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Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Oils

  • Malabar Medical College Hospital & Research Centre


Zingiber officinale Rosc., commonly known as ginger, is globally one of the most commonly used spices. It also possesses medicinal value and has been used extensively in various traditional and folk systems of medicine around the world. Marinating or addition of ginger oil has been shown to enhance the quality and shelf life of the food by preventing rancidity. Ginger oil is shown to possess good antibacterial, antifungal properties when used in food preparation. The antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibition properties of ginger prevent peroxidative damage, indicating the benefits of ginger in prevention microbial food spoilage, free radical-induced damage, and rancidity. These properties are attributed to the plethora of biologically active compounds present in the oil of both fresh and dried ginger.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) oil
Ramakrishna Pai Jakribettu, Rekha Boloor, Harshith P Bhat, Andrew Thaliath, Raghavendra
Haniadka, Manoj P Rai, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga
Ramakrishna Pai Jakribettu, Department of Microbiology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore,
Karnataka, India 575002.
Rekha Boloor, Department of Microbiology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
Harshith P Bhat, Department of Biotechnology, Maharani Lakshmi Ammanni College for Women,
Malleswarm, Bangalore, India 560012.
Andrew Thaliath, Father Muller Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002.
Raghavendra Haniadka, Father Muller Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002.
Manoj P Rai, Father Muller Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002.
Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, Father Muller Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India 575002.
For correspondence:
Dr MS Baliga,
Father Muller Research Centre,
Kankanady, Mangalore,
Karnataka, India 575003.
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Word count
Main text: Word text: 3669 (with figures and table : 5294)
Number of Figures: 02
Number of Tables: 03
Number of references: 30
Words in references: 778
Abbreviated title of paper: Ginger oils in food preservation
Abstract: (165)
Zingiber officinale commonly known as ginger is one of the most commonly used spice worldwide with
medicinal value. It has been used extensively in various traditional and folk medicinal systems around the world.
Marinating or usage of ginger in food preparation is useful in maintenance of the health as well prevention of food
spoilage and reports indicate that the antimicrobial effects contribute towards the observed effects. The ginger oil as a
very good antibacterial, antifungal property and prevents food borne diseases when used in food preparation. Ginger is
also reported to prevent rancidity, thereby increasing the shelf life of lipid containing foods. The phytochemicals in
ginger oil also possess free radical scavenging, antioxidant and anti peroxidative effects. These properties are attributed
to the plethora of biologically active compounds present in the fresh as well dried ginger oils. The antioxidant and lipid
peroxidation inhibition properties of ginger prevent peroxidative damage, indicating the benefits of ginger in prevention
of microbial food spoilage, free radical-induced damage and rancidity.
Key words: Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, food spoilage, rancidity
List of Abbrevation:
2, 2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) = ABTS*+
Butylated hydroxyanisole = BHA
Butylated hydroxytoluene = BHT
Popyl gallate = PG
Tertbutylhydroquinone = TBHQ
Hydrogen peroxide = H2O2
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration = MIC
Introduction: (350)
Ginger (Figure 1), the root of the plant Zingiber officinale roscoe that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae, is
globally one of the most commonly used spice and medicinal agent. The plant is known as Sringavera in Sanskrit and it is
speculated that this term may have given way to Zingiberi in Greek and then to the Latin term Zingiber (Vasala, 2004).
Historical evidence indicates that the plant was originally indigenous to the South-East Asia (today’s Northeast India) but
is today also found growing in other parts of the world (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Warrier, 1989). During the medieval
times, ginger was exported from India to other parts of the world. Today, ginger is cultivated in the other tropical
countries like Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Australia, Fiji, Jamaica, Nepal, Haiti, Mexico and Hawaii
and today, India and China are the leading providers to the world market (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Warrier, 1989).
Figure 1: Photograph of ginger
Ginger has been cultivated for thousands of years as a spice. It is an important cash crop in India and is grown
primarily in the states of Kerala, Karnataka and Northeast India (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala 2004). Of the Indian
varieties, the Cochin and Calicut ginger, have a lemon-like bye note and are popular (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala
2004). When compared to the Indian varieties, the Chinese ginger is low in pungency and is principally exported as
preserves in sugar syrup or as sugar candy (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala 2004). The yield and oil characteristic and
content vary with cultivar and environmental factors. There are many local varieties grown over the world. More than 400
accessions of ginger are maintained at the Indian Institute for Spice Research in Calicut, Kerala, India (Vasala 2004). The
following Indian cultivars are results of selection by the Indian Institute for Spice Research with high yield and high oil
content (Vasala, 2004). With respect to the African varieties, the Jamaican ginger is highly popular basically due to its
delicate aroma and fine-textured powder, while the Nigerian and Sierra Leone dried ginger possess camphoraceous and
coarser odor and are rich in both aroma and pungency factors (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala 2004).
Classification: (517)
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Kingdom: Plantae-Plants
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta-Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta-Seed plants
Division: Magnoliophyta-Flowering plants
Class: Liliopsida-Monocotyledons
Subclass: Zingiberidae
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae - Ginger family
Genus: Zingiber P. Mill. - Ginger
Species: Zingiber officinale Roscoe - Garden ginger
Botanical aspects
Ginger is said to be Indian in origin and is known as “Adrak” in hindi language (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala
2004). It is a tropical plant and needs plenty of heat and humidity for good growth. It is a perennial rhizomatous plant with
pale yellowish, thick lobed rhizome having tuberous joint. On cultivation, the plant may grown as high as 90cm with a s
stalk like green reed arising directly from the root, with a flowering stalk the plant may reach a height of around 90cm on
cultivation (Schauenberg and Paris, 1977).
The leaves are simple, distichously narrow, alternate, lanceolate and oblong with a sheathing base. The flowering
stalk or inflorescence arises directly from the root ending in a solitary, pendulcated oblong scallop spike. The flowers are
calyx superior, gamesephalous, open splitting on one side. Eventhough the ginger flowers and bruised stem has
charascteristic aromatic fragnance, the rhizome is the most useful part of the plant (Schauenberg and Paris, 1977).
Globally, ginger in cultivated in India, China, West Indies, Jamaica and Africa. India is the leading producer in
Ginger. It is cultivated in most of the states in India Leading states being namely Kerala, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh,
Mizoram, Sikkim, Nagaland and Orissa .There are several cultivars of ginger grown in India and are named after the
localities where they are like Maran, Ernad, Himachal and Nadia. But, international cultivars like Rio-de-Janeiro also
become famous for their higher yield (Srinivasan, et al., 2009). Some of the important Indian cultivars promoted by Indian
Institute for Spice Research include Rejatha, Mahima, IISR- Varada, Suprabha, Suruchi, Suravi and Himagiri (Srinivasan
et al., 2009).
Ginger needs warm, humid climate for good yield and cultivated well at an altitude of 1500 metres above sea
level. It grows well in a climate with moderate rainfall with well drained soil like sandy loam rich in humus. It is
recommended not to grow ginger in same soil year after year, but to have rotation of crop. It is best to plant ginger in the
pre-monsoon period, after burning the surface soil for the higher yield and reduce disease incidence.
The Seed rhizome, a portion of rhizome is used for propagation, measuring 2.5- 5.0cm length and weighing 20-25
grams each having one or two buds. It is manured with cattle or compost manure in split doses. The crop is harvested after
8 months of planting when the leaves turn yellow and start drying up gradually. The rhizomes are lifted carefully after
digging soil and are separated from the dried leaves and roots. The rhizome is washed to clean the soil and the outer skin
is removed for domestic use. To prevent damage of oil cells which are just below the outer skin, deep scraping is avoided.
The volatile oil is extracted from the rhizome / plant material by water, steam distillation or application of microwave and
liquid carbon dioxide (Sellar, 2001).
Usage and Applications (831)
Studies have shown that ginger rhizome contains plethora of biologically active compounds and that the aroma
and flavor are determined by a number of factors that include the geographic origin, the maturity of the rhizomes at the
time of harvest, and the method by which the extracts are prepared (Govindarajan 1982 a, b). Phytochemical studies
have shown that ginger rhizome contains 3-6% fatty oil, 9% protein, 60-70% carbohydrates, 3-8% crude fiber, about 8%
ash, 9-12% water and 2-3% volatile oil (Govindarajan, 1982 a, b; Ali et al.,2008). The rhizomes also contain proteolytic
enzyme zingibain, extractable oleoresins, vitamins and minerals (Govindarajan, 1982a, b; Vasala, 2004). Ginger also
contains the non-volatile pungent phytochemicals of ginger consists of gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone that
contribute to the warm pungent sensation in the mouth and their concentration and ratio various with the form of the
ginger (Govindarajan, 1982a,b).
Fresh ginger is rich in gingerols, a series of chemical homologs differentiated by the length of their unbranched
alkyl chains; [36]-, [8]-, [10]-, and [12]-gingerols; and having a side-chain with 710, 12, 14, or 16 carbon atoms. Of
all the gingerols, the compound 6-gingerol [5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy phenyl) decan-3-one is the most
abundant (Govindarajan 1982 a, b). Studies with fresh Indian varieties of ginger have shown that the quantity of [6]-
gingerol was about 104-965 g/g (Govindarajan 1982 a,b). Due to the presence of a -hydroxy keto group, these
gingerols are highly labile and easily undergo dehydration to form the corresponding shogaols (Govindarajan 1982 a,b).
Shogaols may be further converted to paradols by hydrogenation and is similar to gingerol (Govindarajan 1982 a, b).
The distinctive organoleptic properties of ginger are reported to be due to the steam volatile oil and their
concentration is highly dependent on the growing conditions, temperature, harvesting and process of the ginger rhizome
(Govindarajan 1982 a, b). Reports indicate that the volatile oil of ginger contains over 70 constituents and that the chief
constituent sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, which is responsible for the aroma seem to remain almost constant
(Govindarajan, 1982a; Vasala 2004). The sesquiterpene hydrocarbon zingiberene predominates and accounts for 20
30% of the oil obtained from dry ginger (Connell and Sutherland, 1969; Yoshikawa et al., 1993). Reports also indicate
that citral with its two isomers geranial and neral, is especially high in the Brazilian-grown cultivars 'Capira' (6.6-7.0%
citral) and 'Gigante' (14.3-20.7% citral), while it is only 1.9-4.3% in some Chinese oils. Australian oils also have high
citral content, up to 27%, averaging 19% imparting a lemony aroma to the final product. The details of the ideal
characteristics in accordance to the Food chemical Codex standards for Ginger oil are stipulated in Table 1.
Table 1: The Food Chemical Codex Standards for Ginger oil (Anandaraj et al., 2001)
Relative density at 200C
Refractive index
Optical rotation
-470 to -280
Not more than 20
The composition of fresh ginger oil shows that it contains more of oxygenated compounds (29%) compared to dry
ginger oil (14%) (Sasidharan and Menon, 2010). The higher content of geranial and other oxygenated compounds makes
fresh ginger oil more potent than dry ginger oil (Sasidharan and Menon, 2010). The content of hydrocarbon compounds
are more in dry ginger oil compared to fresh ginger oil (Sasidharan and Menon, 2010). Additionally, zingiberol is also
another predominant aromatic component of the rhizome (Govindarajan, 1982a; Vasala 2004). The other important
constituents of ginger oil are the mono and sesquiterpenes; camphene, -phellandrene, curcumene, cineole, geranyl
acetate, terphineol, terpenes, borneol, geraniol, limonene,-elemene, zingiberol, linalool, -zingiberene, -
sesquiphellandrene, -bisabolene, zingiberenol and -farmesene (Govindarajan, 1982a,b). Some of the important
phytochemicals of ginger oils are depicted in Figure 2.
Figure 2: Important phytochemicals present in the ginger oil
Depending on the variety, abundance, availability and processing units ginger oil may be produced from fresh or
dried rhizomes. Oil yield from dried rhizomes is generally from 1.5% to 3.0%. Ginger oil is extracted by steam distillation
where in dried rhizomes are ground to a coarse powder and loaded into a still. Following this steam is passed through the
powder to entrain the volatile components. Then these oil components are facilitated to condense with cold water as the
process separates it from the water. Additionally, cohobation, or re-distillation, is also shown to increase oil yield. Results
published by the Indian Institute for Spice Research have shown that the Mahima variety of ginger contains 2.4% of oil
while the Himagiri contains 1.6% of the essential oil. The details are enlisted in Table 2.
Table 2: Characteristics of improved cultivars from the Indian Institute for Spice Research, Cochin India
(Anandaraj et al., 2001).
Fresh yield (T/ ha)
Essential oil (%)
IISR- Varada
When compared to the fresh ginger, the oil from dried rhizomes have less of the low boiling point volatile
compounds as most of them evaporate during the drying process. Additionally, the unpeeled rhizomes are shown to be
having greater yield of oil than the peeled one. Chemical analysis has shown that the concentration of citral is lower in the
oil from dried plant material than in the raw ginger. The Cochin variety of ginger is shown to yield 1.5% to 2.2 % of an oil
rich in citral. The other low boiling point monoterpenes like -pinene, cineole, borneol, geraniol, geranial and neral are
less abundant and present in various proportions in dried varieties. Table 3 enlists the difference in the percentage
composition of the various phytochemicals in the dried and wet varieties of ginger.
Table 3: Difference in the phytochemical concentrations in the fresh and dry ginger (Sasidharan and Menon,
Fresh ginger oil (%)
Dry ginger oil (%)
Amyl acetate
1,8 cineole
γ terpinene
Transcarvone oxide
Bornyl acetate
Geranyl acetate
Sesquisabinene hydrate*
Total oxygenated
Total hydrocarbons
T = Traces
Usage and Applications in Food Science (1234)
Antimicrobial properties:
Ginger oil has been reported to possess antimicrobial effects and studies by, Natta and co workers (2008) have
shown that the essential oil of ginger extracted by hydrodistillation possess high antibacterial effects on food pathogens
(S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes), with a minimum concentration to inhibit B. cereus and L. monocytogenes
of 6.25 μg/ml (Natta et al., 2008). Subsequent studies have shown that the oil extracted from the leaf and rhizome were
moderately active against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus spizizenii and Staphylococcus
aureus, and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas stutzeri (Sivosathy
et al., 2011).
Studies with the gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 2162), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2602),
Micrococcus luteus (NCIM 2704), and gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli (NCIM 2576), Pseudomonas
aeruginosa (NCIM 2200), Proteus vulgaris (NCIM 2813), Klebsiella pneumoniae (NCIM 2957) have also shown ginger
oil to be effective (Sayyad and Chaudhari, 2010). The results indicate that the antibacterial effects were as follows
Bacillus subtilis > Staphylococcus aureus > Escherichia coli = Proteus vulgaris > Pseudomonas aeruginosa >
Micrococcus luteus > Klebsiella pneumoniae (Sayyad and Chaudhari, 2010). Ginger oil has also been shown to possess
antibacterial effects on the growth of psycrotrophic food-borne bacteria (Fabio et al., 2003).
On a comparative note, recent studies by Sasidharan and Menon, (2010) have shown that the fresh ginger oil was
more effective than the dry ginger in inducing the antimicrobial effects on Aspergillus niger, Candida and Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, weaker towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae and inactive against Bacillus subtilis, Pencillium spp and
Trichoderma spp; while the dry ginger oil was more active towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa , on par with standard
towards Candida, weaker than standard against Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, Pencillium spp, Saccharomyces
cereviseae. Fresh ginger oil had an MIC value of <1 μg/mL against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans and. dry
ginger oil had an MIC value of less than 1 μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pencillium spp and Candida
albicans. Fresh ginger is more abundant in oxygenated compounds and the observed variance in the antimicrobial effects
is possibly due to this (Sasidharan and Menon, 2010).
Nanasombat and Lohasupthawee (2005) studied the antibacterial effects of the fresh ginger oil in standardized twenty
five bacterial strains (20 serotypes of Salmonella and 5 species of other enterobacteria) commonly involved in the
spoilage of food and those to be associated with food borne illness and observed that the antibacterial effects were as
follows Serratia marcescens> Klebsiella pneumoniae = S. Typhimurium DT104 (8748A-1) > Escherichia coli (DMST
4212) > S. Anatum (DMST 7108) = S. Choleraesuis ssp. Choleraesuis (DMST 8014) = S. Derby (DMST 8535) = S.
Enteritidis (DMST 10633) = S. Hadar = S. Newport (DMST 7101) = S. Newport (DMST 7101) = S. Orion (SAP
08991/02) = S. Rissen (DMST 7097) = S. Senftenberg (DMST 7113) = S. Typhimurium (DMST 0562, non-DT104 strain)
= Citrobacter freundii (DMST 1959) > S. Virchow (DMST 10635) = Salmonella Agona (DMST 10338). The essential oil
extract of ginger showed significant reduction in total vial count, Staphylococcus, E. coli and Salmonella counts at
dilution of 1: 150 and 1: 250 than the dilution of 1:500.The dilution at 1:150 is the best dilution for the effective reduction
of bacterial counts for both Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus) and Enterobacteriaeceae (E. coli and Salmonella) which
are the main contaminants seen in the poultry meat. But, the aqueous extract of ginger was not effective in reduction of
microbial counts (Sudharshan et al 2010).
Ginger oil prevents oxidative damage of food
The observation that certain synthetic compounds like the synthetic antioxidants BHA, BHT, PG and TBHQ can
retard/inhibit the process of lipid peroxidation and thereby increase the shelf life of food paved way for use of these
compounds as preventives of rancidity. However the use of these synthetic antioxidants needs to be highly monitored as at
higher concentrations they impart ill effects to the consumer and is therefore under strict regulation (Hettiarachchy et al.
1996). Additionally, many consumers are increasingly being apprehensive and avoiding foods prepared with preservatives
of chemical origin due to their possible ill effects. In lieu of these observations a need for alternative antioxidant
compounds was felt and studies have shown that many aromatic spices and some phytochemicals are beneficial.
Innumerable studies have shown that the various ginger extracts, the oil and some of its phytochemicals possess
free radical scavenging, antioxidant and anti peroxidative effects. The extract was observed to scavenge, superoxide,
hydroxyl, nitric oxide and ABTS*+ radicals in a dose-dependent manner in vitro (Baliga et al., 2003; Jagetia et al., 2004).
The important constituent 6-gingerol is shown to possess good antioxidant effects (Masuda et al., 2004), scavenger of
peroxyl radicals (Aeschbach et al., 1994) and cause a dose-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide production (Ippoushi et al.,
Cell free assays have also shown that the ginger extract prevents enzymatic lipid peroxidation, cumene
hydroperoxide and iron/ascorbate-induced oxidation of the membrane lipids (Shobana and Naidu, 2000). The antioxidant
activity of ginger extract was retained even after boiling for 30 min at 100 degrees C
, indicating that the spice
constituents were resistant to thermal denaturation and suggesting that in addition to imparting flavor to the food, ginger
possess potential health benefits by inhibiting the lipid peroxidation (Shobana and Naidu, 2000). Ginger oil is also
reported to inhibit the H2O2-induced oxidative damage (Lu et al., 2003). The phytochemical 6-gingerol is shown to
decrease peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes in the presence of iron (III) and ascorbate (Aeschbach et al., 1994).
With respect to the usefulness of ginger in preventing the peroxidative damage experiments have shown that the
dichloromethane extract from ginger was effective as a natural antioxidant in suppressing lipid oxidation. Incorporation of
the extract in sunflower oil (kept at 25 and 45 °C for 6 months) caused a very strong antioxidant activity that was almost
equal to that of synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT. The extract also showed good thermal stability and exhibited 85.2%
inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid when heated at 185°C for 120 min indicating its usefulness (Zia-ur-Rehman et
al., 2003). Subsequent studies have also shown that the incorporation of ginger rhizome extract in beef patties were
effective in controlling lipid oxidation and color changes during cold storage and that the effects were better than that of
the commercial antioxidants, sustane 20 and sustane HW-4 (Mansour and Khalil, 2010).
In conclusion, the validity of ginger oil in the food industry has been extensively reported which has been
summarized in this article. The antimicrobial properties and the property to prevent free radical-induced damage and
rancidity ginger helps increase the shelf life of food. Widespread application of ginger in food preservation will provide
food with desirable organoleptic properties, increase the shelf life and prevent wastage of food. Detail studies are required
to understand the more effective means of combining ginger with other food preservation methods as this will make
precious food available for the needy.
Zingiber officinale commonly known as ginger is one of the most commonly used spice worldwide with
medicinal value and has been cultivated for thousands of years.
Marinating or usage of ginger in food preparation is useful in maintenance of the health as well prevention of
food spoilage
Ginger rhizome contains plethora of biologically active compounds like zingiberol, the mono and sesquiterpenes;
camphene, β-phellandrene, curcumene, cineole, geranyl acetate, terphineol, terpenes, borneol, geraniol, limonene,
β -elemene, linalool, α-zingiberene, β sesquiphellandrene, β bisabolene, zingiberenol and β -farmesene
Ginger oil has antimicrobial activity against Gram positive, Gram negative microbes as well as fungi like
Aspergillus niger, Candida, which are responsible for food spoilage.
Ginger oil can retard/inhibit the process of lipid peroxidation and thereby increase the shelf life of food paved way
for its use as preventives of rancidity.
Ginger oil possesses free radical scavenging, antioxidant and anti peroxidative effects.
Titles to tables and figures
Figure 1. Photograph of Ginger rhizome
Figure 2. Important Phytochemicals present in Ginger oil
Table 1: The Food chemical Codex standards for Ginger oil
Table 2: Characteristics of improved cultivars from the Indian Institute for Spice Research, Cochin, Kerala, India.
Table 3: Difference in the phytochemical concentrations in the fresh and dry ginger
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Zia-ur-Rehman, Salariya, A. M., and Habib, F. (2003). Antioxidant activity of ginger extract in sunflower oil. J Sci Food
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... According to the literature, more than 60 active volatile and non-volatile compounds have already been reported in leaves and rhizome of ginger. The major volatile components found in rhizome essential oil of ginger are zingiberene, curcumene and farnesene bsesquiphellandrene (4,5). The non-volatile compounds present in the rhizome of Z. officinale are gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone (4)(5)(6). ...
... The major volatile components found in rhizome essential oil of ginger are zingiberene, curcumene and farnesene bsesquiphellandrene (4,5). The non-volatile compounds present in the rhizome of Z. officinale are gingerols, shogaols, paradols and zingerone (4)(5)(6). The contribution of zingerone in ginger is about 9.25% (2). ...
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Zingerone (4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is one of the non-volatile and nontoxic compounds of ginger. It is also called vanillylacetone with a crystalline solid form which is sparingly soluble in water and more soluble in ether. The contribution of this compound in ginger is about 9.25%. The chemical structure is made of a phenolic ring with methoxy group attached to benzene ring. Gingerol can be heated to form zingerone by retroaldol reaction. It has been reported that zingerone has multiple pharmacological activities. It is effective against diarrhoea causing entero-toxigenic bacteria that leads to infant death. It is also used against intestinal gastric, oxidative stress, weak immunity, obesity. During its activity against cancer, it governs the expression of different cell cycle protein and TGF-β1 expression. Antioxidant response is controlled by inducing the activity of ROS neutralising enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathi-one reductase. It can also reduce various inflammations by restricting the activity of interleukins. This review summarizes the multiple pharmacology activities of zingerone against various important diseases like cancers, tu-mors, inflammations, oxidative conditions, microbial infections, biofilm formations, thrombosis and other diseases. In addition, the molecular regu-lation of these pharmacological responses by zingerone is also critically discussed.
... 1 It is used for various purposes in food products and packaging, pharmaceutical formulations, and aromatherapy since ginger oil has been awarded safe by Food and Drug Administration. [2][3][4][5][6][7] These EOs was sold on many online shopping platforms without a proper label. Hence, the customers have easily obtained these EOs at lower prices. ...
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The ginger oil traded worldwide could come from various sources. Standard quality is the most critical aspect of ensuring customer safety. This study aims to develop an analytical method for red ginger oil (RGO) authentication. Chemical compositions of red ginger oil were determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with multivariate analysis (discriminant analysis (DA), partial least square (PLS), and principal component regression (PCR) were used to identify and quantify the adulterant. The total terpenoid compounds were 55.72%, with the percentage of monoterpenes at 34.29% and sesquiterpenes at 21.43%. E-Citral (19.01%), Z-Citral (14.82%), Geranyl Acetate (11.90%), Geraniol (9.56%), 1,8-Cineole (5.84%), and camphene (4.92%) were identified as the main constituents. The best PLS model for quantifying the level of palm oil in RGO was at the wavenumber 3100–2700 cm–1, while the region of 3100 – 2700 and 1850 – 650 cm–1 was suitable for detection of soybean adulterants. FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics produced accurate and fast authentication of red ginger oil without the used solvent. Then, the GC-MS technique could identify the chemical constituents present in the red ginger oil.
... Ginger has been widely cultivated mostly in tropical countries, such as Australia, Brazil, China, Japan, Mexico, West Africa, West Indies, and parts of the USA (Ukeh et al. 2009). Their rhizomes are mainly used as flavoring food, dietary supplement, and in medicine since antiquity (Srinivasan 2017) and contains 60-70% carbohydrates, 3-8% crude fiber, 9% protein, 8% ash, 3-6% fatty oil, and 2-3% of essential oil (Jakribettu et al. 2016). The ginger essential oil is composed of s e s q u i t e r p e n e ( α -z i n g i b e r e n e ) ( 3 0 -7 0 % ) , βsesquiphellandrene (15-20%), β-bisabolene (10-15%), α-farnesene, and some monoterpenoids (β-phellandrene, camphene, and cineol) (Srinivasan 2017). ...
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Ginger essential oil (GO) was encapsulated with whey protein isolate (WPI)/gum Arabic (GA) and GA/chitosan (CH) complex coacervates. Best complex coacervate yields (43 and 73%) were obtained when using mass ratios of 3:1 (w:w), for WPI/GA, and of 5:1 (w/w) for GA/CH, respectively, and both behaved as shear thinning fluids. Frequency sweep revealed that G″ predominated over G′ for the both complex coacervate at low frequency values, and a crossover between the viscoelastic moduli occurred at about 5 Hz for GA/CH and at 60 Hz for WPI/GA. The magnitude of the viscoelastic moduli was higher for GA/CH than for WPI/GA. The creep-recovery tests showed that the coacervates with GO resulted in higher compliance values and weaker internal network structures. The Burgers model equation and exponential decay function were adequate to adjust the experimental data and describe the coacervate creep and recovery behavior, respectively. The obtained coacervates were freeze-dried for 48 h and then characterized concerning entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), solubility, and hygroscopicity. FTIR analyses revealed that only physical interactions occurred between the functional groups of GO and of WPI/GA and GA/CH complexes. TGA showed that wall materials contributed to a significant increase in the GO thermal stability and also evidenced some non-encapsulated GO present on the surface of WPI/GO/GA powders. The entrapment efficiency was 55.31 and 81.98% using complex of and WPI/GA and GA/CH, respectively, revealing GA/CH as a more efficient complex for the GO protection (p < 0.05)
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a spice used in many parts of the world for culinary and medicinal purposes. It is a good source of essential oil with both the rhizome and its essential oil becoming increasingly acceptable for traditional, medicinal and commercial uses. Essential oils may be referred to as ethereal oils or volatile oils due to their volatile nature at room temperature. This review is intended to highlight the uses of ginger essential oil as well as summarise the effect of site, duration and geographical location of cultivation on the oil. In view, there are vast and abundant uses of ginger essential oil and different cultivars of ginger would be observed to differ in weight yield and composition, with China ginger oil (4.07% yield) having 43 compounds and Indian ginger oil (1.26% yeild) having 60 compounds, hence differing in quality and bioactivity. It may be concluded in this review that various aspects of cultivation as earlier mentioned affect the composition, bioactivity, potency, colour, aroma and weight yield of ginger essential oil which essentially affect its use from one culture to another.
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Proper processing of natural material is crucial to obtain an extract with high content of biologically active components. Dried, grinded ginger roots were extracted by ultrasonic method and supercritical extraction with CO2. The aim of the study was to determine if a mixture of the two types of extracts attained by different methods and solvents exhibits better bioavailability than each extract itself. Therefore, both extracts were analytically evaluated and then mixed in a ratio of 1:1. The supercritical extract (SCG extract) and the mixed extract (mixG extract) had high antioxidant activity (78% and 73%) and total phenols (827 mg/g ext. and 1455 mg/g ext.), which is also consistent with the levels of gingerol (303 mg/g ext. and 271 g/g ext.) and shogaol (111 mg/g ext. and 100 g/g ext.) in the extracts. In comparison to both pure extracts higher levels of total phenols were found in the extract mixG. This could be the reason for the significant inhibition of melanoma cells and antimicrobial potential (against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans). The combination of the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the inhibition of selected microbial and melanoma cells WM-266-4 compared to the control. Cell viability decreased below 60% when mixG extract was applied. Antimicrobial activity has been confirmed.
Recently, edible coatings or films have gained enormous importance in the preservation of fruits and vegetables. This review is a summary of edible coatings, the classification of coating materials, formulation procedures, and the benefits of active edible coating. Studies reported that edible coating or films from natural resources benefit the consumer as well as the environment. In general, edible coatings or films are a combination of polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and plasticizers, used to enhance the functional properties and the general quality parameters of fruits and vegetables, such as texture, colour, acidity, total soluble solids, thus preventing their browning and oxidation. Casting (wet process) and extrusion (dry process) are two prominent methods used to fabricate edible thin films or coatings. General techniques used for applying edible coatings are dipping, spraying, coating, panning, using a fluidised bed, and film wrapping. Active edible coatings or films are developed with herbal extracts to improve the functional properties, i.e., antioxidant and antimicrobial. Therefore, based on the review of literature, the work planned for the future will focus on edible natural resources that are underutilized, along with some natural edible plasticizers. The primary objective of the present review was to summarize the different types of edible coating with an infusion of herbal extracts, and its application on fruits and vegetables. Hence, the plan was to develop an edible coating using a natural resource to improve the post-harvest quality of selected fruits and vegetables, without affecting their nutritional, organoleptic, and sensory qualities
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Ginger is one of the plants that is rich with phenolic compounds. This research was aimed at determination of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the rhizome of ginger. However, there is only few information available about the comparison of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in the three varieties of ginger. This research employs a descriptive quantitative research using extracted dried gingers on two types of extraction processes, i.e. infusion and decoction. The phenolic compound analysis is conducted by using the Folin-C method, while antioxidant activity was conducted by using DPPH and measured by using Spectrophotometer. Based on ANOVA test result, the highest phenolic was red ginger 12.2533 mg GAE/g (infusion) and 22.9767 mg GAE/g (decoction) followed by emprit and elephant ginger. The highest antioxidant activity by infusion process was found in red ginger of 79.83 % followed by 70.43 % and 61.70% in emprit ginger and elephant ginger. Conversely, the highest antioxidant activity by decoction was found 78.76 % in emprit ginger, followed by 70.56 % and 60.93% for red ginger and elephant ginger. Ginger have sufficient antioxidant activity on extraction by infusion or decoction and the red ginger have a higher phenolic content.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a plant used in traditional medicine against different diseases because of its various properties (antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, etc.). Ginger is “generally recognized as safe” by the Food and Drug Administration. Numerous studies have been carried out to characterize and isolate its main bioactive compounds to elucidate the mechanisms of its antimicrobial activity against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in foods. Results indicate that ginger contains monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolic compounds, and its derivatives, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters, which provide a broad antimicrobial spectrum against different microorganisms and make it an interesting alternative to synthetic antimicrobials. However, its application in foods has been scarcely explored and represents an opportunity area for further research. This review provides an updated overview of the main bioactive compounds of ginger, its potential application, and toxicity as an antimicrobial in food products.
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Crude ethanolic extracts and essential oils of 14 spices including cardamom, cinnamon, clove, coriander, cumin, garlic, ginger, holy basil, kaffir lime leaves and peels, lemongrass, mace, nutmeg, black and white pepper, and turmeric were examined for their antibacterial activity against 20 serotypes of Salmonella and 5 species of other enterobacteria using disk diffusion method as preliminary screening. Of these, 9 crude ethanolic extracts and 11 essential oils were selected to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using microbroth dilution test. Among all ethanolic extracts, clove extract had the most inhibitory effect on the growth of all bacterial strains tested. Oils of clove and kaffir lime peels exhibited greater antibacterial activity against all tested strains, compared to other spice oils. The oils of cardamom, coriander, and cumin were also potent inhibitors of bacterial growth, showing the lowest MIC of 4.2 μl/ml to most bacterial strains tested. Both oil and ethanolic extract of kaffir lime peels showed greater antibacterial action, compared to the extracts of kaffir lime leaves. In general, inhibitory activity of spice oils was greater than that of their own ethanolic extracts. Of all serotypes of Salmonella tested, Salmonella Typhimurium (non-DT104 strain) is the most susceptible strain to both forms of spice extracts. On the other hand, Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Rissen were the most resistant strains to the extracts, followed by Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Typhimurium DT104. Escherichia coli was more susceptible to most of the spice oils than other non-salmonellae strains tested.
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Essential oil from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt.) and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall.) obtained by hydrodistillation and two solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol) was characterized. Their antibacterial effects towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were tested by a disc diffusion assay. Essential oil of kaempferia and bastard cardamom obtained by hydrodistillation extraction could inhibit growth of all tested bacteria. Essential oil of ginger extracted by hydrodistillation had the highest efficiency against three positive strains of bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes), with a minimum concentration to inhibit B. cereus and L. monocytogenes of 6.25 μg/ml. Volatile compounds of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major components of ginger, galanga, turmeric, kaempferia, and bastard cardamom obtained by hydrodistillation, were zingiberene, methyl chavicol, turmerone, γ-terpinene, and methyl chavicol, respectively.
The dried rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) yield, to acetone, a complex mixture of substances including a series of S-(+)-gingerols (i.e. 1-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyalkan-3-ones) with 10,12, and 14 carbon atom side-chains, essential oil, palmitic and other fatty acids, and other unidentified substances. The substances, shogaol and zingerone, described by Nomura as ginger constituents appear to be absent but are formed by the action of alkalis or heat on gingerol or the oleoresin. The gingerol with the 11-carbon side-chain, claimed by Lapworth, Pearson, and Royle as the principal pungent substance in ginger, is also absent. Ginger oleoresin may be qualitatively analysed by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel with hexane-ether (1: 1).
The essential oils obtained by hydrodistilation of the leaves and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade were analysed by capillary GC and GC–MS. Forty-six constituents were identified in the leaf oil, while 54 were identified in the oil from the rhizomes. The leaf oil was clearly dominated by β-caryophyllene (31.7%), while the oil from the rhizomes was predominantly monoterpenoid, with camphene (14.5%), geranial (14.3%), and geranyl acetate (13.7%) the three most abundant constituents. The evaluation of antibacterial activities using the micro-dilution technique revealed that both the leaf and rhizome oils were moderately active against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacilluslicheniformis, Bacillus spizizenii and Staphylococcus aureus, and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas stutzeri.
The antioxidant activity of dichloromethane extract from ginger was evaluated during 6 months of storage of refined sunflower oil at 25 and 45 °C. Free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (POV) and iodine value (IV) were used as criteria to assess ginger extract as an antioxidant. After 6 months of storage at 45 °C, sunflower oil containing 1600 and 2400 ppm ginger extract showed lower FFA contents (0.083 and 0.080%) and POVs (24.5 and 24.0 meq kg−1) than the control sample (FFA contents 0.380%, POV 198.0 meq kg−1). Sunflower oil containing 200 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) showed FFA contents of 0.089 and 0.072% and POVs of 26.5 and 24.7 meq kg−1 respectively after 6 months of storage at 45 °C. Similarly, after 6 months of storage at 45 °C, IVs of sunflower oil containing 1600 and 2400 ppm ginger extract were 80 and 92 respectively, higher than that of the control sample (53). However, IVs of sunflower oil treated with 200 ppm BHA and BHT were 94 and 96 respectively after 6 months of storage at 45 °C. These results illustrate that ginger extract at various concentrations exhibited very strong antioxidant activity, almost equal to that of synthetic antioxidants (BHA and BHT). Ginger extract also showed good thermal stability and exhibited 85.2% inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid when heated at 185 °C for 120 min. Therefore the use of ginger extract in foods is recommended as a natural antioxidant to suppress lipid oxidation.© 2003 Society of Chemical Industry
Ground beef patties (75% lean) containing synthetic antioxidants, or Fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum) extracts were cooked to internal temperature 70°C, and evaluated for storage stability at 4°C. Thiobarbituric acid values of raw or cooked samples containing fenugreek extracts were lower than controls (P<0.05). Fenugreek extracts delayed the induction period of oxidative rancidity. No differences were observed in psychrotrophic bacterial counts, and samples containing fenugreek extracts had lower Hunterlab “a” and higher “b” values. Samples with Fenugreek extracts had better oxidative stability and Fenugreek may be a promising natural antioxidant source.
Antioxidants minimize oxidation of the lipid components in foods. There is an increasing interest in the use of natural and/or synthetic antioxidants in food preservation, but it is important to evaluate such compounds fully for both antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties. The properties of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, hydroxytyrosol and zingerone were characterized in detail. Thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol and hydroxytyrosol decreased peroxidation of phospholipid liposomes in the presence of iron(III) and ascorbate, but zingerone had only a weak inhibitory effect on the system. The compounds were good scavengers of peroxyl radicals (CCl3O2; calculated rate constants > 106m−1 sec−1) generated by pulse radiolysis. Thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol and zingerone were not able to accelerate DNA damage in the bleomycin-Fe(III) system. Hydroxytyrosol promoted deoxyribose damage in the deoxyribose assay and also promoted DNA damage in the bleomycin-Fe(III) system. This promotion was inhibited strongly in the deoxyribose assay by the addition of bovine serum albumin to the reaction mixtures. Our data suggest that thymol, carvacrol and 6-gingerol possess useful antioxidant properties and may become important in the search for ‘natural’ replacements for ‘synthetic’ antioxidant food additives.