ArticlePDF Available

Discrimination between Cave and House-Farmed Edible Bird's Nest Based on Major Mineral Profiles

  • Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam
  • Quest international University Perak, Malaysia

Abstract and Figures

The high priced cave edible bird's nest (EBN) has attracted unscrupulous EBN producers to adulterate EBN with lower priced house-farmed EBN due to the fact that both are almost indistinguishable by visual inspection. In the present study, major mineral contents such as calcium, sodium, magnesium and potassium of both EBN types were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Three pattern recognition techniques namely hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to determine the influence of harvesting origins on mineral profiles. With the use of HCA and PCA, EBN samples have successfully been grouped into two distinct clusters. From the PCA score plot, principal component 1 (49.53 %) and principal component 2 (41.11%) accounted for 90.64% of the total variability. In addition, LDA presented excellent performance in discriminating and predicting membership of the two EBN sample types with classification rate of 100%.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2): 181 - 195 (2016)
ISSN: 1511-3701 © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press
Journal homepage:
Article history:
Received: 29 January 2015
Accepted: 26 January 2016
E-mail addresses: (Seow, E. K.), (Ibrahim, B.), (Muhammad, S. A.), (Lee, L. H.), (Lalung, J.), (Cheng, L. H.)
* Corresponding author
Discrimination between Cave and House-Farmed Edible Bird’s
Nest Based on Major Mineral Proles
Seow, E. K.1, Ibrahim, B.2, Muhammad, S. A.3,4, Lee, L. H.5, Lalung, J.3 and
Cheng, L. H.1*
1Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM,
Penang, Malaysia
2Discipline of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia,
11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia
3Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia,
11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia
4Doping Control Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia
5Faculty of Integrative Science & Technology, Quest International University Perak, No. 227,
Plaza Teh Teng Seng (Level 2), Jalan Raja Permaisuri Bainon, 30250 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
The high priced cave edible bird’s nest (EBN) has attracted unscrupulous EBN producers
to adulterate EBN with lower priced house-farmed EBN due to the fact that both are almost
indistinguishable by visual inspection. In the present study, major mineral contents such
as calcium, sodium, magnesium and potassium of both EBN types were analysed using
inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Three pattern
recognition techniques namely hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component
analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to determine the
inuence of harvesting origins on mineral proles. With the use of HCA and PCA, EBN
samples have successfully been grouped into two distinct clusters. From the PCA score plot,
principal component 1 (49.53 %) and principal component 2 (41.11%) accounted for 90.64%
of the total variability. In addition, LDA presented excellent performance in discriminating
and predicting membership of the two EBN
sample types with classification rate of
Keywords: Edible bird’s nest, hierarchical cluster
analysis, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission
spectrometry, linear discriminant analysis, mineral
content, principal component analysis
Seow, E. K., Ibrahim, B., Muhammad, S. A., Lee, L. H., Lalung, J. and Cheng, L. H.
182 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2) 181 - 196 (2016)
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is highly consumed
by the Chinese community because they
uphold the belief handed down based on
anecdotal evidences that EBN is benecial
to relief respiratory ailments and enhance
body energy. The work by Kong et al.
(1987), which suggests the presence of
epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like
substance in EBN, has drawn the attention
of consumers as well as researchers. Since
then, extensive research activities have
been conducted to conrm the presence of
EGF-like substance in EBN and its potential
use in medical eld and cosmetic industry
for cell proliferative effect. This idea was
substantiated by positive results reported in
studies using human adipose-derived stem
cells (Roh et al., 2012), corneal keratocytes
(Zainal Abidin et al., 2011) and Caco-2 cells
(Aswir & Wan Nazaimoon, 2010). Apart
from that, EBN extract has been found
effective in curing erectile dysfunction (Ma
et al., 2012), improving bone strength and
dermal thickness (Matsukawa et al., 2011)
and inhibiting inuenza virus infection (Guo
et al., 2006).
Generally, EBN is built by gelatinous
strand of nest cement secreted by swiftlets,
namely, White nest swiftlet (Aerodramus
fuchipagus) and Black nest swiftlet
(Aerodramus maximus) during breeding
seasons (Koon & Cranbrook, 2002). These
swiftlets are found in the South-East Asia
region and inherently inhabit the caves
(Chantler & Driessen, 1999). Comparatively,
EBN produced by the White nest swiftlet is
of higher economic value as it is entirely
made of pure salivary nest cement with
only traces of impurities. On the other hand,
though the nest of Black nest swiftlet is full
with feathers and requires tedious cleaning
process, it is still heavily harvested as the
exploitation is worthwhile due to the fact
that the price of the nest is extremely high.
With the increasing demand for EBN,
the price of this product is expected to
increase as the stock available in the market
could not full the growing needs. A recent
survey reported by Manan and Othman
(2012) revealed that the raw pre-processed
EBN was sold at RM 3000/kg to RM 4500/
kg in the market in year 2010 to 2011. The
market price of EBN is always doubled
after the laborious and time consuming
cleaning process (Lim, 2006). Therefore,
many investors are lured by the lucrative
revenue and venture into EBN house-
farming. Efforts have been done by the
house farmers to ensure that only the pure
breed of White nest swiftlet, which could
produce EBN of high commercial value,
would inhabit and breed in the farm (Lim,
2006). Unfortunately, EBN harvested from
the house farm is much lower priced in the
market than those harvested from the cave.
Driven by the unscrupulous desire,
unethical EBN manufacturers tend to
adulterate cave EBN with lower priced
house EBN; some even make intentional
false claims by selling house nest as cave
nest. Besides, adulteration of EBN with
addition or substitution with less expensive
materials such as egg white, Tremella
fungus, gelatin, karaya gum, fried porcine
skin, starch, soybean and red seaweed
Major Minerals Composition Data
183Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2): 181 - 196 (2016)
(Marcone, 2005; Ma & Liu, 2012), is
Authentication methods at molecular
level using Taqman-based real-time
PCR (Guo et al., 2014), combination of
DNA based PCR and protein based two
dimensional gel electrophoresis methods
(Wu et al., 2010), DNA sequencing-based
method (Lin et al., 2009) and SDS-PAGE
electrophoresis (Marcone, 2005) have been
proposed. However, these techniques are
rather tedious, time-consuming and costly.
EBN was built by swiftlets inhabiting
in the caves and house farms and it was
hypothesised that the minerals prole of
EBN would be affected by the environments,
as well as the supporting materials it
attached to. The objective of this study
is to distinguish EBN samples harvested
from the cave and the house farm based
on simple minerals prole analysed using
inductively coupled plasma-optical emission
spectrometry (ICP-OES). Correlation of
mineral pairs within each group of sample
was analysed using Pearson correlation
analysis and pattern recognition techniques,
namely, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA),
principal component analysis (PCA) and
linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were
employed to investigate the relationship
between elemental concentration and the
type of EBN samples studied.
In this study, forty eight EBN samples were
analysed. Twenty four of these were house
nests harvested from different locations in
West Malaysia, namely, Alor Setar, Bukit
Mertajam, Kota Bharu, Segamat, Taiping
and Teluk Intan. The twenty four cave nests
were harvested from the caves located in
East Malaysia (Bau and Sandakan) and
Indonesia (Aceh and Medan). All EBN
samples used in this study were raw genuine
samples collected from different locations
(see Figure 1) with the assistance of reliable
suppliers and sponsors. All pre-processed
samples were cleaned and air-dried under
the same process. EBN samples were soaked
in water and the feathers and impurities were
removed using tweezers until the nests were
devoid of visible feathers and impurities
and followed by air-drying. Then, cleaned
nests were dipped into liquid nitrogen for 10
seconds prior to grinding them into powder
form. The samples were kept in air-tight
bottles and stored at room temperature until
further analysis.
Moisture Content
Moisture content of the samples was
determined by volumetric Karl Fischer
titration (784 KFP Titrino, Metrohm,
Switzerland) following AOAC Official
Method 2001.12.
Elemental Analysis
About 0.25 g of EBN powder was digested
in a mixture of 3 mL H2O + 2 mL HNO3
+ 1 mL H2O2 with a microwave digester
(MARSXpress, CEM Corporation,
Matthews, NC), following the method
described in Saengkrajang et al. (2013).
The digestion was carried out at 220ºC for
45 minutes until a clear transparent solution
Seow, E. K., Ibrahim, B., Muhammad, S. A., Lee, L. H., Lalung, J. and Cheng, L. H.
184 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2) 181 - 196 (2016)
was obtained. The digest was then made up
to 50 mL with 2% HNO3 solution and kept
chilled in plastic bottles prior to mineral
The concentrations of sodium
(Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and
magnesium (Mg) were determined by
inductively coupled plasma-optical
emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Perkin
Elmer optima 7000DV equipped with
S10 autosampler and WinLab32TM for ICP
V5.1 (Perkin Elmer, Waltham, MA). The
calibration was performed with standard
mixture from Perkin Elmer (Waltham MA)
and all elements were determined at axial
plasma view. The instrumental settings of
the ICP-OES were as follows: the source
equilibration delay was 15 seconds, plasma
parameters were set at plasma 15 L/min,
auxiliary 0.2 L/min, nebulizer 0.8 L/min
and power 1300 W. Flow rate of sample was
1.5 mL/min with Argon as carrier gas. There
was a washing step between the samples at
the rate of 1.5 mL/min for 30 seconds. The
wavelengths for each element were: Ca,
317.933 nm; Na, 589.592; Mg, 285.213 and
K, 766.490.
Method Verication
The raw data were pre-processed and
the concentration of each element was
expressed in unit of mg/100 g dry matter
basis to minimise data fluctuation.
Calibration curves for Ca, Na, Mg and K
were constructed using external standards
method. Coefcient of determination, r2 of
calibration curves for the elements were all
above 0.9900. Repeatability was determined
by intra- and inter-day variation studies,
while reproducibility was determined by
two different analysts that conduct the
same method. This method showed a
very good precision in repeatability and
reproducibility, with relative standard
deviation (RSD) of elements determined
ranged from 0.80 to 5.69%.
Statistical Analysis
Experimental data obtained were analysed
using the statistical package SPSS version
22 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL).
Independent samples t-test was conducted
to determine signicant difference between
mean values. Pearson correlation analysis
was used to study the direction (positive/
negative) and strength (weak/moderate/
strong) of the correlation between elements
within each type of nest samples. Three
pattern recognition techniques: hierarchical
cluster analysis (HCA), principal component
analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant
analysis (LDA) were used to observe the
possible pattern and trend in classication.
Elemental Composition of the EBN
Calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium
(Mg) and potassium (K) composition of both
house EBN and cave EBN from different
locations and descriptive statistics of both
types of EBN are tabulated in Tables 1 and
2, respectively. Based on the independent
samples t-test result, it is evident that
Ca content in cave EBN is significantly
higher than house EBN but the Mg and
Major Minerals Composition Data
185Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2): 181 - 196 (2016)
Na contents are signicantly lower in cave
EBN. Nonetheless, there is no signicant
difference observed in the K content in both
types of EBN.
Since K is not signicantly different
for the two types of samples, mineral
composition could better or more accurately
be compared by its ratio after being
normalised to K content. Generally, the
average major minerals contents determined
in this study were arranged in the decreasing
order of Ca > Na > Mg > K, which is in
accordance with the research ndings of
Norhayati et al. (2010). For cave samples,
the ratio of Ca:Na:Mg: K is 101:13:6:1,
whereas for the house samples the ratio is
46:33:8:1. Obviously, calcium content in
the cave EBN samples was slightly more
than double of those found in the house
EBN samples, and the reverse is true for
Na content. The discrepancy in the element
contents of both samples could largely
be contributed by the inherent different
environmental conditions prevailing in the
cave and in the house farm (Sia & Tan,
Cave EBN is normally found as self-
supporting nests that attached to vertical or
Table 1
Major minerals prole of house nests and cave nests.
Location Type Sample size Ca Mg Na K
Alor Setar House Nest 5706±32 122±11 632±78 18±2
Bukit Mertajam House Nest 5780±62 123±6 625±66 12±3
Kota Bharu House Nest 5665±51 127±8 633±100 14±1
Segamat House Nest 3777±98 138±11 548±150 20±1
Teluk Intan House Nest 3787±13 130±7 358±13 18±0.4
Taiping House Nest 3750±19 112±7 228±22 18±1
Medan Cave Nest 41741±314 93±30 94±50 8±2
Aceh Cave Nest 41389±334 102±19 112±69 13±4
Sandakan Cave Nest 82263±207 130±23 294±166 33±10
Bau Cave Nest 81203±42 90±3 274±24 6±1
Values are mean±standard deviation reported in mg/100g dry matter.
Table 2
Descriptive statistics for house and cave edible bird’s nests.
Minerals content (mg/100g dry matter)
Element House nests (n=24) Cave nests (n=24)
Min. Max. Mean STDEV Min. Max. Mean STDEV
Ca* 586 891 737 67 1141 2542 1677 504
Na* 203 795 536 167 38 630 224 131
Mg* 106 149 125 10 60 159 106 25
K 8 21 16 3 5 51 17 14
*Mean values are signicantly different (P<0.05).
Seow, E. K., Ibrahim, B., Muhammad, S. A., Lee, L. H., Lalung, J. and Cheng, L. H.
186 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2) 181 - 196 (2016)
concave surface of a cave wall. Therefore,
it is easy to rationalise high Ca content
found in cave EBN. According to Northup
and Lavoie (2010), mineral dissolution
and precipitation processes in caves are
microbially mediated reactions. Cave
dissolution process involves iron-, sulfur-
and manganese- oxidising bacteria,
through which activities considerable
acidity is being generated and subsequently
used to dissolve cave wall that is rich in
calcium carbonate. Meanwhile, the mineral
precipitation process was reported to be
either passive where microbial cells acts as
nucleation sites or active, where bacterially
produced enzymes control mineralisation.
In passive mineralisation, dissolved metal
(Ca2+) was found to sorb onto amphoteric
functional groups (such as carboxyl,
phosphoryl and amino constituents) found
on negatively charged cell walls, sheaths
or capsules, following which carbonate
(HCO3-) precipitates and in turn serves
as nucleation site for calcium carbonate
precipitation (Lowenstem & Weiner, 1989;
Konhouser, 1997, 1998). It is believed that
similar mechanism could have occurred by
mineralisation on salivary strands (which is
high in proteins) of a cave EBN.
On the other hand, Na content in the
house EBN was found to be signicantly
higher than those cave EBN samples (Table
2). Interestingly, Na was also reported to
be the predominant element in processed
house-farmed EBN harvested from different
locations in Thailand (Saengkrajang et al.,
2013), pre-processed house-farmed EBN
in Penang, Malaysia and pre-processed
cave EBN in Sumatra Indonesia (Nurul
Huda et al., 2008). Our raw data showed
that Na content was extremely high in EBN
harvested from Alor Setar, Bukit Mertajam
and Kota Bharu house farms (Table 1 &
Figure 1), which are located at the coastal
locations facing the Malacca Straits. The Na
content recorded was 2-3 folds higher when
compared to the other samples harvested
from other locations. Based on the report of
Norhayati et al. (2013), this high Na content
could be attributed to the accumulation of Na
from marine aerosols through atmospheric
deposition into the EBN. It is believed that
sea salt concentration in the air could be
high at these locations as a result of the
persistent on-shore winds which generate
sea water droplets and marine aerosols (sea
sprays). The speculation was made based on
the unique drinking behaviour of swiftlets,
which capture the water droplets in the air.
Therefore, the Na content in marine aerosol
(swiftlet’s saliva) is assumed to contribute
to the nest Na content.
Besides the environmental factor,
swiftlet diets could contribute partly to
the difference in elemental prole of both
types of samples. According to Lourie
and Tompkins (2000), swiftlet’s diets vary
and are very much dependent on their
foraging regions and food availability. Apart
from this, White nest swiftlet’s diet was
discovered to be diverse and this species was
predicted to survive and adapt well in urban
areas (shop lot house farms). This could be
a factor that yields the different minerals
composition patterns in EBN harvested from
different origins.
Major Minerals Composition Data
187Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2): 181 - 196 (2016)
Figure 1. Edible bird’s nest sampling points.
Pearson Correlation Analysis
The correlation matrix between mineral
pairs of both types of EBN is presented
in Table 3. Ca was found to demonstrate
moderate positive correlation with Mg and
it was signicantly different at r = 0.450
(P < 0.05) for cave EBN samples. The
Na content correlated signicantly with K
content at moderate values with r = -0.477
and 0.505 (P < 0.05) for house EBN and
cave EBN, respectively. Interestingly, there
were strong positive correlations between
the mineral pairs in the cave EBN samples
such as Ca and K (r = 0.776, P < 0.01), Na
and Mg (r = 0.609, P < 0.01) and Mg and
K (r = 0.832, P < 0.01). The significant
relationship between the minerals leads us to
further analyse the inuence of macro- and
micro-environmental factors on minerals
composition of EBN.
Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA)
Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) is
an unsupervised classification method
that discerns objects into groups based
on the level of similarity between them
based on the relative contribution of the
variables. The clustering method used
was the nearest neighbour (single linkage)
method, measured based on squared
Euclidean distance. A dendrogram was an
easy visualisation aid produced with the
samples of the same similarity level being
grouped together. The use of HCA has
successfully assigned the EBN samples
into two main clusters, i.e. house EBN (n
= 24) and cave EBN (n = 24), based on
the dendrogram cut at a distance of 17.5 as
presented in Figure 2. All the EBN samples
were accurately classied into their own
clusters which indicated that the elemental
Seow, E. K., Ibrahim, B., Muhammad, S. A., Lee, L. H., Lalung, J. and Cheng, L. H.
188 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2) 181 - 196 (2016)
composition could be appropriately used in
classication of the type of EBN sample.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
Principal component analysis (PCA) is
a chemometric tool used for dimension
reduction of data set through which the
most signicant and important data would
be extracted for further analysis (Abdi &
William, 2010). Basically, PCA demonstrates
primary evaluation and visualisation of
between-class similarity based on the
contributing variables variation direction in
a multivariate space. PCA was carried out
on a data matrix consists of EBN elemental
profiles. The principal component (PC)
scores and possible clustering results are
illustrated in Figure 3A. Only two PC were
extracted from the dataset to explain the
total variability up to 90.64%. Two clusters
Figure 2. Dendogram of hierarchical cluster analysis. Cluster 1: house nests; cluster 2: cave nests
Table 3
Pearson correlation of minerals content in house and cave edible bird’s nest.
House nests Cave nests
Element Ca Na Mg KElement Ca Na Mg K
Ca 1Ca 1
Na -0.069 1Na 0.151 1
Mg 0.338 0.275 1Mg 0.450*0.609** 1
K0.077 -0.477*0.208 1 K 0.776** 0.505*0.832** 1
** and * correspond to signicance of correlation at the 0.01 level and 0.05 level (2-tailed), respectively.
Major Minerals Composition Data
189Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2): 181 - 196 (2016)
Figure 3. Principal component analysis was applied to study possible clustering between (A) house nest and
cave nest, and their respective inuential variables loaded as shown in (B). A simple 3-D plot of Ca vs. Na vs.
Mg as illustrated in (C) gives a simple view of clustering potential
were identied and separated successfully
at the diagonal by PC1 (explaining 49.53%
of the variability) and PC2 (explaining
41.11%). Mg and Na, and Ca and K were
the highly loading variables in PC1 and
PC2, respectively, as shown in Figure 3B.
In particular, the loading scores for Mg,
Na, Ca and K were 0.941, 0.800, 0.911
and 0.751, respectively. A simple 3D-plot
of Ca vs. Na vs. Mg concentrations was
constructed to give a simple view of sample
distribution or clustering potential as shown
in Figure 3C, as these three variables
contribute most of the variance. This
3D-plot is in good agreement with the PCA
result (Figure 3A) that it provides a good
discrimination pattern whereby house nest
and cave nest are separated. As illustrated
in Figure 3A, house EBN was observed
to distribute more closely as compared
to cave EBN. Geographical origin with
different environmental conditions could
be the key factor that contributes to the
differences in EBN collected from different
locations. Recently, authenticity assessment
of commodities such as cabbages (Bong et
Seow, E. K., Ibrahim, B., Muhammad, S. A., Lee, L. H., Lalung, J. and Cheng, L. H.
190 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2) 181 - 196 (2016)
al., 2013), Croatian wines (Kruzlicova et
al., 2013), Spanish cherries (Matos-Reyes
et al., 2013) and Brazilian honey (Batista
et al., 2012) through determination of
mineral proles analysed by chemometric
analysis was found to be a valuable tool
in classication according to geographical
origins. Hence, PCA was further applied to
investigate the possible groupings within
class for both house and cave EBN.
As shown in Figure 4A, house EBN
samples collected from the northern region
(Alor Setar, Bukit Mertajam and Kota
Bharu), whereas the remaining samples
obtained from the central (Taiping and Teluk
Intan) and the southern region (Segamat)
in Peninsular Malaysia were separated
into two clusters by PC1 which accounts
for only 37.54% of the total variability.
Na and K were the variables highly loaded
in PC1, with the loading scores of -0.776
and 0.863, respectively, as illustrated in
Figure 4B. Likewise, PC1 with the highly
loading K, Mg and Ca variables, which
explained 67.82% of variability (Figure 4C)
categorised Sandakan cave EBN samples
as one cluster and the other samples from
Aceh, Bau and Medan as another cluster.
As shown in Figure 4D, K, Mg and Ca were
positively loaded in PC1 with the scores
at 0.963, 0.897 and 0.731, respectively.
The minerals prole of the cave EBN is
associated to the cave wall the nest adheres
to. The mineral prole of Sandakan cave
EBN, which differs from the other locations
may be attributed by the unique materials of
the cave wall in Sandakan. This is evidenced
by the geological survey that Sandakan
rocks, which consist predominantly of
mudstone, sandstone and siltstone with
minor coal seams and conglomerate (Lee,
1970), are different in composition from
the caves in Bau which are composed
of fossiliferous limestone (Wolfenden,
1965). The lithological variations between
different locations are due to facies changes
(Lee, 1970). The results are in good
agreement with the ndings discovered by
Saengkrajang et al. (2013), Norhayati et al.
(2010) and Nurul Huda et al. (2008) that
nutritional composition of EBN could be
distinguishable by breeding sites. However,
it could be observed that even for the
samples collected from the same location
and within the same breeding season, the
distributions were scattered. Hence, other
contributing factors should be taken into
considerations for future research studies.
A better distinct separation between the
samples harvested from different locations
could be achieved by increasing the sample
Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)
Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a
supervised pattern recognition approach
which separates classes based on their
dissimilarities by maximising the variance
between classes and minimising the variance
within classes (Roggo et al., 2003; Liu et
al., 2012). A stepwise method was used
to investigate if cave and house EBN
could be differentiated by their elemental
composition. Cross-validation procedure
was carried out by employing the leave-
one-out technique to evaluate the robustness
Major Minerals Composition Data
191Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2): 181 - 196 (2016)
of the classication model. Each sample
was classied based on the discriminant
functions generated from the remaining
samples and the accuracy of the classication
was calculated as rate of cross-validation
(Lachenbruch, 2006). LDA is used to assess
the EBN samples with respect to the type
based on the elemental composition. Four
major elements (Ca, Na, Mg and K) were
evaluated through LDA and only one linear
discriminant function (DF) responsible in
elucidating the differences between cave
and house-farmed EBNs was derived. This
DF explained 100% of the total variability
between two types of EBN and the relative
contribution of each parameter identied is
as depicted in Eq. (1).
Z = 0.616 Ca - 0.489 Na - 0.290 Mg
– 0.012K [1]
Ca and Na exhibited strong contribution
in discriminating cave EBN from house
EBN, whereas Mg showed relatively lower
contribution in explaining the variation
between the cave EBN and house EBN.
Scores of DF for EBN samples of different
types correspond to the behaviour of the
parameters in the DF as depicted in Figure 5.
Figure 4. Principal component analysis was applied to study sample distribution within (A) house nest and (C)
cave nest for geographical origins, and their respective inuential variables loaded as shown in (B) and (D)
Seow, E. K., Ibrahim, B., Muhammad, S. A., Lee, L. H., Lalung, J. and Cheng, L. H.
192 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2) 181 - 196 (2016)
Overall, all the house EBN samples showed
negative contribution to the DF, whereas all
the cave EBN samples demonstrated positive
contribution. The sources of the samples
were correctly identied in accordance to
their own origins.
The membership of the EBN samples
was predicted by employing a stepwise
discriminant procedure, as shown in Table
4. A leave-one-out cross validation method
was used to evaluate the robustness of this
prediction model. Both overall classication
and cross-validation classification were
100%, which implied that all samples,
were correctly assigned to their own
cluster. The results exhibited that this
classication model was a very promising
tool in discrimination of the EBN samples
according to the types.
The use of elemental composition determined
by inductively coupled plasma-optical
emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) combined
with chemometric approach is veried to be
a powerful tool in discriminating edible
bird’s nest based on types. Ca and Na were
the elements which demonstrated strong
contributions in the differentiation of two
types of EBN samples. The robustness of
the classication model has been validated
and found to possess great predicting power
at a classication rate and cross-validation
rate of 100%.
This work was funded by Universiti Sains
Malaysia Short Term Research Grant
(Grant No: 304.PTEKIND.6313033). Seow
acknowledges the Fellowship awarded by
Universiti Sains Malaysia. The authors
would like to thank Mr. George Ng Aun
Figure 5. Scores for the discriminant function
Major Minerals Composition Data
193Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2): 181 - 196 (2016)
Heng, Dato Feasa, Mr. S.D. Hng, Mr. L.C.
Ling, Mr. Chaw Seow Peoh, Mr. Sia Meu
Seng, Mr. Tan Yoke Tian, Mr. Thomas Lee,
Mr. Tan Sooi Huat and Mr. Peter Lau for
sponsoring edible bird’s nest samples to
the project. The authors have declared no
conict of interest.
Abdi, H., & William, L. J. (2010). Principal component
analysis. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews:
Computational Statistics, 2(4), 433-459.
Association of Ofcial Analytical Chemists (AOAC).
(2005). AOAC Ofcial Methods of Analysis (18th
ed.). Washington DC: Association of Ofcial
Analytical Chemists.
Aswir, A. R., & Wan Nazaimoon, W. M. (2010). Effect
of edible bird’s nest on Caco-2 cell proliferation.
Journal of Food Technology, 8(3), 126-130.
Batista, B. L., Da Silva, L. R. S., Rocha, B. A.,
Rodrigues, J. L., Berretta-Silva, A. A., Bonates,
T. O., ... & Barbosa, F. (2012). Multi-element
determination in Brazilian honey samples by
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
and estimation of geographic origin with data
mining techniques. Food Research International,
49(1), 209-215.
Bong, Y. S., Song, B. Y., Gautam, M. K., Jang, C. S.,
An, H. J., & Lee, K. S. (2013). Discrimination of
the geographic origin of cabbages. Food Control,
30(2), 626-630.
Chantler, P., & Driessens, G. (1999). Swifts, a guide to
the swifts and treeswifts of the world. (2nd ed.).
UK: Pica Press.
Guo, C. T., Takahashi, T., Bukawa, W., Takahashi,
N., Yagi, H., Kato, K., ... & Suzuki, Y. (2006).
Edible bird’s nest extract inhibits inuenza virus
infection. Antiviral Research, 70(3), 140-146.
Guo, L., Wu, Y., Liu, M., Wang, B., Ge, Y., & Chen,
Y. (2014). Authentication of edible’s bird nest
by TaqMan-based real-time PCR. Food Control,
44, 220-226.
Kong, Y. C., Keung, W. M., Yip, T. T., Ko, K. M.,
Tsao, S. W. & Ng, M. H. (1987). Evidence that
epidermal growth factor is present in swiftlet’s
(Collocalia) nest. Comparative Biochemistry and
Physiology, 87(2), 221-226.
Konhauser, K. O. (1997). Bacterial iron mineralization
in nature. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 20(3-4),
Table 4
Classication of edible bird’s nest samples and percentage of classication according to types through
cross-validation method.
Type Predicted Group Membership Total
House nest Cave nest
Original Count House nest 24 024
Cave nest 024 24
%100 100 100b
Cross-validatedaCount House nest 24 024
Cave nest 024 24
% 100 100 100c
aCross validation is done only for those cases in the analysis. In cross validation, each case is classied
by the functions derived from all cases other than that case.
b100% of original grouped cases correctly classied.
c100% of cross-validated grouped cases correctly classied.
Seow, E. K., Ibrahim, B., Muhammad, S. A., Lee, L. H., Lalung, J. and Cheng, L. H.
194 Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2) 181 - 196 (2016)
Konhauser, K. O. (1998). Diversity of bacterial iron
mineralization. Earth-Science Reviews, 43(3),
Koon, L. C., & Cranbrook, E. (2002). Swiftlets of
Borneo: Builders of Edible Nest. Malaysia:
Natural History Publications (Borneo) (Chapter
Kruzlicova, D., Fiket, Ž., & Kniewald, G. (2013).
Classication of Croatian wine varieties using
multivariate analysis of data obtained by high
resolution ICP-MS analysis. Food Research
International, 54(1), 621-626.
Lachenbruch, P. A. (2006). Discriminant analysis.
Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences (p.3). New
Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Lee, D. T. C. (1970). Sandakan peninsula, eastern
Sabah East Malaysia. Malaysia: Government
Printing Ofce, Kuching, Sarawak, (Chapter III).
Lim, C. (2006). Make millions from swiftlet farming:
A denite guide. Malaysia: Truewealth (Chapters
1 & 6).
Lin, J. R., Zhou, H., Lai, X. P., Hou, Y., Xian, X. M.,
Chen, J. N., Wang, P. X., Zhou, L., & Dong, Y.
(2009). Genetic identication of edible bird’s
nest based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Food Research International, 42(8), 1053-1061.
Liu, X., Xue, C., Wang, Y., Li, Z., Xue, Y., & Xu,
J. (2012). The classication of sea cucumber
(Apostichopus japonicas) according to region of
origin using multi-element analysis and pattern
recognition techniques. Food Control, 23(2),
Lourie, S. A., & Tompkins, D. M. (2000). The diets
of Malaysian swiftlets. Ibis, 142(4), 596-602.
Lowenstam, H. S. & Weiner, S. (1989). O n
biomineralization. (p.324). New York: Oxford
University Press.
Ma, F., & Liu, D. (2012). Sketch of the edible bird’s
nest and its important bioactivities. Food
Research International, 48(2), 559-567.
Ma, F. C., Liu, D. C., & Dai, M. X. (2012). The effects
of the edible bird’s nest on sexual function of
male castrated rats. African Journal of Pharmacy
and Pharmacology, 6(41), 2875-2879.
Malaysian Food Act 1983 (Act 281) and Regulations.
(2014). Malaysia: International Law Book
Services (Twelfth Schedule).
Manan, Z., & Othman, M. S. H. (2012). An economic
analysis of swiftlet edible bird’s nest in industry.
Malaysia: Forestry Department Peninsular
Malaysia (Chapter 4).
Marcone, M. F. (2005). Characterization of the
edible bird’s nest the “Caviar of the East”. Food
Research International, 38(10), 1125-1134.
Matos-Reyes, M. N., Simonot, J., López-Salazar,
O., Cervera, M. L., & de la Guardia, M. (2013).
Authentication of Alicante’s Mountain cherries
protected designation of origin by their mineral
prole. Food Chemistry, 141(3), 2191-2197.
Matsukawa, N., Matsumoto, M., Bukawa, W., Chiji,
H., Nakayama, K., Hara, H., & Tsukahara,
T. (2011). Improvement of bone strength and
dermal thickness due to dietary edible bird’s
nest extract in ovariectomized rats. Bioscience,
Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 75(3), 590-
Norhayati, M. K., Azman, O., & Wan Nazaimoon, W.
M. (2010). Preliminary study of the nutritional
content of Malaysian edible bird’s nest.
Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 16(3), 389-396.
Norhayati, M. T., Suhaimi, S., Foo, T. F., M. Suhaimi,
M., & M. Talib, L. (2013). Temporal distribution
and chemical characterization of atmospheric
particulate matter in the Estern Coast of
Peninsular Malaysia. Aerosol and Air Quality
Research, 13(2), 584-595.
Northup, D. E. & Lavoie, K. H. (2010).
Geomicrobiology of cave: A Review.
Geomicrobiology Journal, 18(3), 199-222.
Major Minerals Composition Data
195Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 39 (2): 181 - 196 (2016)
Nurul Huda, M. Z., Zuki, A. B. Z., Azhar, K., Goh,
Y. M., Suhaimi, H., Awang Hazmi, A. J., &
Zairi, M. S. (2008). Proximate, elemental and
fatty acid analysis of pre-processed edible bird’s
nest (Aerodramus fuciphagus): A comparison
between regions and type of nest. Journal of
Food Technology, 6(1), 39-44.
Pettersen, R. C. (1984). The Chemical Composition
of Wood. In R. Rowell), The Chemistry of Solid
Wood (p. 119). American Chemical Society.
Roggo, Y., Duponchel, L., & Huvenne (2003).
Comparison of supervised pattern recognition
methods with McNemar’s statistical test
Application to qualitative analysis of sugar
beet by near-infrared spectroscopy. Analytica
Chimica Acta, 477(2), 187-200.
Roh, K. B., Lee, J., Kim, Y. S., Park, J., Kim, J. H.,
Lee, J., & Park D. (2012). Mechanism of edible
bird’s nest extract-induced proliferation of
human adipose-derived stem cells. Evidence-
based Complementary and Alternative Medicine,
Saengkrajang, W., Matan, N., & Matan, N. (2013).
Nutritional composition of the farmed edible
bird’s nest (Collocalia fuciphaga) in Thailand.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis,
31(1), 41-45.
Sia, Y. H., & Tan, J. H. (2014). Swiftlets farming for
production of edible bird’s nests. Patents US
8651061 B2.
Wolfenden, E. B. (1965). Bau mining district, West
Sarawak, Malaysia Part I: Bau. Malaysia:
Government Printing Ofce, Kuching, Sarawak,
(Chapter II).
Wu, Y., Chen, Y., Wang, B., Bai, L., Wu, R. H., Ge,
Y., & Yuan, F. (2010). Application of SYBRgreen
PCR and 2DGE methods to authenticate edible
bird’s nest food. Food Research International,
43(8), 2020-2026.
Zainal Abidin, F., Chua, K. H., Ng, S. L., Mohd Ramli,
E. S., Lee, T. H., & Abd Ghafar, N. (2011).
Effects of edible bird’s nest (BN) on cultured
rabbit corneal keratocytes. BMC Complementary
and Alternative Medicine, 11(1), 94.
... Minerals content in ESN is highly affected by the external factors of where ESN is harvested such as the habitat of swiftlets (Seow et al., 2016). The mineral found in ESN includes sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron (Table 4). ...
... The mineral found in ESN includes sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and iron (Table 4). These minerals in ESN are also significantly influenced by the food sources consumed by the swiftlets (Ma, Zhang, Liang, & Chen, 2020;Seow et al., 2016). These essential micro-nutrients found in ESN are beneficial to our body metabolisms such as moderator in enzymatic reaction, cofactors and other essential functions. ...
... Nutritional and mineral content of edible swiftlet's nest (ESN)(Hui Yan et al., 2021;Noor et al., 2018;Seow et al., 2016). ...
Background Edible swiftlet's nest (ESN) is dried gelatinized saliva secreted by swiftlets during the breeding season. The ESN has been widely consumed as a food and medicine since the ancient dynasty of China, particularly in the practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). As a food with health-promoting effects, this made ESN a potential functional food. Whereby, functional food is food that can be consumed in the daily diet which then enhanced human health through nutritional aspect, but not as the cure of a disease. Scope and approach In this review, we discussed ESN as a potential functional food through the bioactive nutritional components and health benefits of ESN in promoting good health. Scientific evidence has proven that ESN consists of the unique glycoprotein of great value which provides high nutritional and functional properties for human health benefits. These include anti-ageing, anti-hypertension, immunity and neurological enhancement contributed by not only the unique glycoprotein but also sialic acid, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and other bioactive compounds. Key findings and conclusions The ESN appeared to be categorized as a functional food, with various functionality, applications, nutritional composition and therapeutic benefits committed by its components. This review also pronounces recent development of ESN as hydrolysate in the form of bioactive glycopeptide with improvements in terms of solubility, functional and nutritional benefits that broaden its applications in various industries.
... Chemo-metrics usually was integrated with conventional or innovative analytical techniques to trace geographical origin and farming systems, or authenticate adulterated high-value commodities [17]. Interestingly, previous studies reported that some micro [13] or macro elements [18] contents were significantly different. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a high throughput technique that can simultaneously analyze multiple inorganic elements and has been successfully applied for the identification of the geographical origin of agricultural products such as honey [19], Italian saffron [20], and Chinese apples [21]. ...
... Bioleaching from limestone also can contribute to the higher content of Mn, Sr, and Cd [30]. In House-EBNs, Na and Cu contents were greater than those in Cave-EBN, especially Na being as twice as high as that in Cave-EBN, being consistent with a previous report [18]. In addition, Seow et al. attributed the higher Na content in House-EBN to the accumulation of NaCl from the use of marine aerosols for the humidification [18]. ...
... In House-EBNs, Na and Cu contents were greater than those in Cave-EBN, especially Na being as twice as high as that in Cave-EBN, being consistent with a previous report [18]. In addition, Seow et al. attributed the higher Na content in House-EBN to the accumulation of NaCl from the use of marine aerosols for the humidification [18]. However, this cannot be justified, as the natural limestone caves producing Cave-EBN are usually near coastal areas. ...
Full-text available
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is a high-value health-promoting tonic from swiftlets. However, cheap House-EBN is usually masqueraded as expensive Cave-EBN for profiteering. Efficient scientific means are required to trace Cave-EBN. After microwave digestion of EBN lyophilizing powder, its mineral element compositions were examined by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Influences of two key factors, production environment and country, on the distribution of 21 elements were analyzed. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) coupled with leave-one out cross validation was applied for modeling. Classifier generalization performance was assessed by the Confusion Matrix approach. ICP-MS identified the presence of 21 macro and micro elements with contributions of 99.65% and 0.35%, respectively. A two-way ANOVA established that B, Na, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Sr, and Cd were the production-environment-specific elements. Among four different combinations based on three potential variables (Ca, Na, and Sr), Na/Ca was identified as the best among them having 100% specificity on tracing Cave-EBN. In conclusion, EBN was a good mineral element source. The methodology of integration of ICP-MS with chemo-metrics proved to be a powerful tool for tracing Cave-EBN.
... Due to the geographical distribution of swiftlet, Indonesia is the country with the highest production of EBN accounting 85% of the world market, followed by Malaysia and Thailand (1,18). Therefore, the differences among the EBNs from different production sites (natural cave and swiftlet house) and geographical origin (countries) have aroused interest and been massively studied in the field (4,(19)(20)(21)(22). However, the differences of EBN obtained from different swiftlet houses at various locations in Malaysia have not been comprehensively studied, especially with the inclusion of secondary metabolites. ...
... Besides, the minerals composition of insects is varied in the habitat with different types of water sources. Such differences had contributed to the mineral levels in the EBN (19,21). This further explained the importance and the effect of water sources on the insect and subsequently contributed to the EBNs. ...
Full-text available
Background: Edible Bird's Nest (EBN) is famously consumed as a food tonic for its high nutritional values with numerous recuperative and therapeutic properties. EBN is majority exploited from swiftlet houses but the differences in terms of metabolite distribution between the production site of house EBN is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the metabolite distribution and to determine the relationship pattern for the metabolite distribution of house EBNs from different locations in Malaysia. Methods: The differences of metabolite distribution in house EBN were studied by collecting the samples from 13 states in Malaysia. An extraction method of eHMG was acquired to extract the metabolites of EBN and was subjected to non-targeted metabolite profiling via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unsupervised multivariate analysis and Venn diagram were used to explore the relationship pattern among the house EBNs in Malaysia. The geographical distribution surrounded the swiftlet house was investigated to understand its influences on the metabolite distribution. Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) combined with correlation coefficient revealed the differences between the house EBNs in Malaysia with four main clusters formation. The metabolites distribution among these clusters was unique with their varied combination of geographical distribution. Cluster 1 grouped EBNs from Selangor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu which geographically distributed with major oil palm field in township; Cluster 2 included Perak and Sarawak with high distribution of oil palm in higher altitude; Cluster 3 included Perlis, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang from lowland of paddy field in village mostly and Cluster 4 grouped Sabah, Pahang, Johor which are majorly distributed with undeveloped hills. The metabolites which drove each cluster formation have happened in a group instead of individual key metabolite. The major metabolites that characterised Cluster 1 were fatty acids, while the rest of the clusters were peptides and secondary metabolites. Conclusion: The metabolite profiling conducted in this study was able to discriminate the Malaysian house EBNs based on metabolites distribution. The factor that most inferences the differences of house EBNs were the geographical distribution, in which geographical distribution affects the distribution of insect and the diet of swiftlet.
... The amount of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium are high in the EBN's ash content, followed by traces of iron, zinc, copper and phosphorus. [17,27] An elemental test by Marcone [28] reported more calcium found in the white EBN than red EBN, but the findings are in contradiction with Seow et al. [29] showing more calcium in cave EBN than house EBN, where the red EBN usually harvested from the cave. In addition, white EBN contained less potassium, magnesium and iron than red EBN [28] and cave EBN contained less magnesium and sodium than house EBN. ...
... In addition, white EBN contained less potassium, magnesium and iron than red EBN [28] and cave EBN contained less magnesium and sodium than house EBN. [29] The differences in ash content of produced EBN can be explained by the variation of food sources and habitat area among swiftlets. [18] Safety profile showed heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury, lead or cadmium are not detected from cleaned EBN. ...
... The amount of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium are high in the EBN's ash content, followed by traces of iron, zinc, copper and phosphorus. [17,27] An elemental test by Marcone [28] reported more calcium found in the white EBN than red EBN, but the findings are in contradiction with Seow et al. [29] showing more calcium in cave EBN than house EBN, where the red EBN usually harvested from the cave. In addition, white EBN contained less potassium, magnesium and iron than red EBN [28] and cave EBN contained less magnesium and sodium than house EBN. ...
... In addition, white EBN contained less potassium, magnesium and iron than red EBN [28] and cave EBN contained less magnesium and sodium than house EBN. [29] The differences in ash content of produced EBN can be explained by the variation of food sources and habitat area among swiftlets. [18] Safety profile showed heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury, lead or cadmium are not detected from cleaned EBN. ...
Full-text available
Edible bird’s nest (EBN), the swiftlet’s nest, has been consumed for centuries as a tonic or health food. The information upon the usage and benefits of the EBN are largely based on historical and observational reports since its discovery, until some were proven scientifically at recent times. Studies have been conducted on the major components of the EBN, i.e. glycoprotein, in attempts to elucidate the roles of the glycoprotein in terms of functionality toward health improvement. This article presents a review of the physicochemical and nutritional composition of EBN from different harvested locations and its functional properties. The conversion of EBN glycoproteins to glycopeptides via suitable hydrolysis methods to produce bioactive EBN glycopeptides was demonstrated, and it showed improvements in the functionality and nutritional values of EBN. Some applications of EBN glycopeptides into the new development of food and beverage products showed positive results, implicated to the bioavailability of the EBN glycopeptides. The combined information in this review will benefit the scientific communities, EBN manufacturers, and nutraceutical industries.
... It is the 'gray area' that many malpractices including adulteration and negligent handling of this precious health modulating animal bioproduct especially during the cleaning process. Previously the composition of EBN nutrients was based on different colors, production sites and geographical origins (Halimi et al., 2014;Lukman & Wibawan, 2018;Norhayati et al., 2010;Saengkrajang et al., 2013;Seow et al., 2016a;Seow et al., 2016b). However, none of these literatures reported the difference content in EBN on unclean and cleaned. ...
Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) has been used as a health modulator for many centuries. Nutrient degradation in EBN always happen during cleaning process due to many factors such as temperature and long soaking time in water. The present study attempts to find the difference between unclean and cleaned EBN in their amino acid composition. A total of 65 EBN samples were collected directly from swiftlet premises in 13 states of Malaysia to ensure the coverage of geographical location differences. A standardized cleaning method had been adapted from the industry to clean the collected EBN sample in the lab. Then it was analysed for amino acids composition. After that OPLS-DA multivariate model was used to discriminate the unclean and cleaned EBN on 18 types of amino acids composition. The model was robust with classification and predictive ability of 76.1% and 64.5%, respectively. The model was further validated with sample blind test and 100% of the sample was accurately fall into their respective cluster, unclean and cleaned EBN. The findings suggest that three major amino acids with the highest VIP value were Aspartic acid, Methionine and Glutamic acid and proposed as the marker for discriminating the unclean and cleaned EBN.
... At present, the main analytical methods for geographical origins identification included nutritional [8] or mineral profile [9], gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) [10], electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) [11,12], polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [13,14], fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) [15,16], machine vision [17], Raman micro-spectroscopy [18] and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) [19], loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay [20], thermal analysis method [21]. Although these methods have been successfully applied in the discrimination of geographic origin, some drawbacks greatly limited their practice use outside the lab, such as the requirement of expensive instrument, highly skilled operators and time waste. ...
Full-text available
A smart handheld device based on colorimetric sensor array and smart cellphone was constructed to discriminate geographical origins of edible bird’s nest (EBN). Three hundred and twenty EBN samples were collected from Malaysia and Indonesia. The colorimetric sensor array consists of chemo-response dyes and was used to capture the odor molecule. The smart cellphone was used to obtain images and to extract red, green and blue colors using in-house software before and after contact with each sample. The differences in the nutritional (carbohydrate, protein and Sialic acid) and volatile components (VCs) between Malaysian and Indonesian EBNs were measured by conventional chemical methods. The colorimetric sensor arrays showed a unique pattern of color changes upon its exposure to EBN from different geographical origins. Data analysis was performed using pattern recognition algorithms including principal component analysis (PCA), Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and partial least square regression (PLSR). The PCA and HAC were applied to investigate the similarity between sample groups. The PLS model was developed to demonstrate the relation between colorimetric responses and characteristic VCs of EBN. For the PLS model, the value of correlation coefficient is higher than 0.86 in calibration and prediction set. Results demonstrated that the smart handheld device was capable for geographical origin discrimination of EBN.
... Other than insects, Cave Swiftlet also interested on the water resources located under Dhanyangan. Cave Swiftlet has a unique behavior of drinking the raindrop or direct contact with water surfaces while flying [19]. Their behavior make them usually seen flying near the open water surface or flying in rainy or windy condition, in contrast with the other birds that avoid the physiological disadvantage when flying in the bad weather [20][21]. ...
Full-text available
We investigated the bird composition and preference at visiting the sacred figs (Ficus sp.) and its adjacent area in two villages of Tengger tribe: Ngadas and Poncokusumo, Malang, Indonesia. We applied the point count method and the sacred tree became the center of point count circle. We recorded 16154 individual birds in 35 days of observation, consisted of 46 species and 24 families. The bird composition composed of 362 predators, 9452 insectivores, 6029 omnivores, 278 nectarivores, and 33 frugivores. The observed bird were recorded utilizing seedling (652 individuals), sapling (3122 individuals), pole (3440 individuals), perching on a tree (2782 individuals), and flying overs (6158 individuals). Most of the insectivores were recorded flying over, where this character is owned by Cave Swiftlet. Figs, as an important component at the sacred area, provides many important component that could support the bird life and regeneration process. The presence of sacred tree also improving the relation between birds and plants, higher than those in the urban area or natural forest, and resulted a positive impact to the sustainable system of its surrounding agriculture. Keywords: Bird, fig, sacred area, Bromo Tengger Semeru
Cave-harvested edible bird nest (EBN) is a high-priced commodity, that often being counterfeited with lower-priced house-farmed EBN. In this study, cave-harvested EBN and house-farmed EBN were classified based on to the concentration of calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) present. To solve the convergence failure problem caused by the complete separation of the EBN data, a logistic regression model analysis on 48 EBN samples harvested from Malaysia and Indonesia through a mineral ratio approach was adopted. Out of the 3 logistic regression models developed, the model consisting of Ca/Na ratio and Mg/K ratio gave the best performance showing no convergence failure of Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and both the explanatory variables were highly significant. The result indicated that both Ca/Na ratio and Mg/K ratio, affecting the probability of EBN type to be cave-harvested EBN in a positive manner. The logistic regression model developed with the Ca/Na ratio and Mg/K ratio gave a 100% specificity and 91.67% sensitivity in classifying the EBN type. The results of the analysis were verified using the Receiver Operating Characteristics curves. The validation result indicated that the model has a very good overall diagnostic accuracy in classifying the EBN type based on the mineral ratio.
Edible bird’s nest (E-BN) or “Caviar of the East” is a premium and expensive cuisine well-known for the Chinese. It is saliva secreted from two specific swiftlets (Aerodramus maximus and Aerodramus fuciphagus). Two types of E-BN, namely house nests, and cave nests, are abundant in the South-East Asia region. The constituents, especially nitrate and nitrite, can be varied, depending on habitat, or feed available, etc. Protein (e.g., glycoprotein) is the major component of E-BN, followed by carbohydrates. Sialic acid is another essential constituent related to health promotion. E-BN is commonly utilized for the manufacturing of beverages or instant soup. E-BN in other forms such as capsules can serve as a supplement in the future due to its health promoting impact. In addition, the selected technology for quality improvement of E-BN especially from broken nests or flakes or other co-products is still required, while maintaining the eating quality to meet consumer’s demand. Thus, E-BN can be fully exploited and is still considered a valuable bird’s product with health benefits.
Full-text available
Abstract: This study was performed with the aim to evaluate the proximate, elemental and fatty acid analysis of pre-processed edible birds&apos; nests ( Aerodramus fuciphagus) and their comparison between the regions and type of nests . The samples of edible birds&apos; nests ...
... species whose nests are made purely or almost purely of saliva that are most prized and sought after, especially the genus Aerodramus and/or ... Nests produced by such semi-domesticated swiftlets may be collected once the juvenile bird had abandoned and left its nest to fly ...
This work investigated the chemical and mineral compositions of a farmed edible bird's nest (EBN) of Collocalia fuciphaga collected from different regions of Thailand: the Trat province in the east, the Phetchaburi province in the west and the Nakhon Si Thammarat, Satun and Narathiwat provinces in the south. The chemical composition was determined according to official AOAC methods and an inductively coupled plasma-based technique used to analyse the minerals. The results revealed that all of the EBNs examined mainly consisted of protein (61.0-66.9%) with 15.9-31.6 mg/g protein of essential amino acids and carbohydrates (25.4-31.4%). Sulfur-containing essential amino acids (methionine and cysteine) and glutamine were the main amino acid constituents. Major mineral elements detected were sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K). All EBNs appeared to be good sources of Ca and Mg according to the adult dietary reference intake (DRI). The farmed EBNs collected from the Nakhon Si Thammarat and Trat provinces in particular contained sulfur essential amino acids which met the requirement of the reference pattern recommended by FAO/WHO/UNU.
In this study, the effects of edible bird’s nest on sexual function of male castrated rats were investigated for the first time. The testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2) levels, the penis and prostate and seminal vesicle indexes, and the protein expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were estimated. The prostate and seminal vesicle index and the expression of eNOS increased significantly in groups treated with edible bird’s nest in comparison to the control group. The results demonstrated that the edible bird’s nest may promote the sexual function of male castrated rats and T was supposed to be responsible for this function. Edible bird’s nest may serve as an effective medicine for erectile dysfunction (ED) treatment. Key words: Edible bird’s nest, sexual function, castrated rats, erectile dysfunction, hormones, nitric oxide synthase.
The main outcome of this work is an elaboration of classification models for seventy-five wine samples representing the most widespread brands of Croatian wines. Analytical measurements are performed by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma, allowing the determination of individual elements. Nine wine varieties originated from three Croatian viticulture regions and thirty-one chemical descriptors (element concentrations of contained elements) are used for their characterization. Different wine categories are characterized by chemometrical techniques, mainly by principal component analysis, cluster analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and analysis of variance. Their role is to discover the elements important for distinct characterization of individual wine categories as well as to assess the possibility of wine samples from different countries being recognized from the increased/decreased content of some elements.
Edible Bird's nests (EBN) have been adulterated with less expensive materials, including white fungus, agar–agar, fried pigskin, egg white and red seaweed, for several years. To protect consumers and regulate the EBN market, it is necessary to establish a robust method for detecting these adulterants in EBN. Herein, we established a TaqMan-based real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to specifically detect EBN component and four common adulterants: white fungus, agar, pigskin and egg white. Therefore, five sets of primers and probes were designed for these five components. The assays were specific and reproducible, and the relative detection limits were 0.5% EBN in white fungus, 0.001% white fungus in EBN, 0.5% agar in EBN, 0.001% fried pigskin in EBN and 1% egg white in EBN. These detection levels are capable of effectively detecting the adulterants in commercial samples.
The edible bird's nest is a nest made from the saliva of swiftlets (Aves: Apodidae). It is highly acclaimed as a catholicon and is a comprehensive health food. Increasing desire for the edible bird's nest makes the investigation of the nests urgent. There is a broad and growing interest in knowing more about the components and the nutritional and medicinal values of the edible bird's nest. This review discusses the research on the edible bird's nest currently, especially the research on its bioactivities. The content of water-soluble proteins, carbohydrates, inorganic salts, and various kinds of elements shows the important nutritional value of the edible bird's nest. The reported bioactivities and nutritional value of the edible bird's nest include the potential for mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like activity, anti-influenza virus, hemagglutination-inhibitory activity, lectin-binding activity, improvement of bone strength and dermal thickness, and hormone content etc. In the future, more scientific work should be done to fully elucidate the biological and medicinal functions of the edible bird's nest. The relationships of components and functions of the nest should be studied more. Bioactive components need to be isolated and purified to make full use of the edible bird's nest.