Content uploaded by Shrinath Baliga
All content in this area was uploaded by Shrinath Baliga on Oct 14, 2017
Content may be subject to copyright.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) oil
Ramakrishna Pai Jakribettu, Rekha Boloor, Harshith P Bhat, Andrew Thaliath, Raghavendra
Haniadka, Manoj P Rai, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga
Ramakrishna Pai Jakribettu, Department of Microbiology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore,
Karnataka, India 575002. email@example.com
Rekha Boloor, Department of Microbiology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
Harshith P Bhat, Department of Biotechnology, Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College for Women,
Malleswarm, Bangalore, India 560012. firstname.lastname@example.org
Andrew Thaliath, Father Muller Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002.
Raghavendra Haniadka, Father Muller Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002.
Manoj P Rai, Father Muller Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002. email@example.com
Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, Father Muller Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002.
Dr MS Baliga,
Father Muller Research Centre,
Karnataka, India 575003.
Fax: +91-824-2437402; +91-824-2436352
Addresses and emails of Departmental Contact in your absence (spare mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Main text: Word text: 3669 (with figures and table : 5294)
Number of Figures: 02
Number of Tables: 03
Number of references: 30
Words in references: 778
Abbreviated title of paper: Ginger oils in food preservation
Zingiber officinale commonly known as ginger is one of the most commonly used spice worldwide with
medicinal value. It has been used extensively in various traditional and folk medicinal systems around the world.
Marinating or usage of ginger in food preparation is useful in maintenance of the health as well prevention of food
spoilage and reports indicate that the antimicrobial effects contribute towards the observed effects. The ginger oil as a
very good antibacterial, antifungal property and prevents food borne diseases when used in food preparation. Ginger is
also reported to prevent rancidity, thereby increasing the shelf life of lipid containing foods. The phytochemicals in
ginger oil also possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant and anti peroxidative effects. These properties are attributed
to the plethora of biologically active compounds present in the fresh as well dried ginger oils. The antioxidant and lipid
peroxidation inhibition properties of ginger prevent peroxidative damage, indicating the benefits of ginger in prevention
of microbial food spoilage, free radical-induced damage and rancidity.
Key words: Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, food spoilage, rancidity
List of Abbrevation:
2, 2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) = ABTS*+
Butylated hydroxyanisole = BHA
Butylated hydroxytoluene = BHT
Popyl gallate = PG
Tertbutylhydroquinone = TBHQ
Hydrogen peroxide = H2O2
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration = MIC
Ginger (Figure 1), the root of the plant Zingiber officinale roscoe that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, is
globally one of the most commonly used spice and medicinal agent. The plant is known as Sringavera in Sanskrit and it is
speculated that this term may have given way to Zingiberi in Greek and then to the Latin term Zingiber (Vasala, 2004).
Historical evidence indicates that the plant was originally indigenous to the South-East Asia (today’s Northeast India) but
is today also found growing in other parts of the world (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Warrier, 1989). During the medieval
times, ginger was exported from India to other parts of the world. Today, ginger is cultivated in the other tropical
countries like Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Australia, Fiji, Jamaica, Nepal, Haiti, Mexico and Hawaii
and today, India and China are the leading providers to the world market (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Warrier, 1989).
Figure 1: Photograph of ginger
Ginger has been cultivated for thousands of years as a spice. It is an important cash crop in India and is grown
primarily in the states of Kerala, Karnataka and Northeast India (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala 2004). Of the Indian
varieties, the Cochin and Calicut ginger, have a lemon-like bye note and are popular (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala
2004). When compared to the Indian varieties, the Chinese ginger is low in pungency and is principally exported as
preserves in sugar syrup or as sugar candy (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala 2004). The yield and oil characteristic and
content vary with cultivar and environmental factors. There are many local varieties grown over the world. More than 400
accessions of ginger are maintained at the Indian Institute for Spice Research in Calicut, Kerala, India (Vasala 2004). The
following Indian cultivars are results of selection by the Indian Institute for Spice Research with high yield and high oil
content (Vasala, 2004). With respect to the African varieties, the Jamaican ginger is highly popular basically due to its
delicate aroma and fine-textured powder, while the Nigerian and Sierra Leone dried ginger possess camphoraceous and
coarser odor and are rich in both aroma and pungency factors (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala 2004).
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta-Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta-Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta-Flowering plants
Family: Zingiberaceae - Ginger family
Genus: Zingiber P. Mill. - Ginger
Species: Zingiber officinale Roscoe - Garden ginger
Ginger is said to be Indian in origin and is known as “Adrak” in hindi language (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala
2004). It is a tropical plant and needs plenty of heat and humidity for good growth. It is a perennial rhizomatous plant with
pale yellowish, thick lobed rhizome having tuberous joint. On cultivation, the plant may grown as high as 90cm with a s
stalk like green reed arising directly from the root, with a flowering stalk the plant may reach a height of around 90cm on
cultivation (Schauenberg and Paris, 1977).
The leaves are simple, distichously narrow, alternate, lanceolate and oblong with a sheathing base. The flowering
stalk or inflorescence arises directly from the root ending in a solitary, pendulcated oblong scallop spike. The flowers are
calyx superior, gamesephalous, open splitting on one side. Eventhough the ginger flowers and bruised stem has
charascteristic aromatic fragnance, the rhizome is the most useful part of the plant (Schauenberg and Paris, 1977).
Globally, ginger in cultivated in India, China, West Indies, Jamaica and Africa. India is the leading producer in
Ginger. It is cultivated in most of the states in India Leading states being namely Kerala, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh,
Mizoram, Sikkim, Nagaland and Orissa .There are several cultivars of ginger grown in India and are named after the
localities where they are like Maran, Ernad, Himachal and Nadia. But, international cultivars like Rio-de-Janeiro also
become famous for their higher yield (Srinivasan, et al., 2009). Some of the important Indian cultivars promoted by Indian
Institute for Spice Research include Rejatha, Mahima, IISR- Varada, Suprabha, Suruchi, Suravi and Himagiri (Srinivasan
et al., 2009).
Ginger needs warm, humid climate for good yield and cultivated well at an altitude of 1500 metres above sea
level. It grows well in a climate with moderate rainfall with well drained soil like sandy loam rich in humus. It is
recommended not to grow ginger in same soil year after year, but to have rotation of crop. It is best to plant ginger in the
pre-monsoon period, after burning the surface soil for the higher yield and reduce disease incidence.
The Seed rhizome, a portion of rhizome is used for propagation, measuring 2.5- 5.0cm length and weighing 20-25
grams each having one or two buds. It is manured with cattle or compost manure in split doses. The crop is harvested after
8 months of planting when the leaves turn yellow and start drying up gradually. The rhizomes are lifted carefully after
digging soil and are separated from the dried leaves and roots. The rhizome is washed to clean the soil and the outer skin
is removed for domestic use. To prevent damage of oil cells which are just below the outer skin, deep scraping is avoided.
The volatile oil is extracted from the rhizome / plant material by water, steam distillation or application of microwave and
liquid carbon dioxide (Sellar, 2001).
Usage and Applications (831)
Studies have shown that ginger rhizome contains plethora of biologically active compounds and that the aroma
and flavor are determined by a number of factors that include the geographic origin, the maturity of the rhizomes at the
time of harvest, and the method by which the extracts are prepared (Govindarajan 1982 a, b). Phytochemical studies
have shown that ginger rhizome contains 3-6% fatty oil, 9% protein, 60-70% carbohydrates, 3-8% crude fiber, about 8%
ash, 9-12% water and 2-3% volatile oil (Govindarajan, 1982 a, b; Ali et al.,2008). The rhizomes also contain proteolytic
enzyme zingibain, extractable oleoresins, vitamins and minerals (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala, 2004). Ginger also
contains the non-volatile pungent phytochemicals of ginger consists of gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone that
contribute to the warm pungent sensation in the mouth and their concentration and ratio various with the form of the
ginger (Govindarajan, 1982a,b).
Fresh ginger is rich in gingerols, a series of chemical homologs differentiated by the length of their unbranched
alkyl chains; [3–6]-, -, -, and -gingerols; and having a side-chain with 7–10, 12, 14, or 16 carbon atoms. Of
all the gingerols, the compound 6-gingerol [5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl) decan-3-one is the most
abundant (Govindarajan 1982 a, b). Studies with fresh Indian varieties of ginger have shown that the quantity of -
gingerol was about 104-965 g/g (Govindarajan 1982 a,b). Due to the presence of a -hydroxy keto group, these
gingerols are highly labile and easily undergo dehydration to form the corresponding shogaols (Govindarajan 1982 a,b).
Shogaols may be further converted to paradols by hydrogenation and is similar to gingerol (Govindarajan 1982 a, b).
The distinctive organoleptic properties of ginger are reported to be due to the steam volatile oil and their
concentration is highly dependent on the growing conditions, temperature, harvesting and process of the ginger rhizome
(Govindarajan 1982 a, b). Reports indicate that the volatile oil of ginger contains over 70 constituents and that the chief
constituent sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, which is responsible for the aroma seem to remain almost constant
(Govindarajan, 1982a; Vasala 2004). The sesquiterpene hydrocarbon zingiberene predominates and accounts for 20–
30% of the oil obtained from dry ginger (Connell and Sutherland, 1969; Yoshikawa et al., 1993). Reports also indicate
that citral with its two isomers geranial and neral, is especially high in the Brazilian-grown cultivars 'Capira' (6.6-7.0%
citral) and 'Gigante' (14.3-20.7% citral), while it is only 1.9-4.3% in some Chinese oils. Australian oils also have high
citral content, up to 27%, averaging 19% imparting a lemony aroma to the final product. The details of the ideal
characteristics in accordance to the Food chemical Codex standards for Ginger oil are stipulated in Table 1.
Table 1: The Food Chemical Codex Standards for Ginger oil (Anandaraj et al., 2001)
Relative density at 200C
-470 to -280
Not more than 20
The composition of fresh ginger oil shows that it contains more of oxygenated compounds (29%) compared to dry
ginger oil (14%) (Sasidharan and Menon, 2010). The higher content of geranial and other oxygenated compounds makes
fresh ginger oil more potent than dry ginger oil (Sasidharan and Menon, 2010). The content of hydrocarbon compounds
are more in dry ginger oil compared to fresh ginger oil (Sasidharan and Menon, 2010). Additionally, zingiberol is also
another predominant aromatic component of the rhizome (Govindarajan, 1982a; Vasala 2004). The other important
constituents of ginger oil are the mono and sesquiterpenes; camphene, -phellandrene, curcumene, cineole, geranyl
acetate, terphineol, terpenes, borneol, geraniol, limonene,-elemene, zingiberol, linalool, -zingiberene, -
sesquiphellandrene, -bisabolene, zingiberenol and -farmesene (Govindarajan, 1982a,b). Some of the important
phytochemicals of ginger oils are depicted in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Important phytochemicals present in the ginger oil
Depending on the variety, abundance, availability and processing units ginger oil may be produced from fresh or
dried rhizomes. Oil yield from dried rhizomes is generally from 1.5% to 3.0%. Ginger oil is extracted by steam distillation
where in dried rhizomes are ground to a coarse powder and loaded into a still. Following this steam is passed through the
powder to entrain the volatile components. Then these oil components are facilitated to condense with cold water as the
process separates it from the water. Additionally, cohobation, or re-distillation, is also shown to increase oil yield. Results
published by the Indian Institute for Spice Research have shown that the Mahima variety of ginger contains 2.4% of oil
while the Himagiri contains 1.6% of the essential oil. The details are enlisted in Table 2.
Table 2: Characteristics of improved cultivars from the Indian Institute for Spice Research, Cochin India
(Anandaraj et al., 2001).
Fresh yield (T/ ha)
Essential oil (%)
When compared to the fresh ginger, the oil from dried rhizomes have less of the low boiling point volatile
compounds as most of them evaporate during the drying process. Additionally, the unpeeled rhizomes are shown to be
having greater yield of oil than the peeled one. Chemical analysis has shown that the concentration of citral is lower in the
oil from dried plant material than in the raw ginger. The Cochin variety of ginger is shown to yield 1.5% to 2.2 % of an oil
rich in citral. The other low boiling point monoterpenes like -pinene, cineole, borneol, geraniol, geranial and neral are
less abundant and present in various proportions in dried varieties. Table 3 enlists the difference in the percentage
composition of the various phytochemicals in the dried and wet varieties of ginger.
Table 3: Difference in the phytochemical concentrations in the fresh and dry ginger (Sasidharan and Menon,
Fresh ginger oil (%)
Dry ginger oil (%)
T = Traces
Usage and Applications in Food Science (1234)
Ginger oil has been reported to possess antimicrobial effects and studies by, Natta and co workers (2008) have
shown that the essential oil of ginger extracted by hydrodistillation possess high antibacterial effects on food pathogens
(S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes), with a minimum concentration to inhibit B. cereus and L. monocytogenes
of 6.25 μg/ml (Natta et al., 2008). Subsequent studies have shown that the oil extracted from the leaf and rhizome were
moderately active against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus spizizenii and Staphylococcus
aureus, and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas stutzeri (Sivosathy
et al., 2011).
Studies with the gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 2162), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2602),
Micrococcus luteus (NCIM 2704), and gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (NCIM 2576), Pseudomonas
aeruginosa (NCIM 2200), Proteus vulgaris (NCIM 2813), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NCIM 2957) have also shown ginger
oil to be effective (Sayyad and Chaudhari, 2010). The results indicate that the antibacterial effects were as follows
Bacillus subtilis > Staphylococcus aureus > Escherichia coli = Proteus vulgaris > Pseudomonas aeruginosa >
Micrococcus luteus > Klebsiella pneumoniae (Sayyad and Chaudhari, 2010). Ginger oil has also been shown to possess
antibacterial effects on the growth of psycrotrophic food-borne bacteria (Fabio et al., 2003).
On a comparative note, recent studies by Sasidharan and Menon, (2010) have shown that the fresh ginger oil was
more effective than the dry ginger in inducing the antimicrobial effects on Aspergillus niger, Candida and Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, weaker towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae and inactive against Bacillus subtilis, Pencillium spp and
Trichoderma spp; while the dry ginger oil was more active towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa , on par with standard
towards Candida, weaker than standard against Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, Pencillium spp, Saccharomyces
cereviseae. Fresh ginger oil had an MIC value of <1 μg/mL against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans and. dry
ginger oil had an MIC value of less than 1 μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pencillium spp and Candida
albicans. Fresh ginger is more abundant in oxygenated compounds and the observed variance in the antimicrobial effects
is possibly due to this (Sasidharan and Menon, 2010).
Nanasombat and Lohasupthawee (2005) studied the antibacterial effects of the fresh ginger oil in standardized twenty
five bacterial strains (20 serotypes of Salmonella and 5 species of other enterobacteria) commonly involved in the
spoilage of food and those to be associated with food borne illness and observed that the antibacterial effects were as
follows Serratia marcescens> Klebsiella pneumoniae = S. Typhimurium DT104 (8748A-1) > Escherichia coli (DMST
4212) > S. Anatum (DMST 7108) = S. Choleraesuis ssp. Choleraesuis (DMST 8014) = S. Derby (DMST 8535) = S.
Enteritidis (DMST 10633) = S. Hadar = S. Newport (DMST 7101) = S. Newport (DMST 7101) = S. Orion (SAP
08991/02) = S. Rissen (DMST 7097) = S. Senftenberg (DMST 7113) = S. Typhimurium (DMST 0562, non-DT104 strain)
= Citrobacter freundii (DMST 1959) > S. Virchow (DMST 10635) = Salmonella Agona (DMST 10338). The essential oil
extract of ginger showed significant reduction in total vial count, Staphylococcus, E. coli and Salmonella counts at
dilution of 1: 150 and 1: 250 than the dilution of 1:500.The dilution at 1:150 is the best dilution for the effective reduction
of bacterial counts for both Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus) and Enterobacteriaeceae (E. coli and Salmonella) which
are the main contaminants seen in the poultry meat. But, the aqueous extract of ginger was not effective in reduction of
microbial counts (Sudharshan et al 2010).
Ginger oil prevents oxidative damage of food
The observation that certain synthetic compounds like the synthetic antioxidants BHA, BHT, PG and TBHQ can
retard/inhibit the process of lipid peroxidation and thereby increase the shelf life of food paved way for use of these
compounds as preventives of rancidity. However the use of these synthetic antioxidants needs to be highly monitored as at
higher concentrations they impart ill effects to the consumer and is therefore under strict regulation (Hettiarachchy et al.
1996). Additionally, many consumers are increasingly being apprehensive and avoiding foods prepared with preservatives
of chemical origin due to their possible ill effects. In lieu of these observations a need for alternative antioxidant
compounds was felt and studies have shown that many aromatic spices and some phytochemicals are beneficial.
Innumerable studies have shown that the various ginger extracts, the oil and some of its phytochemicals possess
free radical scavenging, antioxidant and anti peroxidative effects. The extract was observed to scavenge, superoxide,
hydroxyl, nitric oxide and ABTS*+ radicals in a dose-dependent manner in vitro (Baliga et al., 2003; Jagetia et al., 2004).
The important constituent 6-gingerol is shown to possess good antioxidant effects (Masuda et al., 2004), scavenger of
peroxyl radicals (Aeschbach et al., 1994) and cause a dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide production (Ippoushi et al.,
Cell free assays have also shown that the ginger extract prevents enzymatic lipid peroxidation, cumene
hydroperoxide and iron/ascorbate-induced oxidation of the membrane lipids (Shobana and Naidu, 2000). The antioxidant
activity of ginger extract was retained even after boiling for 30 min at 100 degrees C
, indicating that the spice
constituents were resistant to thermal denaturation and suggesting that in addition to imparting flavor to the food, ginger
possess potential health benefits by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation (Shobana and Naidu, 2000). Ginger oil is also
reported to inhibit the H2O2-induced oxidative damage (Lu et al., 2003). The phytochemical 6-gingerol is shown to
decrease peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes in the presence of iron (III) and ascorbate (Aeschbach et al., 1994).
With respect to the usefulness of ginger in preventing the peroxidative damage experiments have shown that the
dichloromethane extract from ginger was effective as a natural antioxidant in suppressing lipid oxidation. Incorporation of
the extract in sunflower oil (kept at 25 and 45 °C for 6 months) caused a very strong antioxidant activity that was almost
equal to that of synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT. The extract also showed good thermal stability and exhibited 85.2%
inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid when heated at 185°C for 120 min indicating its usefulness (Zia-ur-Rehman et
al., 2003). Subsequent studies have also shown that the incorporation of ginger rhizome extract in beef patties were
effective in controlling lipid oxidation and color changes during cold storage and that the effects were better than that of
the commercial antioxidants, sustane 20 and sustane HW-4 (Mansour and Khalil, 2010).
In conclusion, the validity of ginger oil in the food industry has been extensively reported which has been
summarized in this article. The antimicrobial properties and the property to prevent free radical-induced damage and
rancidity ginger helps increase the shelf life of food. Widespread application of ginger in food preservation will provide
food with desirable organoleptic properties, increase the shelf life and prevent wastage of food. Detail studies are required
to understand the more effective means of combining ginger with other food preservation methods as this will make
precious food available for the needy.
Zingiber officinale commonly known as ginger is one of the most commonly used spice worldwide with
medicinal value and has been cultivated for thousands of years.
Marinating or usage of ginger in food preparation is useful in maintenance of the health as well prevention of
Ginger rhizome contains plethora of biologically active compounds like zingiberol, the mono and sesquiterpenes;
camphene, β-phellandrene, curcumene, cineole, geranyl acetate, terphineol, terpenes, borneol, geraniol, limonene,
β -elemene, linalool, α-zingiberene, β sesquiphellandrene, β bisabolene, zingiberenol and β -farmesene
Ginger oil has antimicrobial activity against Gram positive, Gram negative microbes as well as fungi like
Aspergillus niger, Candida, which are responsible for food spoilage.
Ginger oil can retard/inhibit the process of lipid peroxidation and thereby increase the shelf life of food paved way
for its use as preventives of rancidity.
Ginger oil possesses free radical scavenging, antioxidant and anti peroxidative effects.
Titles to tables and figures
Figure 1. Photograph of Ginger rhizome
Figure 2. Important Phytochemicals present in Ginger oil
Table 1: The Food chemical Codex standards for Ginger oil
Table 2: Characteristics of improved cultivars from the Indian Institute for Spice Research, Cochin, Kerala, India.
Table 3: Difference in the phytochemical concentrations in the fresh and dry ginger
Aeschbach R, Löliger, J., Scott, B. C., Murcia, A., Butler, J., Halliwell, B., and Aruoma, O. I. (1994). Antioxidant
actions of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem Toxicol. 32: 31-36.
Anandaraj, M., Devasahayam, S., Zachariah, T.J., Eapen, S.J., Sasikumar, B., and Thankamani, C.K. 2001. Ginger
(Extension Pamphlet). J. Rema and M.S. Madan, Editors. Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut, Kerala, India.
Baliga, M. S., Jagetia, G. C., Rao, S. K., and Babu, K. (2003). Evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain
spices in vitro: a preliminary study. Nahrung 47: 261-264.
Chen, H. C., Chang, M. D., Chang, T. J (1985). Antibacterial properties of some spice plants before and after heat
treatment. Zhonghua Min Guo Wei Sheng Wu Ji Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 18: 190-5.
Connell, D., and Sutherland, M. (1969). A re-examination of gingerol, shogaol and zingerone, the pungent principles of
ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Aus J Chem. 22: 1033–1043.
Fabio, A., Corona, A., Forte, E., and Quaglio, P. (2003) Inhibitory activity of spices and essential oils on psychrotrophic
bacteria. New Microbiol. 26:115-20.
Govindarajan, V. S. (1982a) Ginger – chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 1. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr .
Govindarajan, V. S. (1982b) Ginger – chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation: part 2. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
Hettiarachchy, N. S., Glenn, K. C., Gnanasambandam, R., and Johnson, M. G. (1996). Natural antioxidant extracts from
fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) for ground beef patties. J Food Sci 61: 516-519.
Ippoushi, K., Azuma, K., Ito, H., Horie, H., Higashio, H. (2003). - Gingerol inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in
activated J774.1 mouse macrophages and prevents peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration reactions. Life Sci.
Jagetia, G., Baliga, M., and Venkatesh, P. (2004). Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), a dietary supplement, protects
mice against radiation-induced lethality: mechanism of action. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 19: 422-435.
Lai, P.K., Roy ,J.(2004) Antimicrobial and chemoprecentive properties of herbs and spices. Curr Med Chem, 11: 1451-
Lu, P., Lai, B. S., Liang, P., Chen, Z. T., and Shun, S. Q. (2003). Antioxidation activity and protective effection of
ginger oil on DNA damage in vitro Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 28:873-875.
Mansour, E. H., and Khalil, A. H. (2000) Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their application
to ground beef patties. Food Chemistry. 69: 135–141.
Masuda, Y., Kikuzaki, H., Hisamoto, M., and Nakatani, N. (2004). Antioxidant properties of gingerol related
compounds from ginger. Biofactors. 21: 293–296.
Nanasombat, S., and Lohasupthawee, P. (2005). Antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extracts and essential oils of
spices against salmonellae and other enterobacteria. KMITL Sci. Tech. J. 5: 527-538.
Natta, L., Orapin, K., Krittika, N., and Pantip, B. (2008). Essential oil from five Zingiberaceae for anti food-borne
bacteria. Int Food Res J. 15: 337-346.
Sasidharan, I.A., and Menon, N. (2010). Comparative chemical composition and antimicrobial activity fresh & dry
Ginger oils (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Int J Curr Pharma Res. 2: 39-43.
Sayyad, S. F., Chaudhari, S. R. (2010). Isolation of Volatile Oil from Some Plants of Zingiberaceae Family and
Estimation of Their Antibacterial Potential. J Curr Pharma Res. 4: 1-3
Schauenberg, P., and Paris,F., (1977). Guide to Medicinal Plants, Keats Publishing, New Canaan: CT. USA.
Sellar, W. (2001). The Directory of Essential Oil (Reprint). Essssexe. The C. W. Daniel Company. Ltd.
Shobana, S., and Naidu, K. A. (2000). Antioxidant activity of selected Indian spices. Prosta Leuko Ess Fatty Acids.
Sivasothy, Y.,Chong, W., K., Hamid, A., Eldeen, I., M., Sulaiman, S., F.,Awang, K.(2011) Essential oils of Zingiber
officinale var. rubrum Theilade and their antibacterial activitiesFood Chemistry.124: 514–517
Srinivasan, V., Thankamani, C., K., Dinesh, R.,Kandiannan, K., and Rajeev, P.(2009) Ginger. Spices Board, Ministry of
Commerce & Industry, Government of India, Cochin: India. p1-14.
Sudharshan, S., Fairoze, N., Ruban, S. W., Badhe, S. R., and Raghunath, B. V. (2010). Effect of Aqueous Extract and
Essential Oils of Ginger and Garlic as Decontaminant in Chicken Meat. Res J Poultry Sci. 3: 58-61
Vasala, P.A. (2004). Ginger. (ed) Peter, K. V. Handbook of Herbs and Spices Vol 1. Cochin India.
Warrier, P.K. (1989). Spices in Ayurveda. In: Strategies for Export Development of Spices. Ed. CK George, CR
Sivadasan, D Devakaran, KP. Sreekumari, Spices Board, Cochin and International Trade Centre, Geneva, p.28.
Yoshikawa, M., Hatakeyama, S., Chatani, N., Nishino, Y., and Yamahara, J. (1993). Qualitative and quantitative
analysis of bioactive principles in Zingiberis Rhizomaby means of high performance liquid chromatography and gas
liquid chromatography. On the evaluation of Zingiberis Rhizoma and chemical change of constituents during
Zingiberis Rhizomaprocessing. Yakugaku Zasshi. 113: 307-315.
Zia-ur-Rehman, Salariya, A. M., and Habib, F. (2003). Antioxidant activity of ginger extract in sunflower oil. J Sci Food
Agri. 83: 624–629.