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A Review of Physiological Effects of Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fibers



This paper seeks to characterize the effects of Total Dietary Fibers (TDFs), Soluble Dietary Fibers (SDFs), and Insoluble Dietary Fibers (IDFs) with regard to the rates of digestion, enzymatic activity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and glucose absorption, glycemic index, and weight gain. This review intends to narrow pertinent data from the vast body of research, including both in vivo and in vitro experiments. SDF and IDF share a number of the theorized beneficial properties in the diet including weight loss, increased satiety, effects on inflammatory markers, and intestinal microbiota. The benefits of SDF, including the prevention of macronutrient absorption, the slowing of gastric emptying, and the reduction of postprandial glucose responses as well as hypocholesterolemic effects, and colonic fermentation, are believed to be a result of its viscous nature. Increased insulin sensitivity could be a promising factor contributing to the beneficial effects of IDF. Another issue exists in the need for the strengthening of collaborative efforts between the food science and nutritionist disciplines. The goal between these fields should be to increase the likelihood that DF is added to foods at effective quantities without deleterious effects on the sensory appeal of the food.
A Review of Physiological Effects of Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fibers
Perry JR and Ying W*
College of Agriculture, Human, and Natural Sciences, 13500 John A Merritt, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN, USA
*Corresponding author: Ying W, College of Agriculture, Human, and Natural Sciences, 13500 John A Merritt, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN, United States,
Tel: 615-963-6006; E-mail:
Rec date: Feb 18, 2016; Acc date: Mar 03, 2016; Pub date: Mar 14, 2016
Copyright: © 2016 Perry JR, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This paper seeks to characterize the effects of Total Dietary Fibers (TDFs), Soluble Dietary Fibers (SDFs), and
Insoluble Dietary Fibers (IDFs) with regard to the rates of digestion, enzymatic activity, the metabolic syndrome,
diabetes and glucose absorption, glycemic index, and weight gain. This review intends to narrow pertinent data from
the vast body of research, including both in vivo and in vitro experiments. SDF and IDF share a number of the
theorized beneficial properties in the diet including weight loss, increased satiety, effects on inflammatory markers,
and intestinal microbiota. The benefits of SDF, including the prevention of macronutrient absorption, the slowing of
gastric emptying, and the reduction of postprandial glucose responses as well as hypocholesterolemic effects, and
colonic fermentation, are believed to be a result of its viscous nature. Increased insulin sensitivity could be a
promising factor contributing to the beneficial effects of IDF. Another issue exists in the need for the strengthening of
collaborative efforts between the food science and nutritionist disciplines. The goal between these fields should be to
increase the likelihood that DF is added to foods at effective quantities without deleterious effects on the sensory
appeal of the food.
Keywords: Soluble dietary ber; Insoluble dietary ber; Total dietary
ber; Physiological eect
e consumption of healthy, low-calorie, and nutritionally balanced
foods containing dietary ber (DFs) has become a growing focus
among consumers. For some time, DFs have been distinguished for
their benecial contribution to overall health. A broad array of food
applications are being enriched and advertised based on their DF
content. DFs have been targeted for their positive eects regarding the
treatment and prevention of constipation, the control of serum
cholesterol levels, the reduction of the risk of diabetes and intestinal
cancer, and the stimulation of benecial microorganisms [1]. e
ability to utilize dierent DFs for food applications is correlated with
their diering functional properties including the ber source, type, as
well as the degree to which the ber has been processed [2]. DFs have
been divided into two primary classes: soluble dietary ber (SDF) and
insoluble dietary ber (IDF) [3]. Simply stated, they are classied
based on their ability to dissolve in water. However, solubility of DF
structure cannot be fully described in this way [4]. is paper seeks to
characterize the eects of Total Dietary Fibers (TDFs), SDFs, and IDFs
with regard to the rates of digestion, enzymatic activity, the metabolic
syndrome, diabetes and glucose absorption, glycemic index, and
weight gain. e investigation of the interrelated nature of each of
these factors requires a detailed examination of a plethora of
previously conducted research. is review intends to narrow
pertinent data from the vast body of research, including both in vivo
and in vitro experiments.
Denitions and Types: SDF, IDF and TDF
Denitions of dietary ber
DFs are oen simply described as any non-digestible carbohydrates
that are not broken down in the intestinal tract [5]. However, scientic
and regulatory bodies around the world dene ber dierently. In
2009, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special
Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU) [6] established an internationally accepted
legal denition of DF. e denition states, “Dietary ber means
carbohydrate polymers with ten or more monomeric units, which are
not hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzymes in the small intestine of
humans and belong to the following three categories: (1) Edible
carbohydrate polymers naturally occurring in the food as consumed.
(2) Carbohydrate polymers, which have been obtained from food raw
material by physical, enzymatic or chemical means and which have
been shown to have a physiological eect of benet to health as
demonstrated by generally accepted scientic evidence to competent
authorities. (3) Synthetic carbohydrate polymers which have been
shown to have a physiological eect of benet to health as
demonstrated by generally accepted scientic evidence to competent
Dening characteristics of DF
Fiber has been dened in the scientic community based on at least
one of four characteristics: (1) source, (2) chemical characteristics, (3)
resistance to digestion, and (4) benecial physiological eects [4].
Biological denitions describing the origins of ber have traditionally
referred to non-starch polysaccharides obtained from plant cell walls.
One of the earliest denitions oers an example: “DF is the proportion
of food which is derived from the cellular walls of plants, which is
digested very poorly in human beings” [7].
Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences Perry and Ying, J Nutr Food Sci 2016, 6:2
Review Article Open Access
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN:2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal Volume 6 • Issue 2 • 1000476
Fiber can be characterized chemically based on chain length and the
types of linkages between each monomeric unit. However, one
challenge with this method has been the determination of the
appropriate chain length [4]. e Codex denition for ber indicates
that bers have a degree of polymerization (DP) ≥ 10. Despite these
precisely dened criteria, the denition also includes a footnote that
the decision on whether to include carbohydrates with a DP > 2 (i.e.,
oligosaccharides) is up to national authorities [6]. e chemical bonds
between the monomeric units provide another means of chemical
characterization. Non-starch polysaccharides are linked by β-linkages
in most cases but characterization on this basis would exclude resistant
starches, which contain α-1,4 linkages [4].
SDF and IDF exhibit unique structural components and,
consequently, varying physiological eects [8]. SDFs have been linked
to the lowering of cholesterol in the blood and the decrease in the
intestinal absorption of glucose while IDFs have been associated with
the absorption of water and regulatory intestinal aects [9]. ese
diering physiological eects depend primarily on the structural and
physical properties of a respective type of DF. ese dierences cause
DFs to exhibit various
in vivo
behaviors including hydration, swelling,
and enzymatic attack [2]. Cui et al. [10,11] have discussed thoroughly
about relationship between chemical structure, molecular weight and
their corresponding physiological properties of DFs. DFs also may play
a role in digestive regulation due to their influence on the rate of starch
degradation thus preventing excessive glucose absorption [12]. In vitro
digestion models have been used to report the impact of DFs on the
degree of starch digestion and the predicted glycemic index (pGI) for a
variety of food items such as pasta, biscuits, and bread among many
others [3,13-15]. When incorporated into starch-based foods, DFs can
entrap granules of starch while restricting the availability of water. is
results in a limiting eect on the accessibility of digestive enzymes to
starch granules and, consequently, a lowering of the pGI [3].
Indigestibility and a lack of absorption by the small intestine alone
may not be responsible for all of DFs favourable physiological eects
[4]. DFs possess a number of other notable physical properties
considered by some to be more physiologically relevant such as
viscosity, the ability to form gels, and the rate they are fermented by
intestinal microbes [16]. ese eects in the gastrointestinal tract may
not only improve laxation and increase stool bulking, but also have
metabolic consequences including improvements in serum lipids and
postprandial glycemia as well as the promotion of satiety [4].
Soluble dietary ber (SDF)
SDF is specically dened as DF capable of being dissolved in a
buer and enzyme solution modeled aer the aqueous enzyme
solutions present in the human system [4]. SDFs increase total transit
time by delaying gastric emptying and also slowing glucose absorption
while non-viscous soluble bers primarily act as a substrate for
microbial fermentation in the colon [4]. SDFs include
oligosaccharides, including fructooligosaccharide (FOS), pectins, β-
glucans (oat and barley grains), galactomannan gums, alginate, and
psyllium. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS), also known as oligofructose
and inulin are known collectively as fructans [17]. ey are found in
plants including agave, artichokes, asparagus, leeks, garlic, onions,
yacon, jícama, and wheat [18]. Pectin is present in most primary cell
walls and is particularly abundant in the non-woody parts of terrestrial
plants. It is primarily found in the fruit skin but also in small amounts
of fruit: apples, pears, apricots, cherries, oranges as well as some
vegetables such as carrots. Pectin is a linear polysaccharide mainly
comprised of about 300 to 1000 D - galacturonic acid monosaccharide
units [18]. Fruits are the major source, but pectins also represent 15% -
20% of the ber in vegetables, legumes and nuts [19]. e β-glucans
are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by β-glycosidic
bonds. ey occur most commonly as cellulose in plants, the bran of
cereal grains, the cell wall of baker’s yeast, certain fungi, mushrooms
and bacteria [18]. Galactomannans (GMs) are polysaccharides
consisting of a mannose backbone with galactose side groups and are
commonly used in foods as stabilizers due to their high water binding
capacity and their emulsication and viscosity increasing properties
[20]. GM gums vary by their ratios of mannose and galactose and
include fenugreek gum (mannose:galactose; 1:1), guar gum
(mannose:galactose; 2:1), tara gum (mannose:galactose; 3:1), and
locust bean gum, (mannose:galactose; 4:1) [20]. Roberts et al. [15]
succeeded at preparations of bread with 5 and 10% substitutions of
fenugreek gum for wheat ower that matched texture and volumes of
control bread, demonstrating the potential for the manufacture of high
ber enriched breads. Alginates are unbranched polysaccharides that
are composed of 1 - 4 linked β-D-annuronic acid and α - guluronic
acid [21]. Alginate is distributed widely in the cell walls of algae, and is
also an exopolysaccharide of bacteria including Pseudomonas
aeruginosa though commercially available alginates currently come
only from algae [21]. rough binding with water they form viscous
hydrogels useful as thickening agents and are also useful in numerous
biomedical applications [21]. Psyllium is the common name used for
several members of the plant genus Plantago whose seeds are used
commercially for the production of mucilage [18]. e term psyllium is
used interchangeably for the seed husk, the seed, and the entire plant.
Psyllium is cultivated, because the seed husk is a rich source of SDF,
known as psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid, psyllium hydrocolloid, and
psyllium seed gum [18]. Some studies [22] stated that SDF is
responsible for prevention of type II diabetes due to the viscosity of the
soluble bers.
Insoluble dietary ber (IDF)
IDFs primarily consist of cellulose and some hemicelluloses,
resistant starch, and lignin. Cellulose is a polysaccharide consisting of a
linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β; 1 - 4 linked D -
glucose units and is the most abundant organic polymer on earth [23].
It is the principal component of the cell walls of most plants and forms
about 25% of the ber in grains and fruit and about a third in
vegetables and nuts [19]. Much of the ber in cereal bran is cellulose.
Hemicelluloses are polysaccharides containing sugars other than
glucose. ey are associated with cellulose in cell walls and present in
both water soluble and insoluble forms. About a third of the ber in
vegetables, fruits, legumes and nuts is made up of hemicellulose [19].
e main dietary sources of hemicellulose are cereal grains [19].
Resistant starch (RS) is the fraction of starch that is not hydrolyzed by
amylase to D-glucose in the small intestine within 120 min of
consumption, but is fermented in the colon [19]. Sources of resistant
starch include whole grains, legumes, cooked and chilled pasta,
potatoes, rice and unripe bananas [19]. RS has been classied into four
general subtypes, RS1, RS2, RS3 and RS4. RS1 is physically inaccessible
starch, which is entrapped within whole or partly milled grains or
seeds; RS2 is a type of raw starch granules (such as banana and potato)
and high-amylose (high-amylose corn) starches; RS3 is retrograded
starch (either processed from unmodied starch or resulting from food
processing applications); RS4 chemically modied starch to obtain
resistance to enzymatic digestion (such as some starch ethers, starch
esters, and cross-linked starches) [19]. Factors that determine whether
Citation: Perry JR, Ying W (2016) A Review of Physiological Effects of Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fibers. J Nutr Food Sci 6: 476. doi:
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J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN:2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal Volume 6 • Issue 2 • 1000476
starch is resistant to digestion include the physical form of grains or
seeds, the size and type of starch granules, associations between starch
and other dietary components, and cooking and food processing [19].
Lignin is a complex polymer of aromatic alcohols and is most
commonly derived from wood. It is an integral part of the secondary
cell walls of plants lling the spaces in the cell wall between cellulose,
hemicellulose, and pectin components [19]. Foods with a woody
component are good sources of lignin such as celery and the outer
layers of cereal grains. In general, IDFs increase fecal bulk and the
excretion of bile acids and decrease intestinal transit time (laxative
Total dietary ber (TDF)
Nearly all naturally available high-ber foods contain varying
amounts of both soluble and insoluble DF [24]. Whole grain and bran
products are the main sources of cereal DF while the primary sources
of SDF are fruits, vegetables and products from oat and barley (soluble
β-glucans) [3]. Whole grain food products contain approximately 12%
TDF, and there is a strong relationship between whole grain and cereal
DF intake [16]. Whole grains are cereal grains that contain cereal
germ, endosperm, and bran, in contrast to rened grains, which retain
only the endosperm. Common whole grains include wheat, oat, and
barley [16]. Some bran (the hard outer layers of cereal grain) derived
food products, such as many breads and cereals, contain up to 25%
TDF [16].
DF and Metabolic Syndrome / Diabetes Prevention and
Risk Reduction
Metabolic syndrome describes a group of metabolic irregularities
that occur together in an individual. It is well documented as
independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease [25]. When
grouped together in this syndrome, the risk of developing
cardiovascular disease, as well as type 2 diabetes, is increased [26]. A
large number of randomized studies in humans and experimental
models have demonstrated evidence of the eectiveness of foods rich
in DF positively regulating body weight, appetite, gluconeogenesis,
sensitivity to insulin and cardiovascular disease risk factors such as
low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and hypertension [27]. More recently,
studies of DF refer specically to the benecial eects on most of the
homeostatic abnormalities present in individuals aected by the
metabolic syndrome [28,29].
High ber diets are commonly described as a daily ber intake
greater than 25 grams in women and greater than 38 grams in men
[30]. e benets of high ber diets are primarily linked to the viscous
and / or gel-forming properties of soluble DF [31]. Several studies have
demonstrated positive physiological eects of both SDF and IDF
despite the expectation that only SDF would provide physiological
benet in the diet, primarily by the lowering of cholesterol in the blood
and the decrease in the intestinal absorption of glucose [16]. A high
intake of cereal IDF was strongly associated with remarkably decreased
diabetes risk in several studies [32]. Data pooled from six studies
including some 290,000 subjects indicate that two servings per day of
whole grains might reduce diabetes risk by a remarkable 21% [33]. A
cause and eect relationship cannot be denitely stated because of the
known limitations of estimation of food intake from quantitative food
frequency questionnaires (FFQs) [32]. However, these results do
repetitively indicate that the consumption of IDF could denitely play
an important role in the prevention of diabetes [32].
DF consumption might alter diabetes risk as a consequence of its
eect on appetite and, consequently, body weight [3]. A large number
of studies show increased satiety aer eating or decreased hunger when
subjects consumed high DF diets, both under conditions of controlled
energy intake and when energy intake was consumed without
restriction [30]. Conversely, no clear conclusion can be drawn that low
versus high glycemic index meals are a key factor promoting satiety
DF and reduced predicted glycaemic index
e glycemic index is a means by which foods can be ranked on the
basis of the glycemic impact in relation to the available carbohydrate
within those foods [3]. e GI of a food is a tool useful in determining
the rate at which the carbohydrates in a food are digested and
absorbed as glucose. A number of studies designed to determine the
quantity of residual starch following digestion indicate that SDF
additions to pasta signicantly reduce the amount of starch digested
over a 300 min period [36]. is reduction in reducing sugar release
following digestion, and the extent of starch degradation results in a
reduction in the predicted glycemic index (PGI) of such foods [3]. A
range of DFs (SDF and IDF) has been used in the production of pasta
and bread products. In vitro starch breakdown of these foods have
shown that the addition of DF has an important physiological eect by
reducing the amount of glucose produced following digestion with
alpha amylase [36-38].
Colonic fermentation and intestinal bacteria
Fermentation occurs to almost all DFs to some degree but the rate
of fermentation varies widely. With regard to intestinal physiology, DF
should not be considered from a singular standpoint but rather as a
term that encompasses a variety of moieties with varying
physiochemical properties [39]. SDF, insoluble resistant starch and
oligosaccharides tend to be fermented more readily than cereal DFs
into gases and physiologically active byproducts [40].
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, propionate, and
aforementioned butyrate are produced by bacterial fermentation of DF
in the intestines [31]. e concentrations of dierent SCFAs vary and
depend on the substrate as well as the intestinal microbiota present.
Increased production of SCFAs is believed to be benecial because this
reduces glucose output from the liver and improves lipid homeostasis
[26]. It is not certain for patients consuming high soluble DF diets that
the fermentability of DF is the primary factor contributing to
reduction in diabetes risk. Studies have revealed that low fermentable
cereal DF (corn and wheat) consumption indicate stronger
associations with a reduction in diabetes risk than more readily
fermentable soluble DF from fruit and vegetables [32,33].
DF consumption may also aect additional factors correlating the
intestinal microbiota with obesity and insulin resistance. One study
using mice as subjects found that obese individuals have a dierent
makeup of various intestinal microbiotas than do lean individuals, and
once the heavier individuals lose weight a transition toward the “lean
microbiota” is observed [41]. Interestingly, when transplanting the
intestinal microbiota from obese mice or from lean mice to gnotobiotic
mice (no intestinal microbiota present) the recipients of the “obese
microbiota” showed increased fat gain, despite comparable energy
intake [41]. Another study, this time in humans, indicates that a diet
high in SDF (oligofructose) results in a reduction of gram-negative
bacteria and body weight while a diet high in fat increases the ratio of
Citation: Perry JR, Ying W (2016) A Review of Physiological Effects of Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fibers. J Nutr Food Sci 6: 476. doi:
Page 3 of 6
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN:2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal Volume 6 • Issue 2 • 1000476
gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) containing
microbiota [42]. Four weeks of continuous subcutaneous infusion of
LPS increased weight gain, liver fat, inammatory markers, and
markers of insulin resistance to an extent similar to that of a diet high
in fat [42]. ese studies indicate that the consumption of SDF may
consequentially positively inuence the ratios of specic types of “lean
intestinal microbiota.
DF consumption and body weight
A number of mechanisms have been suggested for how DF
positively impacts weight management, including promoting satiation,
decreasing absorption of macronutrients, and altering secretion of gut
hormones [43]. A large number of observational studies show an
inverse, and oen dose-dependent, [44] correlation between DF intake
and body weight [16]. Eects were found with individuals in the
highest vs. lowest percentile of DF consumption gaining 3.6 kg less
over a period of ten years [44]. Several short-term interventional
studies conducted with whole foods high in DF and with supplemental
ber further demonstrate that notable losses of body weight can be
achieved with high DF diets. Howarth et al. [45] concluded that
increased DF intakes have been associated with a body weight loss of
1.9 kg over 3.8 months with greater weight loss in more obese subjects.
Studies have also been conducted to determine dierences in the
eects of fermentable and non-fermentable DFs with regard to weight
loss and satiety. Surprisingly, no clear dierence regarding weight gain
or loss has been shown between SDF and IDF and fermentable and
non-fermentable DF, or between foods naturally high in DF and ber
supplements in human studies [30]. Nevertheless, reductions in the
body weight of subjects consuming high DF diets most surely
contributes to a reduced risk of the development of metabolic
syndrome as well as type 2 diabetes [16]. One of the reasons that
weight loss programs mandating a diet high in ber are consistently
more successful is that DF has been found to reduce hunger, especially
in low fat diets. e bers expand creating a bulking eect while
promoting a feeling of “fullness” [46] making it easier for the dieter to
adhere to their program.
DF and insulin sensitivity
Several studies indicate that an increased intake of total DF is
inversely associated with insulin resistance [47]. Investigation of
dierent types of soluble and insoluble DF in randomized controlled
interventional studies returned assorted results. Consumption of wheat
bran for three months had no eect on fasting glucose and glycated
hemoglobin levels in diabetic subjects [31]. High DF rye bread did
enhance insulin secretion but did not appear to improve insulin
sensitivity in postmenopausal women, estimated with the frequently
sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test [48]. Conversely, improved
markers of insulin resistance have been reported aer consumption of
various other sorts of insoluble DF when using a second meal test
design [16].
A randomized controlled crossover study in healthy women
investigating the eects of weakly fermentable insoluble cereal DF and
highly fermentable resistant starch found markers of insulin sensitivity
in a second meal test were improved to a similar extent with all DF,
independent of the rate of colonic fermentation [17]. A dose-
dependent correlation between fermentability of DF and improved
markers of insulin sensitivity was unlikely, and the available methods
to estimate colonic fermentation rates in humans have limited
accuracy [5].
Diets high in IDF have been found to improve insulin sensitivity in
studies utilizing the euglycemic clamp to measure insulin action on
glucose utilization. Incorporation of radioactive-labeled glucose during
euglycemic clamps makes it possible to measure glucose metabolism in
individual organs [49]. In both short-term and more prolonged studies
measuring insulin sensitivity in this way, consumption of IDF
increased whole body glucose disposal independent of changes in body
weight [16,50,51]. Insulin resistant subjects are more likely to
eventually develop diabetes. erefore, improved insulin sensitivity as
a result of a diet high in IDF could denitely be a very important factor
contributing to reduced diabetes risk.
DF and inammation
“In the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey study, Grooms et al. [52] found that high ber intake was
related to the reduction in systemic inammation. Some studies show
that a diet high in total DF coupled with the consumption of a SDF
supplement signicantly decreased levels of the inammatory marker
CRP [53]. DFs including fructans, galactooligosaccharides, β-glucans,
pectins, and resistant starch have been found to bind to C-type lectin
receptors (CLRs) on immune cells, suggesting a direct immune
modulatory eect [40]. Fermentation of SDF by colonic bacteria may
also play a role as a consequence of the anti-inammatory properties
of butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid, they generate [26]. Reductions in
inammatory markers have been found to be similar with IDF, as well
as more readily fermentable, SDF. Ma et al. [54] carried out a
longitudinal study with 524 subjects designed to examine associations
between DF intake and CRP. ey found that the elevated CRP
concentration was signicantly lower in participants with the higher
TDF intake. Krishnamurthy et al. [55] also concluded that high DF
intake was associated with decreased inammation, and the
association was stronger in magnitude in patients with kidney disease.
SDF and IDF share a number of the theorized benecial properties
in the diet including weight loss, increased satiety, eects on
inammatory markers, and intestinal microbiota. Many of the benets
are likely to be a result of the viscous nature of SDF consumption
including the prevention of macronutrient absorption, the slowing of
gastric emptying, and the reduction of postprandial glucose responses
as well as hypocholesterolemic eects, and colonic fermentation.
Increased insulin sensitivity could be a promising factor contributing
to the benecial eects of IDF. Considering the body of research, there
is a good deal of evidence that DFs play an important role regarding
the structure of food, the availability of carbohydrates, the breakdown
of starch, and, consequently, the GI of foods. erefore, the
management of weight and methods to structure diets as well as the
prevention and management of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome
can all be linked to DF consumption. is idea is further supported by
the ndings of numerous studies linking diets containing foods of high
GI values with increased risks of weight gain, obesity, and diabetes
[56]. Additionally, DF has been linked to the manipulation of enzyme
expression involved in lipid synthesis, modication of hormonal
responses, and the stimulation of gluconeogenesis [3]. One area of
research focus could be to further study the mechanisms behind the
role of low-GI foods in managing obesity and diabetes at the molecular
level. Additionally, a large body of work has been performed to reveal
Citation: Perry JR, Ying W (2016) A Review of Physiological Effects of Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fibers. J Nutr Food Sci 6: 476. doi:
Page 4 of 6
J Nutr Food Sci
ISSN:2155-9600 JNFS, an open access journal Volume 6 • Issue 2 • 1000476
much regarding the way individual food items impact human
physiology but research involving more complicated food systems with
multiple foods mimicking the reality of the human diet would
elucidate much about the interactions between food ingredients and
food structure, the impacts of DF, and the availability of carbohydrates
to digestion. Another issue exists in the need for the strengthening of
collaborative eorts between the food science and nutritionist
disciplines. e goal between these elds should be to increase the
likelihood that DF is added to foods at eective quantities without
deleterious eects on the sensory appeal of the food. is collaborative
eort would allow for the creation of many additional ber-rich food
products with heightened potential to positively impact consumer
health by combatting obesity, cardiovascular disease and type II
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... La fibra es un carbohidrato que no se hidroliza por las enzimas del intestino delgado humano y se clasifica como soluble e insoluble en agua [34]. ...
... La fibra soluble forma una solución viscosa que incrementa el tiempo de tránsito del bolo alimenticio del estómago hacia el intestino otorgando mayor tiempo de saciedad porque retrasa el vaciado gástrico [34,35]. ...
... y Escherichia coli, el propionato incrementa la saciedad y la tolerancia a la glucosa, y el butirato induce a la muerte de las células cancerosas en el colon [36]. Por el contrario, la fibra insoluble no forma geles y no es fermentada por las bacterias intestinales en el colon porque incrementa el volumen fecal, disminuye el tiempo del tránsito intestinal teniendo un efecto laxante e interviene en la eliminación de ácidos biliares [34,35]. ...
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Pleurocollybia cibaria Singer es una seta comestible nativa de Cusco que goza de mucha popularidad. Se expende en la fiesta de “Q’oncha Raymi” y en los mercados de la ciudad durante la época de lluvia. Su composición nutricional aún es poco conocida y no se ha profundizado sobre su composición de minerales, vitaminas y alguna propiedad funcional, cómo su actividad antioxidante. Las setas tienen la capacidad de acumular trazas de metales, resultando en un peligro potencial para la salud de los consumidores. Por estas razones, se reportó la composición nutricional, la concentración de metales pesados y la actividad antioxidante in vitro de P. cibaria Singer. Respecto a la composición nutricional, la muestra fresca contenía una alta proporción de humedad (79.48%) y deshidratada, un alto contenido de carbohidratos (44.44%), proteínas (23.83%), fibra (12.73%) y de los minerales Fe (30.41 mg/100 g base seca), F (2.37 mg/100 g base seca), Zn (6.77 mg/100 g base seca) y I (2.02 mg/100 g base seca). Asimismo, la muestra deshidratada tuvo un bajo contenido de grasas (1.53%), ácido ascórbico (3.27 mg/100 g base seca) y del mineral Ca (75.99 mg/100 g base seca). Además, la muestra contenía bajas concentraciones de Ar (< 0.002 mg/kg base seca), Pb (< 0.002 mg/kg base seca), Hg (< 0.001 mg/kg base seca) y Cd (< 0.0001 mg/kg base seca). Finalmente, P. cibaria Singer presentó una actividad antioxidante in vitro eficiente (IC50 < 0.0025 mg/mL), de tal manera que puede ser considerado un alimento funcional. Nuestro estudio aporta nueva información sobre la composición nutricional, la inocuidad y la propiedad funcional de P. cibaria Singer para que se continúe promoviendo su consumo.
... Several different definitions of dietary fiber (DF) have been used around the world as reviewed by Buttriss and Stokes (2008) and Perry and Ying (2016). However, the common description entails carbohydrate polymers that are not digestible in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. ...
... However, the common description entails carbohydrate polymers that are not digestible in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. DF can be broadly classified as soluble DF (SDF) which has been linked to cholesterol lowering in the blood and insoluble DF (IDF) linked to fecal bulking (Perry & Ying, 2016). Common beans contain considerably higher amount of DF (14% to 19%) than cereals and is one of the components that has been associated with the health benefits of beans. ...
Over the past years, the shift toward plant‐based foods has largely increased the global awareness of the nutritional importance of legumes (common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in particular) and their potential role in sustainable food systems. Nevertheless, the many benefits of bean consumption may not be realized in large parts of the world, since long cooking time (lack of convenience) limits their utilization. This review focuses on the current insights in the cooking behavior (cookability) of common beans and the variables that have a direct and/or indirect impact on cooking time. The review includes the various methods to evaluate textural changes and the effect of cooking on sensory attributes and nutritional quality of beans. In this review, it is revealed that the factors involved in cooking time of beans are diverse and complex and thus necessitate a careful consideration of the choice of (pre)processing conditions to conveniently achieve palatability while ensuring maximum nutrient retention in beans. In order to harness the full potential of beans, there is a need for a multisectoral collaboration between breeders, processors, and nutritionists.
... Dietary fiber is a broad category of indigestible food ingredients and roughly classified as water-soluble dietary fiber and water-insoluble dietary fiber according to their solubility in water. Specifically, water-soluble dietary fiber mainly includes pentosan, soluble hemicellulose, gum, and pectin, while cellulose, insoluble hemicellulose and lignin are the major compositions of IDF [10]. Multiple animal studies and human trials have demonstrated that dietary fiber possess several biological activities, such as improving intestinal absorption, increasing satiety, enhancing immune function, and promoting colon health, which are determined by the source of dietary fiber with different chemical structures and compositions [11]. ...
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Litchi pomace, a by-product of litchi processing, is rich in dietary fiber. Soluble and insoluble dietary fibers were extracted from litchi pomace, and insoluble dietary fiber was modified by ultrasonic enzymatic treatment to obtain modified soluble and insoluble dietary fibers. The structural, physicochemical, and functional properties of the dietary fiber samples were evaluated and compared. It was found that all dietary fiber samples displayed typical polysaccharide absorption spectra, with arabinose being the most abundant monosaccharide component. Soluble dietary fibers from litchi pomace were morphologically fragmented and relatively smooth, with relatively high swelling capacity, whereas the insoluble dietary fibers possessed wrinkles and porous structures on the surface, as well as higher water holding capacity. Additionally, soluble dietary fiber content of litchi pomace was successfully increased by 6.32 ± 0.14% after ultrasonic enzymatic modification, and its arabinose content and apparent viscosity were also significantly increased. Further, the soluble dietary fibers exhibited superior radical scavenging ability and significantly stimulated the growth of probiotic bacterial species. Taken together, this study suggested that dietary fiber from litchi pomace could be a promising ingredient for functional foods industry.
... All samples showed the same ratio between soluble (SDFs) and insoluble (IDFs) dietary fibers. Specifically, IDFs and SDFs reached values equal to 92.32% and 1.92%, respectively, thus indicating a greater portion of cellulose, hemicelluloses, resistant starch, and lignin [31]. As can be seen from Table 1, similar capabilities of fibers in retaining water were recorded, irrespective of the sample average dimension. ...
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In this work, extra-virgin olive oil (EVO)- and sunflower oil (SFO)-based oleogels were structured using rice bran wax (RBW) at 10% by weight (w/w). Bamboo fiber milled with 40 (BF40), 90 (BF90) and 150 (BF150) �m of average size was added as a structuring agent. The effect of fiber addition and cooling temperature (0, 4, and 25 °C) on thermal and structural parameters of achieved gels was assessed by rheological (both in rotational and oscillatory mode), texture, and differential scanning calorimetry tests. Oleogelation modified the rheological behavior of EVO and SFO, thus shifting from a Newtonian trend typical of oils to a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian behavior in gels. Moreover, oleogels behaved as solid-like systems with G’ > G”, regardless of the applied condition. All samples exhibit a thermal-reversible behavior, even though the presence of hysteresis suggests a partial reduction in structural properties under stress. Decreasing in cooling temperature negatively contributed to network formation, despite being partially recovered by low-granulometry fiber addition. The latter dramatically improved either textural, rheological, or stability parameters of gels, as compared with only edible oil-based systems. Finally, wax/gel compatibility affected the crystallization enthalpy and final product stability (gel strength) due to different gelator–gelator and gelator–solvent interactions.
... A deficiency of one EAA will limit protein synthesis in tissues, leading to an increase in the oxidation of all other proteinogenic AAs (Wu 2021). Furthermore, dietary fiber increases satiety, gastric emptying, the transit of chime through the gastrointestinal tract, digestive passage rate, gastrointestinal tract weight, endogenous fluid secretion by the gut, pancreatic lipase secretion, enterocyte proliferation, maintenance energy requirement, the availability of metabolic fuels (e.g., butyrate) for the distal intestine, and fecal bulk, while reducing the pancreatic secretion of some digestive enzymes (a-amylase, elastase-1 and chymotrypsin), nutrient digestibilities, constipation, intestinal inflammation, and risk for colon cancer (Davies 1985;Lin et al. 2020;Perry and Ying 2016). ...
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Aquatic animals have particularly high requirements for dietary amino acids (AAs) for health, survival, growth, development, and reproduction. These nutrients are usually provided from ingested proteins and may also be derived from supplemental crystalline AA. AAs are the building blocks of protein (a major component of tissue growth) and, therefore, are the determinants of the growth performance and feed efficiency of farmed fish. Because protein is generally the most expensive ingredient in aqua feeds, much attention has been directed to ensure that dietary protein feedstuff is of high quality and cost-effective for feeding fish, crustaceans, and other aquatic animals worldwide. Due to the rapid development of aquaculture worldwide and a limited source of fishmeal (the traditionally sole or primary source of AAs for aquatic animals), alternative protein sources must be identified to feed aquatic animals. Plant-sourced feedstuffs for aquatic animals include soybean meal, extruded soybean meal, fermented soybean meal, soybean protein concentrates, soybean protein isolates, leaf meal, hydrolyzed plant protein, wheat, wheat hydrolyzed protein, canola meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal, sunflower meal, peas, rice, dried brewers grains, and dried distillers grains. Animal-sourced feedstuffs include fishmeal, fish paste, bone meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, chicken by-product meal, chicken visceral digest, spray-dried poultry plasma, spray-dried egg product, hydrolyzed feather meal, intestine-mucosa product, peptones, blood meal (bovine or poultry), whey powder with high protein content, cheese powder, and insect meal. Microbial sources of protein feedstuffs include yeast protein and single-cell microbial protein (e.g., algae); they have more balanced AA profiles than most plant proteins for animal feeding. Animal-sourced ingredients can be used as a single source of dietary protein or in complementary combinations with plant and microbial sources of proteins. All protein feedstuffs must adequately provide functional AAs for aquatic animals.
... Cookies with grated cooked walnut had the lowest rate of starch hydrolysis, such that at 180 min of hydrolysis, only about 60% of the total starch was hydrolyzed. This may be due to the presence of dietary fiber trapping starch granule thereby limiting its accessibility to a digestive enzyme (Perry & Ying, 2016). Starch digestibility kinetic parameters (C ∞ , K, HI, and EGI) of cookie samples and the reference sample (white bread) are shown in Table 4. Starch digestibility was higher in the cookies than grated walnut (uncooked and cooked). ...
Emphasis has significantly been placed on the production of functional foods and the utilization of indigenous food crops in the management of some diet-related non-communicable diseases. This study included African walnut in the production of a cookie snack, and the effect of the inclusion on its nutritional, antioxidant and sensory quality was assessed. The inclusion of cooked grated walnut in the cookie caused a significant increase in crude protein (2.67%), fat (2.57%), fiber 91.17%), TPC (2.97 mgGAE/g db), DPPH (1.44 μmol TE/gdb) except for total starch, in-vitro protein, and starch digestibility. This resulted in nutrient- dense cookies, rich in antioxidants with a low estimated glycemic index, suitable for people with non-communicable pathophysiological conditions. Considering the sensory scores, walnut enriched cookies were accepted by the consumers comparably with the wheat flour cookies. Hence, walnut enriched cookies may be adequate in promoting health-related functions, while satisfying consumer’s urge for snacking.
... Dietary fibre is much desired in a commercial product because of its benefits for health (Jha et al., 2017). Dietary fibre has been reported to be beneficial in weight reduction, slows gastric emptying, lowers post-prandial blood sugar, hypo -cholesterol and maintains colon health (Perry and Ying, 2016). ...
Noodles are popular carbohydrate-rich food products generally made from wheat flour. This study developed a new type of noodle out of local resources namely sorghum flour, mung bean, and sago starch with the following formula variations: F1 (20:30:50), F2 (30:30:40), F3 (40:30: 30), F4 (50:30:20) and F5 (60:30:10). The nutritional and functional property of each formula then analysed. All formulas fulfilled the daily dietary intake recommendations, which contain approximately 9.64-11.83% protein, 0.17-0.33% fat, 86.76-88.74% carbohydrate, with total calories of 397-399 kcal/100 g. F1 has the highest dietary fibre content (13.16%), with 4.2% soluble dietary fibre (SDF) and 9.48% insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). The resistant starch content of all formulas was relatively high, between 16.35-21.57%. Based on the results of this study, sorghum flour, mung bean and sago starch flour-based noodles can be a good source of daily nutrition which also include functional compounds such as dietary fibre and resistant starch.
... The content of beta-glucans in yeasts and filamentous fungi varies depending on the species. 8 In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that fungal beta-(1 → 3,1 → 6)-D-glucans induce alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota, favoring the species that promote the host's health 9,10 and that they exhibit immunomodulatory, [11][12][13] anti-tumor, 11,12 antimicrobial, 14 antioxidative 14 and radioprotective 7 effects. The aim of the present systematic review was to a Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, 70 El. ...
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Introduction: Beta-glucans are polysaccharides that exhibit a wide range of biological properties as a result of their varying chemical composition. Like all dietary fibers, they avoid catabolism in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and they reach the large intestine undigested. There, they undergo fermentation by the gut microbiota, a process that has potential beneficial effects for the host. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the effects of consumption of beta-(1 → 3,1 → 6)-d-glucans, naturally found in the cell walls of fungi, on health outcomes. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science to retrieve studies that applied randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the impact of exclusive oral administration of fungal beta-glucans in any form and at any dosage to healthy subjects or patients. Results: Thirty-four RCTs, of the 917 records retrieved in total, met the eligibility criteria and are included in the present review. The sources of fungal beta-glucans were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lentinula edodes and Ganoderma lucidum, and the dosage of supplementation ranged from 2.5 to 1000 mg daily for up to 6.5 months. The primary physiological outcome of the majority of the interventions was immunomodulation, which resulted in (a) strengthened immune defense that reduces the incidence and symptoms of cold, flu and other respiratory infections and (b) improvement of allergic symptoms. However, the findings on the induction of immune response alterations were inconsistent at the cellular and molecular levels. Another aspect is psychological wellbeing, as the cohorts that received the polysaccharides of interest reported improvement in their mood states as well as amelioration of overall wellbeing. At the same time, it might also be useful as a complementary agent to patients undergoing cancer therapies. Furthermore, supplements containing beta-(1 → 3,1 → 6)-d-glucan administered to overweight/obese adults might have the potential to decrease comorbid conditions associated with obesity. Notably, no adverse event causally related to glucans was recorded. Conclusions: Supplementation with beta-(1 → 3,1 → 6)-d-glucans is well-tolerated, and health-promoting properties are manifested primarily through the potentiation of the immune system. More studies are required to confirm their additional beneficial effects, to establish the optimal dose, and to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms.
The structural, physicochemical, and functional characteristics of total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) isolated from potato residues were investigated. Potato dietary fiber consisted of IDF (73.18 g/100 g) and SDF (19.60 g/100 g), the main components were cellulose (42.93%) and pectin (27.82%), while lignin content was the lowest (5.74 g/100 g). The SDF contained much more rhamnose and galacturonic acid, whereas the major monosaccharide in IDF was glucose. The hydration properties of TDF, IDF, and SDF were increased with the increasing of temperature and pH, while negatively related to NaCl concentration. Furthermore, SDF exhibited more porous structure in the surface, thereby exhibiting better glucose absorption ability, α‐amylase activity inhibition ratio, and cholesterol absorption ability compared with TDF and IDF. Overall, the TDF, IDF, and SDF from potato residues could be used as new functional additive in food industry according to their nature.
β-glucans, the class of biological response modifier has unceasing attention, not only for its immune stimulating but also for its role as prebiotics, modulator of physiological events etc. and is widely used in the treatment of cancer, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, cardiovascular diseases etc. However, β-glucan with different physiochemical properties is found to have discrete clinical functions and thus careful selection of the types of β-glucan plays pivotal role in providing significant and expected clinical outcome. Herein this review, we presented the factors responsible for diverse functional properties of β-glucan, their distinct mode of actions in regulating human health etc. Further, clinical aspects of different β-glucans toward the management of wound care, metabolic dysbiosis, fatty liver disorders and endurance training associated energy metabolism were compiled and exhibited in detail.
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Background: Resistant starch may modulate insulin sensitivity, although the precise mechanism of this action is unknown. Objective: We studied the effects of resistant starch on insulin sensitivity and tissue metabolism. Design: We used a 4-wk supplementation period with 30 g resistant starch/d, compared with placebo, in 10 healthy subjects and assessed the results by using arteriovenous difference methods. Results: When assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, insulin sensitivity was higher after resistant starch supplementation than after placebo treatment (9.7 and 8.5 × 10⁻² mg glucose · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹ · (mU insulin/L)⁻¹, respectively; P = 0.03); insulin sensitivity during the meal tolerance test (MTT) was 33% higher (P = 0.05). Forearm muscle glucose clearance during the MTT was also higher after resistant starch supplementation (P = 0.03) despite lower insulin concentrations (P = 0.02); glucose clearance adjusted for insulin was 44% higher. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA; P = 0.02) and glycerol (P = 0.05) release were lower with resistant starch supplementation, although systemic NEFA concentrations were not significantly altered. Short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetate and propionate) were higher during the MTT (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively), as was acetate uptake by adipose tissue (P = 0.03). Fasting plasma ghrelin concentrations were higher with resistant starch supplementation (2769 compared with 2062 pg/mL; P = 0.03), although postprandial suppression (40–44%) did not differ significantly. Measurements of gene expression in adipose tissue and muscle were uninformative, which suggests effects at a metabolic level. The resistant starch supplement was well tolerated. Conclusion: These results suggest that dietary supplementation with resistant starch has the potential to improve insulin sensitivity. Further studies in insulin-resistant persons are needed.
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One objective of Healthy People 2020 1 is to decrease by 10% the number of individuals diagnosed with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in the United States. One nutrition-based strategy to achieve this goal is to encourage individuals who are at risk of developing or who have prediabetes or type 2 diabetes to consume more fiber. An Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position statement2 on the health implications of dietary fiber recommends that the variety of dietary fibers naturally occurring in and added to foods can promote healthy body weight, improve glycemia and insulin sensitivity, regulate digestive function, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 20103 and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)4 suggest that adults ≤ 50 years of age consume 25–38 g/day of dietary fiber and that those > 50 years of age consume 21–30 g/day. However, Americans continue to fall far short of these recommendations. Data from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey revealed that fiber intake among individuals with type 2 diabetes was approximately 16 g/day.5 According to the baseline nutrient intake data from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) lifestyle modification intervention trial, only 20% of participants with type 2 diabetes met dietary fiber intake goals.6 Dietary fiber recommendations for individuals with type 2 diabetes are similar to those for the general population (DRI 14 g/1,000 kcal).4 However, research has shown that much higher intakes (44–50 g/day) are needed to improve glycemia, and many individuals may have difficulty consuming this amount on a daily basis.7 It is recommended that people with diabetes consume foods containing 25–30 g/day of fiber, with a special emphasis on soluble fiber (7–13 g/day).7 The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires food manufacturing companies …
Dietary fibre has long been recognised as healthy because of its prebiotic quality and a number of dietary fibres, especially beta glucan have been shown to lower levels of circulating LDL cholesterol. However, although EFSA allow health claims to be made for this, there is no fundamental understanding of the detailed mechanism involved. More recently dietary fibre has been shown to have a range of functionality in the upper GI tract. The presence of fibre can alter gastric emptying thus affecting fullness and satiety. These alterations are a result of differences in viscosity, nutrient release and nutrient sensing in the duodenum. The current proposed mechanisms for the cholesterol lowering effects involve disruption of the normal recycling of bile possibly by sequestering bile salts and fatty acids or by significantly decreasing the rate of absorption as a result of entanglement with intestinal mucus.
This chapter describes the evolving definition of dietary fibres and their technical functionalities when applied in various food products. Dietary fibres can be categorized into three groups, insoluble dietary fibre, soluble dietary fibre and resistant starch. Soluble dietary fibre has been widely used as thickener, emulsifier, stabiliser, fat replacer, suspending and gelling agents, etc. in food and pharmaceutical industry. For each dietary fibre ingredient, the chemical composition, physical and functional properties, and common applications are described in the chapter. Dietary fibres are becoming one of the most important food ingredients for their irreplaceable roles of techno-functional as well as biofunctional purposes in food products. The future trends and challenges of dietary fibre applications are also discussed.
A high dietary fiber (DF) intake is emphasized in the recommendations of most diabetes and nutritional associations. It is accepted that viscous and gel-forming properties of soluble DF inhibit macronutrient absorption, reduce postprandial glucose response, and beneficially influence certain blood lipids. Colonic fermentation of naturally available high fiber foods can also be mainly attributed to soluble DF, whereas no difference between soluble and insoluble DF consumption on the regulation of body weight has been observed. However, in prospective cohort studies, it is primarily insoluble cereal DF and whole grains, and not soluble DF, that is consistently associated with reduced diabetes risk, suggesting that further, unknown mechanisms are likely to be involved. Recent research indicates that DF consumption contributes to a number of unexpected metabolic effects independent from changes in body weight, which include improvement of insulin sensitivity, modulation of the secretion of certain gut hormones, and effects on various metabolic and inflammatory markers that are associated with the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we briefly summarize novel findings from recent interventions and prospective cohort studies. We discuss concepts and potential mechanisms that might contribute to the further understanding of the involved processes.
The influence of the ratio of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) on the in vitro starch digestion, predicted glycemic index (pGI), and the physicochemical properties of fiber-enriched cakes were evaluated. The hydration and pasting properties were affected by the ratio of SDF and IDF. According to the increase of IDF ratio (SDF ratio reduction) in 3g fiber-enriched cakes, slowly digestible starch (SDS) contents increased, while the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents decreased. The pGI values were significantly different with control in 3g fiber-enriched cake containing more than 50% IDF contents (p<0.05). But the pGI values of 6g fiber-enriched cake samples were not significantly different by SDF and IDF ratio. With the exception of the SDF 100% cake, volume index, hardness, and color values of the fiber-enriched cakes increased according to reductions in the SDF ratio. The cakes containing 3g of total dietary fiber (the same ratio of SDF and IDF) per serving were shown to have low pGI and acceptable quality attributes. Specially, total dietary fiber amount and IDF ratio are more effective than SDF ratio to lower the pGI value.