural correlates underlying the observation and implementation of different gestures categories. In particular, different studies have focused on the neural correlates underlying gestures observation, emphasizing the presence of mirroring mechanisms in specific brain areas, which appear to be involved in gesture observation and planning mechanisms. Materials and methods Specifically, the present study aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms, through the use of functional Near‐Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), underlying the observation of affective, social, and informative gestures with positive and negative valence in individuals' dyads composed by encoder and decoder. The variations of oxygenated (O2Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin concentrations of both individuals were collected simultaneously through the use of hyperscanning paradigm, allowing the recording of brain responsiveness and interbrain connectivity. Results The results showed a different brain activation and an increase of interbrain connectivity according to the type of gestures observed, with a significant increase of O2Hb brain responsiveness and interbrain connectivity and a decrease of HHb brain responsiveness for affective gestures in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and for social gestures in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG). Furthermore, concerning the valence of the observed gestures, an increase of O2Hb brain activity and interbrain connectivity was observed in the left DLPFC for positive affective gestures compared to negative ones. Conclusion In conclusion, the present study showed different brain responses underlying the observation of different types of positive and negative gestures. Moreover, interbrain connectivity calculation allowed us to underline the presence of mirroring mechanisms involved in gesture‐specific frontal regions during gestures observation and action planning.
... Cooperative tasks can reflect the human tendency to act jointly that involves helping, sharing and acting prosocially (Vanutelli et al., 2016) and that can influence the immediate and future behavior of the other people involved in the exchange. A large amount of previous studies has shown how cooperation increases shared performance by producing common behavioral effects, such as an improvement in cognitive performance (Balconi and Vanutelli, 2017;Vanutelli et al., 2017;Balconi et al., 2018). ...
... Two different procedures were performed: 'early' that comprised block 1 (a control condition), gift exchange and then blocks 2 and 3, while 'late' comprised block 1, block 2, gift exchange and block 3. Blocks 1, 2 and 3 involve a cooperative task, which consisted of a game of selective attention. modified by a previous computerized activity (a single person, Balconi and Pagani, 2015; or of two interacting participants cooperating, (Vanutelli et al., 2016Balconi and Vanutelli, 2016a;Balconi et al., 2018); or competing (Balconi et al., 2018)) without gif exchange. In the present version of the task, we opted for the cooperative condition with a specific gift exchange. ...
... As revealed by previous literature, in fact, the emotional contagion and the shared representations triggered by empathic attitudes function as positive feedbacks for the promotion of the implementation of future prosocial behavior (Vanutelli et al., 2016). Thus, it appears that expressing gratitude is fundamental for reciprocity and commitment, even if it does not guarantee a useful return benefit. ...
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Recently, different psychological studies have been interested in identifying the factors that regulate the development and maintenance of long-lasting interpersonal and social relationships. Specifically, the present research explored the link between gifts exchange, gratitude, and cognitive effects. The behavioral performance and neural activity of 32 participants were recorded during a cooperative game to be played before and after gifts exchange. Specifically, participants had to perform the task coupled with a dear friend. Half of the couples were asked to exchange a gift before the task performance; the other half was asked to exchange a gift halfway through the task performance. For hemodynamic brain responses, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used. Results showed that an increase in cognitive performance occurred after the exchange of gifts, with improved accuracy and lower response times in task performance. Regarding hemodynamic responses, an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) was detected, especially in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) following the gift exchange. Furthermore, it was observed that gift exchange before the beginning of the task increased the performance level. The present study provides a significant contribution to the identification of those factors that enable the increased cognitive performance based on cooperative relationships.
... Interestingly, PL can be used as an index to infer the intensity of the interaction between participants (Hatfield et al. 1994). One of the most studied kind of social interaction has been cooperation, which engages two or more individuals during shared actions with common behavioral effects (Balconi and Vanutelli 2017a;Vanutelli et al. 2016). Some previous studies assessed the physiological linkage within significant relationship such as parent-infant dyads. ...
... For example, it has been found that some measures of behavioral and physiological synchrony covaries with infant selfregulation, cognitive and theory-of-mind abilities (Barrett 2006). Indeed, it has been shown that through this very first experience of dyadic tuning, infants learn to co-construct adaptive emotional states and to be part of social exchange (Feldman 2003;Tronick 1989;Vanutelli et al. 2016). Similarly, physiological linkage has been related to couples' bond and affective exchange (Helm et al. 2012) and with patienttherapist interactions (Marci et al. 2007). ...
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Previous work showed that, when we interact with other people, an alignment of psychophysiological measures occur as a clue about the intensity of the social interaction. Available evidence highlighted increase autonomic synchrony, known as physiological linkage, during intense dyadic situations, like conflictual conversations within romantic couples, friends, or therapeutic settings. Starting from the idea that higher physiological linkage could support better performance and be correlated with approach attitudes (Behavioral Activation System, BAS), in the present study a conflictual situation was proposed by making subjects compete during an attentional task and stressing the importance to win as a measure of future professional success. Autonomic activity (electrodermal: skin conductance level and response: SCL, SCR; and cardiovascular indices: heart rate: HR) was recorded during the task, where subjects received trial-related feedbacks on their performance, and an average score halfway which (fictitiously) assessed their position in terms of accuracy and reaction times with respect to the opponent. In parallel, behavioral inhibition and activation have been assessed by means of the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System Questionnaire (BIS/BAS). 32 subjects coupled in 16 dyads were recruited. Intra-subject analyses revealed that, after the general evaluation assessing a winning condition, the behavioral performance improved and the electrodermal response increased. Also, correlational analyses showed a relation between BAS, and specifically BAS reward, with SCR. Inter-subject analyses showed higher synchrony in SCR and HR after the feedback. Such results confirm the increased synchronic effect after a highly conflictual condition, and the presence of a relation between subjective performance, approach-related motivations, and physiological linkage.
... Specifically, the body synchronization that is experienced between the inter-agents may be due to the sharing of positive emotional experiences during gift exchange (Chauhan et al., 2008;Balconi and Canavesio, 2013). Emotions, indeed, improve behavioral, cognitive, and affective individuals' synchronization representing the basis of prosocial behavior (Balconi et al., 2011;Balconi and Bortolotti, 2012;Vanutelli et al., 2016Vanutelli et al., , 2017Balconi and Vanutelli, 2017a). ...
... Specifically, the execution of the three blocks required the participants to cooperate during the development of a selective attention task modified by a previous computerized version (Balconi and Pagani, 2015;Balconi and Vanutelli, 2016;Vanutelli et al., 2016Vanutelli et al., , 2017Balconi et al., 2018Balconi et al., , 2019aBalconi et al., ,b, 2020. The task required subjects to memorize a target stimulus (triangle or circle and green or blue) that they should have subsequently recognized among others by pressing the right or left key of the computer keyboard. ...
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Recently, social neurosciences have been interested in the investigation of neurophysiological responses related to the experience of positive emotions, such as gratitude, during social interactions. Specifically, the aim of the present research was to investigate whether gratitude related to gift exchange could favor cooperative behavior and bond construction, by improving behavioral and autonomic responsivity. At this regard, the autonomic synchronization and behavioral performance of 16 friends coupled in dyads were recorded during a joint attentional task. Gift exchange could be occurred either at the beginning or in the middle of the task. For the recording of simultaneous autonomic activity [heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL)], a hyperscanning biofeedback paradigm was used. Intra-subjective analysis showed an increase in behavioral [accuracy (ACC)] and autonomic responses (HR and SCL) when the gift exchange took place at the beginning of the task rather than in the middle. Moreover, inter-subjective analysis revealed an increase in behavioral performance and greater autonomic synchronization of HR index. The present research, therefore, shows how gratitude and trust experienced following gift exchange can modify participants’ reactions by creating a shared cognition and the adoption of joint strategies.
... Six papers discussed one methodology [48][49][50][51][52][53] and four papers reviewed multiple modalities [12,[54][55][56]. The applications discussed were joint action [57,58], social neuroscience [59,60], social interaction [13,[61][62][63][64], and interpersonal coordination [65,66]. Finally, this review draws its conclusions from the empirical data collected from hyperscanning experimental studies. ...
... Modality fMRI family [48] fNIRS family [52] EEG family [49][50][51]54,67] Multimodality [12,[54][55][56] Application Joint action [57,68] Social neuroscience [59,60] Social interaction [11,[61][62][63][64] Interpersonalcoordination [65,66] Other General hyperscanning [46,47] ...
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The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive review on hyperscanning research (measuring brain activity simultaneously from more than two people interacting) using an explicit systematic method, the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Data were searched from IEEE Xplore, PubMed, Engineering Village, Web of Science and Scopus databases. Inclusion criteria were journal articles written in English from 2000 to 19 June 2019. A total of 126 empirical studies were screened out to address three specific questions regarding the neuroimaging method, the application domain, and the experiment paradigm. Results showed that the most used neuroimaging method with hyperscanning was magnetoencephalography/electroencephalography (MEG/EEG; 47%), and the least used neuroimaging method was hyper-transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) (1%). Applications in cognition accounted for almost half the studies (48%), while educational applications accounted for less than 5% of the studies. Applications in decision-making tasks were the second most common (26%), shortly followed by applications in motor synchronization (23%). The findings from this systematic review that were based on documented, transparent and reproducible searches should help build cumulative knowledge and guide future research regarding inter-brain neural synchrony during social interactions, that is, hyperscanning research.
... Humans have been evolutionarily advantaged by their tendency to form social bonds with each other [54] and with other species [55]. Robots as designed rather than evolved entities will lack the mammalian heritage of understandings of moral conduct embodied in neurobiologically embedded understandings of kinship, empathy, and fair play [56], as well as the epigenetic influences upon their expression governed by developmental and social factors in upbringing. Without these, ensuring safeguards are in place using biomimetic and biohybrid means to govern their moral decision-making will prove challenging. ...
... Should sexbots be protected by being required to meet a threshold for understanding sex and thus being able to consent to it? The legal test for being able to consent to sex is deliberately set fairly low on the grounds that humans have a right to engage in sexual activity [56], yet whether and if so which rights should extend to sexbots is still to be agreed upon [19,23,60,66]. Thus, resolving sexbots' legal standing as persons, animals or things, or as unique entities is of paramount importance in deciding ethical criteria for how humans might permissibly treat and customize robots who are sentient, self-aware sexbots. ...
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Sex robot scholarship typically focuses on customizable simulacra, lacking sentience and self-awareness but able to simulate and stimulate human affection. This paper argues that future humans will want more: sex robots customized to possess sentience and self-awareness [henceforth, sexbots], capable of mutuality in sexual and intimate relationships. Adopting a transdisciplinary critical methodology focused on the legal, ethical and design implications of sexbots, it assesses implications of sexbots’ non-mammalian subjectivity, balancing designed-in autonomy and control, decision-making capacity and consent, sexual preferences and desire, legal and moral status, vulnerability and contrasts between mammalian and non-mammalian moral decision-making. It explores theoretical, ethical, and pragmatic aspects of the tensions involved in creating sentient beings for utilitarian purposes, concluding that sexbots, customized manufactured humanlike entities with the capacity for thought and suffering, have a consequent claim to be considered moral and legal persons, and may become the first conscious robots. Customizing sexbots thus exemplifies many profound ethical, legal and design issues. The contradictions inherent in their inconsistent ethical and legal status as both manufactured things and sentient, self-aware entities who are customized to be our intimate partners augments existing human/animal scholars’ call for a new theoretical framework which supersedes current person/thing dichotomies governing human responsibilities to other sentient beings. The paper concludes that the ethical limits and legal implications of customizable humanlike robots must be addressed urgently, proposing a duty on humans as creators to safeguard the interests and minimize the suffering of created sentient beings before technological advances pre-empt this possibility.
... Dalam sesi ketiga, pastor Joey mengupas dengan brilian tentang kunci kemerdekaan spiritual. Beliau mulai dengan mengatakan bahwa kata kleptes yang merupakan akar dari kata klepto juga muncul dalam Injil, yaitu di Matius 6:19-21 19 "Janganlah kamu mengumpulkan harta di bumi; di bumi ngengat dan karat merusakkannya dan pencuri membongkar serta mencurinya. ...
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Salah satu permasalahan utama dalam bidang ekonomi adalah bagaimana menafsirkan dan menjabarkan Pasal 33 UUD 1945. Telah banyak upaya untuk melakukan Judicial Review terhadap berbagai Undang-undang yang berhubungan dengan Pasal 33 tersebut. Artikel ini juga merupakan salah satu upaya untuk merefleksikan Pasal 33 tersebut dalam perspektif altruisme dan Etika Kristen, khususnya berhubungan dengan konsep keramahan (hospitalitas). Pasal 33 dari UUD 1945 yang merupakan kontribusi pemikiran ekonomi bapak bangsa kita, antara lain bermuatan pernyataan bahwa: "Perekonomian disusun sebagai usaha bersama berdasar atas asas kekeluargaan." Beberapa ekonom menafsirkan bahwa asas kekeluargaan ini mengindikasikan "solidaritas mekanis" yang dianggap sudah ketinggalan zaman. Benarkah demikian? Dalam makalah ini, kami mengajukan suatu interpretasi ulang atas ayat tersebut berdasarkan konsep yang kami usulkan untuk disebut sebagai ekonomi kesetiakawanan atau "ekonomi hospitalitas." Beberapa hal yang kami pertimbangkan dalam usulan ini antara lain adalah (1) manfaat neurosains dari memberi dan bekerjasama (cooperation), (2) tradisi lokal yang memberikan nilai tinggi terhadap persahabatan, (3) budaya keramahan, (4) pendekatan anti-utilitarianisme, (5) konsep identitas relasional.
... Thus, when dealing with the neurophysiological data underlying such joint behaviors, the passage of time is of main interest. Indeed, when calculating inter-brain connectivity, the main goal is to establish the presence of a consistency in the time course of two (or more) time series [8,13,15]. ...
Article
Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a relatively new neuroimagingtechnique adequate and useful for exploring neural activity in social contexts involving humaninteractions. Compared to functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), fNIRS is easy-to-usesafe, noninvasive, silent, relatively low cost and portable, and applicable to subjects of all ages, thusresulting in a good option for ecological studies involving humans in their real-life context.Moreover, by using hyperscanning technique, fNIRS allows recording the hemodynamic cerebralactivity of two interacting subjects in an ecological context or during a shared performance. Thus,moving from a simple analysis about each subject’s neural response during joint actions towardsmore complex computations makes possible to investigate brain synchrony, that is the if and howone’s brain activity is related to that of another interacting partner simultaneously recorded. Here,we discuss how connectivity analyses, with respect to both time and frequency domain procedures,permitted to deepen some aspects of inter-brain synchrony in relation to emotional closeness, and tohighlight how concurrent, cooperative actions can lead to interpersonal synchrony and bondconstruction.
... Also, it generally secures a benefit to all the actors involved. As a possible mediator of such processes, the capacity to perceive and infer others' affective states could be pivotal, from more basic resonance and mirroring abilities, toward the development of complex social exchange based on joint attention and synchronization (Baker et al., 2016;Balconi & Bortolotti, 2012;Liu, Saito, & Oi, 2015;Vanutelli, Nandrino, & Balconi, 2016). ...
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Introduction The neural activity in response to ineffective joint actions was explored in the present study. Subjects involved in a cooperative but frustrating task (poor performance as manipulated by an external feedback) were required to cooperate (T1) during an attentional task in a way to synchronize their responses and obtain better outcomes. Methods We manipulated their strategies by providing false feedbacks (T2) signaling the incapacity to create a synergy, which was reinforced by a general negative evaluation halfway through the game. A control condition was provided (no cooperation required, T0) as well as a check for possible learning effect (time series analysis). The effects of the feedback in modulating subjects' behavioral performance and electrocortical activity were explored by means of brain oscillations (delta, theta, alpha, beta) and autonomic activity (heart rate, HR; skin conductance activity, SCR). Results Results showed a specific pattern of behavioral, neural, and peripheral responses after the social feedback. In fact, within this condition, worse behavioral outcomes emerged, with longer response times with respect to the prefeedback one. In parallel, a specific right‐lateralized effect was observed over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), with increased delta and theta power compared to the previous condition. Moreover, increased SCR was observed with respect to the first part. Conclusions Two interpretations are put forward to explain the present findings: 1) the contribution of negative emotions in response to failing interactions or 2) a motivational disengagement toward goal‐oriented cooperation elicited by frustrating evaluations.
... Previous studies underlined the importance to explore cooperative interactions since, considering mankind social organization, it constitutes a source of positive social feedback. In fact, driven by empathic and prosocial concern, the satisfaction of affiliative, shared needs can often become a social reward per se [2]. Competition, on the other hand, stresses the relevance and salience of social comparison processes between the inter-agents that are involved in the task, and includes other psycho-social issues related, for example, to the adoption of social hierarchies as a landmark. ...
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Background Social behavior and interactions pervasively shape and influence our lives and relationships. Competition, in particular, has become a core topic in social neuroscience since it stresses the relevance and salience of social comparison processes between the inter-agents that are involved in a common task. The majority of studies, however, investigated such kind of social interaction via one-person individual paradigms, thus not taking into account relevant information concerning interdependent participants’ behavioral and neural responses. In the present study, dyads of volunteers participated in a hyperscanning paradigm and competed in a computerized attention task while their electrophysiological (EEG) activity and performance were monitored and recorded. Behavioral data and inter-brain coupling measures based on EEG frequency data were then computed and compared across different experimental conditions: a control condition (individual task, t0), a first competitive condition (pre-feedback condition, t1), and a second competitive condition following a positive reinforcing feedback (post-feedback condition, t2). Results Results showed that during competitive tasks participants’ performance was improved with respect to control condition (reduced response times and error rates), with a further specific improvement after receiving a reinforcing feedback. Concurrently, we observed a reduction of inter-brain functional connectivity (primarily involving bilateral prefrontal areas) for slower EEG frequency bands (delta and theta). Finally, correlation analyses highlighted a significant association between cognitive performance and inter-brain connectivity measures. Conclusions The present results may help identifying specific patterns of behavioral and inter-brain coupling measures associated to competition and processing of social reinforcements.
... Cooperative behavior is a model of social interaction that requires a coordinated actions between two or more inter-agents (Vanutelli, Nandrino, & Balconi, 2016). In previous studies it was found that cooperative tasks often improve the subjective performance and they simultaneously contribute to positively modify the subjective perception of social role (Decety, Jackson, Sommerville, Chaminade, & Meltzoff, 2004). ...
Article
Brain-to-brain coupling during cooperation is a core question of study on social interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural basis of interbrain cooperation and the cognitive performance underlying the execution of jointactions by using EEG coherence measures. Synchronicity of the cognitive variables (response times, RTs, and error rates, ERs) in response to an attentional task, intersubjective coherence analysis on EEG frequency bands, and correlational measures between cognitive and brain activity were considered during some steps of progressive reinforcing conditions. Fifteen couples of subjects performed an attentional task in eight temporal steps, stressing their good performance at the end of each step. The induced feedback affected both the cognitive performance and brain-to-brain coupling by increasing behavioral and brain synchronization when a positive feedback was furnished to the participants for their performance. Secondly, about the cortical contribution, high coherence effect was mainly observed when a positive reinforce was produced, but only for some low frequency bands within the prefrontal left area, compared to the right one. Thus, also a left lateralization effect was reportable. Finally, the cognitive and EEG coherence measures were shown to be correlated, with a significant similar trend anchored to the progressive feedback.
... Another important topic that has been considered in relation to gift and gratitude is cooperation. In fact, previous research already underlined that helping and cooperating with others represent an important social reward, even in the absence of a concrete and material repayment ( Vanutelli et al. 2016). ...
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Recent research in social neuroscience has shown how prosocial behavior can increase perceived self-efficacy, perception of cognitive abilitites and social interactions. The present research explored the effect of prosocial behavior, that is giving a gift during an interpersonal exchange, measuring the hyperscanning among two brains. The experiment aimed to analyze the behavioral performance and the brain-to-brain prefrontal neural activity of 16 dyads during a joint action consisting in a cooperative game, which took place in a laboratory setting controlled by an experimenter, to play before and after a gift exchange. Two different types of gift exchange were compared: experiential and material. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) was applied to record brain activity. Inter-brain connectivity was calculated before and after the gift exchange. In behavioral data, a behavioral performance increase was observed after gift exchange, with accuracy improvement and response times decrease. Regarding intra-brain analyses, an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin was detected, especially in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in both donor and receiver; and in the dorsal part of the premotor cortex (DPMC) in the donor. Moreover, as regards the gift type, greater activation in the DPLFC emerged in both the donor and the receiver after receiving an experiential gift. Finally, the results of the inter-brain connectivity analysis showed that after gift exchange, the donor and receiver brain activity was more synchronized in the DPMC and Frontal Eye Fields (FEF) areas. The present study provides a contribution to the identification of inter-brain functional connectivity when prosocial behaviors are played out.
... The construction of these joint actions involves higher cognitive and emotional mechanisms. As a possible fulcrum of such processes the capacity to perceive and infer others' affective states could be relevant, from more basic resonance and mirroring abilities, towards the development of complex social sharing based on joint attention and synchronization [1][2][3][4]. In other words, the higher the capacities to sync and infer the consequences of different actions on others' life are, the more frequent and complex the attempts to act cooperatively will be [5]. ...
Article
Purpose: Human life is connoted by sophisticated interactions that involve not only single individuals, but larger social groups composed by members interacting each other. Cooperation secures a benefit to all the people engaged as well as important behaviors like helping, sharing, and acting prosocially. But what happens when the joint actions are not effective? Materials and method: In the present study, we asked 24 participants paired in 12 dyads to cooperate during an attentional task in a way to synchronize their responses and obtain better outcomes. In addition we tested inter-brain and cognitive strategy similarities between subjects. Then, we frustrated their strategies by providing false feedbacks signalling the incapacity to create a synergy, which was reinforced by a general negative evaluation halfway through the task. The effects of the feedback inmodulating subjects behavioural performance and brain responsiveness were explored by means of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Results: Results showed a worsen performance after the negative feedback in the form of longer reaction times and a specifc pattern of brain activation involving th dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the superior frontal gyrus. The DLPFC showed increased O2Hb (oxy-haemoglobin) level after the feedback, compatible with the need for higher cognitive effort. In addition, fNIRS measures revealed a decreased inter-brain synchronicity in post-feedback condition for the dyad. Also, the representation of negative emotions in response to failing interactions was signalled by a right-lateralized effect. Conclusions: Results were interpreted at light of available knowledge on perceived self-efficacy and the implementation of common goals and strategies.
... Finally, considering inter-brain connectivity, we expected to observe an increase of inter-brain connectivity for the high and low-frequency bands in specific brain areas concerning gesture type and valence. Indeed, as demonstrated by different studies [29,58], during joint action, such as nonverbal communication, an increase of coordination and behavioral responses occurs between interagents' individuals, creating implicit coupling mechanisms [59]. ...
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Communication can be considered as a joint action that involves two or more individuals transmitting different information. In particular, non-verbal communication involves body movements used to communicate different information, characterized by the use of specific gestures. The present study aims to investigate the electrophysiological (EEG) correlates underlying the use of affective, social, and informative gestures during a non-verbal interaction between an encoder and decoder. From the results of the single brain and inter-brain analyses, an increase of frontal alpha, delta, and theta brain responsiveness and inter-brain connectivity emerged for affective and social gestures; while, for informative gestures, an increase of parietal alpha brain responsiveness and alpha, delta, and theta inter-brain connectivity was observed. Regarding the inter-agents’ role, an increase of frontal alpha activity was observed in the encoder compared to the decoder for social and affective gestures. Finally, regarding gesture valence, an increase of theta brain responsiveness and theta and beta inter-brain connectivity was observed for positive gestures on the left side compared to the right one. This study, therefore, revealed the function of the gesture type and valence in influencing individuals’ brain responsiveness and inter-brain connectivity, showing the presence of resonance mechanisms underlying gesture execution and observation.
... This seems to have occurred long after the split with chimpanzees, but it may not be limited to just Homo sapiens; it could have evolved in early Homo, or even the australopithecines. It seems likely that it is one of several cooperative strategies that form a continuum from Pan species to modern humans (Vanutelli et al. 2016). The willingness to cooperate in information-sharing is constrained by the sender's and receiver's dilemmas, which only our group of species has overcome in a useful way. ...
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The Origins of Self explores the role that selfhood plays in defining human society, and each human individual in that society. It considers the genetic and cultural origins of self, the role that self plays in socialisation and language, and the types of self we generate in our individual journeys to and through adulthood. Edwardes argues that other awareness is a relatively early evolutionary development, present throughout the primate clade and perhaps beyond, but self-awareness is a product of the sharing of social models, something only humans appear to do. The self of which we are aware is not something innate within us, it is a model of our self produced as a response to the models of us offered to us by other people. Edwardes proposes that human construction of selfhood involves seven different types of self. All but one of them are internally generated models, and the only non-model, the actual self, is completely hidden from conscious awareness. We rely on others to tell us about our self, and even to let us know we are a self. Developed in relation to a range of subject areas – linguistics, anthropology, genomics and cognition, as well as socio-cultural theory – The Origins of Self is of particular interest to students and researchers studying the origins of language, human origins in general, and the cognitive differences between human and other animal psychologies.
... On the other hand, considering inter-brain activity, we expected to observe an increase in inter-brain connectivity in both individuals involved in the exchange (encoder and decoder) in specific brain areas in relation to the meaning of gestures' type (affective, social and information) and valence (positive or negative). Indeed, as demonstrated by different studies, during joint interactions, an increase in brain and behavioral synchronization occurs between interacting individuals (Balconi & Fronda, 2020a, 2020b, 2021Balconi et al., 2020;Balconi & Vanutelli, 2017;Lindenberger et al., 2009;Vanutelli et al., 2016). Finally, considering culture of belonging (Italian or French), we expected to observe an increase in inter-brain connectivity of individuals' of the same culture according to the reproduction of specific types of gestures. ...
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In each culture, non-verbal communication is characterized by the use of conventional gestures. The present study aimed to investigate the neural correlates underlying a non-verbal interaction between encoder and decoder characterized by the use of different gestures in Italian and French cultures. Specifically, interagents’ cortical activity was recorded with the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in hyperscanning. From results, different cortical modulation and inter-brain connectivity emerged regarding the types and valence of gestures, the interagents’ role and the culture of belonging. The present research has shown cultural differences concerning gestures’ type and valence, highlighting brain synchronization in same culture’s individuals.
... This kind of behavior is addressed toward the realization of a definite objective that can provide benefits to all the people involved. While chasing such targets, a set of cognitive and affective mechanisms arise and support behavior (Balconi et al., 2012;Canavesio, 2013, 2014;Liu et al., 2015Liu et al., , 2016Balconi and Vanutelli, 2016a;Vanutelli et al., 2016). Moreover, during cooperation, the behavioral performance essentially entails the involvement of social cognition processes (Decety et al., 2004;Declerck et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Cooperation is a construct within social cognition that requires both self-perception and the comprehension of others' actions. In the case of synchronized activities the adoption of common strategies is crucial, but this process can be strongly influenced by those variables. In fact, self-perceived efficacy within the social exchange can affect the motivational components toward the creation of synergic actions. Thus, what happens when our performance is efficient or inefficient during cooperation? This question was answered in the present study where we compared behavioral performance and neural activation across different conditions where subjects received an external feedback assessing a good or a poor outcome during a cooperative game. The request was to synchronize responses in a way to achieve good cooperation scorings. Results showed that the behavioral performance was affected by feedback valence, since the negative feedback induced a significant worse performance in contrast to the positive one, which significantly increased performance. For what concerns neural activation, data from functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) showed a specific lateralization effect with the right DLPFC recruited in the case of negative feedback, and an opposite left-sided effect in the case of a positive feedback. Findings were interpreted by proposing that the inefficient condition could be similar to a competitive context since the perception of a failed joint action could have frustrated the cooperative attitude and the use of joint strategies.
... In particular, cooperation can be defined as a social interaction between two or more agents that induces sharing and produces common behavioral actions. Joint actions are directed towards the achievement of specific objectives or common interests PLOS that provide an advantage to whomever is involved [2]. A recent study in social neurosciences indicated that comprehension of such complex behaviors can only be obtained by considering the interacting actors as a unique system [3]. ...
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Inter-brain synchronization during joint actions is a core question in social neuroscience, and the differential contribution of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity has yet to be clarified along with the role of psychological variables such as perceived self-efficacy. The cognitive performance and the neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions were recorded by functional Near-Infrared imaging during a synchronicity game. An 8-channel array of optodes was positioned over the frontal and prefrontal regions. During the task, the dyads received reinforcing feedback that was experimentally manipulated to induce adoption of common strategies. Intra- and inter-brain connectivity indices were computed along with an inter-brain/intra-brain connectivity index (ConIndex). Finally, correlation analyses were run to assess the relationship between behavioral and physiological levels. The results showed that the external feedback could modulate participant responses in both behavioral and neural components. After the reinforcing manipulation, there were faster response times and increased inter-brain connectivity, and ConIndex emerged primarily over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Additionally, the presence of significant correlations between response times and inter-brain connectivity revealed that only the “two-players connection” may guarantee an efficient performance. The present study provides a significant contribution to the identification of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity when social reinforcement is provided.
... In the light of this evidence, it can, therefore, be said that both the act of giving and that of receiving a gift produce an improvement and a strengthening of cooperative ties. This result could underline, as demonstrated by previous studies [90], that the implementation of a prosocial behavior can represent a social reward, even without a material return. ...
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Background: Recently several studies in the psychological and social field have investigated the social function of gift exchange as a useful way for the consolidation of interpersonal and social relationships and the implementation of prosocial behaviors. Specifically, the present research wanted to explore if gift exchange, increased emotional sharing, gratitude and interpersonal cooperation, leading to an improvement in cognitive and behavioral performance. In this regard, neural connectivity and cognitive performance of 14 pairs of friends were recorded during the development of a joint attention task that involved a gift exchange at the beginning or halfway through the task. The moment of gift exchange was randomized within the pairs: for seven couples, it happened at task beginning, for the remaining seven later. Individuals' simultaneous brain activity was recorded through the use of two electroencephalograms (EEG) systems that were used in hyperscanning. Results: The results showed that after gift exchange there was an improvement in behavioral performance in terms of accuracy. For what concerns EEG, instead, an increase of delta and theta activation was observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when gift exchange occurred at the beginning of the task. Furthermore, an increase in neural connectivity for delta and theta bands was observed. Conclusion: The present research provides a significant contribution to the exploration of the factors contributing to the strengthening of social bonds, increasing cooperation, gratitude and prosocial behavior.
... Thus, we devised an fNIRS study in which the neural activity of two agents involved in a real gestural interaction is simultaneously recorded to analyze neural coupling between the encoder and the decoder of meaningful gestures. The exploration of the simultaneous neural mechanisms of two individuals performing a complex joint action is made possible by an advanced experimental paradigm, i.e. hyperscanning, recently used in a growing number of cognitive and social neuroscience studies Balconi et al., 2018b;Vanutelli et al., 2016). ...
Article
Gestural communication characterizes daily individuals’ interactions in order to share information and to modify others’ behavior. Social neuroscience has investigated the neural bases which support recognizing of different gestures. The present research, through the use of the hyperscanning approach, that allows the simultaneously recording of the activity of two or more individuals involved in a joint action, aims to investigate the neural bases of gestural communication. Moreover, by using hyperscanning paradigm we explore the inter-brain connectivity between two inter-agents, the one who performed the gesture (encoder) and the one who received it (decoder), with functional Near-infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) during the reproduction of affective, social and informative gestures with positive and negative valence. Result showed an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (O2Hb) and inter-brain connectivity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for affective gestures, in the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) for social gestures and the frontal eye fields (FEF) for informative gestures, for both encoder and decoder. Furthermore, it emerged that positive gestures activate more the left DLPFC, with an increase in inter-brain connectivity in DLPFC and SFG. The present study revealed the relevant function of the type and valence of gestures in affecting intra- and inter-brain connectivity.
... De hecho, las emociones pueden actuar como sistemas de coordinación social (Keltner y Haidt, 1999) que dirigen los objetivos y motivaciones de los individuos (Schwartz, 2007). Las tareas cooperativas pueden reflejar la tendencia humana a actuar conjuntamente, lo que incluye ayudar, compartir y actuar en pro del bien social (Vanutelli et al., 2016). La cooperación aumenta la participación grupal produciendo efectos comportamentales comunes . ...
Thesis
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In recent years there has been a surge of interest in neuroscience in other fields of knowledge outside of medicine, such as economics, education and sociology. This interest is largely due to the applied nature of neuroscience; thus, for example, it is intended to know the activity present in some areas of the brain, related to certain social stimuli.Being aware of this type of neuronal mechanisms can be the key to understanding how our brain reacts to learning mathematical knowledge, making a risky purchase, or our own behaviors when relating to other people. In the present work, the importance of social neuroscience will be reviewed through the development of new alternatives that have emerged in the last decades within the field of functional neuroimaging instruments, appropriate to evaluate social interaction. For this purpose, it will be explained the evolution of neuroscience, as well as of the different instruments of neuronal measurement until reaching the system of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), highlighting its advantages and disadvantages, and its potential for research in social neuroscience. Finally, some of the applications that have been carried out so far within social studies with this tool will be analyzed.
... In total, we identified 23 publications with a total of 1424 citations. Thirteen papers used solely the terminology cooperation and did not mention collaboration in their manuscripts (Cui et al., 2012;Liu et al., 2016;Cheng et al., 2015;Pan et al., 2017;Baker et al., 2016;Osaka et al., 2015;Balconi et al., 2017a;Astolfi et al., 2011;Balconi et al., 2017b;Astolfi et al., 2010;Nozawa et al., 2016;Duan et al., 2015;Vanutelli et al., 2016); while one publication contains only the terminology collaboration and the term cooperation is not used at all (Woolley et al., 2007). Seven other publications used both terminologies interchangeably (Toppi et al., 2016, Liu et al., 2017Babiloni et al., 2014;Cha et al., 2019;Gvirts et al., 2019;Mu et al., 2018;Mayseless et al., 2019); and two publications used neither cooperation nor collaboration throughout their manuscripts, however, listed parts of the above-mentioned papers in their references (Dai et al., 2018;Dumas et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
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In this book chapter, we present our scientific approach for applying the methods of fNIRS hyperscanning to decode distinct qualities of team interaction. Specifically, we are interested in detecting states of inter-brain synchrony that correlate with the behavioral states of cooperation and collaboration—terminologies which have been previously introduced as separate states in design thinking literature. We propose that the differentiation between those two concepts holds great promise for a better classification of team interaction, and a more thorough understanding of the dynamics leading to improved performance and (design) results. It is our hope that this work will provide more accurate and valuable information on human social interaction within working teams in the design thinking and related areas.
... Finally, focusing on the role of interagents, we expected to observe a similar responsiveness in both the encoder and decoder due to the mechanisms of implicit coupling and synchrony that occur during gestural communication. As shown by previous studies [19,53], behavioral coordination and synthonization between interagents increase during joint actions, such as non-verbal exchanges, and foster inter-brain connectivity between individuals [36,37,54]. In light of that evidence, we hypothesized that we would observe an increase in delta and theta intra-brain connectivity in the frontal area for affective and social gestures, and in the parietal area for informative ones, in both the encoder and the decoder, due to mirroring and resonance mechanisms experienced during gestural communication. ...
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Recently, the neurosciences have become interested in the investigation of neural responses associated with the use of gestures. This study focuses on the relationship between the intra-brain and inter-brain connectivity mechanisms underlying the execution of different categories of gestures (positive and negative affective, social, and informative) characterizing non-verbal interactions between thirteen couples of subjects, each composed of an encoder and a decoder. The study results underline a similar modulation of intra- and inter-brain connectivity for alpha, delta, and theta frequency bands in specific areas (frontal or posterior regions) depending on the type of gesture. Moreover, taking into account the gestures’ valence (positive or negative), a similar modulation of intra- and inter-brain connectivity in the left and right sides was observed. This study showed congruence in the intra-brain and inter-brain connectivity trend during the execution of different gestures, underlining how non-verbal exchanges might be characterized by intra-brain phase alignment and implicit mechanisms of mirroring and synchronization between the two individuals involved in the social exchange.
... Among social interactions, cooperation is an exemplificative case of joint action that involves two or more individuals during the production of common behavioral effects [29,30] which produces a social reward per se by involving emotional mechanisms. Previous hyperscanning approach already highlighted some patterns of neural synchronization during cooperation by EEG [31][32][33][34] or functional near-infrared spectroscopy (f NIRS) [29,[35][36][37][38]. Nonetheless, the autonomic modulations with respect to such processes still need to be clarified. ...
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Previous research highlighted that during social interactions people shape each other’s emotional states by resonance mechanisms and synchronized autonomic patterns. Starting from the idea that joint actions create shared emotional experiences, in the present study a social bond was experimentally induced by making subjects cooperate with each other. Participants’ autonomic system activity (electrodermal: skin conductance level and response: SCL, SCR; cardiovascular indices: heart rate: HR) was continuously monitored during an attentional couple game. The cooperative motivation was induced by presenting feedback which reinforced the positive outcomes of the intersubjective exchange. 24 participants coupled in 12 dyads were recruited. Intrasubject analyses revealed higher HR in the first part of the task, connoted by increased cognitive demand and arousing social dynamic, while intersubject analysis showed increased synchrony in electrodermal activity after the feedback. Such results encourage the use of hyperscanning techniques to assess emotional coupling in ecological and real-time paradigms.
Article
Gestural communication allows providing information about thoughts and feelings, characterizing face-to-face interactions, also during non-verbal exchanges. In the present study, the autonomic responses and peripheral synchronization mechanisms of two individuals (encoder and decoder) were recorded simultaneously, through the use of biofeedback in hyperscanning, during two different experimental phases consisting in the observation (watching videos of gestures) and reproduction of positive and negative different types of gestures (affective, social and informative) supported by linguistic contexts. Therefore, the main aim of this study was focused on the analysis of simultaneous individuals' peripheral mechanisms during the performing of complex joint action, consisting of the observation (watching videos) and the reproduction of positive and negative social, affective, and informative gestures each supported by a linguistic script. Single-subject and inter-subject correlation analyses were conducted to observe individuals' autonomic responses and physiological synchronization. Single-subject results revealed an increase in emotional arousal, indicated by an increase in electrodermal activity (skin conductance level - SCL and response - SCR), during both the observation (watching videos) and reproduction of negative social and affective gestures contextualized by a linguistic context. Moreover, an increase of emotional engagement, expressed by an increase in heart rate (HR) activity, emerged in the encoder compare to the decoder during gestures reproduction (simulation of gestures). Inter-subject correlation results showed the presence of mirroring mechanisms, indicated by an increase in SCL, SCR, and HR synchronization, during the linguistic contexts and gesture observation (watching videos). Furthermore, an increase in SCL and SCR synchronization emerged during the observation (watching videos) and reproduction of negative social and affective gestures. Therefore, the present study allowed to obtain information on the mirroring mechanisms and physiological synchronization underlying the linguistic and gesture system during non-verbal interaction.
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Human social interaction is strongly shaped by other-regarding preferences. These preferences are key for a unique aspect of human sociality – large scale cooperation with genetic strangers – but little is known about their developmental roots. We show here that young children’s other-regarding preferences assume a particular form – inequality aversion – that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8. At age 3-4, the overwhelming majority of children behave selfishly, while the vast majority at age 7-8 prefers resource allocations that remove advantageous or disadvantageous inequality. Moreover, inequality aversion is strongly shaped by parochialism, a preference for favouring the members of one’s own social group. These results indicate that human egalitarianism and parochialism have deep developmental roots, and the simultaneous emergence of altruistic sharing and parochialism during childhood is intriguing in view of recent evolutionary theories which predict that the same evolutionary process jointly drives both human altruism and parochialism.
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Interpersonal interaction can be classified into two types: concurrent and turn-based interaction, requiring synchronized body-movement and complementary behaviors across persons, respectively. To examine the neural mechanism of turn-based interaction, we simultaneously measured paired participants activations in their bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in a turn-taking game using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Pairs of participants were assigned to either one of two roles (game builder and the partner) in the game. The builder’s task was to make a copy of a target disk-pattern by placing disks on a monitor, while the partner's task was to aid the builder in his/her goal (cooperation condition) or to obstruct it (competition condition). The builder always took the initial move and the partner followed. The NIRS data demonstrated an interaction of role (builder vs. partner) by task-type (cooperation vs. competition) in the right IFG. The builder in the cooperation condition showed higher activation than the cooperator, but the same builder in the competition condition showed lower activation than in the cooperation condition. The activations in the competitor-builder pairs showed positive correlation between their right IFG, but the activations in the cooperator-builder pairs did not. These results suggest that the builder’s activation in the right IFG is reduced/increased in the context of interacting with a cooperative/competitive partner. Also, the competitor may actively trace the builder's disk manipulation, leading to deeper mind-set synchronization in the competition condition, while the cooperator may passively follow the builder's move, leading to shallower mind-set synchronization in the cooperation condition. Free access: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1RNan-HGGLjUw
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It has been suggested that " sharing the same body " between the observer and the observed subject allows for a direct form of understanding and emotional attuning by a process of simulation. Then, what happens when we don't share the same body? The aim of the present paper is to review available evidence of intra-and inter-species empathic and prosocial behaviours, with respect to within-human, within-animals and cross-specifies interactions. Similarities and differences will be evaluated using a comparative perspective, and some possible moral and ethical implications for human-animal interactions will be discussed. According to Charles Darwin's work, the perceived differences between human and animal empathy could be more quantitative than qualitative, suggesting a common affective core which allows both categories to mirror and tune to conspecifics' feelings, where in the case of humans it can be integrated with more complex cognitive processes.
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We examined emotional transmission in 68 couples in which one member was preparing to face a major stressful event, the New York State Bar Examination. This event is the final hurdle in the course of legal training, and it typically evokes high levels of distress in examinees. Examinees and partners provided daily diary reports of their activities and emotional states for 35 days surrounding the event. Concurrent and prospective analyses indicated that examinees' depressed mood on a given day was related to partners feeling less positive and more negative about the relationship. However, as the examination approached, this association declined to a negligible level. These results suggest that partners increasingly made allowances for examinees' negative affect. In this way, partners preserved their ability to be supportive when examinees needed the support most.
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This article describes a new mathematical approach for modeling the prediction of divorce or marital stability from marital interaction using nonlinear difference equations. The approach is quite general for modeling social interaction, and can be applied to any time series data generated over time for two individuals. We pursued a balance model in selecting the dependent variables of this modeling. Both the mathematical methods and the theoretical gains obtained when using this approach are reviewed.
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Two main conceptual approaches have been employed to study the mechanisms of social cognition, whether one considers isolated or interacting minds. Using neuro-imaging of subjects in isolation, the former approach has provided knowledge on the neural underpinning of a variety of social processes. However, it has been argued that considering one brain alone cannot account for all mechanisms subtending online social interaction. This challenge has been tackled recently by using neuro-imaging of multiple interacting subjects in more ecological settings. The present short review aims at offering a comprehensive view on various advances done in the last decade. We provide a taxonomy of existing research in neuroscience of social interaction, situating them in the frame of general organization principles of social cognition. Finally, we discuss the putative enabling role of emerging non-local social mechanisms-such as interpersonal brain and body coupling-in processes underlying our ability to create a shared world.
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The present research intended first to confirm psychophysiological and cortical responses to valence- and arousal-manipulated stimuli and second to show how the BIS and BAS (Behavioural Inhibition and Activation System) personality characteristics correlated with these psychophysiological and cortical responses. Multiple measures were recorded, such as psychophysiological (skin conductance response, heart rate, and electromyography) and ERPs (event-related potentials) responses, during viewing IAPS figures, that varied in terms of pleasantness (appetitive vs. aversive) and arousing power (high vs. low intensity). Autonomic variables and two ERP positive deflections (P3 and LPP ERP effects) were found to be modulated by valence and arousal rating, with an increased response for high arousing and negative or positive stimuli in comparison with low arousing and neutral stimuli. Moreover, high BAS subjects were more responsive to positive than negative emotions, whereas high BIS subjects responded in greater measure to negative and arousing emotions. Findings were discussed in light of biphasic model of emotion comprehension.
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Synchrony—a construct used across multiple fields to denote the temporal relationship between events—has been applied to the study of mother–infant interaction and is suggested here as a framework for the study of interpersonal relationships. Defined as the temporal coordination of micro-level social behavior, parent–infant synchrony is charted in its development across infancy from the initial consolidation of biological rhythms during pregnancy to the emergence of symbolic exchange between parent and child. Synchrony is shown to depend on physiological mechanisms supporting bond formation in mammals—particularly physiological oscillators and neuroendocrine systems such as those involving the hormone oxytocin. Developmental outcomes of the synchrony experience are observed in the domains of self-regulation, symbol use, and the capacity for empathy across childhood and adolescence. Specific disruptions to the parameters of synchrony that may be observed in various pathological conditions, such as prematurity or maternal affective disorder, are detailed. A time-based, micro-analytic behavioral approach to the study of human relationship may offer new insights on intersubjectivity across the lifespan.
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Conventional wisdom over the past 160 years in the cognitive and neurosciences has assumed that brains evolved to process factual information about the world. Most attention has therefore been focused on such features as pattern recognition, color vision, and speech perception. By extension, it was assumed that brains evolved to deal with essentially ecological problem-solving tasks. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
The fundamental intragroup problem in intergroup conflict can be characterized as a social dilemma: All group members are better off if they all cooperate in competing against the outgroup, but, at least when the group is large, each individual group member is always better off defecting. Are people less or more likely to cooperate in a social dilemma when it is embedded in the context of an intergroup conflict? To answer this question we contrasted the Intergroup Prisoners Dilemma (IPD) team game (Bornstein, 1992) with a structurally identical (single-group) Prisoners Dilemma (PD) game. The results indicate that subjects were almost twice as likely to cooperate in the IPD game than in the PD game even though: (a) the cost of cooperation for the individual group member is identical in the two games, (b) the external benefit to the individual′s group resulting from a cooperative choice is also identical, and (c) cooperation in the intergroup dilemma is collectively deficient whereas in the single-group dilemma it is collectively optimal. The motivational implications of this finding are discussed.
Article
When two or more people coordinate their actions in space and time to produce a joint outcome, they perform a joint action. The perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes that enable individuals to coordinate their actions with others have been receiving increasing attention during the last decade, complementing earlier work on shared intentionality and discourse. This chapter reviews current theoretical concepts and empirical findings in order to provide a structured overview of the state of the art in joint action research. We distinguish between planned and emergent coordination. In planned coordination, agents' behavior is driven by representations that specify the desired outcomes of joint action and the agent's own part in achieving these outcomes. In emergent coordination, coordinated behavior occurs due to perception–action couplings that make multiple individuals act in similar ways, independently of joint plans. We review evidence for the two types of coordination and discuss potential synergies between them.
Article
This chapter discusses the current knowledge of competition and cooperation in wild chimpanzees. It explicitly focuses on recent field studies that shed new light on how chimpanzees compete, cooperate, and cooperate to compete. It outlines the social, demographic, and ecological contexts within which wild chimpanzees compete and cooperate. Within groups, males compete over status and access to fecundable females. High-ranking males gain clear reproductive benefits as they monopolize mating with females when they are most likely to conceive. Rank striving also incurs significant physiological costs, and the extent to which these are mitigated by survival benefits, such as increased access to resources, is not clear. Males direct frequent aggression against females, much of which appears to function as sexual coercion, decreasing the chance that a female will mate with other males. Females are aggressive primarily in the context of feeding competition. Despite evidence that female rank has important effects on reproduction, aggression by parous females against other parous females is rare, and female dominance ranks are stable over long periods of time. Intergroup relations among chimpanzees are predictably hostile. The evolutionary mechanisms that account for chimpanzee cooperation require further study. Current data suggest little role for kin selection. Some patterns of exchange are suggestive of reciprocal altruism, but better data are required to rule out the alternative hypothesis of mutualism.
Article
Cooperation in social dilemma situations is often explained in terms of egoistic incentives. These include: (i) explicit side payments in the form of rewards for cooperation and negative sanctions for defection, (ii) expectations of reciprocal altruism from others involved, and (iii) internalized positive utilities (e.g., an enhanced self-esteem) for ‘doing the thing’ or negative ones (e.g., a bad conscience) for defecting. Such egoistic explanations assumed that cooperation can occur only when the dilemma situation is, in effect, transformed into one not involving a dilemma.
Article
The cooperative abilities of captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, in experiments do not match the sophisti- cation that might be predicted based on their naturally occurring cooperative behaviours. This discrepancy might partly be because in previous experiments potential chimpanzee cooperators were partnered without regard to their social relationship. We investigated the ability of chimpanzee dyads to solve a physical task cooperatively in relation to their interindividual tolerance levels. Pairs that were most capable of sharing food outside the test were also able to cooperate spontaneously (by simultaneously pulling two ropes) to ob- tainfood.Incontrast,pairsthatwerelessinclinedtosharefoodoutsideofthetestwereunlikelytocooperate. Furthermore, previously successful subjects stopped cooperating when paired with a less tolerant partner, even whenthe food rewards werepresented in a dispersed and divisible formto reduce competition between subjects. These results show that although chimpanzees are capable of spontaneous cooperation in a novel instrumentaltask,toleranceactsasaconstraintontheirabilitytosolvesuchcooperativeproblems.Thisfind- ing highlights the importance of controlling such social constraints in future experiments on chimpanzee cooperation, and suggests that the evolution of human-like cooperative skills might have been preceded by the evolution of a more egalitarian social system and a more human-like temperament.
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This article presents a state-space modeling (SSM) technique for fitting process factor analysis models directly to raw data. The Kalman smoother via the expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood parameter estimates is used. To examine the finite sample properties of the estimates in SSM when common factors are involved, a Monte Carlo study is conducted. Results indicate that the estimates of factor loading matrix, transition matrix, and unique variances were asymptotically normal, accurate, precise, and robust, especially for moderate and long time series. The estimates of state residual variances were positively biased for shorter time series, but as the length of series increased, these estimates became accurate and precise. To illustrate the application of SSM the technique is applied to empirical multivariate time-series data on daily affect collected from 2 individuals in a dating couple.
Article
ALTRUISM is behaviour that benefits another individual at some cost to the altruist, costs and benefits being measured in terms of individual fitness. ‘Reciprocal altruism’ (ref. 1) implies the exchange of altruistic acts between unrelated individuals as well as between relatives. If the benefits to the recipient of an altruistic act exceed the costs to the altruist, and if the recipient is likely to reciprocate at a later time, then the cumulative benefits for both individuals will have exceeded the cumulative costs of their altruism. Natural selection would favour individuals that engaged in reciprocal altruism if they distributed their altruism with respect to the altruistic tendencies of the recipient, preferring individuals that were most likely to reciprocate and excluding nonaltruists from the benefits of further altruism. This model has been difficult to test because it is usually impossible to be certain that an example of altruism is not the product of ‘kin selection’2. The genetic relationships between individuals in animal populations are seldom known and reciprocal altruism can only be cited when it can be found to occur regularly between unrelated individuals. I report here that altruistic behaviour involving the formation of coalitions among male olive baboons (Papio anubis) fulfils the criteria for reciprocal altruism.
Article
This paper reviews the published literature on the hyperscanning methodologies using hemodynamic or neuro-electric modalities. In particular, we describe how different brain recording devices have been employed in different experimental paradigms to gain information about the subtle nature of human interactions. This review also included papers based on single-subject recordings in which a correlation was found between the activities of different (non-simultaneously recorded) participants in the experiment. The descriptions begin with the methodological issues related to the simultaneous measurements and the descriptions of the results generated by such approaches will follow. Finally, a discussion of the possible future uses of such new approaches to explore human social interactions will be presented.
Article
The present study aimed to step into two-person neuroscience by investigating the hemodynamic correlates of between-brain connectivity during joint task performance. To test this approach, wireless functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to record brain signals during performance of a dual n-back task simultaneously in paired players as compared to single players. Evaluating functional connectivity between the paired players' brains using wavelet transform coherence (WTC) analysis revealed (1) a significant increase in between-brain coherence during joint task performance as compared to baseline condition. These patterns were observed in two frequency bands, i.e. in the heart rate (HR) frequency and in low-frequency oscillations (LFOs). (2) Averaged hemodynamic responses revealed larger responses in total hemoglobin concentration changes [tHb] for the paired players as compared to the single players; in addition, within the paired players groups joint task performance revealed larger changes in [tHb] as compared to a rest period and to a baseline condition. (3) No increase in behavioral performance was found in the paired players as compared to the single players. Our findings designate fNIRS as suitable tool for monitoring interpersonal performances between two subjects. The results show that two-person performance leads to relevant and significant effects, which are detectable using between-brain connectivity analysis. Using this approach can provide additional insight into interpersonal activation patterns not detectable using typical one-person experiments. Our study demonstrates the potential of simultaneously assessing cerebral hemodynamic responses for various two-person experimental paradigms and research areas where interpersonal performances are involved.
Article
A recent empirical study by Turner and Chao on the evolution of competitive interactions among phage virus strains revealed that a strain grown at high rates of co-infection evolved towards lowered fitness relative to an ancestral strain. The authors went on to show that the fitness pay-off matrix between the evolved and ancestral strain conforms to the prisoners’ dilemma. In this paper, I use Turner and Chao’s data to parameterize a simple model of parasite collective action. The prisoners’ dilemma is based on pairwise interactions of a discrete cooperate/defect nature. In contrast, the collective action model explicitly deals with individual–group interactions where the extent of cooperation is a continuous variable. I argue here that the ‘collective action’ modelling approach is more appropriate than the prisoners’ dilemma for the biology of virus evolution, and hence better able to form a predictive framework for further work on related strains of virus, linking mixing ecology, cooperative phenotype and fitness. Furthermore, the collective action model is used to motivate discussion on the evolutionary ecology of viruses, with a focus on the ‘levels of selection’ debate and the evolution of virulence.
Article
Research on the “contact” hypothesis supports the conclusion that a necessary (if not sufficient) condition for reduction of intergroup conflict and prejudice is some form of cooperative interdependence in pursuit of common, superordinate goals. The apparent instability of cooperative arrangements among ethnic groups in the international arena challenges current social psychological theories of intergroup relations. Brewer's (1991) [Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 475–482]theory of “optimal distinctiveness” provides an explanation for this instability of superordinate groups in terms of competing needs for inclusion and differentiation. Recent experimental research on cross-cutting social group identities and social roles suggests one model in which groups can maintain distinctiveness and mutual cooperation in the long run.
Article
Playing music in ensemble represents a unique human condition/performance where musicians should rely on empathic relationships. Recent theories attribute to frontal Brodmann areas (BAs) 44/45 and 10/11 a neural basis for "emotional" and "cognitive" empathy. We hypothesized that activity of these structures reflects empathy trait in professional musicians playing in ensemble. Simultaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms (8-12 Hz) were recorded in three saxophone quartets during music performance in ensemble (EXECUTION), video observation of their own performance (OBSERVATION), a control task (CONTROL), and resting state (RESTING). EEG source estimation was performed. Results showed that the higher the empathy quotient test score, the higher the alpha desynchronization in right BA 44/45 during the OBSERVATION referenced to RESTING condition. Empathy trait score and alpha desynchronization were not correlated in other control areas or in EXECUTION/CONTROL conditions. These results suggest that alpha rhythms in BA 44/45 reflect "emotional" empathy in musicians observing own performance.
Article
We used Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) to simultaneously measure brain activity in two people while they played a computer-based cooperation game side by side. Inter-brain activity coherence was calculated between the two participants. We found that the coherence between signals generated by participants' right superior frontal cortices increased during cooperation, but not during competition. Increased coherence was also associated with better cooperation performance. To our knowledge, this work represents the first use of a single NIRS instrument for simultaneous measurements of brain activity in two people. This study demonstrates the use of NIRS-based hyperscanning in studies of social interaction in a naturalistic environment.
Article
This study sought to investigate the effects of manipulating social coordination on brain synchronization/de-synchronization in the mu band. Mu activation is associated with understanding and coordinating motor acts and may play a key role in mediating social interaction. Members of a dyad were required to interact with one another in a rhythmic finger movement coordination task under various instructions: intrinsic where each member of the dyad was instructed to maintain their own and ignore their partner's movement; in-phase where they were asked to synchronize with their partner's movement; and anti-phase where they were instructed to syncopate with their partner's movement. EEG and movement data were recorded simultaneously from both subjects during all three tasks and a control condition. Log power ratios of EEG activity in the active conditions versus control were used to assess the effect of task context on synchronization/de-synchronization in the mu spectral domain.
Article
The brain activity during cooperation as a form of social process is studied. We investigate the relationship between coinstantaneous brain-activation signals of multiple participants and their cooperative-task performance. A wearable near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system is used for simultaneously measuring the brain activities of two participants. Each pair of participants perform a cooperative task, and their relative changes in cerebral blood are measured with the NIRS system. As for the task, the participants are told to count 10 s in their mind after an auditory cue and press a button. They are also told to adjust the timing of their button presses to make them as synchronized as possible. Certain information, namely, the "intertime interval" between the two button presses of each participant pair and which of the participants was the faster, is fed back to the participants by a beep sound after each trial. When the spatiotemporal covariance between the activation patterns of the prefrontal cortices of each participant is higher, the intertime interval between their button-press times was shorter. This result suggests that the synchronized activation patterns of the two participants' brains are associated with their performance when they interact in a cooperative task.
Article
Empathic responses to facial cues are a main social competency. Both appraisal processes (facial emotion detection) and self-perceived empathy (empathic responsiveness) in response to emotional faces are thought to be related to empathic behavior, although no systematic analysis has been performed to assess their relationship. The current research explored the contribution of the frontal sensorimotor system to facial detection and self-reported empathic measures by using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to produce a temporary disruption of this specific cortical site. Eighteen subjects were asked to detect facial expression of emotions (anger, fear, happiness, and neutrality) and to evaluate their empathic responsiveness to these facial cues. A 5-second rTMS (1 Hz, inhibition paradigm) pulse was delivered before the stimulus onset. Error rates and response times (RTs) increased when brain activity was disrupted, specifically in response to anger and fear. Self-reported measures showed a concomitant decreased empathic response when the frontal sensorimotor system was deactivated. The ability to monitor emotional cues and the behavioral empathic responsiveness to emotional situations was shown to be partially compromised in the case of frontal activity disruption, highlighting the main role of the sensorimotor system for empathic social skills.
Article
Animal studies demonstrated the powerful impact of maternal-infant social contact on the infant's physiological systems, yet the online effects of social interactions on the human infant's physiology remain poorly understood. Mothers and their 3-month old infants were observed during face-to-face interactions while cardiac output was collected from mother and child. Micro-analysis of the partners' behavior marked episodes of gaze, affect, and vocal synchrony. Time-series analysis showed that mother and infant coordinate heart rhythms within lags of less than 1 s. Bootstrapping analysis indicated that the concordance between maternal and infant biological rhythms increased significantly during episodes of affect and vocal synchrony compared to non-synchronous moments. Humans, like other mammals, can impact the physiological processes of the attachment partner through the coordination of visuo-affective social signals.
Article
Here we describe a methodological approach for the simultaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) recording in musicians playing in ensemble. Four professional saxophonists wore pre-wired EEG caps (30 electrodes placed according to an augmented 10-20 system; cephalic reference and ground). Each cap was connected to a single multi-channel amplifier box [Brain Explorer (BE), EB-Neuro(©)]. The four boxes converged to a single workstation equipped with a software (GALILEO NT, EB-Neuro(©)) allowing the simultaneous recording of sounds, digital trigger, and EEG-electrooculographic (EOG)-electromyographic (EMG) data, and providing a separate output file for each individual. Noteworthy, the subjects were electrically decoupled to satisfy international safety guidelines. The quality of the EEG data was confirmed by the rate of artifact-free EEG epochs (about 80%) and by EEG spectral features. During the resting state, dominant EEG power density values were observed at alpha band (8-12Hz) in posterior cortex. The quality of EMG can be used to identify "on" and "off" states of the musicians' motor performance, thus potentially allowing the investigation of the relationships between EEG dynamics and different characteristics of the specific performance. During the music performance, alpha power density values decreased in amplitude in several cortical regions, whereas power density values enhanced within narrow high-frequency bands. In conclusion, the present methodological approach appeared to be suitable for simultaneous EEG recordings in musicians playing in ensemble.