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Abstract

Inulin is a water soluble storage polysaccharide and belongs to a group of non-digestible carbohydrates called fructans. Inulin has attained the GRAS status in USA and is extensively available in about 36,000 species of plants, amongst, chicory roots are considered as the richest source of inulin. Commonly, inulin is used as a prebiotic, fat replacer, sugar replacer, texture modifier and for the development of functional foods in order to improve health due to its beneficial role in gastric health. This review provides a deep insight about its production, physicochemical properties, role in combating various kinds of metabolic and diet related diseases and utilization as a functional ingredient in novel product development.

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... However, the utilization of conventional polysaccharide-based wall materials in spray-dried microencapsulation of BCs does not really promote consumer health or add nutritional value to the final products. Their production fails to meet sustainability guidelines (Samborska et al. 2021), for example, current starch production methods rely on traditional land-based agriculture which is mostly intended for human consumption, while many of the emerging polysaccharides (e.g., inulin) can be obtained from non-food sources, wastes, by-products or microorganisms (Shoaib et al. 2016). Concerns over declining land and potable water availability, as well as the environmental problems linked with continued agricultural land development, call into doubt the viability of future terrestrial agriculture to offer stable, safe, and secure food starch (Prabhu et al. 2019;Nunes et al. 2017). ...
... Plant inulin has a relatively low degree of polymerization (maximum of 200) while bacterial inulin has an extremely high degree of polymerization, ranging from 10,000 to over 100,000. Bacterial inulin is 15% more branched than plant inulin (Shoaib et al. 2016). Inulin is moderately soluble in water (approximately 10% w/v at 25 °C), allowing it to be added to aqueous media without precipitation. ...
... Inulin has shown gelling properties and develops a non-gelling structure after being exposed to shearing. The gelling property of inulin is highly influenced by inulin concentration, total solid concentration, and shearing variables, but is not affected by pH within a range of 4-9 (Shoaib et al. 2016). Because inulin lacks good emulsifying properties, it must be combined with other wall materials for spray-dried microencapsulation of BCs (de Barros Fernandes, Borges, and Botrel 2014;Fernandes et al. 2014). ...
Article
Natural bioactive compounds (BCs) are types of chemicals found in plants and certain foods that promote good health, however they are sensitive to processing and environmental conditions. Microencapsulation by spray drying is a widely used and cost-effective approach to create a coating layer to surround and protect BCs and control their release, enabling the production of high functional products/ingredients with extended shelf life. In this process, wall materials determine protection efficiency, and physical properties, bioavailability, and storage stability of microencapsulated products. Therefore, an understanding of physicochemical properties of wall materials is essential for the successful and effective spray-dried microencapsulation process. Typically, polysaccharide-based wall materials are generated from more sustainable sources and have a wider range of physicochemical properties and applications compared to their protein-based counterparts. In this review, we highlight the essential physicochemical properties of polysaccharide-based wall materials for spray-dried microencapsulation of BCs including solubility, thermal stability, and emulsifying properties, rheological and film forming properties. We provide further insight into possibilities for the chemical structure modification of native wall materials and their controlled release behaviors. Finally, we summarize the most recent studies involving polysaccharide biopolymers as wall materials and/or emulsifiers in spray-dried microencapsulation of BCs.
... The inulin, consisting of fructose units linked by β-(2→1) bonds and a terminal glucose by α-(1→2) bond, remains relatively intact after transition through the digestive system (Shoaib et al., 2016). It was demonstrated with effects of improving immune and promoting the proliferation of beneficial bacteria, which are related with their degree of polymerization and plants species (Moreno-Vilet et al., 2014;García Gamboa et al., 2018). ...
... That was probably the main reason that CPPF displayed well on anti-inflammatory effect in both jejunum and ileum. Polysaccharides from marine animals, fruits, vegetables and natural medical plants, have been found with high fermentable and modulatory effect by gut microbiota (Bosscher et al., 2006;Xu et al., 2013;Shoaib et al., 2016;Shang Q et al., 2018). Although immunosuppressed mice were treated with CPPF for only 7 days, there was still bacterial community change observed in our research. ...
Article
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An inulin (CPPF), isolated from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine Codonopsis pilosula , was characterized and demonstrated with potential prebiotic activity in vitro before. Based on its non-digested feature, the intestinal mucosa and microbiota modulatory effects in vivo on immunosuppressed mice were investigated after oral administration of 200, 100 and 50 mg/kg of CPPF for 7 days. It was demonstrated that the secretions of sIgA and mucin 2 (Muc2) in ileum were improved by CPPF, and the anti-inflammatory activities in different intestine parts were revealed. The intestine before colon could be the target active position of CPPF. As a potential prebiotic substance, a gut microbiota restorative effect was also presented by mainly modulating the relative abundance of Eubacteriales , including Oscillibacter , unidentified Ruminococcus and Lachnospiraceae after high-throughput pyrosequencing of V4 region of 16S rRNA analysis. All these results indicated that this main bioactive ingredient inulin from C. pilosula was a medicinal prebiotic with enhancing mucosal immune, anti-inflammatory and microbiota modulatory activities.
... Inulin is used as a fat replacement, as in the presence of water, it develops particulate gels which improve the product texture, with a mouth feel similar to that produced by fat [85]. In the present study, it was observed that, depending on the added fiber and water content, as well as the fat replaced, lower fat content may reduce juiciness, causing greater toughness. ...
... The addition of fiber to meat matrices induces the formation of stable gel networks [25,85], which permits the improvements of meatball rheology and texture characteristics, in this case. However, many of these characteristics are dependent on the remaining food matrix components, emulsion formation, meat grind, product cooking, and especially the amount of water added in preparation. ...
Article
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Fat reduction in meat products represents a technological challenge, as it affects the physicochemical and sensory properties of foods. The objective of the present investigation was to develop reduced-fat pork and chicken meatballs. In the initial stage, a survey was performed on 387 individuals, in order to determine the consumer perception of the meaning of a healthy meatball and the likelihood that they would consume such a product. In the second stage, four pork and chicken meatball formulations were developed: control meatballs (AC), meatballs with inulin (AI), meatballs with fructo-oligosaccharides (AF), and meatballs with inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (AM). In the third stage, physicochemical properties were evaluated (water activity, humidity, fat, protein, ash, weight loss, pH, color, and texture) and a sensorial profile was created with semi-trained panelists for the four meatball formulations. In the fourth stage, AI was selected as the meatball with sensorial and physicochemical characteristics most similar to AC. An analysis of nutritional characteristics and a home test (84 consumers) were performed. The present study established that the inclusion of inulin as a fat substitute in the preparation of pork and chicken meatballs, in the amount of 3.5 g of fiber/100 g of the mixture, imitates the technological properties characteristic of fat and showed acceptance by consumers.
... Other interesting polysaccharides for valorisation include inulin and pullulan. Inulin is a starchy, water soluble storage polysaccharide found in a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, and herbs, including wheat, onions, bananas, leeks, artichokes, and asparagus [16]. It is industrially extracted from chicory roots. ...
Article
Polysaccharides, cellulose and chitin are fundamental structural biopolymers of our biome, they therefore demonstrate relatively high tensile strength compared to other biopolymers and great diversity. Aqueous insolubility is a natural requirement for these polymers to be fit for purpose. However, non-natural aminated polysaccharides, such as 6-deoxy-6-amino derivatives, display improved solubility profiles, thus allowing further modification in a wider range of protic and aprotic polar solvents. Improved aqueous solubility and additional charge density aids, among others, modest antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer and gene transfection properties. Cellulosic and chitinous feedstock is naturally abundant and ideal for further valorisation. However, limitations in environmentally desirable solvents and inconsistency in chemical processing are a key hurdle in the path to commercial exploitation of 6-deoxy-6-aminocellulose and 6-deoxy-6-aminochitosan. This review intents to highlight the successes and challenges in the chemical process methodology that influence optimal valorisation of cellulosic and chitinous waste in the context of exploiting waste derived biopolymers. Note that this review is focused on the synthesis of 6-deoxy-6-amino derivatives and not 6-O-linked aminated derivatives.
... It is also interesting that the comparatively high friction in this product cannot be lowered by the vegetable fat substitute inulin. 21,68 Apparently, the (separated) particles of the egg white and hydrocolloid networks were the main contributors to the coefficient of friction. ...
Article
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Plant based meat surrogates attract increasing interest. Modern methods of biotechnology, food chemistry/technology, and process engineering allow for surrogates with high optical similarity. Nowadays, targeted molecular-sensory methods taste and smell to be largely approximated to the original products. Nevertheless, the products appear completely different on a molecular scale, which is clearly noticeable in texture, oral processing, friction, and bolus formation. A consequent physical consideration of the function and effects of the proteins of different origin reveals the strengths of the respective products and offers suggestions how sensory weak points can be understood better and avoided. This is illustrated here by means of exemplary examples and experiments joined with underpinned by molecular models. Meat sausages, vegetarian, and vegan surrogates are microscopically investigated by rheology, tribology, and tensile experiments. The interpretation of the results is illustrated and supported by simple models.
... Inulin is a natural polysaccharide found in many plants such as onion, garlic, banana, agave, and chicory. Inulin consists of D-fructose units linked by β (2-1) glycosidic linkages (Apolinário et al., 2017;Shoaib et al., 2016). It has major advantages namely biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, and hydrophilicity, which promote it as a possible candidate for biomedical applications. ...
Article
Hybrid biomaterials incorporated with active ingredients and metal nanoparticles are gaining more interest owing to their increased wound healing capacity. Here, we report the preparation of hybrid collagen scaffolds stabilized with oxidized inulin and ZrO2 nanoparticles for biomedical applications. The functional group changes in the oxidized inulin were ascertained using FT-IR spectroscopy. The hybrid collagen scaffolds possessed all the basic biomaterial characteristics such as biodegradability, porosity, swelling ability, enzymatic and thermal stability. Particularly, the hydrothermal stability of collagen is enhanced up to 96 °C. The hybrid scaffolds are shown to be biocompatible with stem cells and osteoblast cells. The scratch wound healing assay demonstrates that the hybrid scaffolds can heal the wound up to 60% after 24 h incubation due to their higher cell migration index compared to the native collagen scaffold. The results suggest that the prepared hybrid collagen scaffolds can be used for tissue engineering applications.
... However, despite the efforts of researchers to replace and/or reduce the sucrose content of biscuits, in a recent cross-sectional study conducted in the United Kingdom, it was reported that 74% of the commerciallyavailable biscuits obtained a "red" (high) label for sugar content per 100 g (Hashem, He, Alderton, and MacGregor, 2018). A plausible reason for this may be the high cost associated with bulk sugar replacers such as polyols (Zumbé, Lee, & Storey, 2001) and oligosaccharides such as inulin (Shoaib et al., 2016). These bulk sweeteners are typically combined with high intensity artificial sweeteners to replace the sweetness lost with the reduction of sucrose, which further increases cost. ...
Article
As fat contributes important textural properties such as lubricity and tenderness to cakes, it is plausible to focus on ways to increase the perception of these properties with the aim of creating the illusion of a higher fat. The utilisation of small sugar particles has been shown to increase the moist and soft texture of Chocolate Brownies. The present study assessed three different sugar particle sizes in their ability to create the illusion of fat content and therefore their ability to permit fat replacement (FR) in this product. The unground commercial sugar (200-5181 µm) was used as the control (UC) and two of its sieved sugar separates, Large (L924-1877 µm) and Small (S459-972 µm) were investigated. For each, fat was replaced using pureed black beans. The most accepted sample was used for sucrose replacement (SR) using inulin and Rebaudioside A. (Reb A.). Samples containing the smallest sugar fraction with 25% FR were most significantly associated overall acceptability (OA) (p<0.01). The application of small sugar particles did not significantly negatively affect OA or liking of samples at a level of 75% FR compared to the other two sugar fractions. The utilisation of small sugar particles (459-972 µm) in the preparation of baked goods could aid baking & industry professionals in reducing the fat content of cake-like products.
... Currently, inulin-type fructans (ITFs), which are rich in polyfructosan soluble dietary fibres, are an internationally recognized prebiotic (Gibson et al. 2017). Natural sources of inulin include chicory roots, Jerusalem artichoke, dahlia tubers, garlic and leeks (Shoaib et al. 2016). ITFs have a degree of polymerization (DP) between 2 and 60, with an average DP ≤ 8 for short-chain fructans and ≥ 23 for long-chain fructans. ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with inulin-type fructans (ITFs) on the intestinal immune function in the context of dysbiosis resulting from antibiotic cocktail (ABx) treatment. BALB/c mice (8–9 weeks of age) were treated with an ABx for 3 weeks and then allowed to recover spontaneously or with ITF supplementation (5%) for 4 weeks. Our results showed that ABx treatment can induce gut microbiota dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation in mice. After 4 weeks of recovery, ITF supplementation restored the composition of the intestinal microbial community. However, compared with spontaneous recovery, ITF supplementation delayed inflammation recovery in the intestine and upregulated diamine oxidase (DAO) activity and increased lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content in serum. In addition, ITF supplementation delayed the regulatory T (Treg) cell and B cell recovery in the lamina propria (LP). Furthermore, compared with spontaneous recovery, ITF supplementation inhibited the relative expression of certain proinflammatory genes, such as for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumour necrosis factor α (Tnf-α), in the colon, but it reduced the secretion of the anti-inflammatory mediator transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in serum, reduced the secretion of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in the colon and promoted the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A. In conclusion, these data supported the hypothesis that the influence of ITFs on the host’s intestinal status is not always beneficial in the context of ABx-induced biological disorder. However, the significance of these findings needs to be determined by advanced studies Key Points • ITFs did not promote the recovery of microbial community composition. • ITFs delayed the recovery of ABx-induced colonic inflammation. • ITFs reduced the secretion of TGF-β1 and SIgA. • ITFs delayed the recovery of Treg and B cells in the LP.
... Inulin is a prebiotic ingredient that can be found as a reserve carbohydrate in a wide variety of plants, such as chicory, dahlia and the Jerusalem artichoke (Shoaib et al., 2016). Inulin may have a protective effect on probiotic bacteria, as it increases their subsistence and activity during the storage and passage through the gastrointestinal trait (Bedani et al., 2013). ...
... 3 Inulin is a polysaccharide linked by β-(2,1) linkages of Dfructose bonds and terminated with a glucose residue through a sucrose-type linkage at the reducing end, 4,5 which is a watersoluble storage polysaccharide with a large variety of food and pharmaceutical applications. 6 As a functional polysaccharide, inulin has been extensively applied in low calorie, low sugar, and low fat foods. 7 Moreover, the metabolites of inulin in the body could inhibit pathogen colonization in the prevention of intestinal infections and diseases. ...
Article
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Inulin is used as an important food ingredient, widely used for its fiber content. In this study the operational extraction variables to obtain higher yields of inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers, as well as the optimal conditions, were studied. Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design were used for optimization of extraction steps. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 74 °C, extraction time 65 min, and ratio of liquid to solid 4 mL/g. Furthermore, series connection of ion-exchange resins were used to purify the extraction solution where the optimal resin combinations were D202 strongly alkaline anion resin, HD-8 strongly acidic cation resin, and D315 weakly alkaline resin while the decolorization rate and decreased salinity reached 99.76 and 93.68, respectively. Under these conditions, the yield of inulin was 85.4 ± 0.5%.
... Given that ITF can also function as both fat and sugar replacers as well as texture modifiers and there has been much interest in the addition of ITF into several different food products. in order to help reduce not only the consumption of both saturated fat and sugar (sucrose) but also increase people's dietary fibre intakes (Shoaib et al., 2016). Yet, ITF can be subject to structural degradation when exposed to specific processing conditions. ...
Article
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Food matrices can be described as the final composition of a food product which results from complex interactions between compounds found within different ingredients and the processing parameters used in production. These factors, not only impact on the final structure of a product, but also have the potential to alter both the structural integrity and bioavailability of potentially beneficial compounds present, for example, dietary fibres. As a result, there is growing curiosity amongst the scientific community on whether the food matrix may impact on the prebiotic efficacy of inulin-type fructans. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore previous food-based inulin-type fructan supplementation studies to determine whether the food matrix directly impacts on their prebiotic efficacy. Our working hypothesis is that other potentially prebiotic ingredients and components present within the food may alter inulin-type fructans prebiotic effect.
... Moreover, it dissolves moderately in water without exhibiting precipitation, and is not affected by pH in a medium ranging from 4 to 9. These characteristics make inulin an ideal ingredient to be used as an active compound and/or encapsulating material; although most articles on microencapsulation only consider it either as an active compound or as an encapsulating material [54][55][56][57][58]. ...
Article
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Co-microencapsulation is a growing technique in the food industry because it is a technique that, under the same fundamentals of microencapsulation, allows the generation of microcapsules with a longer shelf life, using a smaller number of encapsulating materials and a smaller amount of active compounds, while having a greater beneficial activity. This responds to consumer demand for higher quality foods that limit the use of ingredients with low nutritional content and provide beneficial health effects, such as probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins, fatty acids, and compounds with antioxidant activity. The combination of two or more active compounds that achieve a synergy between them and between the encapsulating materials offers an advantage over the well-known microencapsulation. Among the main active compounds used in this process are probiotics, prebiotics, fatty acids, and polyphenols, the main combination being that of probiotics with one of the other active compounds that enhances their benefits. The present review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the different encapsulating materials and techniques used to obtain co-microencapsulants, where the main result is a higher survival of probiotics, higher stability of the active compounds and a more controlled release, which can lead to the generation of new foods, food supplements, or therapeutic foods for the treatment of common ailments.
... Actinomycetes are Grampositive bacteria including the genus Bifidobacterium. Bifidobacterium are probiotics that are important for gut health in humans (Shoaib et al., 2016). Oral supplements containing Bifidobacterium are beneficial for controlling serum cholesterol levels, preventing a variety of intestinal diseases, regulating the immune system, and exerting anti-cancer activity (Di et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Lotus root polysaccharide (LRP) is an active water-soluble polysaccharide with average molecular weight of 1.24 × 10 4. It was composed of (1 → 4)-α-D-glucan backbone with α-D-glycopyranosyl moieties connected to C-6 positions of the glucose residues as side chains approximately every six residues. However, little information is available for its digestion and fermentation characteristics in vitro. The results showed that the levels of reducing sugars were increased slightly, and the molecular weight was also reduced slightly, in simulated gastric and small intestinal juices. During in vitro fermentation, the total sugar, reducing sugar and glucose contents decreased gradually with increasing fermentation time. The molecular of LRP was degraded and to metabolize into a variety the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Furthermore, LRP fermentation decreased the pH of the fermentation broth and increased its absorbance. Meanwhile, LRP modulated the gut microbiota by altering the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and increasing the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium. The findings from this study showed that LRP could be developed as potential prebiotic to regulate the composition of gut microbiota, thereby promote the production of SCFAs.
... For the sake of food security, the biorefinery has provoked much attention on the efficient conversion of non-crop biomass to platform compounds, including biofuels, levulinic acid, and furfural (Tyagi and Anand, 2021). Typically, inulin is derived from non-grain and perennial Jerusalem artichoke, which has high yield and robust adaptability (Oh et al., 2017;Shoaib et al., 2016;Zhao et al., 2016). As a linear polysaccharide, inulin is composed of 2-100 Dfructose units terminated by glucose residue (Oh et al., 2017). ...
Article
Biomass hydrolysis into fermentable reducing sugars is essential for the bioethanol production. Novel integrated ionic liquid (IL) hybrid polymeric fixed-bed reactor with porous sponge-like structure was constructed for inulin hydrolysis. The acidic IL, [(CH2)3SO3HVIm]HSO4 was covalently grafted on polysulfone (PSF). The PSF-ILs integrated porous fixed beds were elaborately prepared by famous non-solvent induced phase separation approach. Effects of coagulation bath composition and temperature, fixed bed height, permeation flux, feed temperature and concentration on inulin hydrolysis were explored intensively. The porous sponge-like structure and chemical binding of ILs endowed the fixed beds with excellent catalytic performance, stability, and reusability. Under optimized conditions, once the inulin aqueous solution permeated through the fixed beds, the yield of total reducing sugar (TRS) reached up to 98.82%. Compared with the catalytic membrane, the hydrolysis reaction time was drastically shortened by 92.5%. These findings provided a new strategy on developing high-performance fixed-bed reactors for biomass conversion.
... Inulin, for example, is an abundant polysaccharide found in various food sources including chicory roots, banana, wheat, garlic and Jerusalem artichoke (Shoaib et al., 2016). Inulin comprises of fructose units conjugated by β-(2-1)-D-fructosyl bonds terminated with a single glucose, and is characterized by its anomeric carbon in β configuration (Ronkart et al. 2007). ...
Article
Phenolics have been shown by in vitro and animal studies to have multiple pharmacological effects against various colonic diseases. However, their efficacy against colonic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease, and colorectal cancer, is significantly compromised due to their chemical instability and susceptibility to modification along the gastrointestinal tract (GiT) before reaching the colonic site. Dietary fibers are promising candidates that can form phenolic-dietary fiber composites (PDC) to carry phenolics to the colon, as they are natural polysaccharides that are non-digestible in the upper intestinal tract but can be partially or fully degradable by gut microbiota in the colon, triggering the release at this targeted site. in addition, soluble and fermentable dietary fibers confer additional health benefits as prebiotics when used in the PDC fabrication, and the possibility of synergistic relationship between phenolics and fibers in alleviating the disease conditions. The functionalities of PDC need to be characterized in terms of their particle characteristics, molecular interactions, release profiles in simulated digestion and colonic fermentation to fully understand the metabolic fate and health benefits. This review examines recent advancements regarding the approaches for fabrication, characterization, and evaluation of PDC in in vitro conditions.
... Insoluble fiber represents roughly two-third of total dietary fiber in most of vegetable foods and it includes cell wall components such as cellulose, lignin and some hemicellulose that act as a transit intestinal improver [27]. On the other side, soluble fiber brings together pectin, gums (hydrocolloids), and mucilages that seem to be involved in delaying gastric emptying, reducing glucose assimilation, and decreasing blood cholesterol concentrations [28,29]. Moreover, some of the soluble dietary fiber resistant to the enzymatic action provides additional functionality within the human biological system since owing their role as prebiotic for the gut probiotic bacteria [30]. ...
Chapter
In the last decade, there is growing evidence about the health effects derived from the adoption of fruits and vegetable rich diets. This has increased the interest towards the bioactive compounds that seem to play a crucial role in the biological systems. In consequence, even public entities have started to emanate recommendations for improving the population intake of fruits and vegetables. This chapter will be focused primarily on the main bioactive compounds present in the plant‐sourced products with emphasis on the scientifically reported biological activity. In addition, an evaluation of the impact on the bioactive molecules of the most used food technologies that allow to transform fruits and vegetables in ingredients is described. The analysis of the nutritional enrichment strategies with plant‐based ingredients reveals that efforts have been focused on four food‐stuffs categories: bakery products, pasta‐like products, snacks and beverages. In this section, main findings on the products nutritional profile as a result of the vegetable ingredients incorporation are compiled. Likewise, the use and the impact of the ingredients coming from food industrial processes, better known as by‐products, have been discussed looking forward a more sustainable future food industry.
... Inulin is considered a dietary fiber [10], analogous to carbohydrates, that play a key role in human health for their special features: resistance to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine with complete or partial fermentation by the microflora in the colon, and the production and absorption of fermentation end products like short-chain fatty acid and lactate [11,12]. Inulin represents a noteworthy ingredient for food biofortification due to the health effects and its neutral taste. ...
Article
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Inulin is considered a dietary fiber and represents a noteworthy ingredient for food biofortification due to its health effects and its neutral taste. The aim of the work was the evaluation of the quality of pasta produced using whole-meal flours of two ancient Sicilian landraces (Senatore Cappelli-CAP and Timilia—TIM) fortified with two types of inulin (long-chain topinambur inulin IT and low-chain chicory inulin IC), at two different levels of substitution (2 and 4%) to evaluate its possible effect on α-amylase inhibition. The color indices L* and a* were mainly influenced by cultivars, while IT improved the sensory attributes, mainly the elasticity sensation, and influenced less the other sensory attributes: adhesiveness, color, odor, taste, and Over Quality Score for both landraces. The cooking quality was linked mainly to the landrace used, due to the very different gluten matrix of CAP and TIM. IC and IT showed promising α-Amy inhibitory activity with comparable IC50 values of 0.45 ± 0.04 and 0.50 ± 0.06 mg/mL. The enrichment of spaghetti with inulin with an inhibitory effect on α-amylase determined the hypoglycemic properties of pasta, thus lowering the corresponding IC50 value.
... Inulin has achieved GRAS status in the US and is widely available in approximately 36,000 plant species, among which chicory roots are considered the richest source. Inulin is commonly used as a prebiotic, fat substitute, sugar substitute, texture modifier, and for the development of functional foods even achieving a beneficial effect at the gastrointestinal level [10]. The low-fibre Western diet has contributed to an increased risk of weight gain, inflammation, chronic diseases and cardiometabolic diseases [11,12]. ...
Article
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Yoghurt sauces are considered fatty products which are quite susceptible to oxidation and must be stabilised using antioxidants. Novel formulations for yoghurt sauces often involve replacement of fat with dietary fibres and use of natural preservatives. The aim of the present research was to design healthier formulations for yoghurt sauces based on the replacement of sunflower oil (SO) with chicory inulin (IN) and the use of rosemary extracts (RE) as natural antioxidants. Different sauces were developed by adding IN at 2 and 5% w: w and/or 300 mg/kg lipo- and/or water-soluble rosemary extracts (RLE and/or RWE) containing 120 and 146 mg polyphenols per g extract, respectively. Nutritional value (proximate composition and caloric contribution), some physical properties (pH and CIELab colour) and antioxidant status (deoxyribose, DPPH radical scavenging, Rancimat, lipid peroxidation and linoleic acid assays) were assessed in the sauces. Replacement of SO with IN (5%) reduced fat content by 30%, roughly 15% low calories, thereby obtaining healthier sauces. As expected, the RLE was more effective than the RWE in improving antioxidant activity in lipidic environment. Using RLE enhanced the antioxidant capacity of lipid peroxidation by 44%. In the Rancimat test, this increased the oxidative protection of the sauce made with and without IN (5%) by around 20% or 45%, respectively. Similarly, using RLE doubled protection against linoleic acid oxidation. Application of IN in yoghurt sauce has nutritional (replacement of lipids with dietary fibre) and technological interest (foaming agent) and can be combined with RE of high polyphenol content as a potential functional ingredient capable of stabilising the sauces against oxidation.
... Because they are considered as dietary fiber, they can be included in food formulations and labeled as ingredients but not as additives. Consequently, they are widely used as fat and sugar replacers in the formulation of low-calorie food products [17]. Nowadays, bakery or meat products, dairy, breakfast cereals, jams and juices and even confectionery are easily added with fructans, with the double benefit of enhanced organoleptic characteristics and healthy nutritional composition [15,18]. ...
Article
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Asparagus roots are by-products from asparagus cultivation and they could be considered one of the best sources of fructans. These polymers are interesting food ingredients for their prebiotic and immuno-stimulating characteristics. The aim of this work is to characterize the fructan profile from the roots of several asparagus varieties grown at different locations and pickled at three vegetative statuses in order to valorize these by-products as fructan source. Fructans were extracted with hot water and fractionated into three pools according to their molecular weight (MW). Their average MW was studied by HPSEC and their degree of polymerization by HPAEC. The fructan content was up to 12.5% on fresh weight basis, depending on variety and sampling date. The relative abundance of the three pools also depended on the picking moment as after the spear harvest period their total content and MW increased. The average MW of the three fractions was similar among varieties with 4.8, 8.4 and 9 sugar units, although fructans up to 30 units were identified by HPAEC. These characteristics make them similar to the commercialized Orafti®-GR inulin, a common additive to food products. Therefore, the concept of asparagus roots as cultivation waste must be changed to a new feedstock for sustainable agriculture and industry.
... It is essentially a linear polymer, but can branch with β (2 → 6) linkages at a low degree of polymerization. Inulin might also be useful in a number of food [3] and non-food applications [4], depending on its degree of polymerization [5,6], promoting health effects [7,8]. ...
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Wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) is a widespread Mediterranean plant that accumulates inulin in its roots. This study aimed to analyze the enzyme systems involved in inulin metabolism in the roots of one Sicilian wild cardoon population in relation to the plant’s growth and development stages. During the winter season, the plant showed slow growth; its biomass was represented mainly by leaves and saccharides were mobilized into its roots. During the spring season, the plant doubled its growth rate and differentiated its reproduction organs as a consequence of the cold conditions. The maximum activities of the 1-SST were recorded in line with the high sucrose and inulin levels in roots, which increased quickly. The increase in the 1-FEH activity suggests that fructan-hydrolyzing activity is associated with the sprouting and elongation of plant stalks. The peak of the invertase activity occurred before the 1-FEH peak. The inulin accumulation in the wild cardoon roots was associated with the plant’s reproduction. Sequential 1-SST and 1-FEH activities and the involvement of invertase and 1-FFT in carbohydrate mobilization, in response to the additional energy demand of the plant for stalk elongation before and for capitula development were observed, along with subsequent grain ripening.
... Objetivando atender essas características, para a elaboração de substitutos lácteos, o uso de gomas e a sinergia com outras fibras alimentares, assim como de proteínas vegetais isoladas, sugerem soluções interessantes para o aperfeiçoamento desses produtos. (SHOAIB et al., 2016;GONÇALVES et al., 2020). ...
... Garlic is known to be an ancient medicinal spice due to the presence of nutritional compounds that makes it an immune booster and effective against infections [5]. Garlic is a good source of inulin (14-13 g/100 g), which is an established prebiotic and is now being used in a variety of food items to enhance their nutritional content and improve the beneficial bacteria in the intestines [6]. ...
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Immunomodulation counterbalances the inflammation in the intestines and regulates hypersensitivity in the host through gut microflora. Microflora comprises alive microorganisms living in the gastrointestinal tract that produce vitamins, short chain fatty acids (SCFA's) and play an important role in immunomodulation. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease prevalent in all parts of the world, general indications are fever and inflammation of the colon which leads to reduced absorption of nutrients and weight loss. Manifestation of UC can be reduced via immune system regulation through gut microflora by the use of prebiotics. Inulin is an established prebiotic therefore in the present study it was used with yogurt for immunomodulation. Garlic extract not only provides antioxidants, and nutrients but also contains 80% inulin which stays non-digested until it enters the colon. The present study aimed to discover the effect of inulin rich garlic extract based yogurt on the immune system of normal and DSS (Dextran Sodium Sulphate) induced colitic Sprague dawley rats and its effect on inflammatory markers. Four groups of Sprague dawley rats were used with three replicates having three animals in each replicate. Rats were given yogurt enriched with garlic extract according to their weight for three weeks and Colitis was induced with DSS earlier. Results from inflammatory markers like tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukins (IL-6), immunoglobulin (IgG), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) showed a decreasing trend of inflammation after the use of garlic extract based yogurt, weight gain also improved after the consumption of garlic extract yogurt due to the effect of prebiotic named inulin present in the extract.
... and so on properties [14][15][16][17]. Glass fibers are the most often used synthetic fibers because of their high strength and durability, thermal stability, impact resistance, chemical, friction, and wear qualities. ...
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Because of their low cost, lightweight, easy production methods, and design flexibility, polymer-based composites are widely employed in a wide range of applications. Because of its high specific strength, superior mechanical characteristics, super adhesiveness, heat and solvent resistance, and so on, epoxy polymer or polyepoxide represent a significant majority of matrix composites. As a result, fiber fillers-reinforced epoxy resin composites have been investigated for a variety of applications, including high-tech in the ballistic, aircraft, automobile, construction, and sports sectors. In this chapter, the manufacturing procedures of fiber-reinforced epoxy composites have been described. Different categories of fiber are used as fillers in an epoxy matrix and their morphology is discussed as a function of the obtained properties.
... Biotechnological applications involving the use of inulin are interesting in the biomedical area, especially for nutritional or pharmaceutical purposes. For nutraceutical benefits, inulin is used to replace fats and sugars, thus enabling the production of foods with fewer calories, such as ice cream and floury foods [62,67,81]. This is due to inulin's ability to pass through the digestive system without being metabolized, thus allowing for the production of functional dietary foods [62]. ...
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The large-scale industrial use of polysaccharides to obtain energy is one of the most discussed subjects in science. However, modern concepts of biorefinery have promoted the diversification of the use of these polymers in several bioproducts incorporating concepts of sustainability and the circular economy. This work summarizes the major sources of agro-industrial residues, physico-chemical properties, and recent application trends of cellulose, chitin, hyaluronic acid, inulin, and pectin. These macromolecules were selected due to their industrial importance and valuable functional and biological applications that have aroused market interests, such as for the production of medicines, cosmetics, and sustainable packaging. Estimations of global industrial residue production based on major crop data from the United States Department of Agriculture were performed for cellulose content from maize, rice, and wheat, showing that these residues may contain up to 18%, 44%, and 35% of cellulose and 45%, 22%, and 22% of hemicellulose, respectively. The United States (~32%), China (~20%), and the European Union (~18%) are the main countries producing cellulose and hemicellulose-rich residues from maize, rice, and wheat crops, respectively. Pectin and inulin are commonly obtained from fruit (~30%) and vegetable (~28%) residues, while chitin and hyaluronic acid are primarily found in animal waste, e.g., seafood (~3%) and poultry (~4%).
... Among prebiotics, inulin has been specifically found to be extremely effective in terms of iron absorption in both animals and humans (Shoaib et al., 2016). In a study conducted by peers in 2016, it was demonstrated that inulin could significantly enhance the levels of iron absorption in male piglets (Lepczyński et al., 2016). ...
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Micronutrient deficiencies affect approximately 2 billion people worldwide and iron deficiency anemia is one of them. The instant research was an attempt to determine the efficacy of co‐administration of two iron fortificants (NaFeEDTA and FeSO4) and inulin (a prebiotic) on serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron‐binding capacity in iron‐deficient female Sprague Dawley rats. For this research, rats were divided into ten groups, (two control and eight treatment groups). Treatment groups were made iron deficient by feeding them with triapine, an iron binder for two weeks. All treatment groups were fed with inulin at two different dosage levels along with iron fortificants. The study results showed that serum ferritin and serum iron levels significantly improved from initiation to termination of study. Also, mean values of total iron‐binding capacity and serum transferrin showed a steady decline over a period of three months indicating that iron stores were being improved. It was concluded that co‐administration of inulin and iron fortificants helped improve iron deficiency biomarkers in female Sprague Dawley rats. The instant research was an attempt to determine the efficacy of co‐administration of two iron fortificants (NaFeEDTA and FeSO4) and Inulin (a prebiotic) on serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and total iron binding capacity in iron deficient female Sprague Dawley rats. The study results showed that serum ferritin and serum iron levels significantly improved from initiation to termination of study. Also, mean values of total iron binding capacity and serum transferrin showed a steady decline over a period of three months indicating that iron stores were being improved. It was concluded that co‐administration of Inulin and iron fortificants helped improve iron deficiency biomarkers in female Sprague Dawley rats.
... The addition of maltodextrin, which has high solubility characteristics with relatively low viscosity, helps protect the core material, minimizing oxygen exposure, creating a protective layer on the surface of the adsorbent particles, increasing the glass transition temperature of the material, and being heat resistant (Valenzuela & Aguilera, 2015). Inulin is widely applied to food products because it is soluble in hot water (temperature 50-100 °C) and has a relatively low viscosity, so it is widely used as a gelling agent, fat substitute, and emulsion stabilizer (Shoaib et al., 2016). Inulin is prebiotic and can act as a dietary fiber with chemical bonds that enzymes cannot hydrolyze in the human digestive tract. ...
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Probiotic-based products are associated with many health benefits. The viability of probiotics is necessary to provide health benefits, but it is lost during processing, storage, and gastrointestinal tract. The viability of probiotics can be maintained by applying the spray drying encapsulation technique. This review article discusses probiotic bacteria, encapsulant ingredients, the principle of spray drying in microencapsulation, and the functional properties of spray drying probiotic microcapsules. This article uses a non-research method with a literature review of various sources such as research journals and related books. Based on existing studies, the viability of probiotic spray drying results is influenced by the bacterial culture used, the type and concentration of the encapsulated material, and the spray drying conditions (feed temperature, inlet temperature, and outlet temperature). Probiotic microcapsules spray drying has excellent potential in functional food formulations, and its commercial applications will benefit both the industry and consumers.
... Based on the resent findings that mastitis was linked to the alterations in gastrointestinal microbiota and metabolites (Ma et al., 2018a;Zhong et al., 2018;Hu et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2021b), dietary intervention to remodeling the profile of microflora appeared to be a potential strategy in preventing mastitis. Inulin was extensively reported as the "food" of probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract (Shoaib et al., 2016;Guo et al., 2021). In the current study, dietary inulin supplementation affected the profile of fecal microbiota in the SCM cows. ...
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The occurrence and development of mastitis is linked to dysbiostic gastrointestinal microbiota. Inulin is a dietary prebiotic that improves the profile of intestinal flora. Our previous study showed that inulin supplementation could improve the ruminal microbes of subclinical mastitis (SCM) cows. The current study attempted to further investigate the response of hindgut (fecal) microbiome and metabolites, serum metabolism, and protein expression to inulin in the in SCM cows. Different levels of inulin (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 g/day per cow) were supplemented in SCM cows. Compared with control group, Bacteroides and Bifidobacteria were increased, and Paeniclostridium, Ruminococcaceae, Coprococcus, and Clostridia were decreased in the feces of inulin groups, and accompanied with elevated propionate and butyrate concentrations, while secondary bile acid (SBA) metabolites were increased and proinflammatory lipid oxidation products were dropped in both feces and serum. In serum, inulin intake suppressed the levels of triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Serum proteome analysis found that CD44 antigen, phosphatidylinositol-glycan-specific phospholipase D, apolipoprotein A-II, and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] were upregulated, while cathelicidin-1, haptoglobin, serpin A3, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 were downregulated in inulin groups. These findings suggested further evidence for inulin supplementation in amelioration of inflammatory symptoms in SCM cows, which might provide alternative treatment for mastitis.
... The isolated artimizin from Artemisia annua L. is used in the treatment of a resistant form of malaria 7 . Other compounds used in the treatment are capsaicin from Capsicum annuum L. 8 , quinine from Cinchona L. 9 , and inulin 10 . Additionally, some compounds, after structure modification, have contributed to a new group of drugs. ...
... Many epidemiological studies have shown that tea consumption is associated with lower incidence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and related diseases . Similar beneficial activity has also been shown for dietary fiber and oligosaccharides (Shoaib et al., 2016;Holscher, 2017;Myhrstad et al., 2020). High body mass index has been recognized as an important risk factor for COVID-19 developing into a critical state, especially abdominal obesity (Földi et al., 2021), and obesity is associated with an increase in Th17 and IL-17 (Tarantino et al., 2014). ...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can disrupt the gut microbiota balance, and patients usually have intestinal disorders. The intestine is the largest immune organ of the human body, and gut microbes can affect the immune function of the lungs through the gut-lung axis. Many lines of evidence support the role of beneficial bacteria in enhancing human immunity, preventing pathogen colonization, and thereby reducing the incidence and severity of infection. In this article, we review the possible approach of modulating microbiota to help prevent and treat respiratory tract infections, including COVID-19, and discuss the possibility of using probiotics and prebiotics for this purpose. We also discuss the mechanism by which intestinal micro-flora regulate immunity and the effects of probiotics on the intestinal micro-ecological balance. Based on this understanding, we propose the use of probiotics and prebiotics to modulate gut microbiota for the prevention or alleviation of COVID-19 through the gut-lung axis.
... Inulin is a water-soluble fermentable dietary fiber, belonging to a group of nondigestible carbohydrates called fructans (10). Inulin cannot be absorbed by the human intestinal tract, and is decomposed by gut microbiota into degradation products, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) (11,12). ...
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Liver ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the obstacles in liver surgery such as liver resection and transplantation. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect on mouse liver IRI by feeding mice with inulin, which is a heterogeneous blend of indigestible fructose polymer. Mice were fed either a control ordinary diet (CD) or an inulin diet (ID) containing 5% inulin in the CD, for 14 days before the ischemia and reperfusion (IR) maneuver. IR induced-liver damages were significantly ameliorated in the ID group, compared with those in the CD group. Feeding mice with an ID, but not a CD, elevated levels of Bacteroidetes among gut microbiota, and especially increased Bacteroides acidifaciens in mouse feces, which resulted in significant elevation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the portal vein of mice. Among SCFAs, propionic acid (PA) was most significantly increased. The microbial gene functions related to PA biosynthesis were much higher in the fecal microbiome of the ID group compared to the CD. However, the action of PA on liver IRI has not been yet clarified. Direct intraperitoneal administration of PA alone prior to the ischemia strongly suppressed liver cell damages as well as inflammatory responses caused by liver IR. Furthermore, PA suppressed the secretion of inflammatory cytokines from peritoneal macrophages stimulated in vitro through TLR-4 with high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB-1), known to be released from apoptotic liver cells during the IR insult. The present study shows that PA may play a key role in the inulin-induced amelioration of mouse liver IRI.
... SPI is mainly used to increase protein content and moisture retention capacity; additionally, SPI improves the texture profile and the fat emulsification capacity of meat products (Petracci et al., 2013). Inulin added to meat products acts as a fat substitute, improving the texture and enhancing the fiber content (Shoaib et al., 2016). Therefore, the incorporation of these components is expected to minimally affect the sensory characteristics of a beef burger. ...
Chapter
The association between high‑sodium meat products consumption and cardiovascular diseases leads to the reformulation toward a healthier product. In this scenario, measuring the consumer’s perceptions about the changes in sensory attributes caused by the sodium or NaCl reduction is of special interest. The rate-all-that-apply (RATA) questions are a sensory tool that allows characterizing products and also helps in the discrimination of products due to the use of intensity scale; thus, in this chapter, the RATA questions were used to determine the sensory profile of beef burgers manufactured with reduced NaCl content with the addition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The chapter shows the theoretical framework, practical aspects, describes the results of the case study, and discusses the pros and cons of RATA questions. The results of the case study show that RATA was able to differentiate burgers with different NaCl contents, but the incorporation of microencapsulated fish oil as a source of PUFAs overcome the effect of NaCl reduction. Thus, it was not possible to discriminate samples using the sensory attributes caused by the NaCl reduction. Future studies should focus on the use of RATA and CATA questions to discriminate complex foods, such as meat products, using sensory properties as descriptors.
... Nowadays, trends in the (partial or full) replacement of sucrose with low-calorie sweeteners such as bulk sweetener, high intensity (potency) sweetener, and low digestible carbohydrate, which have healthier effects, have been growing (Kiumarsi et al., 2017;Aidoo et al., 2013;de Melo et al., 2009). Several researchers and food technologist comprehensively reviewed the profile of sugar-free bulk sweetener, high-intensity sweetener, and low digestible carbohydrate (Aidoo et al., 2013;Clemens et al., 2016;Grabitske & Slavin, 2008;Shoaib et al., 2016;Chattopadhyay et al., 2014;Martyn et al., 2018;Shankar et al., 2013;Grembecka, 2015;Mooradian et al., 2017). These sweeteners have health benefits because they provide a sweet taste with low/without calories or "glycemic effects" (Meyer-Gerspach et al., 2016). ...
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New technologies for food processing have been used to enhance the beneficial effects of foods. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a prebiotic soursop whey beverage processed by high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) on healthy rats. Whey beverages were processed by HIUS (20KHz, 520W of nominal power, <53°C, 20.3 W of acoustic power, energy density of 2.9 kJ.cm⁻³ and 9.5 min to process 100 mL) and high-temperature short-time (HTST, 75°C for 15s) before being supplemented to Wistar rats by gavage for 15 days. Antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-hypertensive, and anticancer activities, lipid peroxidation, bioactive peptides, and microstructure of the beverages were analyzed. In addition, the body mass, food, and water intake, systolic blood pressure, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters were measured. The sonicated beverage induced satiety, decreased glutathione peroxidase activity, total triglycerides, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase. These findings suggest that ultrasound technology can provide in vivo health and functional benefits.
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Taraxacum mongolicum polysaccharide (TMP) exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, making it an attractive candidate for aquatic-product-safety applications. Here, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary TMP on the growth, nutritional composition, antioxidant capacity, bioaccumulation and inflammation in Channa asiatica under hexavalent chromium stress. The C. asiatica was randomly distributed into five groups: The first group served as the blank control group (CK), the subsequent groups were fed TMP-supplemented feed (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg), respectively, and exposed to waterborne Cr⁶⁺ for 28 days. Our results indicated that the TMP effectively increased (P < 0.05) C. asiatica muscle flavour amino acid, total free amino acids, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and EPA + DHA contents, enhanced positively antioxidant enzyme activity (GPX, SOD, CAT, T-AOC), reduced oxidative stress parameters (MDA, PC), and up-regulated antioxidant-related genes mRNA expression. Meanwhile, the appropriate amount of TMP supplementation also inhibited the bioaccumulation of Cr⁶⁺ in tissues and alleviated the inflammatory response (P < 0.05). Furthermore, sensory evaluation implied that the overall score of sashimi and cooked fillet in the 2.0 g/kg TMP group was the highest in the experimental group, second only to CK. In brief, these results elucidate that TMP-supplemented diets excellently ameliorated the growth, enriched nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity, and inhibited bioaccumulation and inflammation in C. asiatica exposed to waterborne Cr⁶⁺.
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In this study, the microbial fermentation characteristics of okra pectic-polysaccharide (OPP) and its degraded products (DOPP-1 and DOPP-3) with different molecular weights (Mw) and degrees of branching (DB) were investigated, and related impacts on gut microbial composition were also revealed. Results indicated that microbial fermentation characteristics of OPP were obviously affected by its different structural features. The fermentabilities of OPP (high Mw and DB), DOPP-1 (middle Mw and DB), and DOPP-3 (low Mw and DB) were measured to be 49.49%, 58.34%, and 48.16%, indicating that the utilization of total carbohydrates of DOPP-1 was relatively higher compared to OPP and DOPP-3. The ways in which gut bacteria metabolized OPP, DOPP-1 and DOPP-3 were quite different, and a lower Mw and a higher DB were more beneficial to the fermentation by intestinal bacteria. Additionally, selective modulations of gut microbial composition by different types of okra pectic-polysaccharides were observed. Both OPP and DOPP-1 could increase relative abundances of several beneficial bacteria, such as Bacteroides and Phascolarctobacterium. While DOPP-3 could notably improve relative abundances of Megasphaera and Megamonas. Results suggested that the modulation of gut microbiota by okra pectic-polysaccharide was structure-dependent, and both DB and Mw played critical roles in the selective modulation of gut microbial composition. Collectively, our findings are beneficial to revealing the potential relationship between chemical structures of OPP and its gut microbial fermentation characteristics, which are also helpful for the design of potential OPP for selective modulation of beneficial bacteria in the gut.
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The aim of the current study was to investigate the inulin feasibility as a fat replacer in developing the low-fat pea protein vegan ice cream with prebiotic properties. So, the inulin was added at 2, 4, 6, and 8 % to pea protein ice cream to replace the rapeseed oil and the melting behavior, hardness, adhesiveness and sensory attributes were compared with inulin-free pea protein ice cream. The results revealed that increased inulin content in the formulations lengthened the first dripping time of the ice cream. Significant (p<0.05) variation in hardness and adhesiveness of pea protein ice cream was recorded with vary in content of inulin in the product formulation. Maximum overrun of 38.48±2.56% was achieved with the addition of 4% inulin to the ice cream. The fat content in the ice cream formulations replaced with 6 and 8% of inulin resulted in lowering flavour and overall acceptability score. Results demonstrating that textural properties and sensory attributes can be affected by the amount of inulin added to the vegan pea protein ice cream.
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Diabetes has become one of the biggest non-communicable diseases and threatens human health worldwide. The management of diabetes is a complex and multifaceted process including drug therapy and lifestyle interventions. Dietary components are essential for both diabetes management and health and survival of trillions of the gut microbiota (GM). Herein, we will discuss the relationship between diets and GM, the mechanism linking diabetes and gut dysbiosis, and the effects of dietary components (nutrients, phytochemicals, probiotics, food additives, etc.) on diabetes from the perspective of modulating GM. The GM of diabetic patients differs from that of health individuals and GM disorder contributes to the onset and maintenance of diabetes. Studies in humans and animal models consolidate that dietary component is a key regulator of diabetes and increasing evidence suggests that the alteration of GM plays a salient role in dietary interventions for diabetes. Given that diabetes is a major public health issue, especially that diabetes is linked with a high risk of mortality from COVID-19, this review provides compelling evidence for that targeting GM by dietary components is a promising strategy, and offers new insights into potential preventive or therapeutic approaches (dietary and pharmacological intervention) for the clinical management of diabetes.
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Bacterial cells dwelling in the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) contaminated ecosystem occur as an eco-community or biofilms having biosurfactants and exopolymeric substances (EPS) producing capacity. Bacteria have developed several mechanisms to utilize the low accessible PAH compounds by modifying their structural and physiological process. EPS provides an adsorption site for PAH binding and acts as an emulsifier, enhancing PAH uptake in bacterial cells. Biosurfactants aid in the solubilization of the low-bioavailable carbon sources by reducing the interfacial surface tension between the aqueous phase and PAH-sorbent matrix, solubilizing PAHs thus making them bioavailable. Mining of exopolysaccharides synthesizing key genes (priming Glycosyltransferase) and biosurfactant producing genes (synthetases) in PAH degrading bacteriomes established their concomitant involvement in PAH solubilization and uptake. The transcriptional and translational regulators (secondary messenger cyclic-di-GMP, quorum sensing molecules, small ribosomal RNAs, two-component signaling molecules) control the synthesis of these ‘bioavailability enhancers’ towards PAH utilization and have been elucidated explicitly in the current review.
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The scientific community has proposed terms such as non-viable probiotics, paraprobiotics, ghostbiotics, heat-inactivated probiotics or, most commonly, postbiotics, to refer to inanimate microorganisms and/or their components that confer health benefits. This article addresses the various characteristics of different definitions of ‘postbiotics’ that have emerged over past years. In 2021, the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) defined a postbiotic as “a preparation of inanimate microorganisms and/or their components that confers a health benefit on the host”. This definition of postbiotic requires that the whole or components of inactivated microbes be present, with or without metabolic end products. The definition proposed by ISAPP is comprehensive enough to allow the development of postbiotics from different microorganisms, to be applied in different body sites, encouraging innovation in a promising area for any regulatory category and for companion or production animals, and plant or human health. From a technological perspective, probiotic products may contain inanimate microorganisms, which have the potential to impart a health benefit. However, their contribution to health in most cases has not been established, even if at least one probiotic has been shown to confer the same health benefit by live or inanimate cells.
Chapter
Bakery products are prevalently consumed foods in the world, and they have been regarded as convenient dietary vehicles for delivering nutritive ingredients into people's diet, of which, dietary fiber (DF) is one of the most popular items. The food industry attempts to produce fiber-enriched bakery products with both increasing nutritional value and appealing palatability. As many new sources of DFs become available, and consumers are moving towards healthier diets, studies of using these DFs as functional ingredients in baked goods are becoming vast. Besides, the nutrition value of DF is commonly accepted, and many investigations have also revealed the health benefits of fiber-enriched bakery products. Thus, this chapter presents an overview of (1) trends in supplementation of DF from various sources, (2) impact of DF on dough processing, quality and physiological functionality of bakery products, and (3) technologies used to improve the compatibility of DF in bakery products.
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To facilitate the creation of novel nanocarrier systems targeting the intestinal microbiome, inulin‐conjugated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are described herein for the first time. Surface functionalization is achieved on either hydrophilic or hydrophobic mesoporous nanoparticles using different conjugation methods. The targeting performance of the resulting materials is assessed and compared upon incubation with human stool. It appears that amide formation is the most favorable coupling method on hydrophilic MSNs to achieve the desired bioconjugate. Remarkably, high affinity of gut bacteria to the conjugated particles can be obtained, paving the way to novel targeted drug delivery systems. The formation of a bioconjugate using inulin and hydrophilic or hydrophobic mesoporous silica nanoparticles is developed. The targeting performance to inulin‐adherent gut bacteria of the resulting materials is assessed using human stool. High affinity of the bacteria for the conjugated particles can be obtained, enabling future targeting drug delivery systems.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of burdock root encapsulated extracts (microcapsules and Nanocapsules in concentrations of 0.5 and 1%) on the viability of probiotic bacteria, TPC, formalin and sensory properties of orange-carrot juice containing Lactobacillus acidophilus during cold storage. The tow coating materials, namely gum Arabic and maltodextrin were used to encapsulate extracts using spray-drying and freeze-drying techniques. The results of encapsulation phase showed that Nanocapsules had higher efficiency and antioxidant activity than microcapsules, but their density and moisture content were lower (p < 0.05). The highest level of phenolic compounds (0.385 mg GAE/g), antioxidant activity (IC50 = 0.0241 mg/mL) and the smallest capsule particle size (14.33 ± 0.22 µm) were observed in Nanocapsules prepared with gum Arabic (T10). The SEM images showed that the produced capsules in terms of microstructure, had flaky/glassy and angular surfaces and did not have a regular shape. The results of the enrichment phase showed that the carrot-orange juices fortified with encapsulated extract in different forms (free/micro/Nano) were significantly improved in terms of probiotic viability, TPC and formalin index during cold storage compared to the control, so that in the T10 sample, the highest values of these parameters at the end of storage were equal to 7.38 ± 0.012 Log CFU/mL, 1.14 ± 0.011 mg GAE/g and 3.60 ± 0.00 mg/kg, respectively. Addition of different forms of burdock root extract did not have an adverse effect on the flavor and odor of the samples and just T10 treatment led to a darker color of the beverage, however, all juice samples in all studied times received acceptable scores in terms of sensory characteristics (score = 6.9–8.8). Therefore, based on the results of this study, it can be stated that encapsulated burdock root extracts, especially in the form of nanocapsulation, can be used to increase the viability of probiotics and enhancement the antioxidant activity of functional foods.
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The creation of functional food products based on inulin-containing vegetable raw materials can provide the population with functional diabetic nutrition. In this regard, investigation of the technological parameters of obtaining inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) and determination of its quantitative characteristics seem highly relevant. This study aims to determine the qualitative characteristics of inulin obtained from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by both flash extraction and conventional methods. Jerusalem artichoke inulin samples were obtained by the flash extraction method at a high temperature of 105 °C during both shorter and longer periods of time and by the conventional method at a temperature of 75 °C in a neutral medium. The hydrodynamic properties and molecular weight of the samples demonstrated the self-aggregating properties of this biopolymer. Inulin obtained by the flash extraction method consists of two fractions: low-molecular weight inulin and high-molecular weight aggregate represented by a polysaccharide complex. These aggregates can be formed both by inter- and intramolecular interactions of various inulin fractions in the solution. As expected, their isolation using conventional methods appeared impossible: the method of concentration yielded a number of subfractions on the UV membrane and a large amount of aggregated water-insoluble microgel. At the same time, inulin obtained by the conventional method consists of one fraction, although having a high degree of polydispersity. In order to obtain high-quality inulin intended for nutritional and prophylactic purposes, it is preferable to use the flash extraction method over short periods of time.
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Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are high molecular weight polysaccharides secreted by microorganisms in the surrounding environment. In addition to the favorable benefits of these compounds for microorganisms, including microbial cell protection, they are used in various food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Investigating the functional and health-promoting characteristics of microbial EPS, identifying the isolation method of these valuable compounds, and their applications in the food industry are the objectives of this study. EPS are used in food industries as thickeners, gelling agents, viscosifiers, and film formers. The antioxidative, anticancer, prebiotic, and cholesterol-lowering effects of some of these compounds make it possible to use them in functional food production.
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In this paper, a series of target derivatives were synthesized by introducing coumarin into inulin structure using three-step chemical modification, and their structures were characterized by FTIR, ¹H NMR, and ¹³C NMR. At the same time, the antioxidant activities of inulin derivatives were determined, including DPPH-radical scavenging activity, superoxide-radical scavenging activity, PTIO-radical scavenging activity and reducing ability. The test results showed that the antioxidant activities of inulin derivatives containing coumarin were significantly increased. Especially, inulin derivatives showed excellent DPPH radical-scavenging ability (IC50 0.09–0.11 mg/mL). Meanwhile, the scavenging ability of PTIO-radical was increased by more than 80%, and the IC50 values were all between 0.23 and 0.26 mg/mL. At the concentration below 1 mg/mL, the scavenging rate of all inulin derivatives could even reach 100%. This study provides a feasible way to synthesize inulin derivatives with significant activity, which may be developed into new antioxidants in medicine and cosmetics.
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In this work, inulin from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers or commercial inulin from chicory roots were employed for the development of spreadable ricotta cheese as a basis matrix for the delivery of the probiotic strain Lacticaseibacillus paracasei BGP1. The samples of spreadable ricotta cheese containing probiotics and inulin from Jerusalem artichoke, presented stable physicochemical characteristics for a very high moisture product. Also, this spreadable cheese preserved the probiotic viability and survival after the gastrointestinal stress conditions and extended the product's shelf-life up to 28 days. The results described the successful application of inulin obtained from alternative plant source, contributing to the diversification of functional dairy products.
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The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of bread with thermal treated lentil flour on metabolic and physiological parameters. Thirty-two Wistar rats fed for 60 days with different diets were studied: control (C), wheat bread (WB), wheat-lentil bread (LB), and lentil flour (LF). Food intake, weight gain, feces moisture, and apparent calcium absorption (AACa) were recorded during the experiment. The weight and pH of the cecum, as well as serum parameters, were evaluated after sacrifice. LB group showed higher intake and weight gain. Diets with lentil produced several positive effects: an increase in feces moisture, higher AACa, augmentation of cecum weight, and acidification in the cecum. Besides, an improvement in bone quality and a reduction of cholesterol was observed with lentil diets. Because of the named benefits, bread containing lentil flour could be considered a functional food.
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The human gut is a densely populated region comprising a diverse collection of microorganisms. The number, type and function of the diverse gut microbiota vary at different sites along the entire gastrointestinal tract. Gut microbes regulate signaling and metabolic pathways through microbial cross talks. Host and microbial interactions mutually contribute for intestinal homeostasis. Rapid shift or imbalance in the microbial community disrupts the equilibrium or homeostatic state leading to dysbiosis and causes many gastrointestinal diseases viz., Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Obesity, Type 2 diabetes, Metabolic endotoxemia, Parkinson’s disease and Fatty liver disease etc. Intestinal homeostasis has been confounded by factors that disturb the balance between eubiosis and dysbiosis. This review correlates the consequences of dysbiosis with the incidence of various diseases. Impact of microbiome and its metabolites on various organs such as liver, brain, kidney, large intestine, pancreas etc are discussed. Furthermore, the role of therapeutic approaches such as ingestion of nutraceuticals (probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics), Fecal Microbial Treatment, Phage therapy and Bacterial consortium treatment in restoring the eubiotic state is elaborately reviewed.
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Inulin is polysaccharide chains comprised primarily of linked fructose molecules that are bifidogenic. Inulin-type prebiotics are used as functional food ingredients in beverages, yogurts, biscuits, and spreads; they are also used as dietary supplements. The objective of this study was to increase the yield of inulin by improving the inulin extraction from dahlia tubers. Inulin was isolated from fresh and chips of dahlia tubers. The dahlia tubers was blanched, sliced and blended by adding the hot water in ratio 1:1. inulin extract was evaporated and precipitated by 95% ethanol for 24hours in a room temperature. Inulin was separated and dried at 50°C for 24hours. Results showed that the best ratio of inulin extract and ethanol is 1: 2 and the highest yield of inulin powder was produced from inulin extract of 30.0% brix. Moreover, the yield of inulin which refer to fresh dahlia tubers is between 6.0 - 9.5% w/w.
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Recent advances in biosciences support the hypothesis that diet modulates various body functions. Diet may maintain well-being and reduce the risk of some diseases. Such discoveries have led to the concept of "functional food" and the development of the new discipline, i.e,, "functional food science." A practical and simple definition of a "functional food" is a food for which a claim has been authorized. The food components to be discussed as potential "functional food ingredients" are the inulin-type fructans, i.e,, chicory inulin and oligofuctose. The targets for their effects are the colonic microflora, the gastrointestinal physiology, the immune functions, the bioavailability of minerals, the metabolism of lipids and colonic carcinogenesis. Potential health benefits include reduction of risk of colonic diseases, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cancer. The documentation of such benefits requires scientific evidence that must be evaluated in terms of "health claims." Previous assessments have concluded that, in terms of "functional claims," strong evidence exists for a prebiotic effect and improved bowel habit. The evidence for calcium bioavailability is promising, and positive modulation of triglyceride metabolism is undergoing preliminary evaluation. Scientific research still must be done to support any "disease risk reduction claim," but sound hypotheses do already exist for designing the relevant human nutrition trials.
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Inulin constitutes an important food ingredient, widely used for its fiber content, and its ability to substitute fat and sugar ingredients. Traditionally, industrial inulin production from chicory roots requires high extraction temperature (70-80 ºC) and long extraction time (1-2 h). This conventional extraction is generally accompanied with the presence of a large amount of impurities in the extracted juice, mainly due to the application of high temperature, requiring thus further purification steps. To overcome these issues, developing novel extraction technologies, less consuming energy, faster and providing high yield and purity, is of a paramount importance to meet the requirements of a green extraction concept. In this review, the feasibility of using conventional and new promising technologies (enzyme assisted extraction, ultrasounds, microwaves, supercritical fluid extraction, and pulsed electric fields) to recover inulin from plant food materials and by-products from an environmental and economical point of view will be discussed.
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IntroductionRaw materialsProductionFunctional propertiesFood applicationsFuture developments
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Arabinoxylan (AX) is a non-starch polysaccharide found in many cereal grains and is considered as a dietary fiber. Despite their general structure, there is structural heterogeneity among AX originating from different botanical sources. Furthermore, the extraction procedure and hydrolysis by xylolytic enzymes can further render differences to theses AX. The aim of this review was to address the effects of AX on the gut bacteria and their immunomodulatory properties. Given the complex structure of AX, we also aimed to discuss how the structural heterogeneity of AX affects its role in bacterial growth and immunomodulation. The existing literature indicates the role of fine structural details of AX on its potential as polysaccharides that can impact the gut associated microbial growth and immune system.
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Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 32 composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose.
Chapter
Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers have many health benefits and are suitable for human consumption. The tubers store energy as the fructose polymer inulin. The content of inulin and the degree of polymerization is dependent on cultivar, growing conditions, harvest time, and the maturity of the tubers. Jerusalem artichoke tubers can be stored in the field during winter, or in cold rooms. During storage inulin is degraded, and shorter chain inulin polymers and sucrose are formed. The content of phenolic compounds in Jerusalem artichoke tubers is highest in mature tubers and declines during winter. The major phenolic compounds are the phenolic acids chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, and caffeic acid. The content of phenolic compounds is 2-12 times higher in the peel than in the flesh of the tubers.
Chapter
Agave fructans are complex mixtures of branched fructose polymers with different-sized chains containing β(2-1) and β(2-6) linkages. In the last decade, the interest in studying the functional properties of agave fructans has increased. However, only a few studies in vivo and in vitro are available in the literature. These reports include studies of the prebiotic effect in obesity, blood lipids, cholesterol, and toxicological and immunological studies. This chapter includes information about studies on agave fructans from different sources implicated in health and gives special attention to immune aspects as a prospective field of investigation. Comparisons between inulin-type fructans and agave fructans are discussed.
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Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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A food can be regarded as functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to affect beneficially one or more target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutritional effects, in a way which is relevant to either the state of well-being and health or the reduction of the risk of a disease. Health claims are expected to be authorized for functional foods based either on enhanced function (type A claim) or disease risk reduction (type B claim). Their development is a unique opportunity to contribute to the improvement of the quality of the food offered to consumer's choice for the benefit of his well-being and health. But only a rigorous scientific approach producing sound data will garantee its success. The functional food components that are discussed in the proceedings of the 3rd ORAFTI Research Conference are the inulin-type fructans, natural food components found in miscellaneous edible plants. They are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are classified as dietary fiber. The targets for their functional effects are the colonic microflora that use them as selective 'fertilizers'; the gastrointestinal physiology; the immune functions; the bioavailability of minerals; and the metabolism of lipids. Potential health benefits may also concern reduction of the risk of some diseases like intestinal infections, constipation, non-insulin dependent diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis or colon cancer. The present proceedings review the scientific data available and, by reference to the concepts in functional food science, they assess the scientific evidence which will be used to substantiate health claims.
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Ghrelin, a novel GH-releasing acylated peptide, was recently isolated from rat stomach. It stimulated the release of GH from the anterior pituitary through the GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin messenger RNA and the peptide are present in rat stomach, but its cellular source has yet to be determined. Using two different antibodies against the N- and C-terminal regions of rat ghrelin, we identified ghrelin-producing cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats and humans by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry. Ghrelin-immunoreactive cells, which are not enterochromaffin-like cells, D cells, or enterochromaffin cells, accounted for about 20% of the endocrine cell population in rat and human oxyntic glands. Rat ghrelin was present in round, compact, electron-dense granules compatible with those of X/A-like cells whose hormonal product and physiological functions have not previously been clarified. The localization, population, and ultrastructural features of ghrelin-producing cells (Gr cells) indicate that they are X/A-like cells. Ghrelin also was found in enteric endocrine cells of rats and humans. Using two RIAs for the N- and C-terminal regions of ghrelin, we determined its content in the rat gastrointestinal tract. Rat ghrelin was present from the stomach to the colon, with the highest content being in the gastric fundus. Messenger RNAs of ghrelin and GHS-R also were found in these organs. Ghrelin probably functions not only in the control of GH secretion, but also in the regulation of diverse processes of the digestive system. Our findings provide clues to additional, as yet undefined, physiological functions of this novel gastrointestinal hormone.
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Background: The prebiotics concept, which was launched in 1995, concerns nondigested and selectively fermented carbohydrate food ingredients. It was thought that their effect in the colon could reduce risk for disease. The prebiotic concept is revisited and possible mechanisms are proposed. The physiologic consequences of prebiotic consumption are evaluated in terms of potential to reduce risk for disease. This is a compilation of several research papers, each of which complied with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Methods: For human dietary intervention trials, the aim was to perform double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies. A parallel design was used only for long-term studies. Most research has been done with β(2-1) fructans, so they are used as an example of prebiotics here. Results: The results are relevant to the fields of gut function, lipid metabolism, mineral absorption, bone formation, immunology, and cancer. Conclusion: It is observed that modification of intestinal flora by inherently selectively fermented prebiotics is central in determining their nutritional properties. They interact positively through the large intestinal surface with various physiologic processes and are thought to improve health status by reducing risk for disease (markers).
Article
The effect of inulin addition at low concentrations (0.1-0.5%) on the thermal gelation of oat protein gels was investigated using textural profile analysis, rheological measurements and microstructure observation through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results indicate that oat protein hexamers were dissociated with heat into monomers, which then became the reactive units involved in the development of a unique percolating network. The major forces responsible for the establishment of the structure were disulphide bonds, as well as hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces. A small amount of inulin can greatly increase the compressive stress of the gels prepared at pH 7 from 13.93 to 22.98 kPa. This is related to the phase separation phenomena produced during heating, which increased the apparent protein concentration. Moreover, inulin formed nanoparticles in the void spaces of the protein network performing a filling effect and creating junction zones. Localized interactions such as hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds were possible between protein and inulin at the borders of junction zones. This research has provided a new approach to make strong oat protein gels at neutral pH. Future applications may promote the utilization of oat protein as a plant derived gelling ingredient in a wide range of food applications.
Article
The tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are rich of inulin, which makes the plant one of primary inulin resources in China. The aim of this study was to extract inulin from tubers and test the degree of polymerization (DP) 10 days before flowering to 80 days after flowering. The DP of inulin reaches a maximum of 19 at 50 days after flowering. The variation tendencies of inulin content and DP were almost the same, which increase rapidly at the beginning and then decrease gradually at a lower speed. Meanwhile, the effects of inulin on probiotics in yogurt have been evaluated. It indicated that inulin with low DP has higher activities. Experimental data improve the understanding of status change of inulin in whole growth of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in Northeastern China and are instructive to get inulin with different properties.